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Description: It launched in 1965 is regarded as an authoritative source of information not only in the Indian subcontinent and Asia, but the world over.

The world is complex. Your decisions don t have to be. Precision strike Delivering precision effects within the battlespace while avoiding collateral damage Cyber defence Active defence of cyberspace Situational awareness Increased operational tempo through shared intelligence across own coalition and friendly forces Threat detection Early detection prioritisation and faster reaction to threats Networked communications Enabling the rapid escalation of decision making in the heat of the battle Mission optimisation Reducing crew workload during complex tasks to shorten reaction time Power projection Providing logistical solutions for the deployment and direction of forces Decisions about defence are increasingly complex. At Thales we serve all branches of the armed forces for air land naval space and joint operations as well as the new threat environments of urban security and cyberspace. Our interoperable scalable solutions and services provide operational mission support where time and reliability are critical. By placing what we call the Critical Decision Chain at the heart of our equipment and solutions we enable decision makers to master complexity in critical scenarios and make timely decisions to deliver the best outcomes. To find out more about our Defence solutions scan the QR code or visit TRUSTED PARTNER MODERNISATION. Raytheon s global industrial partnerships help protect lives and infrastructure. From defence and global ISR to air traffic management and civil security we continue to work with our partners to modernise critical systems and promote economic growth. Nowhere is the power of this collaboration more evident than in India where we ve supported our customers efforts to build a safer stronger nation for over 60 years. INNOVATION. COLLABORATION. INNOVATION IN ALL DOMAINS Keyword India-Mod Follow us on 2012 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved. Customer Success Is Our Mission is a registered trademark of Raytheon Company. READY FOR TRAINING PILATUS - TAILORED SOLUTIONS FOR BASIC TRAINING Pilatus Aircraft Ltd P .O. Box 992 6371 Stans Switzerland Phone 41 41 619 61 11 Fax 41 41 610 92 30 info TM 41 2013 ST iSSue Minister of Defence inDia Message am pleased to learn that SP Guide Publications is bringing out the SP s Military Yearbook 2013. The security scenario around us today requires constant vigilance and drawing up quick and strong responses. Our Armed Forces are fully capable of successfully meeting all challenges. It is our endeavour to help our Armed Forces in the endeavour to be counted among one of the best in the world. I hope that the SP s Military Yearbook will provide valuable inputs to our Armed Forces and the defence industry. I wish the publication the very best in its endeavours. With best wishes A.K. Antony SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 5 100% Maritime awareness. We deliver on promises. For effective maritime surveillance you need a system you can depend on. We are committed to delivering reliability and ensuring your system is back up and operating fast. Our ATOS surveillance mission system integrates multiple EO AESA and acoustic sensors with a modular mission suite to give a complete overview and understanding of the picture. Already installed on nine different fixed and rotary wing platforms ATOS delivers outstanding reliability and data quality meeting the most challenging requirements for maritime security search and rescue border control and anti-submarine warfare. When true data matters most. We build your strength from within. 6 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue TM 41 2013 ST iSSue Jayant baranwal Editor-in-Chief Copyright 2012 by SP Guide Publications Allrightsreserved.Theinformationpublishedhereinisforthe personaluseofthereaderandmaynotbeincorporatedinany commercialactivity.Makingcopiesinanyform electronicor otherwise oftheinformationinfulloranyportionthereoffor purposes other than own use is a violation of copyright law. Foradditionalinformationrelatingtocopyright pleasecontact The Editor-in-Chief SP s Military Yearbook A-133 Arjun Nagar Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi - 110 003 India. Email editor The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequentialdamagesinconnectionwith orarisingoutof thefurnishingoruseoftheinformation associatedinstructions claims of productivity gains. Founded by Shri SUKHDEO PRASAD BARANWAL in 1965 Published by Jayant Baranwal SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD New Delhi India Designed by SP Guide Publications Team ISSN 0076-8782 Registered with RNI No. (P.) F.2 (S 11) Press 93 Processed and Printed in India by Pragati Offset Hyderabad Price Inland Rs. 7 495 Foreign (Surface Mail) 415.00 US 735.00 Corporate office A-133 Arjun Nagar Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi 110003 India. Tel 91 (11) 24644693 24644763 24620130 24658322 Fax 91 (11) 24647093 e-Mail info order guidepub Website protection assured lock on to MBDA solutions MISTRAL MANPADS by MBDA www.mbdaCCH J.