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Description: Heritage and Us is a non-commercial e-journal which aims for conserving and preserving cultural heritage of India

Heritage and Us conserve it for the future ISSN 2319-1201 Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 quarterly e-journal Guest Editor Dr Arvind K Dubey Assistant Professor School of Tourism and Hospitality Services Management Indira Gandhi National Open University New Delhi General Editor Gurpreet Singh Director Heritage Conservators New Delhi Editorial Team V. Kalyani National Museum Institute New Delhi Research Scholar Aprajita Sharma Research Scholar Assam University Silchar Harpreet Kaur Historian Delhi University Delhi University Dishank Dhawan Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 March 2013 ISSN 2319-1201 Heritage Conservators New Delhi 2012 C o Heritage Conservators M -124 Second Floor Greater Kailash - 2 New Delhi - 110048 http heritageconservators.net Mail us heritageandus gmail.com Disclaimer This e-journal is a non-commercial academic forum of Heritage Conservators. Our prime aim is to conserve and preserve cultural heritage for posterity by creating a sense of responsibility and awareness towards heritage. You are free to refer and distribute this work with due acknowledgement but no part of this edition can be reproduced for any purpose in any form. Views and opinions expressed in the articles of this publication is the sole responsibility of the author and does not bear any liability on the editor and publisher. Cover Photo Bay window of an unknown haveli Hyderabad CONTENTS Editorial History and Archaeology Sharing India s Past Recording Portable Antiquities and Facilitating a Shared Heritage Alice Lowson & Smriti Haricharan 04 06 13 20 25 32 Heliodoros Pillar of Besnagar Past and Present Ashish Kumar Archaeological Study of the Main Routes of the Great Silk Road with Special Reference to India and Turkmenistan Atiq R. Siddiqui Neolithic and Iron Age Culture in Salem Region Tamil Nadu R. Ramesh Sanchi Before today (in light of Nagauri Quarry and Factory Site) Sachin Kr. Tiwari & Rusav Kr. Sahu Heritage and Culture Stories of Tuntuni from Bengal Connecting Oral Traditions with the Global Age Across a Century Lopamudra Maitra 40 52 64 66 72 74 Glimpses of Madhubani Painting Shruti Das Worship of Yoginis - Occult Practices of Ancient India J. Chandrasekaran Museum Role of Ancestral Goa Museum in Presenting Goan History and Culture Nalini Naik Past Through the Lenses Forthcoming Events EDITORIAL Dear friends Time is changing rapidly. Our world is becoming too fast. Everyday a new invention is being made and the general idea is to move with the times. In this race of life we are forgetting our old folklores traditions and customs. But can we ignore the past Why they say old is gold . There must be something in it. So a wise person always balances their deeds with old and new. Our past in some way was very beautiful. We have seen very old monuments which are incomparable to the modern structures that have been erected with the help of new gadgets and machines. But can we now really construct the Taj Mahal with our new means The answer is a big no . So it is very essential to restore our past. Here the archaeologists together with historians and conservationists can evolve some new ideas to conserve our past and maintain the balance. As is the old saying we learn from our past we must take a leap considering all these facts. Whenever we visit a monument we usually praise its owner. Why we forget the craftsmen and artisans who with their full devotion succeeded in designing those things. Now the time has come when we should value the importance of artisans. Same is the case with our intangible cultural heritage. We all have to revive it. With the love towards heritage we have come up with the present edition of Heritage and Us . This issue includes some interesting papers on archaeology history heritage culture and museum. As mentioned earlier our prime aim is to create awareness which can be succeeded collectively. It only requires a little e ort. Give us your views on the papers published in this edition. It has to be a two way communication. Charity begins at home so let us start it here. Express your views share your points with us and we will publish it here in our e-journal. This way we all can nd out ways to protect and conserve our heritage. Say we are proud of our heritage and culture. Enjoy readers Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 4 History and Archaeology Sharing India s Past Alice Lowson and Smriti Haricharan Recording Portable Antiquities and Facilitating a Shared Heritage he threat to the archaeological record from illicit and undocumented excavation is a pressing concern across the globe. In India the scale of the problem is di cult to calculate but recent examples such as the destruction at the Indus Valley site of Rakhigarhi indicate that irreplaceable archaeological material continues to be lost to the public (Ghose 2012). This loss is not only in the form of the objects themselves but also in the potential wealth of information about the past that might have been gained from the knowledge and proper examination of their archaeological contexts. Whilst academic and governmental focus regarding illicit excavation in India has hitherto centred on the illegal networks of activity that supply the international antiquities market relatively little attention has been paid to the growing number of amateur archaeology enthusiasts and collectors in the country (Shankar 2001 Deb 2005 29-62 Srivathsan 2012). The presence of these individuals and groups is most apparent on the internet (2008 2011). One might regard the activities of these individuals as destructive since they may inadvertently be removing archaeological material without the proper investigative procedures but that would be to overlook the possibilities for education and information sharing between the professional and amateur archaeological communities. The information that might be gained from amateur archaeologists and collectors as well as from chance nders of archaeological objects is not to be underestimated. The challenge is to nd a way of bridging the gap between the authorities and the nders and collectors who are either ignorant of heritage legislation or in fear of its stringency and complexity. England which has a long tradition of amateur archaeology as well as artefact hunting activities such as eld-walking and metal-detecting has in the last fteen years adopted a unique approach to this problem. The Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) of England and Wales established in 1997 is a government funded organisation which aims to enable and encourage the voluntary reporting of artefacts of archaeological interest found by members of the public (The Portable Antiquities Scheme 2012). This information is then placed on a publicly accessible internet database. The scheme which has to date recorded 8 20 000 artefacts has been hailed as a great success both within the UK and abroad (Ghose 2010 Prudames 2004). In 2004 the then Arts Minister for England commented I am pleased to see how present arrangements are encouraging both [metal detector users] and archaeologists alike to co-operate on identifying and recording nds ensuring that important information about our heritage is not lost (Prudames 2004). Critics however have argued that the scheme is unethical in that it legitimises an activity which many still regard as looting (Barford 2010 16-23 Gill 2010 1-11). T Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 6 Despite such criticism the PAS has generated much interest in other countries looking for new ways to prevent the loss of national heritage through illicit excavation. An article published in The Hindu (Editorial 2010) calls the PAS s one of the biggest success stories of recent times and suggests that the functional features of such schemes can be modi ed to suit Indian conditions ... Comparable results can be achieved in India if protective measures are professionalised and creative partnerships developed with local communities . The idea of adapting the PAS to Indian context might be an attractive one but it is by no means straight forward. Firstly the legal framework in India does not o er the same leniency towards private artefact-hunters and collectors as that of England and Wales. In England most archaeological artefacts are deemed the property of the land-owner or the nder. Only a limited category of object is classed as Treasure (broadly speaking objects made largely of precious metal and or more than 2000 years old) and therefore the property of the state and in these cases the owner is o ered a substantial monetary reward for the nd (Treasure Act 1996). In contrast the Antiquities and Art Treasures Act (1972) of India covers potentially any object more than one hundred years old and requires nders owners and traders of these objects to register the object and themselves with the government who reserve the right to seize the object at any time. While this act has since been supplemented by the National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities (2007) which aims to create a register of artefacts and sites and educate the public about the importance of archaeology the e ectiveness of this has yet to be measured and artefact reporting in India remains a legal requirement rather than an act of voluntary co-operation. Secondly any such scheme implemented in India would need to be aware of and responsive to attitudes and behaviours regarding the management of movable heritage at the national as well as the local level in order to operate as successfully as possible Researching the Portable Antiquities Scheme In 2010-11 the authors carried out two months of research into the PAS as it operated in the county of Devon in south west England. The projects initial aim was to explore the viability of an antiquities recording scheme in the Chennai region of South India. Understanding the bene ts that such a scheme has brought to a speci c region as well as the challenges it has faced would be an important rst step towards this aim. The hope was also that this initial research might highlight which aspects would be most worth investigating in Chennai. Thus the project has since led to doctoral research into uses and perceptions of movable heritage in the Chennai region of India which will be completed in 2016. The emphasis of the research into the PAS in Devon was on understanding the context of the scheme particularly in terms of the viewpoints of the various stakeholders. Having identi ed the key groups and individuals involved in the discovery and management of archaeological heritage in Devon the authors proceeded to carry out interviews. In all fteen interviews of Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 7 upto one hour each were conducted with individuals from universities museums commercial archaeology units National Parks amateur archaeology clubs metal detecting clubs and others. In order to include some aspect of public opinion fty museum visitors were asked to complete a questionnaire. In addition the authors shadowed the Finds Liaison O cer (FLO) for the PAS in Devon in her public outreach and nds recording activities sent out a questionnaire survey to all thirty-eight FLO s in England and Wales of which 22 responded and attended an annual FLO meeting at the British Museum. The results of this research raised some interesting points regarding both the achievement of the PAS in Devon and the challenges it has faced and continues to face. Firstly the scheme has produced noticeably positive results in the recording of artefacts that would otherwise be lost to public knowledge. All research participants were in agreement on this point. Furthermore the fact that this information is available to the general public via the PAS website has contributed to a sense of inclusion amongst the di erent stakeholders. The main disagreements in this area arose around how objects were recorded. Some within the metal-detecting community expressed a wish that most objects were recorded in less detail in order to allow time to record a greater range of objects (currently the scheme only records objects more than around 350 years old). Others felt that not enough detail was included in records but that only more time and thus funding could improve this situation. The time issue is an important one since FLOs are constantly under pressure to return artefacts to their nders as quickly as possible. Failure to do this is a cause of tension between nders and the scheme and can even result in nders choosing not to report artefacts. This di erence in opinion over what should be recorded and how is also in part a re ection of the noticeable di erences in how archaeological objects are perceived and valued amongst the di erent stakeholders in Devon. In the metal-detecting community as has already been mentioned the age of an object was not always of paramount importance to its perceived value. Other factors such as rarity collectability monetary value or some speci c historic or personal interest often took precedence. Signi cantly the archaeological context or nd-spot of an object did not seem to feature highly in the value of the object to most nders except in the sense of it being local . The PAS has been largely successful in impressing on metal-detectorists the importance of recording an objects nd-spot and the metal-detectorists who participated in this research seemed fully aware of the reasons for this. Nonetheless this understanding of the importance of archaeological context does not seem to have been incorporated into their own value system for artefacts. It is possible that a greater involvement with the archaeological process including the knowledge it results in might make-real the value of context where now it is largely abstract. However whilst some of the metal-detectosists who were interviewed expressed interest in the possibility of being involved in archaeological projects others said they would not want to take part in an archaeological excavation as they would not be allowed to keep the objects they dug-up. Indeed ownership seems to be a very important factor in the value of an object to many metal-detectorists. One of the scheme s main successes in Devon as in the rest of the country has been infacilitating communication between di erent stakeholders. In particular this has involved Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 8 working with metal-detectorists to overcome long-standing disagreements and prejudices on both sides. This focus on metal-detectorists is intentional and has served its purpose however it has also meant that the scheme s impact in other sectors of the community has been minimal. Of the fty people who participated in the Exeter Museum questionnaire only ve had any prior knowledge of the PAS. In another way the PAS has acted as a catalyst for collaborations between di erent organisations and groups in Devon. This is in part because the scheme s operation depends a great deal on these existing networks. County archaeologists county and local museums amateur archaeological and history societies and metal-detecting clubs make-up the main points of contact for the PAS and it is through these groups that the FLOs have been able to conduct their outreach and recording work. The recent Ipplepen Archaeological Project in Devon epitomises this potential for collaboration which the PAS is sometimes able to utilize. The discovery of an important Roman site at Ipplepen was prompted by the nds of two local metal-detectorists who reported them to the Devon FLO. This has since led to an excavation and a large scale community project involving locals amateurs and professionals. Ipplepen represents the best of what the PAS has achieved however communication and collaboration between di erent stakeholders has not been all plane-sailing. In Devon a history of bad relations between the prior County Archaeologist and the metal-detecting community has made things harder than they might have been. On the metal-detectorist side there are feelings of being excluded or undervalued by the professional community this is compounded by a general prevailing class divide between the two. On the archaeologist side there are still suspicions of what they see as bad-practice by metal-detectorists and a fear that much archaeology still goes unreported. These continuing problems are well illustrated by a recent case in Devon. A piece of privately owned land just on the edge of the Dartmoor National Park boundary began to turn-up interesting metal-detectorist nds which were suggestive of an important archaeological site. When the local FLO took an interest and asked to conduct a Geo-physical survey of the land the land-owner (also a metal-detectorist) refused permission. As relations between the land-owner the metal-detectorists and the PAS deteriorated the local FLO found herself in a catch-22 situation. She suspects that metal-detectorists continue to work the land without reporting all their nds and in response to this she could make e orts to have the land in question protected by national legislation. This would help to prevent further undocumented excavation however it may also fully destroy the trust and relationship she had worked so hard to build with the metal-detectorists in question along with any likelihood of them reporting their nds in future. Whilst relationships between di erent stakeholders within Devon clearly represent an on-going challenge for the PAS almost all of the participants in this research felt that money or rather the lack of it was the most signi cant limiting factor on what the PAS is able to achieve. All the FLOs and interviewees felt that PAS sta is overstretched. In the absence of more funding FLOs are required to be selective about what they can and can t manage. In Devon the sheer geographical distance to be covered by a single FLO presents a di culty and has led to a divide between the south of the county which has strong links with the PAS and the north of the county which has relatively poor links. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 9 Conclusions This has been a brief summary of some of the ndings which this research of the PAS in Devon has produced. However this has always been intended as a two-fold project the second part of which will be completed in Chennai India. The research in Devon has helped to draw attention to some important practical and ideological considerations for the Indian stage of the project. These can be broadly categorised as issues relating to the context of the scheme those relating to the operation of the scheme and those relating to the stakeholders within the scheme. To Summarise The Context Successful working of PAS is dependent on co-operation with other organisations. The PAS was able to make use of existing structures and networks when it was rst established. This research has suggested that to a large extent the PAS is still dependent on those networks. Furthermore pre-existing attitudes of certain stakeholders in the archaeology of Devon have had a signi cant impact on the working of the PAS in this county. In Chennai Who are the existing stakeholders in local archaeology (museums universities state archaeologists and or the general public) Do they have a system or network of communication if so how does that operate What is their current attitude and approach to the issue of antiquities nding and recording and what is the history of this issue The Operation The PAS exists independent of other archaeological records. It is largely funded by the government and run by a network of FLOs who divide their time between nds recording and educational outreach activities. Individual FLOs are struggling to manage the amount of material they are brought and the distances they are required to cover. In Chennai What are the available funds and resources What sort of people would be best placed to run an antiquities recording service How much can realistically be recorded and to what degree of detail (bearing in mind that India is a much larger country than the UK and distances between populations and sites are much greater and the nds are potentially much more numerous) How should educational and public-outreach needs be met and combined with artefact recording Does the National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities successfully take on these roles The Stakeholders The PAS focused its activities and resources towards a minority group who unearth large quantities of archaeological material and who have historically had di cult relations with archaeologists. Understanding what metal-detectorists are doing and what their interests and motivations are has been important in nding a solution to this issue and working to bring metal-detectorists into the archaeological fold. In addition the focus on metal detectorists has to some extent been at the expense of having a broader impact amongst the general public and other possible stakeholders. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 10 In Chennai Who is doing the majority of exploration and artefact collection Are they disparate individuals or can they be categorised into an identi able group Are they currently recording or reporting their nds If not then why What is their interest motivation to collect (personal nancial historical cultural) Moving Forward The aim of this paper and the research it is based on has not been to claim that the PAS is a scheme which can be used as a model in India. Instead it suggests that the way the PAS works can be researched in order to understand a complex issue such as dealing with many stakeholders when addressing the situation of movable antiquities. In India the stakeholders who have been identi ed presently include the amateur archaeological community hobbyists local diggers people employed by or a part of the tourism industry local businesses and developers as well as the o cial and professional heritage related institutions such as universities museums and the ASI. Often these di erent stakeholders have con icting claims and a question often grappled with is who has right to own such objects We would argue that ownership of such objects has to be seen as something shared between multiple stakeholders but for this to work there needs to be communication understanding and consensus. Perhaps the most important nding in this research so far has been that a great deal can be learned from paying attention to and trying to understand the di erent perspectives that exist regarding material heritage such as portable antiquities. If more research like this can be conducted in India and other countries where similar concerns exist we stand a much better chance of reaching a consensus and facilitating a shared heritage. References Barford P. (2010) Archaeology Collectors and Preservation a reply to David Gill Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 20. Deb G. (2005) Stealing gods Illegal trade in Indian Antiquities Art Antiquity and Law 10. Editorial (2010) Protecting Antiquities The Hindu 29 01 2010. Ghose A.K. (2012) Can Rakhigarhi the largest Indus Valley Civilisation site be saved The Economic Times 03 16 2012. Gill D.W.J. (2010) The Portable Antiquities Scheme and the Treasure Act Protecting the Archaeology of England and Wales Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 20. Prudames David (2004) Arts Minister Hails Success of Portable Antiquities Scheme Culture 24 26 10 2004 http www.culture24.org.uk history %26 heritage archaeology art24609 [retrieved on 15 12 2012]. Shankar A. (2001) The Threat to Cultural Sites in India from Illegal Excavation In N. Brodie J. Doole and C. Renfrew (ed.) Trade in Illicit Antiquities The Destruction of the Worlds Archaeological Heritage McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research Cambridge. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 11 Srivathsan A. (2012) The murky trail of stolen antiquities The Hindu 15 07 2012. The Portable Antiquities Scheme (2012) www.finds.org.uk [retrieved on 15 12 2012]. 1972 The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act India http asi.nic.in pdf_data 8.pdf [retrieved on 15 12 2012. 1996 The Treasure Act England and Wales http www.legislation.gov.uk ukpga 1996 24 contents [retrieved on 15 12 2012]. 2007 Archaeological Survey of India National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities India http asi.nic.in nmma Mission_document.pdf [retrieved on 15 12 2012]. 2008 Thiruporur Stone Circles and Burial Cists - Stone http www.megalithic.co.uk article.php sid 26215 [retrieved on 31 12 2012]. Circle in India 2011 My Concern http megalithicburialsitesintamilnadu.blogspot.in [retrieved on 31 12 2012]. About the Author aabl202 exeter.ac.uk Alice Lowson is a post-graduate research student at the Department of Archaeology in University of Exeter UK. Prior to this she did her masters in Archaeology at the University of Exeter and also her bachelors from School of Oriental and African Studies. She was a team member of West Bengal Heritage Survey in 2011 and has volunteered in a number of projects. smriti.march.forth gmail.com Smriti Haricharan is a post-doctoral associate at School of Humanities National Institute of Advanced Studies Bangalore. She did her doctorate on Megalithic Burials around Chennai from Anna University. She has published a number of papers in different journals and books. She has conducted a field-work in 2012 at Karimnagar (District Telagana) to understand Iron Age landscape with specific reference to megalithic burials. She has also participated and volunteered in different archaeological projects. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 12 Heliodoros Pillar of Besnagar Ashish Kumar pillar ( g. 1) is popularly known as Kham-Baba in and around the present day Besnagar village. In a recent visit to Besnagar the author met a person named Ram Babu Kushwaha at the site of Heliodorus pillar who had come there for the worship of Kham-Baba ( g. 2). He belongs to the Kushwaha community of gardeners. Kham-Baba as he informed me is a family-deity (kula-devata) of Kushwahacommunity. Hence they are required to worship him before every auspicious event or function such as birth marriage etc. in their family. Besides them Dhimars ( shermen community) as well as people belonging to upper castes also visit Besnagar for the worship of KhamBaba. Local people seldom pay attention to the antiquity and historical importance of this pillar as they merely perceive it as a boon bestowing deity. During the recent visit the rst encounter of Heliodoros pillar not only surprised me but also raised a curiosity. The present paper thus is a result of this curiosity that has kept me so far looking for more material to understand its historicity and di erent identities among the local community. Past and Present Heliodoros 1. Heliodoros pillar Heliodoros Pillar As early as 1874-77 Alexander Cunningham during his explorations came across several remains of an ancient city identi ed by him as Besnagar that was situated in the fork 2. Heliodoros pillar Known as Kham-Baba being worshipped by local people Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 13 rivers Betwa (also known as Vetravati) and Bes and on the fourth side in the west it had a huge rampart. He further added in his survey report that in the north-west corner of this old city was located a modern village named Besnagar (Cunningham 1880). The ancient city situated here was known with di erent names such as Dara Besnagar (possibly derived from vaisyanagara) and Bhilsa. P.K. Basant suggests that after the name of the group of people that controlled this area Besnagar came to be known as Daaarna while the second name indicates the economic dominance of the trading community here. Third name i.e. Bhilsa was derived from the Bhaillasvamin cult (Basant 2012 241) that emerged in early medieval times in this region. The city is also mentioned as Vidisha (after which present day district is named) in ancient inscriptions as well as literature. From Sanchi it is at a distance of about 9 km. Several donors mentioned in donative inscriptions of early centuries of Christian era at Sanchi were from Vidisha (Buhler 1894 101 102 110). Furthermore according to Buddhist legends Asoka as a governor (uparaja) of Avanti while 3. Heliodoros pillar Inscription in Brahmi going to Ujjain halted at Vidisha. He married Devi the daughter of a merchant named Deva of Vidisha. Then she was taken to Ujjain and there she gave birth to son Mahindra and daughter Sanghamitra (Law 1984 339). Kalidasa s Meghaduta of Gupta period mentions Vidisha as a capital of Dasara country which was one of the sixteen janapadas of Jambudvipa (Law 1984 336). Another Gupta period text Malavikagnimitram provides information about Agnimitra the son of Pushyamitra Sunga. He is mentioned as a governor who ruled this region from Vidisha (Willis 2001 219 Basant 2012 239-241). Politically and economically important this city continued to ourish till the 6th-7th CE and after that it was deserted. In its place not much far away at the bank of river Betwa came up a new town named Bhilsa in early medieval period. The name of this new town was derived from Bhailasvamin a Sun god whose great temple was situated at this place (Sircar 1953-54 210). According to Alexander Cunningham though Bhilsa is said to have been founded after the desertion of Besnagar but it seems more probable that the foundation of Bhilsa led to the abandonment of the old city (Cunningham 1880 34). At Besnagar Cunningham rst discovered the Heliodoros Pillar but he could not identify the inscription on it due to local people s opposition about which he mentions in his report as The people however a rmed that it was not inscribed and I was very unwillingly obliged to be content with the examination of the red surface (Cunningham 1880 42). The task left un nished by Cunningham could be completed only in 1909 when the inscription on Heliodoros Pillar was nally identi ed and copied by John Marshall (Ghosh 1989 62 Marshall 1915 18). This inscription was composed in Prakrit in uenced by Sanskrit and written down on the pillar surface in Brahmi script ( g. 3). Composed in two parts this inscription is as following Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 14 Inscription A This Garuda-pillar of Vsudeva the god of gods was constructed here by Heliodora [Hliodros] the Bhgavat son of Diya [Din] of Takhkhasil Taxila) the Greek ambassador who came from the Great King Amtalikita [Antialkidas] to King Kputra [Kputra] Bhgabhadra the Savior proposing in (his) fourteenth regnal year. Inscription B (These ) three steps to immortality when correctly followed Lead to heaven control generosity and attention. (Saloman 1998 265-267) It appears from the inscription that the pillar was erected by a Greek person named Heliodoros who was an ambassador of the king Antialkidas of Taxila in the court of Bhagabhadra generally identi ed with the Sunga king of the same name. Dedicated to Vasudeva the pillar mentioned as Garuda-pillar (garudadhvaja) was of religious nature. And this inscription shows the prevalence of Bhagavatism in Vidisha-Besnagar region and spread of its fame as far as the north-western frontier region among the people of foreign origin culture. In 1910 Superintending Engineer named H.H. Lake of the then Gwalior State under the Maharaja Scindia conducted excavations in Besnagar. But Lake failed to nd anything of pre-Gupta times. It was D.R. Bhandarkar who in 1913-14 and 1914-15 conducted excavations here and brought into light several valuable remains of ancient times. He highlighted the presence of a Vasudeva temple railings of pillars and dwelling structures adjacent to Heliodoros Pillar ( g. 4-5). He informed that from Udaigiri and Pohra situated near Besnagar stones were quarried to build the pillars attached to the temple here (Marshall 1915 186 192). To the south of the shrine s platform was situated the dwelling place possibly of the family whose members were in-charge of the temple (Marshall 1916 67-71). In 1963-64 M.D. Khare excavated Besnagar and here he identi ed six cultural phases starting from Chalcolithic period followed by Northern Black Polished Ware period (NBPW) Sunga-Satavahana period Naga-Kushan period and Gupta period. The sixth phase starts after a gap of some centuries. 4. Heliodoros pillar Structure adjacent to pillar 5. Heliodoros pillar Dwelling structure adjacent to pillar Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 15 Khare further con rms the ndings of Bhandarkar that a huge temple measuring 30 x 30 was situated near the Heliodoros pillar. Sherds of di erent pottery types like plain Red Ware Black and Red Ware and Black Painted Red Ware were unearthed from this temple site by him (IAR 1963-64 16-17). It appears that the superstructure of this temple initially was largely built of timber thatch and mud with a brick plinth base. Belonging to c. 4th-3rd century BCE it comprised the garbha-griha pradakshina-patha (both elliptical) antarala and mukha-mandapa. It was destroyed by ood sometime in the 3rd century BCE. Then the temple was re-built with bricks and clay as appears from the brick platform raised on a plinth rubble-walls of this temple and other brick built structures here (Ghosh 1989 62 IAR 1964-65 19-20). Punch Marked coins Ujjain and Eran type coins without inscription Saka-Kshatrapa s coins and one coin of Chandragupta have been unearthed at Besnagar (Cunningham 1880 37). Furthermore during excavations coins of Satavahana king Gotamiputra Yajna Sri Satkarni (c. 175 CE) coins of Naga kings (i.e. Ganapati Naga and Bhima Naga c. 4th century CE) and coins of possibly Kalachuri prince called Krishnaraja (c. 6th century CE) were also found (Marshall 1915 208 214). Hence from both archaeological as well as numismatic evidences it appears that this Vasudeva temple continued to be in use up to at least 6th or 7th century CE and after this the site was abandoned and levelled up in the subsequent periods. Kham-Baba Alexander Cunningham in his survey reports mentions about a pillar locally known as Kham-Baba in Besnagar. He informed that this pillar is about 5.46 m in height with 1.02 m tall capital which was octagonal at lower parts. It had sixteen sides in the middle portion while the above part was circular. Between middle and upper portion there was a band of owers which was crowned by a bell capital placed on an abacus. Cunningham refers to the presence of an ascetic (fakir) in the same ground after whom this pillar was known as Kambla-Baba or Kham-Baba i.e. fakir s pillar. Furthermore it was considered sacred by the local people who in the months of Jyaistha and Asadha1 sacri ced a ram here (Cunningham 1880 41-42). At the time Cunningham came across this pillar it was heavily covered with vermilion and he could not read the inscription on it. In subsequent decades the inscription was copied and put to translation by J.F. Fleet (1909 1807-1092 1910a 141-142 1910b 815-817) L.D. Barnett (1909 1093-1094) and Arthur Venis (1910 813-815). The translation of the inscription then nally provided a precise date of this pillar on the basis of the name of an Indo-Greek ruler Antialkidas. His coins had already been found long before the discovery of this inscription and 140 BCE was the latest date ascribed to Antialkidas by the numismatics. It meant that the Heliodoros pillar was erected not later than 140 BCE thereby belonging to the second half of the second century BCE (IAR 1963-64 186-187). At the time D.R. Bhandarkar excavated the area around Heliodoros pillar. He met the owner of this land Pratap-puri Gosai (popularly known by the name of Babaji) who was a priest belonging to the Saiva sect. He owned about ve bighas of land that was given to him as inam by the Gwalior darbar. Babaji was third in the line of fakirs who resided here. The worship of the pillar as Kham-Baba began with the rst fakir whose name was Hirapuri. His disciple was Chandanpuri who in turn was the teacher of the present Babaji. While the rst Baba (or fakir) was ascetic both Chandanpuri and Pratap-puri were householders. According to a legend the present worship started when a person of high distinction visited the place with his army and met the Baba Hirapuri. This visitor was so impressed with the hospitality of the Baba that he on Baba s request agreed to abide his wishes all the time and for that he transformed himself into Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 16 Kham-Baba. Bhandarkar further informs that Kham-Baba was the one mainly worshipped by the Dhimars or Bhois who considered Kham-Baba as belonging to their own caste. Besides Dhimars people of upper castes like Raghbansis as well as Brahmanas also worshipped it. People worshipped Kham-Baba by applying vermillion paste on it as well as by o ering liquor to it. Though this deity was believed to bestow all kind of boons upon his followers people particularly worshipped it for obtaining a son. At the time of rst Baba this Heliodoros pillar was placed on a platform which was 4.75 m long 3.61 m broad and 0.97 m high (Marshall 1915 187-188). The platform of the pillar with the permission of Pratap-puri was dug up by Bhandarkar. He found that the pillar was about eight feet buried into the ground and rested upon concrete stone slabs. Wedges of metal and stone chips were used to keep it in a perpendicular position ( g. 6). The foundation of this pillar is signi cantly similar to other foundations of Sunga period and this suggests that the pillar at the time of excavation was still occupying its original position (Marshall 1915 18-19). In the course of excavation at Besnagar Bhandarkar also came across two graves - one of a camel and second of an elephant which were comparatively not older than a century. After some enquiry he came to know that before Hirapuri here lived a family of rich jewelers. Hence in Bhandarkar s opinion these animals were owned by these jewelers who buried them here after their death. Once these jewelers left the place it came to be occupied by the Hirapuri Baba who originated the cult of Kham Baba (Marshall 1915 196 201). Conclusion It appears that by about 18th-19th century the Kham Baba was a popular deity in Besnagar-Vidisha region particularly among the Dhimars and Kushwahas. The antiquity of the pillar and its historical importance was rst realised by Alexander Cunningham. However it was John Marshall and D.R. Bhandarkar who provided a rm historical identity to it. In the ancient city of Besnagar or Vidisha was present a Vasudeva temple. This temple was so much famous that it was selected by an Indo-Greek ruler to erect a pillar with inscription sometime in the second half of the Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 6. Heliodoros pillar Metal and stone chips used to keep the pillar in perpendicular position Heritage Conservators 17 second century BCE. The temple continued to be visited by people upto the middle of the rst millennium CE and thereafter this region was deserted. This region when re-occupied by the people some time in 18th-19th century the Heliodoros pillar was bestowed with a new identity and it came to be known as Kham-Baba among the people residing in the present day Besnagar village and Vidisha district. It shows that ancient and medieval monuments not always retain their original identity over the period. And in fact the popular identity continues to co-exist even after monument s original identity is ascertained by the academicians through their research. Therefore such monuments require to be studied by keeping in mind their changing or co-existing identities to better understand the historical processes of change and continuity. Furthermore such study will also help in preparing community based plans for preservation and conservation by providing information about popular perceptions towards such monuments to the competent authorities. References Barnett L.D. (1909) The Besnagar Inscription B Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (October Edition). Basant P.K. (2012) The City and The Country in Early India A Study of Malwa Primus Books Delhi. Buhler G. (1894) Votive Inscriptions from the Sanchi Stupas Epigraphia Indica 2. Cunningham A. (1880) (reprint 2000) Archaeological Surveys of India - Report of Tours in Bundelkhand and Malwa in 1874-75 and 1876-77 vol. 10 Archaeological Survey of India New Delhi. Fleet J.F. (1909) An Inscription from Besnagar Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (October Edition). Fleet J.F. (1910a) The Besnagar Inscription A Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (January Edition). Fleet J.F. (1910b) The Besnagar Inscription A Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (July Edition). Ghosh A. (ed.) (1989) An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology vol. 2 Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd New Delhi. (IAR) Indian Archeology - A Review 1963-64 Archaeological Survey of India New Delhi. (IAR) Indian Archeology - A Review 1964-65 Archaeological Survey of India New Delhi. Law B.C. (1984) Historical Geography of Ancient India Oriental Books and Reprint Corporation New Delhi. Marshall John (ed.) (1915) Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey of India 1913-14 part I Superintendent Government Printing Calcutta. Marshall John (ed.) (1916) Archaeological Survey of India - Annual Report 1914-1915 Superintendent Government Printing Calcutta. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 18 Salomon Richard (1998) Indian Epigraphy A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit Prakrit and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd Delhi. Sircar D.C. (1953-54) Two Inscriptions From Bhilsa Epigraphia Indica 25. Venis Arthur (1910) A Note on the Two Besnagar Inscription Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (July Edition). Willis Michael (2001) Buddhist Saints in Ancient Vidisa Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 11(2). Notes 1 Months of Hindu calendar- Jyaiha 21 May to 22 June and dha 22 June to 22 July respectively About the Author marrinejnu gmail.com Ashish Kumar is a doctoral student at Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi. He has published a number of papers in journals. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 19 Archaeological Study of the Main Routes of the Great Silk Road Atiq R. Siddiqui between the various countries of the world but also formed a kind of cultural identity right from the early period of ancient civilization to the late medieval period. In this regard few cities in the World can claim the long continuity with the Silk Road among which India and Turkmenistan have a close relation since the early period of human civilisation to the late medieval period even as on today. The heritage cities like Vaishali Bhagalpur (Bihar) Kushinagar Sravasti Ahichchatra (UP) Sanghol (Punjab) Arikamedu (Puducherry) Delhi etc. in India and Nisa Merv and Kune Orgench of Turkmenistan have such individual cultural and archaeological identities which are still recognised as an essential linking thread in the series of Silk Road. The Silk Road or Silk Route is a modern term referring to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian countries. This trade on the Silk Road was a signi cant factor in the development of the civilisation of China-India-Persia-Europe-Africa and Central Asian countries ( g. 7). The Silk Road starting from a Chinese city Chan gan the ancient capital of China spanning over Asia and Europe with a total length of about 7000 km is a history of c. 2 500 years civilisation of mankind. with Special Reference to India and Turkmenistan The great Silk Road has played a tremendous role in strengthening the trade relations 7. Silk Road and related internal routes Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 20 Since silk was the major commodity transported through this road it is named Silk Road in general. However the Silk Road was not a single road it was a complicated network of many roads. Its main branches were spread north and south of the Tarim basin across Central Asia and Iranian plateau further to the west touching Russia. At this juncture the southern route split again into two more roads one followed to Hindustan and the other led to the present Turkmenistan passing through the famous ancient Parthian capital the Nisa and futher beyond the Silk Road passes through Merv the historical ancient city of 1st century CE. It continued towards Iran Mesopotamia (Baghdad) Damascus and ultimately merged with the Mediterranean sea route. One more but very di cult Silk Road led towards northern direction called Steppe route passing through Ferghana valley and Tashkent oasis via Samarkand Bukhara Khwarizm and nally reached to the Caspian Sea. Besides these Silk routes there were few more branches which somehow were interlinked with each other. However there were sea routes also for carrying the silk products and other items ( g. 8). With the course of time and according to the needs of the traders and buyers and also due to political reasons the routes underwent slight changes during the 9th century. As such main silk roads included Syria-Iran-Central Asia- Kazakhstan and even eastern Turkmenistan. Keeping in view the cultural and archaeological signi cance of Silk Road the member countries of the UNESCO have requested to declare it as world heritage as the joint property of all the concerned countries. (source http 4.bp.blogspot.com -2pW4vpLO1WM TaVfPI8Y_3I AAAAAAAAA68 5Fb489XmRRw s1600 Map of SIlk Road Sea Routes.png) 8. Silk Road and sea routes for carrying products The history of Silk Road with reference to the archaeological evidences may be conveniently divided into four major periods. The rst period lasted for four centuries from around the 2nd century BCE to the 2nd century CE. This was the era of the initial development of the various Silk Roads and the Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 21 establishment of the oasis and towns which connected the Han dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) of China with Central Asia and West Asia. The collapse of the Han and of the Parthian Empire of Persia reduced commerce and travel along the east-west trade routes. The second period stretched from the 7th to the late 9th century the time of the cosmopolitan T ang dynasty of China and of the expansion of Islam from the Arab world through Persia to Central Asia. The gradual decline and downfall of the T ang in the late 9th and early 10th centuries and the growing turbulence in Central Asia resulted in virtual interruption or at least dramatic reduction of commerce on the Silk Roads. This Silk Road also paved way to the Islamic forces to step into the various regions as a ruler and to spread over there art architecture literature language and of course a religion which was unique in its appearance against the idol worshippers. The third period which encompassed the 13th and 14th centuries coincided with the rise and expansion of the Mongol empire whose leaders favoured trade and whose conquests led to a Mongolia over much of the traditional Silk Roads facilitating trade and travel along many of these routes. The disintegration of the Mongol Khanates together with the discovery of the sea routes from Europe to Asia in the late fteenth century disrupted the Silk Roads trade and led to its decline in parts of Central Asia. This is the period when a ow of Islamic spiritualism spread all over Central Asia including Persia Turkmenistan and India. During this period the Silk Road inspired the Mongol Muslim rulers to enter into the Indian territory from Central Asia via Afghanistan who were known in Hindustan as Mughal rulers and created a new and individual culture called as Indo-Islamic culture. The fourth period which spans the late 18th century to the present started with the Russian expansion into Central Asia in the 1850s and 1860s and with the explorations and other activities of Western and Japanese scientists adventurers and scholars in the region in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It then continued into Nationalist Chinese Russian Japanese and Chinese Communist rivalry and domination in Central Asia the indigenous ethnic and religious revival in response to such foreign control and the establishment of independent countries in the area in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The Silk Roads may at present witness resurgence but they must now be referred to as the Oil and Gas Roads as Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Turkmenistan and perhaps Mongolia ow out with the new gold of petroleum a resource which o ers the region greater signi cance in the modern world. Besides this one thing which is appreciable is a massive excavation that was conducted at various Silk Roads from 19th century to the present decades to explore the historical identities of a particular site in term of its religious cultural sculptural and regional point of view. The study of Silk Road reveals right from Chinese region to the European end that apart from silk a large number of antiquities and art objects have been unearthed during excavation in China Afghanistan and Indian peninsula Iran Central Asia and even Turkmenistan among which one thing is common that almost at all the above sites the Buddhist sculptures in large quantity have been found buried beneath the earth dating back to 2nd century CE and also to late 10th century CE. It indicates that the in uence of Buddhism was very strong in the above countries and the Buddhist monks preached their religion in a vast manner. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 22 A famous archaeological site Merv ( g. 9) located in South-eastern Turkmenistan being the largest city in the World during 12th century CE is known to have an important Silk Road right from 2nd century BCE. to the medieval period. It was a major trade route that stretched from Rome to China. Due to its potential approach the site was excavated in 1890 by the Russians and in 1992 by the Turkmenistan archaeologists and it was found that a large number of terracotta gurines sculptures Indian and Chinese coins including gold and silver objects were discovered which shows the strong hold in trade religion and cultural exchange programmes between these countries since long period. (source http college.holycross.edu projects himalayan_cultures 2011_ plans shillike images su-keren-camel-caravan-at-sunrise-silk-road-china.jpg) 9. Merv Turkmenistan Due to its long continuity in the making of history art culture and rich approach in Silk Road trade Merv can be considered as a rare pearl in the necklace of entire Silk Road. Needless to say that the trade of heavenly beautiful horses of Turkmenistan has also played an important role in promoting the silk items within Central Asia and Turkmenistan during early medieval era. One more city of Turkmenistan which is worth mentioning is Kune Orgench which also ourished during medieval time as a famous Silk Road destination. This city about 500 km away from Ashgabat is well known in the medieval history of Central Asia. Since the early 11th century Urgench had been the royal Capital of Khwarizmi Empire occupying the entire area of Amu Darya delta in northern Turkmenistan and western Uzbekistan and a busy route in terms of Silk Road. This area of Turkmenistan was bestowed with the kind visits of so many scholars philosophers Su saints poets physicians Islamic theologians and the men having artistic talent among other genius. Some of them were Bu Ali ibn-i-Sina (Avicenna) Aruzi Samarqandi Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 23 Abu Rehan Al Beruni Abu Nasr Farabi Abul Khair Khammar Nur Muhammad Andelib Imam Fakhruddin Razi Najm-ud-Din Kubra and few others who not only passed through this Silk Road but also spread their knowledge among the people of the related areas and the caravans ( g. 10) of the Silk Road. Due to its cultural and historical importance and long continuity with the history of mankind the UNESCO is trying to inscribe it in the list of World Heritage as a universal cultural property. 10. Caravan of camels on the Silk Road (source http college.holycross.edu projects himalayan_cultures 2011_ plans shillike images su-keren-camel-caravan-at-sunrise-silk-road-china.jpg) The Study of the Silk Road o ers opportunities to consider major themes in Eurasian history the signi cance of trade the spread of religions the di usion of technologies and artistic motifs and the development of powerful military forces and empires. The study also provides cultural sequence between east and west which brought understanding in the formation of ideologies in terms of dresses cuisines languages literature architecture science ne art along with establishing a composite culture. About the Author asiddiqui11 yahoo.com Atiq R. Siddiqui is an archaeologist. He worked in Archaeological Survey of India for more than three decades. His area of specialisation is Indo-Islamic art and architecture. He has organised various exhibitions on Islamic and Mughal Art both nationally and internationally. He has written a number of books and research papers in different journals. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 24 Neolithic and Iron Age Culture R. Ramesh in Salem Region Tamil Nadu year 1864 the Salem region became a major hunting ground for many years to the adventurous British explorers. Several Neolithic celts in the pre-Independence era were discovered in Salem region comprising the present Salem Dharmapuri Krishnagiri and Namakkal districts. Geographically speaking Salem region lying on the southern fringe of Mysore plateau holds a signi cant position in the archaeological map of Tamil Nadu ( g. 11). The occurrence of Punch Marked coins at Navalai near Harur and trade guild inscription at Attur near Salem suggest the existence of ancient mercantile trade routes which go through two important passes namely Manjavadi-kanavai and Attur-kanavai connecting the Mysore plateau with lower coastal plains. The Manjavadi-kanavai lies on the northeastern part of the region connecting Harur and Salem. The present national highway linking Dharmapuri with Salem runs through this pass. Likewise the Attur pass plays a dominant role in connecting the eastern coastal plains with upland Salem region. Due to its strategic location the local Early Historic chieftains like Ori of Kollimalai Malaiyaman of Thirukoyilur and Athiyaman of Tagadur tried to control this region so as to control the lucrative inland and overseas trade. Ever since the discovery of Neolithic tools by Robert Bruce Foote at Shevaroy hills in the 11. Salem Tamil Nadu Neolithic and Iron Age sites Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 25 The contemporary Sangam literature gives vivid description about the volatile atmosphere prevailed between the Cheras of Karur Athiyaman of Tagadur and Ori of Kollimalai. The trade route that passes through the Shevaroy and Kollimalai hills seemed to be active since Early Historic times. It altogether remained as the bone of contention for Ori of Kollimalai and Malaiyaman Tirumutikkari of Malainadu (Thirukoyilur) both desired to expand their sway to control the fertile track of Attur region and the trade route. A Roman coin hoard unearthed in 1988 along with some jewellery at Koneripatti located in Attur pass attest the trade activities (Suresh 2002 267-272). It is pertinent to note that this particular region is also blessed with immense iron ore. The present Salem Steel company is located in this region. Various etymological explanations have also been attempted to drive its name Salem from Sailam (mountainous region) Saliya (weavers) and Silam (mortal contact) (Rajannan 1992 254-255). Neolithic Culture The upland area of the northwestern parts of Tamil Nadu comprising the Dharmapuri and Salem region are considered for many landmark discoveries in south Indian archaeology. The credit for putting Salem in the archaeological map of south India largely owe to a host of British explorers during the pre-independence era. With its congenial geographical set up the Salem region more particularly the Shevaroy hills was identi ed as a potent area to search for the antiquity of early mankind. It was Robert Bruce Foote after the immediate discovery of the rst Palaeolithic implements at Pallavaram near Chennai turned his attention to this area in search of prehistoric settlements. Foote however did not succeed in discovering any signi cant tool assemblages here instead he located a few sites with Neolithic character in the Shevaroy hills. Even before Foote it was Surgeon General Cornish who could be credited for the discovery of Neolithic sites in Salem (Foote 1916 61). In the year 1864 Foote made an extensive survey and collected Neolithic implements emerged while tilling the land. Later he came across the site of Vattalamalai lying northwest of the Shevaroy hills. Except this many of the early discoveries were cantered on the northern part of Salem region representing present Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri districts. He classi ed those objects into twelve di erent forms based on the size and shape. Along with these tools Foote also obtained some curious artefacts what he calls as the ring stones and slick stones. The ring stones are the common form found along with Neolithic implements. The stone is usually perforated at the centre to insert a long wooden stick and tie them with the stone to dig the surface for collecting tubers. The slick stones are used to make a glossy appearance upon the surface of the cloth while the clothes are still on the loom (Foote 1916). But in the absence of any parallels the real purpose of those stones could not be discerned. The next group of artefacts consist of the representative specimens of stone made phallus ( ) mullers and terracotta discs. Foote provides an interesting account for the phallic object and it deserves attention. The very shape of the stone resembling the theomorphic form of Lord Siva prompted Foote to believe that the people of the Neolithic period had faith in male energy (Foote 1916 61). In this regard it will be worthy to note here that such tools were collected Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 26 by the author in Mettur region and on Kalvirayan hills and further investigations suggest that these stones are nothing but the discarded Neolithic implements. Therefore one may conclude that these stones are meant to represent the un nished products and not of the phallic form of Lord Siva. The other objects such as the mullers and pottery discs are the commonest varieties found in Neolithic settlements. The descriptions of Foote also accounts for many signi cant observations upon the availability and selection of raw materials by the Neolithic people of this region. He was of the opinion that the people relatively smaller fragments of trap dykes to produce wel nished tools emerged exposed due to the disposition of the joint planes or shrinkage of the cracks that got immediately cooled down from a high temperature. The fragmentary rocks provided greater assistance to meet the actual need of the people to manufacture tools at their disposition. This di erence in the rocks perhaps made Foote to remark the workmanship of the average Celts found on the Shevaroy is so much better than that observable in the average Deccan specimens... To corroborate his hypothesis he goes to the extent that the hostile tribes from the north frequently attacked the Neolithic people of the Deccan while the people of the south carried their life more peacefully as attested by the ner variety of tools. Although much of Foote s work was based on surface ndings his untiring e orts provided stimulus to the prehistoric studies. His discoveries laid rm foundation to many of his successors to study the origin of Neolithic culture in Tamil Nadu as an indigenous development around the Shevaroy hills (Narasimhaiah 1980 27). On the whole the contribution made by Foote can be aptly called as the formative phase of south Indian archaeology in general and Neolithic in particular. After Foote we nd considerable cessation of archaeological activities pertaining to Tamil Nadu. No admirable survey was ever attempted and hardly made any problem-oriented research towards the Neolithic remains. It was only in post-Independence era the study on Neolithic culture received fresh impetus at the hands of B. Narasimhaiah of the Archaeological Survey of India. His intensive survey conducted over the northern parts of Tamil Nadu brought to light concentration of sites on Shevaroy and Kalrayan hills. The site of Vattalamalai was reinvestigated and hundreds of polished stone axes worshipped as cult objects were found. Microlithic tools made on quartz and chalcedony belonging to late Stone Age period was also reported to occur with the stone axes (Narasimhaiah 1980 31). His expedition too failed to produce any noteworthy habitation sites of the Neolithic period. However the study of Narasimhaiah made a positive approach and expanded the scope of Neolithic archaeology of the Salem region. The Department of Ancient History and Archaeology University of Madras identi ed Neolithic polished stone tools at Muluvi on Shevaroy hills near Yercaud (IAR 1962-63 13). Sporadic ndings of four Neolithic celts were also made by A.V.N. Sharma of Government Museum Madras in the adjacent bed of river Kaveri near Kaliammankovil (IAR 1961-62 26). Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 27 Between 1980 and 1990 the Bodhaimalai hills located in Rasipuram taluk received a spurt of activities involving people like V.R. Duraisamy and Rajannan. They documented a number assorted Neolithic Celts in the village of Chinna Kalrayan Nadu and also at Melur located in the Bodhaimalai range (Rajannan 1992). In 2003 Davood Ali (2003 59) documented a few Neolithic Celts in Bodhaimalai hills. An overview of the above enumerated occasional discoveries suggests their secondary context. The absence of tools occurring in a primary context still eludes us to obtain a clear picture about life style of the Neolithic culture of Salem region. Very few sites like Nangavalli in Mettur taluk is found to have primary habitational deposit in the form of ash mound (Rajannan 1992 195). To sum up for a better understanding of Neolithic culture there is an urgent need to have a more intensive survey and systematic excavation of the primary sites. Keeping these factors in mind an intensive exploration was undertaken to locate potential Neolithic sites. Previous and Present Explorations Neolithic implements are found in and around the Kalvarayan hills. Finely worked Neolithic polished tools chiselled hammer stones stone discs slick stones and ring stones were discovered by Robert Bruce Foote on the Shevaroy hills (Foote 1916 57-58). Polished stone tools were collected on the mountains of Bodhai malai Kalvarayan malai Kollimalai Javadumalai and Vattalmalai (Rajannan 1992 204). Much of these tools were found in association with present day ritual practices. The Kalvarayan hills are studded with several hamlets and each hamlet had a small temple called Pillaiyar kovil (Ganesha temple) found under the tree. The majority of the polished tools were kept inside the temple. According to the local people these polished tools were collected from the cultivation elds and were placed inside the temple for worship. Nearly 30-60 polished stone axes locally called saamikal were noticed at a single site. The length of tools varies from 5 to 15 cm. The working edges of these celts ( g. 12) were worn out thereby suggesting its utility. Such evidences are encountered at Sembur Uppur and Kallur ( g. 13) all located south of the major village Karumandurai located on the Kalvarayan hills and at Telunganur Kavundanur Mulakkottai Kalaiyanoor Periyathanda and Ramanpatti in Mettur taluk. Irrespective of collection of several Neolithic implements the 12. Neolithic celts 13. Kallur Polished stone tools Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 28 exploration could not yield any appreciable other Neolithic items like handmade pottery or Neolithic habitation. The contexts of these polished stone axes are again becoming uncertain. However the succeeding Iron Age is comparitively clear in the context. Iron Age The documentation of megalithic remains in Salem region begins with Robert Bruce Foote with special attention to pre historic remains. Irrespective of his interest over Palaeolithic remains his descriptions about the megalithic monuments are still valid for their accuracy. He identi ed that the western and northern parts of Shevaroy hills were rich in dolmens. While assessing the archaeological wealth of Salem region he contents to draw that Shevaroy possessed with more Iron Age reserves than the Neolithic age (Foote 1916 61). His explorations were chie y concentrated on the western and the northern part of the Shevaroy hills. They were found to be rich in dolmens. A group of three sites namely Kilmondampadi Karadiyur and Moganad were investigated by him. But his description over the opening the group of burials at Kilmondampadi are quite vague to understand weather he really goes to describe dolmens. The terracotta gurine collected by Foote from the site of Muluvi is one of the rarest nds found in this region from Iron Age site. Its rudimentary form and heavy hair style dressed in short ringlets around the head leads us to assume its age dating back to megalithic times. The last quarter of nineteenth century for the rst time in the history of Salem witnessed more opening of megaliths. In the year 1873 Rev. Maurice Phillips excavated some of the cemeteries (tumuli) in Salem district and published a detailed report of his ndings (Phillips 1873 223-228). This work though had severe limitations nevertheless it re ects his remarkable acquaintance over the subject. The report merely lists the ndings of the excavations but goes on to discuss for a comparative study with European counter parts its authors and the traditional beliefs associated with it. The observations made by Phillips show that he is more inclined towards the Dravidian authorship of the tumuli instead of the Aryans. To quote Phillips the Aryans came to India at a very early period probably about B.C. 1600 and that on their arrival they were opposed by the aboriginal inhabitants whom they dominated Mlechhas Rahshasas Dasyus and Nishadas a people who were wholly di erent from themselves in colour language and customs . It is evident from the Vedas Manu and the Puranas that the Aryans have as a general rule always burnt their dead. The ashes are sometimes gathered and thrown in to running stream or in the case of distinguished persons they are occasionally placed in an urn and buried but without any tumuli or stone circles (Philips 1873 226). Thus he concludes that the tumuli were the burial places of the non-aryan aboriginal inhabitants of the south who are now represented by the Dravidians (Philips 1873 227). Shortly after Phillips in the year 1875 Justice M.J. Walhouse made several additions by discovering a number of sites containing dolmens and cist burials at Shevaroy hills. From his accounts one could observe that many of the burials had subsidiary cists around the main chambers (Walhouse 1875). The government of India in the year 1882 appointed Robert Sewell to compile the antiquarian remains throughout Tamil Nadu. Consequent to his visits to Dharmapuri and Salem numerous sites were newly identi ed and added in his volume (Sewell 1882). Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 29 Quite contrast to the rigorous activities of these o cers the early part of the twentieth century lacked any commendable attempts to explore the archaeological remains of this region. Thereafter the occasional discoveries carried out were solely responsible to private individuals (Rajannan 1992). In 2003 Davood Ali documented more than 30 Iron Age burial monuments in Salem region. The present explorations carried out in this region brought to light number of Iron Age burial monuments. The megalithic burial practice was common in the Iron Age and also in the Early Historic period. Since it is di cult to date a burial without proper excavation and analysis we cannot determine if a burial belongs to the Iron Age or Early Historic period. Hence the burials are broadly categorised here as Iron Age-Early Historic. The cairn circles stone circles urn burials and other type of burials are identi ed based on surface features. Among the burials dolmens chamber tombs stand rst. The chamber tombs were noticed on the Kalvirayan hills and Palamalai. A large number of Iron Age burial sites are found on river banks and rivulets. The occurrence of hundreds of burials noticed at Mangadu Korappallam Singarathoppu ( g. 14) Mulakkadu ( g. 15-16) Erikkadu Kovilmalai ( g. 17) Vellakkalmalai Pulikkal Kallanattam and host of other sites clearly suggests the usage of river for a longer period of time. The burial sites are generally found to the west of the habitation mound and near the rivulet. The local people call 14. Singarathoppu Cist burial the habitation as nattam nattakadu and nattamodu. The dolmens are known as pandiyan-veedu. The cairn circles are known as pandiyan-thittu pandiyan-veedu and the urn burials are called pandiyan-kuzhi. 15. Mulakkadu Stone circle Nearly 87 archaeological sites could be identi ed on the Shevaroy hills irrespective of its territorial nature. In earlier exploration the identi cation of habitation mounds associated with burial sites is very rare or quite negligible. In this present exploration an e ort is made to identify the habitation sites which have been succeeded to some extent. However lack of excavation prevented our understanding on the nature of cultural problem that underwent in this eco-zone. In future well-planned and good oriented excavation alone could solve this vexing problem. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 30 16. Mulakkadu Arrowheads 17. Kovilmalai Dolmen References Davood M. Ali (2003) Archaeology of Salem Region un-published M. phil thesis submitted to Department of Epigraphy and Archaeology Tamil University Thanjavur. Foote R.B. (1916) Pre historic And Proto historic Antiquities of India Leladevi Publications Delhi (IAR) Indian Archeology - A Review 1961-62 Archaeological Survey of India New Delhi. (IAR) Indian Archeology - A Review 1962-63 Archaeological Survey of India New Delhi. Narashimhaiah B. (1980) Neolithic and Megalithic Culture in Tamil Nadu Sundeep Prakashan New Delhi. Phillips Rev. Maurice (1873) Tumuli in The Salem District Indian Antiquary 2. Rajannan Busnagi (1992) Salem Cyclopaedia A Cultural and Historical Dictionary of Salem District Tamil Nadu Institute of Kongu Society Salem. Sewell Robert (1882) List of Antiquarian Remains in Presidency of Madras Archaeological Survey of India Madras. Suresh S. (2002) Roman Antiquities in Tamil Nadu C.P. Ramaswamy Aiyar Institute of Indological Research Madras. Walhouse M.J. (1875) Notes on the Megalithic Monuments in the Coimbatore District Journal of Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland New Series 7. About the Author rameshathi31 gmail.com R. Ramesh is a doctoral student at Department of Epigraphy and Archaeology Tamil University Thanjavur. He is working on Historical Archaeology of Salem Region . Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 31 Sanchi Before Today Sachin Kr. Tiwary and Rusav Kr. Sahu Introduction in Light of Nagauri Quarry and Factory Site The site of Nagauri is located on the left bank of the river Betwa 800 m southwest of the hill of Sanchi in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh ( g. 18). The hillock is also locally known as Karari hill ( g. 19). A large number of stones were quarried 1 from this site during the construction of stupas on the hill of Sanchi which is evident from the debitage as well as the mason marks. The site is surrounded by plain land in east Nagauri village in north and Piparia village in south. The discovery of rock art ( g. 20) and microliths in the hillock pushed the antiquity of the site of Sanchi to Mesolithic period. The site was the abode of human habitation upto the medieval period as evident from the three stages of rock paintings - Mesolithic Neolithic early historic and early medieval period. The ceramic assemblage found from the site also corroborates with the three periods as mentioned earlier. The twin hills of Sanchi and Nagauri are separated by a depression where at present people cultivate lands. These twin hillocks are surrounded by the famous Buddhist sites like Sonari and Satadhara in the northeastern and southeastern sides respectively. These sites became prominent because of their location which was once a famous trade route of northern and southern India. 18. Map of Madhya Pradesh showing the study area (source Google) Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 32 19. Sanchi and Nagauri hills Contour map and Google earth imagery of the area 20 a. Shelter no. II Pictographs in light red colour Mesolithic period 20 b. Shelter no. II War scene late phase of Historical period 20 c. Shelter no. II Superimposition from Mesolithic to Historical periods 20 d. Shelter no. II Warriors and elephant riders along with weapons Historical period 20 e. Shelter no. II U n - i d e n t i e d pictographs with dot marks in alignment Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 33 The hillock of Sanchi measures approximately 91.44 m (300 feet) in height. The site had no connection with the life and acts of Buddha. The place is scarcely mentioned in Buddhist literature. The Chinese monks Fa Xian and Xuanzang also tell much about other ancient centers of Buddhism but they were silent about the site of Sanchi. It is a strange coincidence that these remains are considered as the most magni cent and perfect examples of Buddhist architecture (Marshall 1955). The site was left desolate and deserted after 13th century CE. Gen. Taylor rediscovered the site in 1818 proved to be remarkably in a good state of preservation. At that time three of the gateways of the Great stupa were still standing erect and the southern one was lying where it had fallen the great dome was intact and a portion of the balustrade railing was still in situ (Burgess 1902 29-45). The earliest reference to Sanchi comes from Fergusson s Tree and Serpent Worship (1873) and Massey s Sanchi and Its Remains (1892). The former appeared in 1868 treats the gateway reliefs mainly as illustrations of primitive tree and serpent worship. The latter was published in 1892 where the fanciful theories are present that Asoka was much latter than king Piyadasi of the edicts that Buddhism in India was approximately coeval with Christianity and that in essence it was largely Mithraic. Thereafter a host of scholars worked in the various aspects of Sanchi and its surrounding monuments but nobody made any attempt to show how these gigantic monuments of Sanchi came up. It was also not discussed that from which place the building materials was quarried. Hence the present paper makes a holistic approach to show that the famous Buddhist monument stands may be because of the Nagauri hill. While discussing the Nagauri hill authors have also discussed the historical and archaeological importance of the hillock of Sanchi. Both are integrally related like the chunar sandstone and Asokan pillar. The Mauryan pillar would not be conceived without the prior importance of the chunar stone quarried from the hillock in Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. With this background authors have discussed how the site Nagauri was responsible for the growth and development of the Buddhist edi ces of Sanchi anciently known as Kakanava or Kakanaya hill. In the ancient Indian collections of stone sculpture an image which belongs to a particular region and a speci c time bracket are generally marked by uniformity as well as certain diversities. The evidence from Nagauri has unraveled complete picture of lithic exploitation and way of transportation from the hill to the Sanchi hill during ancient period. For example the abandoned quarries suggest that suitable blocks were extracted from the sandstone beds lying usually on the top of the at terrain of the hills. The blocks were thereafter chiseled in the quarry itself to give them cylindrical pillar and stone masonry shape resulting generally in thick accumulation of chiseling debris some of the undressed and half dressed blocks were also left unused. The signi cance of this rediscovery was quite apparent since sandstone obtained from Nagauri was the most preferred lithic medium for building and art activities during the construction of monuments at Sanchi complex. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 34 From this a half nished gurine of horse ( g. 21) is found in the southern slope of the hillock. The artist chiseled the entire gure stands on the surface of the rock. The horse gure is covered with vegetation and measures 1.62 m in height 2.60 m in width and with a thickness of 0.28 m. The site of Sanchi is associated with Buddhism and the horse is intimately associated with Buddha which is why the artisans tried to sculpt images of horses. However due to the occurrence of cracks in the images the artisans left the half chiselled image of horse in situ. 21. Un- nished horse sculpture A Naga gure ( g. 22 a-b) is found on the northern side of the hill crowned by a ve hooded snake canopy located very close to a modern shrine. Similar type of gure is found near the stupa no.1 at hillock of Sanchi. Stylistically the gure ascribed to the Sunga Satavahana period dating back to the 1st-2nd century BCE. The sculpture in standing position is still worshiped by the local people. It measures 2.10 m in height 0.86 m in width and 0.52 m in thickness . This sculpture looks like a yaksa but it has a seven hooded snake canopy over the head. A nagini sculpture is also found in the Sanchi group of monuments. Probably this sculpture was sculpted to install as a couple naga-nagini. Probably due to the sculpure of naga with seven hooded snake canopy the hill took its name as Nagauri. 22 a. Nagauri hill Front view of Naga image 22 b. Nagauri hill Back view of Naga image Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 35 Posthole 2 The present site yielded six postholes in the eastern and western part of the hillock in two di erent contexts i.e. above the rock shelters and in the quarry site. The purpose of these postholes is not yet clear. It is assumed that these might have used for grinding the grains. The larger posthole measures 0.46 m in depth with 0.26 m in diameter. Engraved Image In the western slope of the hillock the author noticed two engraved images. Both are identi ed as male and female. The female gurine measures 40 cm in height and 13 cm in width while the male gurine measures 10 cm in height and 4 cm in breadth. The male gurine is smaller in comparisons to the female gurine. Similar types of images are found in the toranas of Sanchi. It can be said that these two are mother and child. Either the artisans might have experimented here or they quarried the stones and nished the images and nally they shifted the images to the hillock of Sanchi. Plan of Structure In the same direction just below the engraved image the plan of a two-roomed structure has been noticed. One measures 2.75 m in breadth and the second one measures 1.43 m in length and 2.03 m in width. Quarry Marks Through the systematic study of the quarry marks ( g. 23 a-d) on the surface of the rock the purpose and the particular quarried part of an architectural member can be assumed. These mason marks indicated two groups of monuments i.e. (i) Buddhist monuments like stupa and vihara and (ii) Hindu monuments like temples. The former includes architectural members such as suchi thaba ushnisha and vedika railings and the later includes amalaka and images of Hindu pantheon. 23. Nagauri hill Quarry marks on the stone blocks (from A to D) Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 36 Technique For quarrying and removal of the stone blocks from the bed rock artisans used metallic tools. The impression over the bed rock shows the technological advancement of the artisans of 2nd century BCE. They have used both small and big instruments for the extraction of a rock but in certain cases only small instruments have been used particularly for the removal of small pieces of rocks. One larger stone shows the imprint of the mason mark that measures 0.18 m in height 0.11 m in width and a depth of 0.04 m. For the smoothness as well as weakening the surface of the rock artisans used to heat the rock and then poured water because of which the cracks developed. After this they hammered over big and small iron chisels to remove the blocks of stone. Similar types of technique have also been used in the rathas of Mahabalipuram. The artisans were using the same bed rocks for sharpening their tools which were used for quarrying stones for the sculptures and architectural members. use Impressions of sharpening the tools have been noticed on the bed rocks. Stone Pillar On the way to Nagauri hill from Sanchi Museum through the slope of the hillock of Sanchi the authors noticed one big circular pillar which might have been used as oil machine. It measures 1.60 m in length and 0.29 m in diameter. Mason s House The masonry work at the monuments of Sanchi de nitely took so many years of time to complete but it is interesting to note that how and where the masons were living. The evidence of drainage system and other water activity are noticed on the site but those were only used for for the monastic activities by the Buddhist monks. The study of the site helped in proposing certain hypothesis. The rst presumption is that the hills around Nagauri were the principle resource centers exploited extensively during the historical period. Archaeological investigations conducted around Nagauri revealed that the low-lying hill range near Karari or Nagauri village was the main quarry area. Nagauri was the main resource area for sandstone which was utilised for making sculptures and architectural members during the ancient times. Authors believed that the quarried stones were transported from the hill through path. Identi cation of quarries was ascertained by the marks of extraction on the block of stone chiseling debris un-dressed and half-dressed art objects etc. In spite of intensive survey of the site neither the local carving of stones were found in Sanchi nor did any reference to the recovery of chiseling debris was noticed in the reports of the earlier investigations at Sanchi. It is thus apparent that the sculpture making workshops under study were located away from the religious establishment. Notes 1 A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rocks or minerals are extracted. Quarries are generally used for extracting building materials such as dimension stone construction aggregate riprap sand and gravel. The word quarry can include underground quarrying for stone such as bath stone. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 37 2 Posthole is a cut feature used to hold a surface timber or stone. They are usually much deeper than they are wide although truncation may not make this apparent. Although the remains of the timber may survive but most of the postholes are mainly recognisable as circular patches of darker earth when viewed in plan. Archaeologists can use the presence of postholes to plot the layout of former structures. References Burgess James (1902) The Great Stupas at Sanchi - Kanakheda Journal of Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland London. Fergusson J. (1873) Tree and Serpent Worship or Illustrations of Mythology and Art in India in the First and Fourth Centuries after Christ From the Sculptures of the Buddhist Topes at Sanchi and Amravati London. Maisey F.C. (1892) Sanchi and its Remains Kegan Paul Trench Trubner and Co. London. Marshall John (1955) A Guide to Sanchi Manager of Publications Delhi. About the Author asisachintiwary gmail.com Sachin Kr. Tiwary is working as an assistant archaeologist in Patna Circle of Archaeological Survey of India. His area of research includes Rock Art of Kaimur Region (Bihar) . He has written around 18 research papers in different journals and books. He has also participated in a number of archaeological excavations. sahuroshank gmail.com Rusav Kr. Sahu is a doctoral student working on Surya in Orissan Art at Utkal University. He has written a number of research papers in different journals and books. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 38 Heritage and Culture Stories of Tuntuni from Bengal Lopamudra Maitra Connecting Oral Traditions with the Global Age across a Century According to an ancient African proverb - When an old man dies a library burns to the ground. Also found a signi cant place of mention in the UNESCO website for intangible heritage the words remind a very important aspect i.e. the unseen and mostly neglected areas of intangible heritage in our lives. Oral traditions have always formed a signi cant part of human existence probably from the time man started scribbling doodling printing and drawing on the walls of caves several thousand years ago. For many centuries they were the only sources of education in many cultures. The cultures without having any script e ectively communicated with the help of oral traditions. Though di erent in many ways from these speci c examples our regular folk and urban connections involve a lot of communication that has remarkably developed in the modern age of globalisation. Within the magni cent world of oral traditions folklore occupies a special place. Used from time immemorial for e ective communication through generations folklore helps to maintain a cultural continuity. The present paper emphasises on this particular aspect of folklore through a speci c example of a series of stories from Bengal those of the bird tuntuni or the tailor bird which was compiled a hundred years ago in 1912 and published by author poet illustrator and publisher Upendrakishore Ray Chowdhury 1 (father of Sukumar Ray grandfather of Satyajit Ray and great grandfather of Sandip Ray) in a book titled Tuntunir Boi especially for preserving and spreading the message of folklore amidst children. A century later and after several subsequent publications of the stories from Tuntunir Boi ( g. 24-25) in di erent children s books graphic novels CD s DVD s podcasts of popular shows internet versions of radio and online shows of plays staged by children etc.- the stories have succeeded to portray an e ective tool of communication across decades and across generations. This paper aims to highlight the signi cance and necessity of the communication through folklore and how each individual from a child to an elderly person can bene t from an e ective use of folklore as a tool of communication. The paper also proceeds to explain and explore the author s new theory - The Three Worlds of Experiences. 24. Tuntuni Boi Published in Bengali as available on the internet 24. Tuntuni Boi Translated in English Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 40 Ray (the paper would refer him by his original surname as Chowdhury was a gifted surname) took the initiative to collect folktales from both eastern as well as western parts of undivided Bengal but mostly concentrating in and around the region of Mymensingh (presently in Bangladesh also the birth place of Ray). Ray was an expert on the technical knowledge about printing and publication which he acquired from a study in England. Thus Tuntunir Boi was published with illustrations made by Ray setting a standard publication which matches with the contemporary time. After a century the stories remain popular even today and their survival and preservation has also witnessed various digitised versions of the stories as well as translations into many languages. The folktales of Tuntuni are a part of history that re ects strains of cultural continuity irrespective of global in uences. The concept of the present paper saw its initiation in a highly appreciated presentation at the Katha Yatra international conference - Regional stories Colours and Textures - by Bhaashaa Foundation held between 7th-9th December 2012 in Pune Maharashtra. This paper is an extension and the nal juncture giving shape to the concept and is also an ode to the hundred year old book Tuntunir Boi that has helped to weave many a colourful worlds in several young minds through changing times. The Bird and the Creation - Tuntuni and Tuntunir Boi The tailor bird 2 referred to in Bengali as tuntuni is found all over Bengal (including both West Bengal and present day Bangladesh) 3. It belongs to the warbler family and is noted for its sweet chirping as well as nests which it builds with its beak. It makes nests with leaves and sews it with plant bers and spider web-silk. They make a cone with the leaves and ll it up conically with plant bers and twigs. A small bird with no striking appearance to set it apart from the rest of the avian family it has sometimes been used to denote characters in various stories including Rudyard Kipling s Jungle Book where Kipling narrates the story of Rikki-Tikki-Tavi. The original publication of 1912 of Tuntunir Galpo (The stories of Tuntuni) had 169 pages with 27 folktales for children. With training and newfound knowledge about publishing and printing from England Ray wanted to create an example with Tuntunir Boi thus the book saw the light of the day. The time was also historically important not only for Bengal province but the rest of India as well as history was being rewritten with the growing resentment towards the shift of the capital city of India from Kolkata to Delhi. It was also a time for the search of local identity and the age witnessed the growing awareness towards children s education through publications. Ray s strong publication skills and illustrations helped to strengthen the process of education and spread of local lore. Though the rst quarter of 20th century witnessed a series of publication that was primarily in uenced by the local Swadeshi Movement the process of collection and publication of folklore dates back to the last quarter of 19th century and the credit for this goes to the diligent e orts of few British Civil Servants and administrators of Bengal (i.e. the former un-divided Bengal Presidency under Colonial India which includes the present Bihar Jharkhand Orissa as well as Bangladesh). They helped to collect compile and publish various folktales along with chharas (local rhymes) anecdotes and poems for children. Some popular examples of collected and compiled folktales are - Rev. William McCulloch s Bengali Household Tales published towards the last quarter of 19th century Carolyn Sherwin Bailey s Firelight Stories - Folktales Retold For Kindergarten School and Home in 1907 J.F. Campbell s Notes on Folktales in 1886 and others. Though industrious and extensive in nature they served only the selected few literate urban audiences as the medium was English. Nevertheless the publications continued only to be simultaneously assisted by the Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 41 vernacular publications. Thus came up the splendid e orts of people like Dineschandra Sen (18661939) Upendrakishore Ray Chowdhury (1863-1915) Jasimuddin (1904-1976) Abanindranath Tagore (1871-1951) and Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) to name a few all contributed immensely to the recovery and preservation of Bengali folk literature especially taking shape and in uencing the Swadeshi mind or nationalist mindset during the tumultuous period of the BangaBhanga Andolan (1905) or the Bengal Partition Movement of 1905 (Maitra 2007) and continued even after the annulment of the partition of Bengal and the shift of the capital from Kolkata to Delhi. Thus began an age of collection and publication of oral traditions which was very di erent from the folklorists and anthropologists from the previous 18th and 19th centuries who would be away from the eld and compile the data in the library from secondary sources. The e orts of Ray and others were re ected through the very ingenious determination to compile data from primary sources. Ray published his book Tuntunir Boi and soon came up with another collection Golpomala (The Garland of Stories). As Ray set out on his journey the collection of stories was a special endeavour woven into his very fabric of life. Being the son of a zamindar in Mymensingh Ray who was also well versed in Persian worked closely to translate decipher and nally help to recover land debts for many poor peasants in this area. The interactions were not only limited to the farmers as the land deeds and the plight often involved interacting with the family members as well and understanding their simple lifestyle their social interaction as well as interactions within family members. A section of this is directly re ected in the introduction of Tuntunir Boi. As the introduction mentions the collection of stories took him to his hometown Mymensingh and his work as a zamindar once again brought him back to get in touch with his roots. As the spokesperson of the Ray s chain of thoughts the unmitigated bird tuntuni paints a quaint picture. It is important to note here the size and texture of the little bird. It is small the colours are very basic the body structure makes it a part of the surrounding environment very easily but it can sing and its spirit to build its nest in spite of its size makes it a very good learner and hard worker. The hardworking tuntuni is a representative of the hardworking farmers and peasants. Thus similar to the peasant communities little tuntuni s unmitigated e orts to stand upright in spite of several e orts of bigger animals (e.g. tiger fox crocodile or even the domestic cat) to eat her up made her the perfect representative of the peasant community. Thus tuntuni small and insigni cant yet with an undaunted will-power to ght and survive almost rages war against all perils of the society including the sel sh and cruel king in tuntuni aar Rajar Katha (The Story of the Tailor Bird and the King) ( g. 26 as on page 43) as well as other similar evil forces of the society that made life miserable for the poor farmers including the money-lenders policemen village panchayat heads or even merchants and people from various other upper castes of the society. The other Tuntuni stories include Tuntuni aar Boka Bagh (The Tailor Bird and the Foolish Tiger) Tuntuni aar Beraler Katha (The Tailor Bird and the Cat) Tuntuni aar Napiter Katha (The Tailor Bird and the Barber). Tuntuni s constant ght for survival cuts across all boundaries of mere profession as well as caste and creed which remain till this day a social hindrance in all chapters of progress and development in the Indian society. The other side that the stories of tuntuni highlight is the basic signi cant aspects accorded to folktales from across the globe the arena of teaching. Therefore tuntuni also stands as a disciplinarian who would teach a child the right and wrong and also discipline them through knowledge classi ed and labelled by the safe disjunction of a folk narrative. The essence of Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 42 imparting knowledge is also described by Ray in the introduction of Golpomala Most people are a bit stubborn in their childhood. Don t be enraged by my words. Even if one were enraged it wouldn t be a discomfort for me... It s from my own experience that I say these words. The children suffer from a malady. They often disturb others by doing things which were unasked for yet if someone orders them to do the same work - the sweetness of the labour vanishes for them instantly. In the same book Ray also mentions about the art of storytelling and interestingly enough touches upon an important revelation. He mentions that stories being told not only amuses children but keep them awake and engaged as they nish their dinner. Ray speaks once again of the region of Mymensingh and mentions At the end of the day when little children tend to drop off to sleep before having their suppers affectionate nurses mothers aunts or grandmothers try to keep their sleepy-eyed wards amused with pleasing stories. The enchantment of the tales help keep the children diverted while the women feed them playfully. The tales of the book are drawn from that treasury of oral nursery lore from a tradition steeped in the tenderness of motherly affection. 26. An example of online audio record of the story - Tuntuni aar Raja (The Tailor Bird and the King) Theory Three Worlds of Experiences - Tuntuni and Communication Following the communicative pattern of most folktales- the stories of tuntuni follow a perfect pattern to suit the attention span of young minds. Thus corresponding to the communication with the listener the stories of tuntuni highlights the following - short - Includes poems riddles and anecdotes which help the kids to remember facts easily - At most times- a certain incident is repeated within the story- this helps in recollection - The main story has few characters for easy remembering - Since the stories uses animals as main characters the methods of remembering is made simple by keeping their original names and not clutter the plot by giving human names. Thus tuntuni is referred as tuntuni and the king as merely Rajamoshai or His Majesty. Likewise the beral or cat is Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 43 referred as cat and nothing else- and so on and so forth - The stories follow a culture pattern. Thus the surroundings the environment and habitat described- makes the listener get to know of the villages and the cities - The language used in the stories is old Bengali- and was mostly limited to rural Bengal. Thus many parts of the stories might need a translation for the young minds at present times- even though they might know the language Bengali. Thus the stories are short and entertaining as would suit the patience and understanding of little folks and are peopled with a stock of native characters the sprightly tailor bird the stupid tiger the little sparrow the wily fox the clever cat the hunch-back woman or the foolish weaver. It is also important to mention how the communication works through learning between the communicator and the listener. This paper establishes this through the theory of the Three Worlds of Experiences. My Theory on Learning and Communication - The Three Worlds of Experiences The mesmerising magni cence of folklore lies in its ability to captivate and capture the attention of the listeners and thereby helping the self to be associated with the lead character. This is closely associated with an aspect of creation of aura with which the self of the listener associates with. Here I borrow the term often used to describe a typical genre of painting i.e. abstract realism where the reference to the subject matter of lore is only the vehicle and not the reason for the stories. Here the abstract personi es the entire subject or body of the text situations and circumstances that the folklore narrates and the realism personi es the very subject matter consisting of the characters of the stories. In terms of the knowledge gained by the listener or the children abstract realism can a ect the self of a child in three di erent methods. In terms of educating the child these methods can be classi ed as experiences of three di erent worlds. The term worlds are used here to denote three di erent comfort zones that a child encounters as she he gradually steps out of the house- which is the rst comfort zone. Here the child is the listener or the recipient of the messages and the folklore is the message itself while communication is the medium- which can be audio video or audiovisual. To explain through a diagram abstract realism in folklore and their in uence on children as an educational medium can be explained to work in the following manner in the Three Worlds of Experiences ( g. 27) . The Inner World SELF The Outer World The Immediate Outside Worldup 27. Three worlds of experiences acting upon the self of a child Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 44 In terms of the knowledge gained by the listener or the self (the child in the present study) the lessons learned through folklore can be broadly divided into three basic Worlds of Experiences . However at the very beginning it should also be mentioned that the three divisions are not segregated into water-tight compartments and thus often overlaps with one another. Nevertheless the focus is to separate the experiences that a child encounters- teaching him her various lessons about di erent sets of understandings about the socio-cultural and religious interactions that she he relates on the process of growing up. Primarily folklore involved children to deal with two sets of worlds - the Inner and the Outer . As the Inner World taught the behaviour and discipline and various household duties and responsibilities the moral responsibilities towards the Outer World taught the child the duties and obligations towards the region outside the family and home. Thus the household included experiences pertaining to the parents siblings and other members of the families teachers subjects (in case of kings and royalty) relatives including pets. On the other hand the other experience includes various types of relationships that one encounters while stepping out of a home- including fellow pupils fellow colleagues shopkeepers panchayat pradhans or village-headmen moneylenders barbers farmers singers vagabonds royalty ministers etc. As the former set of practices formed the inner sanctum of experiences the remaining set formed the outer section of the sanctum. In between the basic two worlds of experiences there is the world of Immediate Outside . Comprising of peer groups this is the sanctum that helps to prepare the child as she he gradually steps out of the primary household and out of the rst comfort zone. Primarily they used to encompass mostly people of the same age-groups who used to act as advisors and con dants in folklore. It is also important to note that often these con dants would be from various socio-economic classes. This was important to deliver a message of social equality for the young listener. The Three Worlds of Experiences are evident across all genres of folklore like myths legends and folktales. It is also important to mention that in the present age the Immediate Outside world is increasingly being highlighted through various publications and e-versions of the folktales. This is also the case with Tuntunir Boi. Tuntuni and Modern Media As the publication celebrates a hundred years there remains much to look at the conservation and preservation of intangible heritage. It is once again a reminder of preserving that part of our heritage that cannot be measured in dimensions but nevertheless are vital informants and carriers of our socio-cultural political and religious symbols and existence. The many translations into several languages of Tuntunir Boi also highlight a simple fact - the in uence of global in uences on local indigenous culture as is re ected in the Indianisation of several folk tales from Europe like Sleeping Beauty The Beauty and the Beast Rapunzel Hansel and Gretel etc. The modern renditions as is re ected through both written as well as digital records are varied in many ways and thus in a comparison with the original creation from a century ago the di erences are quite prominent. The props used within the stories can be placed anywhere in the world and not necessarily have to be a part of Bengal or even a rural surrounding. They also negate the importance of geography as well as time by simply explaining the story of a bird and a cat. It is important to mention here an example which was popular over the internet in response to the centenary celebrations of Tuntunir Boi - coverage of tuntuni mela by a Bengali radio-station based in Washington about a function which took place in Siliguri in West Bengal in 2011. The event marked children staging Ray s plays including the various stories of tuntuni. The broadcast did not merely Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 45 connect two di erent parts of the globe but also ensured a cultural continuity a pattern of existence in spite of various global in uences 4 . The most signi cant aspect of the modern versions of Tuntunir Boi is the emphasis on the need of a peer group. Hence Tuntuni is seen discussing his her next move against the cruel king with his friends or he is seen talking about his wealth to his friends or going on an outing with family and friends. As the world of Immediate Outside is highlighted another factor comes into prominence is the art of communication. Illustrations have been used from time immemorial for communication. Right from the hoary days of the cave doodles and drawings from a million years ago from various parts of the globe including Alsace Lorraine in France to our very own Bhimbetka in India to the aboriginals across the globe (some tribes of Australia New Zealand India etc.) who still uses symbols as coded messages to communicate with members of the same or di erent communities. This system of communication also has been extensively used in modern media and communication which not only helps in genres of advertising public relations lm and documentaries but also conveying proper messages to young children. This was understood and worked upon by Ray in the book Tuntunir Boi. His sketches were carefully drawn to illustrate and explain the stories. The stories were simple to understand and never involved too many characters which helped in easy remembrance and comprehension. In present times the geographic boundaries are cut across to make communication easy so that it caters to both the listener and the viewer anywhere across the globe. The modern illustrations also help to emphasis the need and signi cance of peer group in modern life and that is why tuntuni is drawn with many friends and family members ( g. 28). 