-B. Tabone m 10 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue There when you need it most To excel in combat you need the most dependable flexible and powerful weapon systems. Saab s cutting-edge range of ground combat weaponry gives you the strength to defeat any target. Robust and reliable the Carl-Gustaf NLAW and AT4 allow soliders to operate effectively in some of the world s harshest dismounted combat situations. Their outstanding accuracy and versatility allows you to respond to any threat in any environment. Choosing the right weapons can mean the difference between mission success and mission failure. Make the right decision. NLAW Single-shot MBT killer Highly mobile Fire-and-forget AT4 Anti-armour anti-structure High kill probability Confined space capability CARL-GUSTAF Unique multi-purpose weapon Easily reloadable Unbeatable flexibility FFV ORDNANCE TURN YOUR ARTILLERY INTO PINPOINT WEAPONS singulier et associ s - Photo Getty Images - Flickr Sagem Artillery Solutions Sagem gives your artillery systems the latest sensor to shooter capabilities from optronic target designation to fire control and inertial navigation systems. Our solutions turn your artillery into precision weapons combining high efficiency quick operation and ease of use. More than twenty armies have already opted for these solutions as either original equipment or upgrades. When you choose Sagem s specialized solutions you maximize your firepower. A CENTURY OF SPECIALIZATION With a century of special mission experience Bombardier knows and understands your needs. We recognize the situations and the challenges you face and we understand the solutions you require. Because chances are we ve been there before. We are the third largest civil aircraft manufacturer in the world. That s why you should choose Bombardier because we have a lifetime of knowledge that helps us understand every need and ensures every mission is a success. Bombardier Specialized Aircraft. Experience you can count on. For more information Bombardier and Bombardier aircraft model names are trademarks of Bombardier Inc. or its subsidiaries. 2011 Bombardier Inc. All rights reserved. 18 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue DETECT. DECIDE. ENGAGE. THE INDIAN NAVAL FORCES are facing a complex demanding and growing challenge. With 7500 km of coastline and strategic interests continuous surveillance is difficult but necessary. An open architecture makes 9LV a platform for India to stay independent. It s custom built in partnership with Indian firms and seamlessly integrates systems and weapons from different sources. To be better prepared for the unexpected. That s why we strive to anticipate tomorrow. The Saab 9LV Combat Management System meets all the requirements of the Indian Navy. Outstanding performance presenting a clear and comprehensive overview yet with all the details at your fingertips. The Saab 9LV integrates the ship s sensor system weapons systems and data links. WINGS THAT RULE THE SKIES WINGS THAT RULE THE SKIES Visit email marketing 20 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue Total solutions. It s in our DNA. Our world-leading solutions meet your most demanding requirements in space in the air on land and at sea. We aspire to redefine adaptability performance and reliability for today and tomorrow to fulfill our dream of a safer and secure world. Israel Aerospace Industries E-mail corpmkg 22 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 23 IRKUT CORPORATION ONLY THE BEST 68 LENINGRADSKY PROSPECT MOSCOW 125315 RUSSIA PHONE FAX ( 7 495) 7772101 EMAIL INBOX IRKUT.COM WWW.IRKUT.COM PRODUCT RANGE TATA MOTORS DEFENCE SOLUTIONS THE COMPLETE RANGE FOR ANY MISSION Tata Motors Limited Geetanil 6th Floor 13-19 Nagindas Master Road Hutatma Chowk Mumbai 400 001. For further information call 91-22 6656 1600 Fax 91-22 6656 1715 E-mail defencesolutions or visit www.defencesolutions 26 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 27 readers Comments.... The Guide Publications of New Delhi have brought out the Military Yearbook. It is useful to have suitably compiled information in one volume. I commend the efforts of the Publishers. good and contents useful. Field Marshal S.H.F.J. Manekshaw Former Chief of the Army Staff Indian Army Military Yearbook is indeed a very interesting and useful document and would be of considerable assistance to all the Services personnel whose profession is the science of war. Thank you very much for sending me a copy of the SP s Military Yearbook 2011-12. The Yearbook is interesting and has been placed in a prominent place in my office. May I request you to please send me one more copy. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Former Prime Minister of India It (Military Yearbook) is a valuable book. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Former President of India It was good of you to send me a complimentary copy of Military Yearbook (1970).....I have gone through.....and found its general get up Lt General Sanjeev Madhok Additional Director General Public Information Indian Army (as on September 27 2011) Admiral O.S. Dawson Former Chief of the Naval Staff Indian Navy My sincere thanks for sending copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2011-12. The book has been compiled most professionally. The content and presentation is excellent. It definitely provides valuable input to everyone who has interest in military affairs. The publication will find its due place in Army Aviation library. My greetings for an excellent yearbook. Thank you very much for your thoughtful gesture of sending me a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2011-12 which is so well complied. The informative SP s Military Yearbook is being placed in the Army Air Defence Directorate Library and would surely benefit all. Please accept my compliments and do convey the same to the complete publishing team for their imaginative endeavour. Major General P.K. Bharali Additional Director General Army Aviation Indian Army (as on October 14 2011) Lt General A.C. Soneja Director General Operational Logistics & Strategic Movement Indian Army (as on October 10 2011) Lt General Kuldip Singh Director General Army Air Defence Indian Army (as on September 28 2011) Thank you very much for sending me the complimentary copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2011-12. Lt General Vinod Nayanar Director General & Colonel Commandant Regiment of Artillery Indian Army (as on September 28 2011) Thank you for sending me a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2011-12. The Yearbook has been researched well and the contents and data incorporated are most appropriate and informative. It is an updated and most concise volume of data bank facts and figures and of immense use to MGO Branch. My compliments to you and your team for an excellent effort. Thank you so very much for sending a copy of the SP s Military Yearbook 2011-12. The contents are very well compiled and informative. My compliments to your team involved in this valuable compilation. Air Marshal J. Chandra Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Maintenance Command Indian Air Force (as on October 05 2011) Lt General Rajinder Singh Master General of Ordnance Indian Army (as on September 26 2011) I acknowledge the copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2011-12 and thank you for the same.......immense source of information with insights into contemporary forces in the region. SP s Military Yearbook 2011-12 has been well compiled with an in depth analysis on various issues concerning the Indian Defence establishment. The part on Regional Balance in right perspective has brought forth the geo-political economic and military equation of various regions and important countries in particular in a very lucid manner. The Equipment and Hardware Specification part is surely a ready reckoner for any military man with insight into the equipment weapons profile of the land air and sea components. Please accept my compliments for shaping out a well compiled SP s Military Yearbook in the 40th issue. I take this opportunity to thank you on behalf of Lt General S.K. Singh the Army Commandar for forwarding a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2011-12 a very well compiled Flagship Publication which actually speaks for itself and covers a vast array of subjects on the matters military. The photographs are breathtaking and very appropriately arranged. Our compliments to you and your dedicated team of editors for a job well done. The Yearbook will find a pride of place in our library. Air Vice Marshal P.N. Pradhan Assistant Chief of Air Staff Operations (T&H) Indian Air Force (as on October 07 2011) I thank you for forwarding a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2011-12 to me. Please accept my compliments on its excellent presentation quality and the information contained therein. I am sure it will lead to a great reading experience. Lt General N.S. Bawa LGGS Indian Army (as on October 10 2011) Air Vice Marshal Sanjay Sharma Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (Signals & IT) Indian Air Force (as on September 26 2011) Lt General V.K. Ahluwalia General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Colonel Commandant Regiment of Artillery Colonel Commandant Army Aviation Indian Army (as on October 19 2011) Thank you very much for sending me a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2011-12. The Yearbook as ususal is very well compiled and the contents are extremely inspiring. Our compliments to the editorial team. Many thanks for sending me a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2011-12. It is indeed a very interesting and informative volume. On behalf of the Indian Coast Guard I convey our appreciation to you and your team for this excellent publication. Thank you very much for sending me a copy of your SP s Military Yearbook 2011-12. It is indeed impressive informative and very well compiled. Lt General Mukesh Sabharwal Adjutant General Indian Army (as on September 27 2011) Vice Admiral Anil Chopra Director General Indian Coast Guard Indian Coast Guard (as on September 29 2011) 28 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue Unique. Ahead of the Art. Iran Afghanistan Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir Udhampur 8 Himachal Pradesh Shimla Punjab Uttarakhand Chandigarh 9 Dehradun 6 Haryana Delhi Rajasthan Jaipur 10 Gandhinagar Gujarat Uttar Pradesh Lucknow ARMY 3 1 23 21 Delhi 2 14 China NAVY AIR FORCE JOINT COMMAND Pakistan Bhutan Nepal 7 Patna Bihar Jharkhand West Bengal 5 Kolkata Sikkim Dispur Shillong 15 Agartala Tripura Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar Nagaland Kohima Manipur Imphal Aizawal Mizoram 16 Allahabad 18 Madhya Pradesh Bhopal Chhattisgarh Raipur Ranchi Myanmar Thailand Bangladesh 20 Nagpur Maharashtra Mumbai 12 Pune Bhubaneswar Odisha 4 Hyderabad 11 Vishakhapatnam ARABIAN SEA Goa Panaji Karnataka Bengaluru Kerala Andhra Pradesh BAY OF BENGAL 17 Chennai An da m an 22 Port Blair & Ni co ba r Kavaratti Lakshadweep 13 Kochi Tamil Nadu Is la nd s Thiruvananthapuram 19 Sri Lanka I N D I A N O C E A N Major indian armed Forces Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Army) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Navy) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (IAF) Pune (HQ Southern Command) Army Kolkata (HQ Eastern Command) Army Chandimandir (HQ Western Command) Army Lucknow (HQ Central Command) Army Udhampur (HQ Northern Command) Army Shimla (HQ Training Command) Army Jaipur (HQ South-Western Command) Army Vishakhapatnam (HQ Eastern Naval Command) Navy Mumbai (HQ Western Naval Command) Navy 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Kochi (HQ Southern Naval Command) Navy New Delhi (HQ Western Air Command) IAF Shillong (HQ Eastern Air Command) IAF Allahabad (HQ Central Air Command) IAF Bengaluru (HQ Training Command) IAF Gandhinagar (HQ South-Western Air Command) IAF Thiruvananthapuram (HQ Southern Air Command) IAF Nagpur (HQ Maintenance Command) IAF New Delhi (HQ Strategic Forces Command) Port Blair (HQ Andaman & Nicobar Command) New Delhi (HQ Integrated Defence Staff) 30 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue Iran Afghanistan Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Shimla Uttarakhand Dehradun China Punjab Chandigarh Haryana Pakistan Rajasthan Jaipur 1 Delhi Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Allahabad Bhutan Nepal Patna Bihar Jharkhand West Bengal Kolkata Sikkim Dispur Shillong Agartala Tripura Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar Nagaland Kohima Manipur Imphal Aizawal Mizoram Gandhinagar Madhya Pradesh Gujarat Ranchi Chhattisgarh Raipur Bhubaneswar Odisha 17 Bhopal 6 22 Myanmar Thailand 20 5 Mumbai Maharashtra Pune Bangladesh 16 18 9 10 Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh 19 8 Vishakhapatnam ARABIAN SEA Goa Panaji 7 Karnataka BAY OF BENGAL An da m an 4 11 2 12 13 3 15 Chennai Bengaluru 14 Port Blair & Ni co ba r Kavaratti Lakshadweep Kerala Tamil Nadu Kochi Is la nd s 21 Thiruvananthapuram Sri Lanka I N D I A N O C E A N DrDo and DPSU Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) New Delhi Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd Bengaluru Bharat Electronics Ltd Bengaluru Bharat Earth Movers Ltd Bengaluru Mazagon Dock Ltd Mumbai Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd Kolkata Goa Shipyard Limited Goa Hindustan Shipyard Limited Visakhapatnam Bharat Dynamics Limited Hyderabad Mishra Dhatu Limited Hyderabad Aeronautical Development Agency Bengaluru 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Indian Space Research Organisation Bengaluru Aeronautical Development Establishment Bengaluru Centre for Airborne Systems Bengaluru Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment Chennai Defence Electronics Research Lab Hyderabad Defence Research and Development Est. Gwalior Defence Research and Development Lab Hyderabad Naval Science & Technological Laboratory Visakhapatnam Integrated Test Range Balasore Odisha Cochin Shipyard Ltd Kochi Kerala Ordnance Factories Board Kolkata SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 31 Contents BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONTENTS REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES A plAne And A pArtnership powered by capability and commitment The C-130J Super Hercules is more than the aircraft that redefines air capability. It is a symbol of commitment and partnership. Configured and equipped to meet India s needs the C-130J is a proven performer that has achieved every development milestone on time and on budget. The C-130J Super Hercules. A platform for long-term partnership. c130 C o l o U r Pa G e S Message from Minister