29 a. The cover of CDs and DVDs about Tuntuni Boi in Bengali 28. Still clips from an animation movie by DigiTech 29 b. The cover of CDs and DVDs about Tuntuni Boi in Bengali Oral Traditions Survive as an Important Part of Global Communication The new publications translations as well as the various digital versions of the stories of tuntuni ( g. 29 a-b) connect oral traditions and popular culture across a century. It helps to Heritage Conservators Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 46 re-emphasise communication as mentioned through the theory of the Three Worlds of Experiences . It also highlights an important aspect of our intangible heritage which is folktales. This is a vital beacon especially in the present age of increasing number of nuclear families. The tradition of listening to stories from grandparents has drastically reduced. Oral traditions (in this case folktales) help to maintain cultural continuity through changing times not only do they convey a sense of belonging but also lessons of life pertaining to culture and society. An inseparable part of intangible heritage it is an imperative necessity to save protect and conserve folktales. The stories survive time and space so does the characters cutting across decades of socio-cultural di erences and connecting various historical phases of civilisation. It helps the listener to learn about the world around and thus each story communicates a sense of understanding and bonding. Therefore even though the stories end they actually continue in reality which extends their lifespan and shelf-value through time. Piprey aar Piprir Katha Ek pipre aar tar pipri chilo. Pipri bolle Pipre aami baaper baari jaabo nouko niye eso. Pipre ekti dhaner khosha bhasiye niye elo. Pipri ta dekhe bolle Ki sundor nouko Eso pipre aamake baaper bari niye chalo. Pipre aar Pipri dhaner khosar noukaye uthe bosey nouka chere dilo. Khanik durey giye seyi nouko charaye aatke gelo. Takhan Pipre bolle Pipri aamiyo theli tumiyo thelo. Aamar kathayo phuriye gelo. (translation) 5 But does it really end Because just like Tununir Boi the journey continues for many other hundred or even thousand year-old stories. Notes 1 poet illustrator and publisher Upendrakishore Ray Chowdhury in 1912. Ray was the father of noted writer poet and illustrator Sukumar Ray and the grandfather of lmmaker illustrator music composer and author Satyajit Ray. 2 Tuntunir Boi (The Book of the Tailor Bird) was compiled and published in Bengali by noted author (source http en.wikipedia.org wiki Common_Tailorbird) The Common tailor bird is a brightly coloured bird with bright green upper parts and whitish under parts. They range in size from 10-14 cm (3.9-5.5 in) and weigh 6-10 grams (0.21-0.35 oz). They have short rounded wings a long tail strong legs and a sharp bill with curved tip to the upper mandible. Article Details (from- http www.wisegeek.com what-is-a-tailorbird.htm) Written By Debra Durkee Edited By Daniel Lindley Copyright Protected 2003-2012 Conjecture Corporation Tailor birds are a family of small birds known for their distinctive calls and unique nests. They get their name from the female s ability to weave nests out of leaves by sewing the edges together. 3 Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 47 While some species of tailorbirds are quite common there are others that have been listed as endangered.... The common tailor bird is one of the most numerous varieties found throughout Southeast Asia where it coexists easily alongside humans. Its habitat of choice is in the humid forests and mangroves of Pakistan east to Indonesia and China. Active and hardy tailor birds have been able to adapt to intrusions on their natural habitats and move their nests into city areas where they are known to nest on buildings and to thrive in small parks and gardens....Nondescript birds the males have drab green backs and cream-colored chests and stomachs. Females are similar in coloring but lack the long tail feathers that the males acquire during the breeding season...One thing the di erent species of tailorbirds have in common is their unique way of building a nest. The male escorts the female tailorbird as she looks for a suitable leaf usually the entire nest is built out of a single leaf although some have been seen sewing several together. Once the leaf is found the female harvests spider webs to wrap around the leaf to form it into a cone. Poking holes in the joined edges of the leaf with her beak she then secures it with any of a number of brous materials at hand. It is then lled with small leaves and whatever other soft material she can nd in order to provide a secure cushion for between two and six eggs....Incredibly active birds they are rarely seen at rest even when they are standing still they are often icking their long tails to give them a restless appearance. 4 (http w w w.washingtonbanglaradio.com content 73033411-tuntuni-mela-2011) Calcutta Siliguri 31st July 2011 (WBRi OOBE) To celebrate the centenary of Upendrakishore Ray Chowdhury s book Tuntunir Boi published in 1911 Srijan Sena Siliguri (a drama troupe) and Natun Pata (children s library) have organized a three day festival Tuntuni Mela at Dinabandhu Mancha Siliguri. The festival started on 30th July and will go on till 1st August 2011. Tuntuni Mela is packed up with games like kit-kit ikir-mikir lattu danguli and also Feluda Quiz . There is also photography competition theatre hand shadowgraph and exhibition. The mantra is to go back to the pages of Naak Kata Raja Re Dekho Kemon Saaja Re . The story of Mr. and Mrs. Ant 5 Once there was a Mr. Ant who had a Mrs. Ant. Mrs. Ant said one day Mr. Ant I want to visit my father s house so do get me a boat. Mr. Ant got an empty rice husk to be used as a boat. Mrs. Ant saw it and remarked What a beautiful boat. Come Mr. Ant take to me to my father s house. Mr. and Mrs. Ant sat on the boat and it oated away. A little bit further down the river the boat got stuck in a corner of the bank. Then Mr. Ant said Come Mrs. Ant let us both push. And my story too ends here. References Bhattacharya Ashutosh (2005) Banglar Lok-Samskriti [Bengali - The folk culture of Bengal]. National Book Trust New Delhi. Chowdhury Upendrakishore Ray (1910) Tuntunir Boi Kantik Press Kolkata. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 48 Chowdhury Upendrakishore Ray (2000) Tuntunir Boi Kolkata. Indian Folk life (2006) Chennai. Maitra Lopamudra (2012) Mednipur Patachitra from West Bengal (India) - Folk Art Reinvented Through Modern Media and Communication Asian Art and Culture - A Research Volume in Honour of Ananda Coomaraswamy Centre for Asian Studies University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka. Maitra Lopamudra (2011) Bengali Graphic Novels for Children Sustaining an Intangible Heritage of Storytelling Traditions from Oral to Contemporary Literature Folklore and Folkloristics 4(2) Kolkata. Maitra Lopamudra (2011) Oral Traditions Reaching Beyond Peripheries in Modern Era of Mass Communication - A Case Study of Radh Region of West Bengal (India) LOUKIK (bilingual journal in English and Bengali) 4(1-2) Kolkata. Maitra Lopamudra (2010) Communicating Words and More - A Study of Oral Traditions of Radh Bengal (including the Districts of Purulia West Mednipur and Bankura) Indian Folklore Research Journal 10 Chennai. Maitra Lopamudra (2009) Reaching Beyond Peripheries - the Global and Universal E ects on Folk Religion of Bankura A Case Study of Few Speci c Areas Under Survey Between November 2006 March 2008 Pratna Parikrama 3 Bishnupur. Maitra Lopamudra (2008) Change and Continuity as Means to Perpetuate Cultural Anxiety -A Brief Study of Tusu Brata Rites and the Worship of Goddess Manasa in Speci c Districts of Lateritic West Bengal (India) In Panchanan Mohanty Ramesh C. Mallick and Eswarappa Kasi (ed.) Ethnographic Discourse of the Other Conceptual and Methodological Issues Cambridge Scholars Publishing UK. Maitra Lopamudra (2008) Childrens Oral Literature and Modern Mass Media in India with Special Reference to Gradual Transformation in West Bengal Indian Folklore Research Journal 5(8) Chennai. Maitra Lopamudra (2007) 100 years of Thakurmar Jhuli (Grandmother s Bag of Tales) -From Oral Literature to Digital Media - Shaping Thoughts for the Young and Old Indian Folklore Research Journal 7 Chennai. Websites http www.google.co.in imgres hl en&sa X&biw 1280&bih 568&tbm isch&prmd imvns&tbnid bp 9AAHGjeiAkHM &imgrefurl http blog.rarh.in %3Ftag%3Dtuntunir-boi&docid LzImfTU0F M M p u M & i m g u r l h t t p b l o g . r a r h . i n w p content uploads 2010 08 Upendrakishore-Ray_Tuntunir-Boi_Elephant.png&w 480&h 387&ei dzmr UL2nLuqwiQfzp4GYCQ&zoom 1&iact rc&dur 125&sig 115014880169019418247&page 1&tbnh 111&tbnw 138&start 0&ndsp 24&ved 1t 429 r 0 s 0 i 71&tx 42&ty 13 Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 49 http www.google.co.in imgres hl en&sa X&biw 1280&bih 568&tbm isch&prmd imvns&tbnid 4Q oR4ETF7sRb6M &imgrefurl http www.washingtonbanglaradio.com content 7932510-upendrakisho res-tuntunir-boi-converted-english-comics&docid AG6jTYTRJucAFM&imgurl http www.boipatro.co m tambourine 2 images jd46.gif&w 600&h 459&ei dzmrUL2nLuqwiQfzp4GYCQ&zoom 1&iact rc &dur 94&sig 115014880169019418247&page 1&tbnh 111&tbnw 145&start 0&ndsp 24&ved 1t 429 r 4 s 0 i 83&tx 91&ty 60 http www.google.co.in imgres hl en&sa X&biw 1280&bih 568&tbm isch&prmd imvns&tbnid JJ M_ypiu069RWM &imgrefurl http www.boi-mela.com BookDet.asp%3FBookID%3D2468&docid i5a -M1rNTR4jdM&imgurl http www.boi-mela.com _FPageb Book16011.JPG&w 250&h 410&ei dzmr UL2nLuqwiQfzp4GYCQ&zoom 1&iact hc&vpx 937&vpy 89&dur 2187&hovh 288&hovw 175&tx 118&ty 141&sig 115014880169019418247&page 1&tbnh 111&tbnw 68&start 0&ndsp 24&ved 1 t 429 r 6 s 0 i 89 http www.google.co.in imgres hl en&sa X&biw 1280&bih 568&tbm isch&prmd imvns&tbnid jsb D6qJ4bayD-M &imgrefurl http www.365oranges.com Catalog Index 57%3Fpage%3D49&docid eh HQiEh5XPW_FM&imgurl http www.365oranges.com Resources Products TUNTUNIR%252520BO I.jpg&w 200&h 200&ei BjyrUICtNMWViAfAy4H4Cw&zoom 1&iact hc&vpx 210&vpy 279&dur 20 3&hovh 160&hovw 160&tx 62&ty 81&sig 115014880169019418247&page 1&tbnh 118&tbnw 1 19&start 0&ndsp 24&ved 1t 429 r 9 s 0 i 99 http www.google.co.in imgres hl en&sa X&biw 1280&bih 568&tbm isch&prmd imvns&tbnid oJ KEuYk8gGosfM &imgrefurl http www.indiamart.com mansi-publishing products.html&docid zXP8J 6-nMtmtKM&imgurl http 2.imimg.com data2 UJ OW IMFCP-2957300 image_53-250x250.gif&w 1 69&h 250&ei BjyrUICtNMWViAfAy4H4Cw&zoom 1&iact hc&vpx 98&vpy 248&dur 157&hovh 2 00&hovw 135&tx 91&ty 111&sig 115014880169019418247&page 1&tbnh 118&tbnw 80&start 0 &ndsp 24&ved 1t 429 r 8 s 0 i 96 http www.google.co.in imgres hl en&sa X&biw 1280&bih 568&tbm isch&prmd imvns&tbnid ulx EA19QRUvlRM &imgrefurl http www.washingtonbanglaradio.com category wbri-node-categories w bri-online-magazine-translation&docid 2bxKiC9MqE0VNM&imgurl http www.boipatro.com tambou rine 2 images jd43.gif&w 600&h 530&ei BjyrUICtNMWViAfAy4H4Cw&zoom 1&iact hc&vpx 647& vpy 71&dur 891&hovh 211&hovw 239&tx 120&ty 90&sig 115014880169019418247&page 1&tb nh 113&tbnw 128&start 0&ndsp 24&ved 1t 429 r 20 s 0 i 133 http www.google.co.in imgres hl en&sa X&biw 1280&bih 568&tbm isch&prmd imvns&tbnid aw 13P66fzzF8nM &imgrefurl http joydhak.wordpress.com &docid f1Np9Bqi6ZbkkM&imgurl http w ww.boipatro.com tambourine 2 images jd47.gif&w 600&h 525&ei BjyrUICtNMWViAfAy4H4Cw&zo om 1&iact hc&vpx 430&vpy 131&dur 312&hovh 210&hovw 240&tx 77&ty 103&sig 115014880 169019418247&page 2&tbnh 158&tbnw 180&start 24&ndsp 18&ved 1t 429 r 2 s 24 i 158 http www.google.co.in imgres hl en&sa X&biw 1280&bih 568&tbm isch&prmd imvns&tbnid -B h3HSEdLwiAEM &imgrefurl http www.indiaclub.com shop SearchResults.asp%3FProdStock%3D1 4898&docid 8Qhl-uPwO-BN4M&imgurl http www.indiaclub.com Assets product lres 14898.jpg&w 79&h 120&ei BjyrUICtNMWViAfAy4H4Cw&zoom 1&iact hc&vpx 624&vpy 187&dur 2984&hov h 98&hovw 64&tx 85&ty 43&sig 115014880169019418247&page 2&tbnh 98&tbnw 64&start 2 4&ndsp 18&ved 1t 429 r 3 s 24 i 161 Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 50 http www.google.co.in imgres hl en&sa X&biw 1280&bih 568&tbm isch&prmd imvns&tbnid kz s0T8MyM0hWDM &imgrefurl http www.banglatorrents.com showthread.php%3F21527-Sobar-priotuntunir-golpo&docid pa-D6wcaQ6Zj-M&imgurl http img190.imageshack.us img190 9888 picture2 yd.jpg&w 800&h 727&ei BjyrUICtNMWViAfAy4H4Cw&zoom 1&iact hc&vpx 742&vpy 143&dur 172&hovh 214&hovw 236&tx 119&ty 100&sig 115014880169019418247&page 4&tbnh 146&tbn w 161&start 65&ndsp 20&ved 1t 429 r 18 s 65 i 339 http www.google.co.in imgres hl en&sa X&biw 1280&bih 568&tbm isch&prmd imvns&tbnid ez a5UO3EAFUu9M &imgrefurl http www.bengalichildrensbooks.org TuntunirBoi.php&docid EEcLOf D3JpTMHM&imgurl http www.bengalichildrensbooks.org images TuntunirBoi interfaceTuntunirBoi.j pg&w 500&h 382&ei dzmrUL2nLuqwiQfzp4GYCQ&zoom 1&iact hc&vpx 228&vpy 135&dur 76 6&hovh 196&hovw 257&tx 168&ty 117&sig 115014880169019418247&page 1&tbnh 111&tbnw 137&start 0&ndsp 24&ved 1t 429 r 1 s 0 i 74 http en.wikipedia.org wiki Upendrakishore_Ray http blog.rarh.in tag tuntunir-boi http en.wikipedia.org wiki File Eggs_of_Tailorbird_inside_of_nest.jpg http en.wikipedia.org wiki Common_Tailorbird http www.wisegeek.com what-is-a-tailorbird.htm http www.bengalichildrensbooks.org TuntunirBoi.php http www.washingtonbanglaradio.com content 73033411-tuntuni-mela-2011 http en.wikipedia.org wiki Chandimangal About the Author lopamudramaitra gmail.com Lopamudra Maitra is a visual anthropologist. Having a background of journalism and anthropology her area of interests includes folk and urban culture and communication and oral traditions. She is teaching Media and Culture Studies Folklore and Literature at various universities in India at both postgraduate and graduate levels. She has worked as a senior correspondent in the newspaper The Indian Express . She also writes special columns for various dailies and monthly newspapers. Her papers have also been published in different national and international journals and books. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 51 Glimpses of Madhubani Paintings Shruti Das out of the old Darbhanga district in the year 1972 as a result of reorganisation of the districts in the State. This was formerly the northern subdivision of Darbhanga district. It consists of 21 development blocks and is bounded on the north by a hill region of Nepal and extending to the border of its parent district of Darbhanga in the south Sitamarhi in the west and Supaul in the east. Madhubani fairly represents the centre of the territory once known as Mithila. It is a place where a unique culture has been prevailing since time immemorial. In the text of the Ramayana Sita the wife of Lord Ram was considered to be the daughter of King Janak believed to be situated in Mithila region of Bihar now. Mithila was a city in ancient India the capital of the Videha Kingdom. The name Mithila is also commonly used to refer to the Videha Kingdom itself as well as to the modern day territories that fall within the ancient boundaries of Videha - Mithila (India) and Mithila (Nepal). The legend of Mithila extends over many centuries. Both Gautama Buddha and Vardamana Mahavira are said to have lived in Mithila. It also formed the centre of Indian history during the rst millennium and has contributed to various literary and scriptural works. The region of Mithila has been considered as the cradle for a number of art forms and its culture gives the inhabitant ample scope of creativity. Creativity lies in the form of traditional painting on wall oor and paper (called Madhubani or Mithila Painting) ( g. 30-31) weaving by the use of grass (named as Sikki work) embroidery or stitching on clothes (known as Sujani) making papier-m ch decorative as well as utility objects ritualistic terracotta objects etc. All the di erent forms of artistic work like painting weaving stitching are part of their daily core ritualistic duties or their way of life. On various occasions like starting from the birth of a child called Chhathiyar (the sixth day from the date of birth of the child a family function is organised on which it is believed that the fortune of a newly born child is written by god called Markande considered as the form of The word Madhubani means the forest of honey . The district of Madhubani was carved 30. Madhubani painting on wall 31. Godna Style of Madhubani painting Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 52 Brahma the creator of the whole universe) to hair-cutting ceremonies called mundan or upnayan and churakarna. These are the puri cation rituals which make a male child pure or suitable for entering into other stages of manhood. Then marriage ceremony is one of the most integral parts of the culture of Mithila which gives the Maithil (inhabitant of Mithila region) people various opportunities to display their craftsmanship in the social context where women make beautiful traditional and ritualistic designs and diagram having religious signi cance also. History of Madhubani Painting The region of Mithila which has been the hub of creative activities was unknown to the outer world till 1930 s but by the uke of natural calamity of earthquake which damaged various villages of old district of Darbhanga in Bihar the sincere and dedicated service done by the sub-divisional o cer William J. Archer in the badly a ected region gave him opportunity to trace the samples of broken walls having indigenous and brilliantly coloured mural designs. He became very inquisitive about this form of art and later in 1949 wrote an article in Marg about pictorial tradition of Madhubani Painting. This form of art and the region of Madhubani were unknown to the outside world during that time. It was during 1965-66 when the region of Madhubani was a ected by severe drought. To provide economic sustenance to the people a ected by drought the Central government sent a representative namely Bhaskar Kulkarni to nd out the traditional art forms of the region which can be practised at large scale and could be used for generating resources for Maithil people. Perhaps by chance the whole universe was conspiring to make this region world famous for its unique art form of Madhubani painting. Thus by the support of Handicrafts and Handloom Export Corporation Kulkarni did the survey in Mithila and found the unique traditional painting which now renowned as Madhubani painting. Earlier these paintings were only been made on the oor wall and occasionally on the paper that too only during ritualistic functions. Kulkarni encouraged women of Mithila region to transfer their drawing skills on the paper and the result was unbelievable. They performed well in this test and were able to produce some of the ne examples of Madhubani paintings on paper by using ink and nib. Thus this form of painting became more durable easy to handle presentable and ner in quality. A number of senior artists like late Srimati Jagdamba Devi Ganga Devi Sita Devi Mahasundari Devi became world famous for their art work in Madhubani. Soon the place Madhubani became an hub of art. During seventies many art historians professors curators art collectors museum professionals anthropologists art promoters like Erika Moser Yves Vaquard Upendra Maharathi Ray Lee Owens Mary C. Lanius Tokio Hasegawa did a lot of work in bringing Madhubani painting to the limelight. The art became especially popular because of Pupul Jayakar an Indian cultural activist and writer best known for her work on the revival of traditional and village arts handlooms and handicrafts in post-independence India. As chair person of the All-India Handloom Board and Handicrafts and Handlooms Export Corporation Jayakar played an important role in the revival of Madhubani painting. The book titled The Earthen Drum An Introduction to the Ritual Arts is a good source for knowing about the origination and the development and importance of the Madhubani Painting. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 53 After making this art form known to the outer world a number of art lovers and art promoters like Erika Moser (German Anthropologist) Yves Vaquard (French Scholar) Upendra Maharathi (an artist from Patna) Ray Lee Owens (Professor of Anthropology) Mary C. Lanius Tokio Hasegawa visited Madhubani and the villages Ranti Jitwarpur Rashidpur. Their contribution towards upliftment of this art form is praiseworthy. The contribution of two of the art promoter or cultural anthropologists Tokio Hasegawa and Ray Owens will always be remembered. Tokio Hasegawa was a musician by profession in Japan but his inner quest to know about various ethnic cultures prevailing in di erent part of the world linked him to the unique culture of Mithila. He visited this place during 1980-1990s several times and did extensive survey about various art and craft forms of Mithila mainly Madhubani painting. He commissioned a good deal of Madhubani paintings thus artists were also bene ted by his consistent interaction with them. His interest and direct interaction with this art form culminated into artist residency programme and a world famous Mithila Museum. After the visit of renowned Mithila artist Ganga Devi in Japan the Mithila Museum has invited various painters of Mithila art to Japan after 1988. The Mithila Museum at Nigata has about 1300 Madhubani paintings which focus its activities on the acquisition research and publicity of Mithila paintings. In this way Tokio Hasegawa made a great e ort in providing an international platform to artist like Ganga Devi Maha Sundari Devi Godavari Dutta Bauwa Devi etc. Contribution of Ray Lee Owens In 1976 a Fulbright scholar and anthropologist Dr Raymond Lee Owens came to Madhubani to study folk art and Mithila culture. He deeply moved by observing the rarely talented Mithila artist and their impoverished economic condition. He adopted Mithila region as his second home and started to think towards the development of entire society. He began to think in terms of better education and economic system. For better livelihood and generating a constant resource of income he formed Master Craftsmen Association in Jitwarpur Village of Madhubani district in which artist were being provided raw materials and focus was on quality painting during 1980s. Their work were bought rst by giving them advance and later on providing the rest amount from the actual sell was also to be given to the same artist thus the concept of giving feedback to the artists was launched for the rst time in the history of Madhubani painting. This organisation did not continue for longer period and it was stopped. In the early 1980s he also made two documentary lms Five Painters and the award winning Munni about the lives of the painters. In 1980s a non-pro t organisation The Ethnic Arts Foundation (EAF) was founded which aimed at the development of Mithila Painting. The EAF supported several di erent activities. It purchases paintings directly from scores of painters then organises or co-sponsors exhibitions and sales to individuals collectors and museums. Pro ts from sales are then returned to the artists in e ect providing a double payment for their work. After a long gap of twelve years Owens again visited Mithila in the end of the year 1999. He met all his favourite artists and again focussed on quality of painting and gave a good amount of money as the feedback to a number of artists after purchasing their work. He conceived many plans for the upliftment of the condition of artist like making a group of nine talented artists and Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 54 taking them to the America for exhibiting their work. He even went to Jaipur and purchased a large chunk of acid free papers for the artists in Mithila region. The purpose behind promoting the acid free paper was to increase the life of painting and now these kinds of papers are used commonly by the artists. Owens died very soon after his return to America in 2000 after a major heart attack. Contemporary Style of Madhubani Painting After death of Ray Lee Owens his friends like Dr David Szanton Joseph Elder Parmeshwar Jha visited India and established an institute named Mithila Art Institute in Madhubani district in 2003. It aimed at the promotion and continuation of this traditional art form. The e orts for upbringing this institute was also made by Santosh Kumar Das an accomplished artist from Madhubani ( g. 32). Das has dedicated his complete life for the development of this art form. He adopted this art form because of his fascination and deep love for this age old tradition. He continued to work in this tradition style of Madhubani painting even after completion of Bachelor s in Fine Art from the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda Vadodara in 1990. He evolved his own contemporary style of Madhubani painting which is very realistic and includes both the elements of traditional and modern painting which can be termed as Contemporary Style of Madhubani painting. He has given his thirty years of life towards creating his own language of this art form. He generally insists upon making rst draft of the theme which one wants to paint. He does lots of sketches of the selected patterns or gures unless he is satis ed. Its best example can be sited of Godhara Series a set of twenty-three paintings ( g. 33) related to the brutal attack on the humanity during the massacred which happened in Godhara region of Gujarat. He expressed his feeling of angst through this series of paintings. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 32. Santosh Kumar Das with one of his paintings 33. A painting on mourning and angst of Lord Shiva due to the occurrence of Gujarat violence by Santosh Kumar Das Heritage Conservators 55 His fourteen paintings out of twenty-three paintings of Godhara Series were shortlisted for the travelling exhibition named Edge of Desire which started in 2004 from Perth Australia and travelled to many countries in Europe and America. These paintings were also displayed in the National Gallery of Modern Art in Delhi and Mumbai in 2007. During his tenure as the director of the Mithila Art Institute from 2005-08 Das did intensive eld work in bringing young talented students from far o villages in the Madhubani district of Bihar and giving them training on the Madhubani painting. Some selected students who performed well under his guidance were given remuneration amount as scholarships. In the second year a group of eight students were selected for extensive training in which some of the students namely Ribha painted the story of Raja Harischandra Kamlesh on the life of Lord Buddha Vidyanand Jha on the life of Vidyapati Nidhi on the story of Haatim-Tai Soni painted Satyavan-Savitri Rachna Shalini painted the tales of Sapta-Vipta and Minky worked on SheetBasant. For the rst time in the history of Madhubani painting these types of varied themes related to the regional devotional and popular folk tales were chosen by the budding artists. The result was outstanding. Das s students started to paint in di erent styles with very powerful line work and good sense of colouring and selecting contemporary themes like women playing cricket female foeticide e ect of Tsunami etc. In this way he led a foundation for the young generation of Madhubani artists. Das left the responsibility as the director of the Mithila Art Institute in 2008 and gave complete concentration towards the evolution as an independent artist. He did some noteworthy works like Krishna Series a set of about 28 paintings based on showcasing beauty and various aspects of Krishna s life ( g. 34). After this he completed Kali series and Buddha series ( g. 35). 34. A painting from Krishna series by Santosh Kumar Das 35. A painting from Buddha series by Santosh Kumar Das Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 56 Soon Das emerged as an in uential gure in the contemporary art scene of Madhubani painting. He is a source of inspiration for many students like Mahalaxmi Karn who comes daily to his house in Ranti for learning and painting under his tutelage. Name of some other students are Amrita Das Shalini Karn etc. A number of art students doing research on Madhubani painting from various elds visit his place to know the real scenario of this form of art. Problems Existing in the Contemporary Art Scene of Madhubani Painting After going through the genesis of the Madhubani painting it has been observed that the people of this region particularly due to the negligence of government lack of proper infrastructure poverty and illiteracy faces economic problems. Madhubani painting is the only art form which helps them in their survival. It has emerged as a steady source of income for local people so people from every caste and any background have started pursuing it. Now it has become a business to them. Two types of classes have emerged in the Madhubani region. One class is that of art creators or painters. Another class is of middleman who brings order or contract from national and international agencies and distributes works to artists. But in return the artists are minimally paid for their hard labour. Due to very less payment of their works and getting more and more orders to su ce their needs artists have started to produce poor quality of paintings. This is the reason behind impoverished Madhubani Painting in the art market. The authentic artists residing in the rural areas are not able to receive as much recognition as they deserve. Their economic condition is not good. The young generation of educated artists needs good support from both the government and NGOs in order to gain respectable position in the contemporary art scene. They need proper exposure and consistent economy for continuing their artistic journey. The scenario of Madhubani painting and its practitioners can be improved by the combined e ort of Maithil people who are distributed globally. They themselves must start thinking about the growth of their culture and art practices. They should form a group of intellectuals art promoters educators resource generators and volunteers who would work towards the growth of their own rich cultural heritage. Through this way only this art form can achieve the expected prestige. The problem can also be solved by creating a museum that will represent the history and the current scenario of Madhubani painting. Besides playing the role of a convention museum it would also act as a community centre where artists can come and paint freely and demonstrate their skills. The revenues can also be generated by opening the gift shops in the museums where an artist can directly sell their paintings and other traditional art objects. In this way artists will get a proper place for marketing their work. One temporary exhibition gallery in the museum can also be utilised for exhibiting the work of particular artist chosen by the evaluating committee. The research and educational team of the museum can focus upon collecting archiving and documenting the available information whether tangible or intangible art forms. In this way the proposed museum on Madhubani painting with combined e orts of Maithil community and regional and national governing bodies can help in up-bringing the lost art form of Madhubani. Government can also plan small information kiosks in the di erent cities of India where tourists can obtain authentic information on Madhubani painting and culture of Mithila. Thus implementation of the idea of a community museum can bring an overall growth for Mithila community and their art form of Madhubani which is losing its sheen. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 57 References Jain J. (1997) Ganga Devi Tradition and Expression in Mithila Painting Mapin Publishing Ahemadabad. Nigam M. L. (1996) Fundamentals of Museology Navahind Prakashan Hyderabad. Peter D. (1999) Ecomuseums A Sense of Place Leicester University Press London and New York. Thakur Upendra (1981) Madhubani Painting Abhinav Publications New Delhi. About the Author dashruti gmail.com Shruti Das is an avid artist of Madhubani painting. Born in a family of Madhubani painters she initiated into this art form at a very young age. Professionally she is working as an assistant curator at Sanskriti Museums New Delhi. She did her masters in Museology from National Museum Institute New Delhi. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 58 Worship of Yoginis J. Chandrasekaran Occult Practices of India unknown sites of historical importance made me ask the car driver to take me to Chaunsat Yoginis (Sixty Four Yoginis) Mandir WWWwhat Where is that was the perplexed reply. I calmly said that it should be somewhere opposite Douli the Buddhist site backing on my research work. I happened to go to Bhubaneshwar and from there to Puri. A small research on He objected strongly by saying that from childhood he had frequented the route innumerable times but had never heard of any temple of such name or importance. Persistence paid and looking carefully all the sign boards beside the Puri Bhubaneshwar highway when we approached Douli a sudden sight of a small board mentioning the numerical 64 made me shout Eureka . Sudden and abrupt turns in a narrow single lane made us wonder if we are on right track but enthusiastic villagers helped us reach the right spot a beautifully maintained temple by the Archeological Society of India (ASI) at Hirapur is dated to the 7th century CE. More than that as luck could have it we met an aged senior man who was the curator of the site. He fortunately knew all the intricate details of the temple and the names of the Yoginis. The legends referred by the villagers mentioned that this temple was built by Hira Rani whose ancestral details or dates are not known. The temple is di erent in architecture with other Hindu temples. From a distance one can watch a simple circular enclosure made of stone with no roof ( g. 36). The sunlight is the only source of light to see sculptures and other structural patterns inside the temple. It is not a 36. Chausath Yogini Temple Hirapur Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 59 typical Indian style of temple and not the one which people frequently visit too. The reason - the strong belief (and also a fact) that the strange headed Yoginis with beautiful sculpted bodies of women are powers centres of tantrik e ects (black magic). But now these practices have been discarded by the followers to avoid legal action against animal sacri ces might have been the reason of this cult and the Yoginis becoming obscure. This eerie e ect of the temple and the Yoginis makes one curious to step in and concentrate on each of them. Even though historians have neglected deeper study on this cult which was very much at a high between 9th and 13th century Manuscripts and Palm Leaves carrying details on this cult has been studied by very few notable researchers which establishes that this Yogini cult prevailed from ancient times. Sources like Brahmanda Purana (which has Lalita Sahasranamam or the Thousand Names of Lalita within itself) Jnanarnava Tantra and the Kaula Tantras claims that those initiated by a Tantrik Guru can only read on the Yoginis but Sri Mattotara Tantra a book published in 1609 CE based on an earlier script called the Goraksa Samhita (available in the Nepal National Archives) explains the Secrets of the Yoginis . The main dialogues between Shiva and Goddess Kubjika (or Kundalini - the divine energy that lies dormant coiled in the abdomen enlightens when it reaches the peak of the inner Chakra on meditation) explains the compendium of Chakras in which four detailed Chakras are circles of 64 Yoginis wherein the goddess of each Chakra with di erent heads and descriptions gives di erent powers they possess to the follower. It is believed that scanty visible followers of these Yoginis are still seen in northeast region of India and in Nepal. The acquisition of various occult powers and the rituals to be followed for the acquisition makes one more powerful against all evils and odds. The Saktas (believers of Shakthi and her power) were the ones who religiously followed the 64 Yogini worship to attain super natural powers with liberal sacri ces of living beings to satiate their deity. As we entered inside the temple we saw open circular structure and a square platform just opposite to the entrance of the main sanctum which might have used as the slaughter platform for sacri ces. Praying to the goddesses seeking pardon we dared to stand on the very same platform for taking an aerial shot of the round hypaethral temple. The doorstep was just ve foot tall and we have to pass through the one metre thick wall entrance to have a glimpse of the goddesses lined up into the periphery of the inner wall. The doors have dwarapalakas (door keepers) with frightening looks. Hearing from the curator as well as referring books later we could understand that the names of the Yoginis arranged in circular fashion clockwise are 1. Jaya 2. Vijaya 3. Jayanthi 4. Aparajitha 5. DivyaYogini 6. MahaYogini 7. Siddha Yogini 8. Ganeshwara Yogini 9. Predasini 10. Dakini 11. Kamala 12. Kaalaratri 13. Nisasari 14. Dankarini 15. Roudri 16. Hoomkarini 17. Urdvakesini 18. Virupakshi 19. Suklangi 20. Narabhojini 21. Patkari 22. Virabadra 23. Doomangi 24. Kalakapriya 25. Korarakthakshi 26. Viswarupa 27. Abhayankari 28. Virakowmari 29. Chandika 30. Varahi 31. Mundadarini 32. Rakshasi 33. Bhairavi 34. Dwangshini 35. Doomrangi 36. Predavahini 37. Katwangi 38. Dirgalamboshti 39. Maalini 40. Matthayogini 41. Kalini 42. Chakrini 43. Kangali 44. Bhuvaneswari 45. Chataki 46. Mahamari 47. Yamaduthi 48. Karalini 49. Kesini 50. Marthini 51. Romajanga 52. Nivarini 53. Visalini 54. Kaarmuki 55. Loli 56. Adomuki 57. Mundakradarini 58. Vyakrini 59. Kangkshini 60. Predarupini 61. Durjati 62. Kori 63. Karali 64. Vishalambini. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 60 37. Chausath Yogini Temple Hirapur Sculptures of Yoginis Trying to concentrate on the Yoginis one may feel the vibration still alive in the sanctum sanctorum ( g. 37). Out of trance you would realise that you have spent more time to see and understand the Yoginis and slowly walk out to see the outer perimeter where the gures of nine Katyayanis . The Katyayanis are not intricately carved but have human heads and are accompanied by a dog and a jackal as their vahanas. Further research on the Yoginis revealed a lot of interesting insight into this sect of Hindu cult. Yantra Tantra Mantra are the three basic forms of worshipping goddess Shakthi. Her yantra is Sri Chakra. Her mantra is Srividya. Her tantras are Kaula Samaya and Mishra. If the powers of the Shakthi you worship are drawn in speci c pattern of lines it is the yantra. It saves the Devi Upasaka from all evils. The Yantra drawn on copper plate using de nite patterns of lines is called as Bowma Prastara. If the Chakra is drawn using lines as well as angles in three dimensional e ects it is Meru Prastara Yantra. The barriers seen in Meru Prastara Yantra are called Sri Nagara. These barriers do the function of creating a Maya or make things invisible. Shakthi is full of energy and light. The better the Jeevatma the better are the revelation of the Shakthi and the barriers give way to more insight of the Supreme light. Unless parts are hidden the Jeevatma cannot enjoy the bliss of the Supreme Shakthi. These barriers to lead us or ban us from reaching the Supreme Light or Power Shakthi are these Yoginis. So the foremost and rst worship to Sri Chakra or Goddess Shakthi is the worship of these barriers in form of gurines the Yoginis - the Yogini Pooja 8 Yoginis in each layer and 8 layers thus forming the formal 64 Yoginis. It is learnt form scholars who have done exhaustive research in this Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 61 cult that the learned saint poet Baskara Raya Mahi could spell out in one go 64 crores Yoginis their names their function and their nature in a single discourse. So the more we go deeper the more we understand the in nite theory comes to fore explaining the Shakthi or power. This reveals that 64 is just the basic number and ner details dividing them into 10 00 000 more sub power centres are indeed a subject good enough to study our life time. The story does not end there. It is understood that when Poet Mahi spelled out these names he also warned the writer to write all details only if possible otherwise he may break his hand away tired of writing. Down South many Siddars have also experimented and researched on Yogini worship. Valai Varahi and Saptha Matrika worship (these two would again make me go for another good story...) are the later e ects or continuation of Yogini worship. Thirumoolar the great Saint also has taught how to read the inner face called Misra how to establish the physical form of Yantra and how to worship these forms methodically and how to worship the Chakras. Moving back from this learning back to the site of the temple we could also see a sixteen-handed Kali or Durga relief icon unfortunately covered with vermillion and shiny cheap silks ( g. 38) which deprived us from the intricate carving. Fact is that the temple was once in prominence but stopping of slaughter and more mellowed and convincing methods of worshipping these gods and goddesses propagated by Saints like Sankara and Ramanuja brought down curtains on this cult and its practices. 38. Chausath Yogini Temple Hirapur Kali or Durga relief About the Author reach.foundation.india gmail.com J. Chandrasekaran is secretary and Public Relation Officer at the Reach Foundation. He is also holding the position of Innovator structural and chemical conservationist and National Consultant for UNIDO in plastics. His articles are published in a number of magazines and journals. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 62 Museum Role of Ancestral Goa Museum Nalini Naik Introduction in Presenting Goan History and Culture Goa has a rich history and heritage. The place has been inhabited by the Portuguese for almost 450 years. The culture of Goa is a major amalgamation of all the foreign in uences mixed with local Konkani culture. The museums of Goa are meant to exhibit the Portuguese and the British ways of living and artefacts. There are a few museums that exhibit times even before the Portuguese came to Goa. Goa museums are best suited for people who like to study the culture and background of a place. It is with the help of museums that one can understand the origin and development of a certain place as they have a lot of historic value. In the Pre-liberation period there was not much information about conservation of ancient monuments as well as archaeological remains that belonged to Portuguese period. In the late 19th century Viceroy Gallery Arch-bishop gallery and Institute Vasco da Gama gallery existed during Portuguese rule. Age-old tradition and hobby of collecting ancient artefacts antiquities and art objects were the main attractions of the people in Goa. In 1962-63 Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) established a museum at Old Goa and later took steps to create awareness among common people about conservation and preservation of ancient heritage and monuments (Bhave 2010 15 23). Ancestral Goa Museum The Ancestral Goa museum is popularly known as Big Foot because of the giant foot shaped dance oor that has been designed to hold dances weddings and other programs. The toes are big enough to accommodate musical bands etc. and are a centre for the preservation of tradition art culture architecture environment and the Goan socio-cultural development. The whole tour of this museum takes around 45 to 60 minutes. It is a village depicting lifestyle of Goan rural culture around the early 20th century. This is an open air museum cum parkland spread over nine acres illustrating the culture and tradition of rural Goa years ago in the form of life size statues and Structures. It is privately run by an artist namely Maendra Jocelino Araujo Alvares. In this mock village one can walk on paths meandering around life-size huts and statues that showcase traditional vocations like Goan artisans shermen farmers liquor shops feni distillery music school and the village market a spice plantation and a herbal garden too. It is a unique tourist venture approved and certi ed by the Government of India Tourism o ce as The Most Unique and Innovative Tourism Spot . Location Ancestral Goa is picturesquely situated on the slope of a lush green hill in the Idyllic village at Loutolim in south Goa. Panaji Goa s capital city is 29 km away from the museum. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 64 Objectives of the Museum It has always been the striving and determination of Mr Maendra Jocelino Araujo Alvares who is the single individual responsible for Ancestral Goa and the Big Foot trust in Loutolim to carve a niche for hinterland tourism of a di erent sort in this state. Therefore he attempted in various ways to bring back the long forgotten aspects of cultural mores and revive the traditions in ways that were interesting and invigorating. For this various games festive values the age-old aspects of the Carnival were focussed. The Sao Joao festival was made colourful and exotic. It gained the premises of museum with a lot of interest and involvement from the Goans themselves. Concept behind the Museum The project The Big Foot commenced in the year 1995 when a sculpture the longest one carved in India entered the Limca Book of Records . The project under various names also had the formation of the Big Foot Trust which handled all the Artistic and Cultural aspects. Today this project is alike any other multi-national company di ering in one major aspect only in that it is the brain-child of a single individual Maendra J.A. Alvares an Artist and Sculptor himself who actually single-handedly carved the Longest Laterite Sculpture for India that of Sant Mirabai today entitled as Natural Harmony . Today hundreds of tourists (national and international) visit the place. Besides artists students teachers nature lovers environmentalists and others frequently visit the site. Ancestral Goa is exactly what its name implies - an inheritance of the richest most incredible treasure of traditions and culture that though existent in Goan society have been obscured by modernity. It is in its whole a true witness of the times past and a cause and e ect of our present. Ancestral Goa therefore attempts to re-enlighten our consciousness about the past. Its meandering path along the hillside is a walk taken back into the past a page turned upon the history of the state of Goa around a hundred years ago. Building Construction Materials and Techniques Used The designer a few dedicated art lovers some senior local artisans and local unskilled labourers using traditional tools and methods have contributed in the creation of this innovative and unique project. Mainly local and eco-friendly materials have been used in the projectviz. palm leaves and palm rafters for the shermen s hut mud and laterite undressed stones for the farmer s dwelling terracotta oor tiles and Mangalore roof tiles for the landlady s house bamboo mats baskets and cow dung ooring in relevant places. Architecture evolution of Goan dwellings is prominently displayed. No high technology and heavy duty machinery have been used. It was created using mainly locally available resources inexpensive material and equipment. This museum was opened to the public in October 1995 with the introduction of a light and sound show and a cultural program once a week. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 65 Collection The museum is made of various aspects that celebrate the Goan way of life. The museum has many sections with the reception in the beginning followed by the statue of Parshuram the legendary lord. The museum also has sherman (Victorin) and his hut ( g. 39). The owner of the museum has depicted the lives of Goan people and their way of living. He has given identity to all of them such as sherman is named as Victorin carpenter as Inas potter as Nandu and so on. After sherman s hut one can see the Bhatti (distillery) where Goa s famous Feni and Urak are distilled ( g. 40). 39. Ancestral Goa Museum Fisherman (Victorin) in a Hut 40. Ancestral Goa Museum Distillery (brewing nectar) Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 66 Apart from sherman and his hut the potter (Nandu) is shown in his hut with potter s wheel and pots the carpenter (Inas) with his tools and the shepherd (Krish) sitting. Various other occupations of local people are depicted like the ower-seller (fulkare) Basket weaver Coconut husker Bangle seller (zovointo) Gram seller the Cobbler etc. Tinto a market place where fresh food products are sold is shown separately. A typical Goan house (Anand s house) is depicted showing all its major aspects such as kitchen tulsi area and place of religious performances. Music school of a Goan (Maestre Cloude) and Posro (the general stores or a shop) where grocery and other goods are sold are also created Taverna (the country liquor shop) is made of stone and mud. A Goan farmer with his tools and family is shown too. It was interesting to notice that although the museum has shown tavern (the country liquor shop) and tabacaria (tobacco house) ( g. 41) as one of their section it has maintained the rule which says Smoking drinking is not allowed in the museum premises . 41. Ancestral Goa Museum Display technique at Tobacco House The important section of the museum is the legend of the Big Foot. People 42. Ancestral Goa Museum Sant Mirabai s sculpture from various parts of India come to visit this. Here it is said that anyone stepping on it pure at heart will museum this be blessed with good luck . India s Longest Laterite Sculpture is another popular section of the is Sant Mirabai s sculpture ( g. 42) measuring 14 m by 5 m was done by Maendra Jocelino Araujo Alvares in just 30 days. Also there is a Fruit and Spice garden in the open area. Other Features Apart from preserving the Goan cultural lifestyle the museum also participates in preservation of environment friendly life. A Bird s park Verdant patio - a green and sunny area lled with plants spices herbs fruit and ower bearing trees and bushes entitled the Green Corner a Cactus Garden a Rubber Plantation where rubber is tapped and processed artisans habitat and various handicraft and local artefacts outlets are present at The Big Foot Art Gallery where many artistic and photo exhibits are on display. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 67 Display Techniques Ancestral Goa Museum is an open-air museum. It is a mock Goan village and has life-size statues huts and other cultural anthropological antiquity of the past. The display technique adopted at this museum is like a puzzle. It is not in a linear fashion. It winds through the dioramas as if one is taking a walk through a village. It starts with the welcome entryway where a life size statue of a warrior is on display. Life-size huts are built at the museum to showcase the cultural life of Goan people. Fisherman s hut is shown with a statue of sherman and sherwoman depicting their day-to-day activities with their boats shing nets and other tools. Palm leaves and palm rafters are used to build the hut. Labels are attached to the hut giving basic details about sherman in Goa. Labels are both in English as well as in Hindi. Life styles of potter shepherd cobbler basket weaver bangle seller gram seller and carpenter are also depicted with the basic details about their lives. At each section section labels are hanged. All the huts and other antiquities are displayed in the same pattern. The houses of these various communities are constructed in a realistic manner. Care has been taken to depict these houses with their true ethos. For example mud laterite undressed stones for the farmer s dwelling terracotta oor tiles and Mangalore roof tiles for the landlady s house etc. Bamboo mats baskets and cow dung ooring are used only at relevant places. Architectural evolution of Goan dwellings is prominently displayed. Museum Facilities The museum is open for 365 days from 9.30 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. The entry fee is Rs. 50 - for adults and Rs. 25 - for children between 3 to 10 years of age. Trained guides take the visitors on the nature trek the museum describing and explaining the various features. Guide services are available in English Hindi Konkani Marathi and Portuguese. There is a Goan restaurant in the museum premises which serves snacks and lunch. Facilities of drinking water for the visitors are also available in the museum. Washrooms for both men and women are available. Public conveniences such as car parking with security a special reception area telephone plant nursery taxi service on request garbage disposal bins etc. are all provided e ciently. On request special cultural evenings with music dances and dinner are also organised for group visitors. Museum Activities and Outreach Programmes The museum generally organises many programmes and activities for youngsters and children. The project Ancestral Goa has always been associated with ventures that are related to the development of the children the protection of their civic rights and the development of the child s cognisance of its environment heritage and culture. Towards this end the project began the a liated Big Foot Trust a charitable organization to look after the needs of underprivileged and nancially deprived youngsters. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 68 The Nature Workshop The trust holds annual workshops during the summer vacations for children of schools all over Goa. These workshops pursue activities that develop children s inherent talent in art craft drawing and painting. All the activities are related to the protection of nature and to develop in the child a need to enhance the surroundings. Therefore there is always the use of natural material earth colours and vegetable dyes. The Bal Mela An exclusive program for the interaction of underprivileged children with those children of a more secure nancial background is held in the month of November annually. This is an event where there are children from nearby orphanages slums and the very low income brackets intermingling with children from public schools and private institutions for an entire day lled with activities ranging from games competitions in art craft singing dancing etc. Gearing for the Garbage Disposal Students from the school of the Saviour of the World Loutolim and other social clubs are involved with this project which is co-hosted by the Big Foot Trust . A large gathering of locals and visitors generally assembles to witness the demonstrations of instructions on the Separation of Garbage the use of the disposal units and the reduction of the use of non-recyclable material. With the use of skits and songs the youngsters demonstrate to the locals and the visitors the dangers and the rising amounts of garbage and urge to keep Goa beautiful. Water Harvesting As part of the Go Green campaign water harvesting which is practised at Ancestral Goa is explained to the visitors emphasising on its importance. Environment Day From a small seed grows a big tree is the maxim that functions the annual events on World Environment Day which is celebrated on 5th June every year. School students are requested to participate in this event and as incentives given a sapling explained its uses and entrusted with its care until the following year. The students also identify di erent trees growing in their neighbourhood that have medicinal value. Apart from the activities and programmes carried for environment the museum also celebrates traditional festivals of Goa and involves village people. Conservation Methods No conservation methods are followed at the museum. It is an open-air museum. In case of insects a few cocks and hens are left around so that they can eat the insects. As far as termites are concerned furniture or wooden materials are polished periodically. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 69 Conclusion This museum is di erent from other museums in India. Ancestral Goa Museum is owned and privately run by Christian Goan. Being a private organisation the trust of this museum serves the visitor to a great extent. The museum is not just repository of the objects it has inherited the culture of Goan people in the past. The collection in the museum is privately collected by the owner or some by gift and purchase. After long years of struggle and e orts the owners could acquire these artefacts. All these museums have a very good and antique collection which signi es Goan culture and its people. Ancestral Goa Museum is a mock village. At every step one will nd life-size statues of ancient Goan communities like sherman sherwoman cobbler etc. It takes one to the ancient period in Goa. Dioramas and e gies of people of di erent occupations such as sherman with his canoe (boat) and shing net and many others are on display at the museum. These e gies of Goan men and women are dressed in traditional Goan attire. All these e gies of di erent people are personi ed by assigning proper names to them. It adds a personal and emotional touch to the entire display creating a sense of identity among the visitors. On visiting this museum one de nitely gets to see a clear picture of traditional Goa and Goans. The displayed objects are not only informative for a layman but also for research scholars and students who can gain plenty of information. Although much attention is given to the accession of collection display methods lighting arrangements colour labels visitors movement and other facilities not much attention is paid to the conservation and preservation aspects of the museum. Overall the museum has carefully maintained the avour of Goan culture and are exerting to the best of their capacities to enhance the same. This study is an attempt to collate information for the students of Museology and also for those interested in Goan history and culture. This research was carried out to highlight the unique characteristics of the Ancestral Goa Museum and it intends to serve as a model in the study of museums and their functions. References Bhatnagar Anupama (1999) Museum Museology and New Museology Sundeep Prakashan New Delhi. Bhave Radha (2010) Swatantrottar Kalatil Purattar Savvardhan (in Marathi) Daily Goa Dhut. Choudhary R.D. (1998) Museums of India and their Maladies Agam Kala Prakashan Delhi. Doshi Surya (1983) Goa Cultural Patterns Marg Publications Goa. Gune V.T. (1979) Union territory of Goa Daman and Diu District Gazetteer Government of Goa Panaji. Kamat Pratima (1999) Farar Far - Local Resistance to Colonial Hegemony in Goa (1510-1912) Institute Menezes Braganza Goa. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 70 Phaldesai Pandurang (2004) Kaleidscopic A Cultural Atlas Vasantrao Dempo Education and Research Foundation Goa. About the Author scindia11 yahoo.in Nalini Naik is pursuing a diploma in Museology and Conservation at Chhtrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya Mumbai University. She has completed her masters in Archaeology from the Deccan College of Post-Graduate and Research Institute Pune. Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 71 Past Through the Lenses Sun Temple Konarka Konarka is the most famous. It is also popularly known as black pagoda. This peculiar temple dedicated to god Surya was made in the form of a colossal chariot. It is shown drawn on twenty-four exquisite wheels by seven richly-carved horses. The entire structure is beautifully embellished with sculptures of deities musicians apsaras birds animals mythological gures and carvings of oral patterns geometrical motifs etc. The other shrines surrounding the main temple are Mahadevi and Vaishnava temples. The temple was declared as UNESCO World Heritage Site in the year 1984. Orissa has a large number of temples among which the 13th century Sun temple situated in Temple no. 1 Main shrine Temple no. 1 Bhoga mandapa Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 72 Temple no. 1 Exquisitely carved wheel Temple no. 1 Hiranyakashipu slain by Narasimha avatar of Vishnu Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 73 Conferences and Workshops Workshop on World Heritage Organisers INTACH Centre for Conservation Training and Capacity Building Date(s) 16th-20th April 2013 Venue New Delhi For further information Mr Navin Piplani E-mail ctcb.intach gmail.com Workshop on Heritage Legislation Organisers INTACH Centre for Conservation Training and Capacity Building Date(s) 9th-11th May 2013 Venue New Delhi For further information Mr Navin Piplani E-mail ctcb.intach gmail.com Workshop on Heritage Interpreters Organisers INTACH Centre for Conservation Training and Capacity Building Date(s) 21st-25th May 2013 Venue New Delhi For further information Mr Navin Piplani E-mail ctcb.intach gmail.com Robert Bruce Foote Workshop on Lithic Technology Organisers Sharma Centre for Heritage Education Date(s) 30th May-3rd June 2013 Venue Sholinganallore campus Chennai India For further information Dr Kumar Akhilesh E-mail sharmaheritage gmail.com akhilarchaeo gmail.com International Training Course on Disaster Risk Management of Cultural Heritage Organisers UNESCO World Heritage Centre ICCROM and ICOMOS Application Deadline 20th May 2013 Date(s) 7th-21st September 2013 Venue Kyoto Kobe and Tohoku (Japan) For further information http www.ritsumei-gcoe.jp heritagerisknet.dmuch E-mail dmuchitc st.ritsumei.ac.jp International Conference on Asian Art Culture and Heritage Organisers The Centre for Asian Studies of the University of Kelaniya Venue Colombo Sri Lanka Abstract Submission Deadline 10th May 2013 For further information Anura Manatunga E-mail iaahlanka yahoo.com Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 74 Contribute Become a Volunteer Take a pledge with us to conserve and preserve our cultural heritage. Come forward to spread awareness among the people about the riches of the past. Do something for your nation. Become a volunteer and we to- gether would form a dynamic group of heritage conservators. heritage.conservators gmail.com You may write us at Be a Contributor You can contribute research papers articles write-ups reports book- reviews photos etc. for the third issue of Heritage and Us which would be released in March 2013. The deadline for the forthcoming issue is 30th April 2013 but we would appreciate early submissions. Your contributions may include any of these aspects of cultural heritage History Archaeology Anthropology Conservation Epigraphy Excavation Museums and Art Galleries Numismatics Reports on antiquities or art pieces and many more... For more information please log on to or write us at http heritageconservators.net e-magazine heritageandus gmail.com Heritage and Us - Year 2 Issue 1 Mar Apr 2013 Heritage Conservators 75 Heritage Conservators 2012