of Defence india readers Comments MaPS Major indian armed Forces Headquarters DrDo and DPSU Headquarters editorial 30 31 45 5 28 WeaPonS eqUiPMent & VeHiCleS authors Profile 114 49-111 Sin t tulo-2 1 03 10 2012 9 38 46 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 33 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Cont e n t s CONTENTS Cont e nt s 1 ConCePtS & PerSPeCtiVeS 1 india in the era of Strategic Uncertainty Lt General (Retd) V.R. Raghavan indo-US Growing Correlation Chintamani Mahapatra turmoil in West asia Ranjit Gupta afghanistan s Future Stability Dr Ashok K. Behuria Winds of Change in Myanmar Ranjit Gupta india-russia Strategic Partnership Kanwal sibal iran-israel Stand-off Brigadier (Retd) Rumel Dahiya 1 1 World class capability TAILORED AEROspAcE DEFENcE AND sEcURITY sOLUTIONs. 2 7 11 3 4 15 5 19 6 23 27 7 REAL TECHNOLOGY.REAL ADVANTAGE. 8 China s Future War Zone 31 Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal China s Military Stratagem Dr Monika Chansoria 35 9 34 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 10 11 Future of aerospace Power Air Chief Marshal (Retd) P.V. naik 43 12 india s Defence Sector reforms 47 General (Retd) V.P. Malik Strategy national & Military Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch Civil-Military relationship M.G. Devasahayam Developments in South east asia Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand 51 13 14 57 INDIAN DEFENCE SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 35 15 61 16 india s incipient Maritime responsibilities 65 Admiral (Retd) sureesh Mehta army aviation Corps Lt General (Retd) B.s. Pawar 69 17 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES india s nuclear Deterrence Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal 39 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Cont e nt s CONTENTS 36 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 2 teCHnoloGy 1 2 3 4 technologies for Future Wars Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch integrated air Defence Systems Lt General V.K. saxena Combat Simulation as a Force-Multiplier Major General R.P. Bhadran Fifth Generation Multi-role aircraft Air Marshal (Retd) A.K. trikha 73 77 81 85 73 Recognizing threats is our instinct 01 41 37 96 70 Empowering your mission is our speciality Your adversary is fierce. But so is your determination. Which is why we created CAESAR a new-generation artillery system that delivers the performance precision and simplicity you need to succeed. With its 6x6 chassis and unique 52-caliber cannon you ll experience unparalleled tactical and strategic mobility. You ll also benefit from enhanced firepower through quicker response longer range and improved accuracy. CAESAR is fully autonomous and easy to operate. It supports all types of motorised mechanised and armoured units including rapid-deployment forces. Whatever the battlefront or conflict level CAESAR is a great partner to have on your side. Photo credits Aspheri D. Benson Masterfile Y. Debay - Nexter Systems Caesar_180x112_SP_uk.indd 1 3 08 11 17 07 07 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 37 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Cont e nt s CONTENTS Cont e n t s 5 nanotechnology application in the navy Rear Admiral (Retd) Dr s. Kulshrestha indigenous High-tech Development smita Purushottam indigenous Missile Programme Lt General (Retd) naresh Chand Unmanned Military Systems Lt General (Retd) naresh Chand amphibious aircraft Commodore (Retd) sujeet samaddar 89 93 97 101 105 3 bUSineSS 1 2 3 4 5 indian army Modernisation Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal indian navy Modernisation Vice Admiral (Retd) Dilip Deshpande indian air Force Modernisation Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Defence offset Policy Major General (Retd) Mrinal suman Defence Procurement Procedure Major General (Retd) Mrinal suman Development of indian Defence industry Major General (Retd) Mrinal suman 7 8 Defence budget 2012-13 Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor india s business environment Brigadier (Retd) Rahul Bhonsle Global Contracts 109 109 113 117 121 127 6 7 8 9 Fischer UltiMate UltiMate Connections for Harsh Environment TM 6 133 137 141 149 4 inDian DeFenCe Headquarters Fischer Connectors SA Saint-Prex - Switzerland Phone 41 21 800 95 95 mail 157 157 165 189 1 integrated Defence Staff Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand 2 the indian army 3 the indian navy 38 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 4 5 6 7 8 the indian air Force indian Coast Guard Who s Who in indian Defence indian Defence industry Defence research & Development 217 243 273 297 1 india s Homeland Security Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor 305 RENK is the world s leading manufacturer of transmissions for military tracked vehicles having the widest range the most modern technology. High sophisticated engineering where all driving steering and braking functions of the vehicle are combined in a single drop-in RENK product. Our strengths Highest technology widest product range over 45 years experience. Proven designs to the most demanding technical standards. In service with more than 20 countries. Mission proved transmissions of extreme performance highest reliability and durability. Anzeige Sps Military Yearbook.indd 1 17.09.12 08 05 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 39 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY HoMelanD SeCUrity CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 253 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Cont e nt s CONTENTS Cont e nt s 2 3 4 internal Security Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Maoist insurgency Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch india s Coastal Surveillance Lt General (Retd) naresh Chand 315 327 331 5 aSian WHo S WHo Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Cambodia People s Republic of China Egypt Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Libya 337 337 337 337 338 338 338 338 338 339 339 339 339 339 340 340 340 340 340 340 Malaysia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen 340 341 341 341 341 342 342 342 342 342 343 343 343 343 344 344 344 344 344 344 337 40 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 6 reGional balanCe 1 2 GDP & Military expenditure Central & South asia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Afghanistan 352 354 355 357 359 361 Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka 363 365 370 372 375 367 345 349 345 FAR REACHING CAPABILITIES ARE NOW CLOSER THAN EVER NOA Nyx Ti for Assault Rifle Meprolight s NOA thermal weapon sights. No thermal night sight goes farther. NOA is the world s only dual-field thermal weapon sight that enables pinpoint target acquisition at distances of over 1 000 meters. Equipped with an FCS assuring automatic ballistic compensation lightweight and low power consumption Meprolight s NOA gives you that own the night advantage. Ti for Sniper Rifle SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 41 REGIONAL BALANCE E-mail info ASIAN WHO S WHO Ti Dual-Field for Sniper Rifle INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS NOA TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Cont e nt s CONTENTS Cont e nt s 3 east asia Pacific rim & australia Australia Cambodia China Indonesia Japan North Korea (DPRK) South Korea (ROK) Laos 4 West asia and north africa Algeria Egypt Libya Bahrain Iran Iraq Israel Jordan 5 420 422 424 426 428 430 432 434 Kuwait Lebanon Sultanate of Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria United Arab Emirates Republic of Yemen 436 438 439 441 443 445 447 449 451 381 383 385 389 392 395 397 399 Malaysia Myanmar (Formerly Burma) Philippines Singapore Taiwan Thailand Vietnam 403 405 407 409 411 414 417 401 377 Security threats in the asia-Pacific region Brigadier (Retd) Rahul Bhonsle equipment & Hardware Specifications Army Equipment Naval Equipment Air Equipment 457 479 495 6 457 42 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue DiaGraMS GraPHS Defence Budget (Comparison) Distribution of Capital Budget Distribution of Revenue Budget Share of Defence Services in Defence Budget 2012-13 Organisation of Integrated Defence Staff The outline structure of the National Defence University Diagrammatic Layout of the Army s Chain of Command Organisation of Indian Army Headquarters Organisation of Indian Navy Headquarters Organisation of Indian Air Force Headquarters Organisation of Indian Coast Guard Headquarters Indian Coast Guard Locations Indian Coast Guard SAR Organisation Summary of the output of the defence industry including Ordnance factories and DPSUs Organisation Chart of the Department of Defence Production (DDP) Organisation structure of OFB External functional linkages (OFB comes under Department Of Defence Production) Performance Summary of DPSUs (up to 2010-11) Values of stores assured by DGQA (in crore) DRDO Ministry of Defence Organisational Structure of Defence Research & Development Organisation Organisation of Ministry of Home Affairs Organisational Command & Control of Central Police Forces 138 139 140 158 160 169 191 220 245 248 274 275 276 276 279 296 298 299 306 314 247 167 139 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 43 REGIONAL BALANCE abbreViationS & inDex 506 ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Cont e nt s CONTENTS Cont e nt s aDVertiSer inDex airbUS Military anSyS aSHok leylanD bae SySteMS bHarat DynaMiCS boMbarDier DaSSaUlt aViation DieHl DeFenCe elettroniCa eMbraer eUroCoPter FFV orDnanCe FinCantieri FinMeCCaniCa FiSCHer ConneCtorS HinDUStan aeronaUtiCS HaWker beeCHCraFt HDW iai irkUt l-3 WeSCaM leUPolD loCkHeeD Martin MaZaGon DoCk MbDa MeProliGHt MiG raC naVantia nexter SySteMS nortHroP GrUMMan oto Melara PilatUS PiPaVaV SHiPyarD Pratt & WHitney ProenGin raFael raytHeon renk roSoboronexPort rUbin Saab SaGeM Selex Galileo SHinMayWa tata MotorS telePHoniCS textron SySteMS tHaleS UniteD teCHnoloGieS promise http c130 isr radar.asp 32 22 23 34 10 17 Back Cover Technology Section Separator Concepts & Perspectives Section Separator Weapons Equipment & Vehicles Section Separator 15 11 36 Front Cover 38 20 Indian Defence Section Separator Book Mark 21 24 Book Mark Asian Who s Who Section Separator Contents Section Separator 188 - Indian Defence Section 9 41 12 33 37 4 35 2 18 216 - Indian Defence Section 27 25 1 39 16 14 19 13 6 29 26 Regional Balance Section Separator Book Mark Facing Inside Front Cover Business Section Separator 44 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue TM 41 S P Guide Publications was founded in 1964 by its Founder Editor and Publisher Shri Sukhdeo Prasad Baranwal who was a visionary. A year later in 1965 SP s Military Yearbook the flagship product of the company was launched. This innovative effort by the founder was singularly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and replicated enthusiastically by the military fraternity. SP Guide Publications has since grown from strength to strength and will be celebrating its Golden Jubilee in 2014. SP s Military Yearbook now offers its readers a wide range of information and knowledge regarding the military and the defence industry in India and strategic analysis of defence and security-related issues in the Asia-Pacific region. It is a comprehensive reference manual an annual barometer of matters concerning conceptual issues in the strategic and operational realm military-related issues and homeland security. Over the last 48 years SP Guide Publications has been at the forefront of publishing defence and security-related journals and is the only publisher offering dedicated journals to the three defence forces in India namely SP s Land Forces SP s Naval Forces and SP s Aviation to the Indian Army the Navy and the Air Force respectively. We have since the past five years also commenced the publication of SP s AirBuz a journal for commercial aviation. We added two years ago the SP s M.A.I. (Military Aerospace and Internal security) to the total list of our publications. It is a fortnightly magazine which covers the latest happenings in the global military-industrial regime. 2013 ST iSSue Editorial SP s Military Yearbook 2011-2012 being presented to Defence Minister A.K. Antony International Security Scenario Developments in the geopolitical and geoeconomic arenas are transforming the international security scenario. New economies are emerging in Asia Africa and Latin America. Global financial slow- SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 45 The cover of Military Yearbook 1965 down and Eurozone crises is transforming global power equations. America s policy-makers are shifting their focus eastwards towards Asia and the global balance of power is assessed to be shifting to Asia. The 21st century is being heralded as an Asian century. Regardless of the outcome of the Eurozone crisis the coming decades will be marked by the continuation of a phenomenon sometimes described as the rise of the rest the ongoing diffusion of wealth and power from west to east and from north to south. This first became evident in the 1970s and 1980s with the emergence of Japan and other Asian Tigers. Since the 1990s it has been replicated in the rapid growth of China India Brazil and other South Asian countries. This has led to an impressive rise of these countries in economic and military terms. Asia is no longer in the lower rung of the global economy. The expansion of G-20 forum and demands for reforms in International Monetary Fund and World Bank reflect this trend. In addition to the ongoing power shift energy is increasingly interlinked with geopolitics as demand and competition for global resources becomes increasingly sharp. The ongoing shift is likely to create both opportunities and challenges in the future and in this era of strategic uncertainty the security choices of all countries will be guided by the above trends and their own strategic priorities. The present transition has been driven by dramatic changes in information and communication technology economic political and strategic factors. The world has witnessed many changes during the past few decades but the recent trends have a long-lasting impact on the global security architecture. The global security concerns range from the rise of China and associated geopolitical developments in East Asia uprising in West Asia global financial downturn and the Eurozone crisis Afghanistan and International terrorism Iran-Israeli stand-off the intractable Palestine issue the quest for energy and space and cyber security. US Strategy Recognising the importance of Asia-Pacific region in the emerging world order the US has decided to focus on the region as part of what they call the pivot towards Asia. As part of a rebalancing with Asia the US plans to enhance military-to-military cooperation with China at the same time boosting the capabilities of its allies in the region. The US Defence Secretary Leon Panetta said America is at a turning point. After a decade of war we are developing the new defence strategy. In particular we will expand our military partnerships and our presence in the arc extending from the Western Pacific and East Asia into the Indian Ocean region (IOR) and South Asia. The US wants to shift the bulk of its naval assets to Asia within the next decade. Under the plan the US would shift cruisers destroyers submarines and other warships so that 60 per cent of these will be based in the Pacific by 2020. Currently the US Navy fleet of 285 ships is evenly split between the Atlantic and the Pacific. Panetta who disclosed the naval plans in an address to an annual international security conference in Singapore stressed that the rising US force levels shouldn t be seen as a threat to China but as a stabilising influence in a rapidly developing region. However the step to globally reposition the US Navy would represent a substantial peacetime military shift that is likely to be seen as a counter to China perceived to be increasingly flexing its economic and territorial muscle in Asia. The new strategic posture has been welcomed by the countries in the region which have been at the receiving end of the muscle flexing by China that claims the entire South China Sea as its exclusive domain. Rise of China Beijing has diligently worked towards attaining comprehensive national power and accruing traditional attributes of power resulting in perpetuating rule of the CCP sustaining economic growth and development maintaining domestic political stability defending national sovereignty and territorial integrity while securing China s status as a great power. Resultantly China s own diplomacy has steadily grown more omni-directional and proactive backed by an economy that is an engine of regional growth and most crucially a military that is modernising rapidly. China s military modernisation programme that was initiated formally by its leader Deng Xiaoping in December 1978 has entered its 34th year and is expected to continue to display a continuing pattern of military modernisation. The unremitting debate surrounding the military rise of the People s Republic of China is getting louder with each passing day. While posting higher stages of economic growth the military spending power of China has increased exponentially. The grave implications on Beijing s rapidly expanding prowess and influence within Asia and beyond seems to 46 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue be worrying the world due to lack of transparency of their intentions and their growing assertiveness and belligerence. India has increased its military spending by 66 per cent since 2002 while China has increased its spending by 170 per cent in the same period. West Asia The Arab world has been engulfed in completely unanticipated and historically unprecedented turmoil since the beginning of 2011. A long awaited Arab Spring has dawned. This turmoil has had two major consequences which will have significant continuing impact within the Arab world. First in the longer term the political rise of Islamist forces will inject a new and powerful factor that could transform the Arab world into a very different persona from what the world has known and dealt with for a long time. Secondly for the immediate future the outcome of the no holds barred stand-off between Saudi Arabia and Iran personifying a vigorous Sunni response to a supposedly rising Shia threat will reshape the geopolitics of the West Asian region. South Asia South Asia is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East. The South Asian scene is marred by constant hostility between the nuclear-armed India and Pakistan the disputed Sino-Indian border and the Taliban activity in Afghanistan-Pakistan region and even more by the internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. In neighbouring Nepal the continued political instability has worsened the situation in this tiny country pinned between China and India. In Sri Lanka with the defeat of LTTE and the demise of Prabhakaran a new chapter has opened. However the rehabilitation of the Tamil population is progressing very slowly. In Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has sought to enhance Bangladesh s presence on the world stage and the relations between India and Bangladesh has vastly improved as compared to the earlier era of Begum Khalida Zia. South East Asia Recent developments in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) indicate that the response of the South East Asian countries on a number of strategic and vital issues has not been well coordinated and there are many differences among the members on the manner that the arising security challenges need to be met with. There are some countries among the ASEAN who believe that the return of the US to Asia-Pacific and South East Asia could provide an element of balance against the assertive policies of China while others have an ambivalent view. East Asia Japan s Defence White Paper 2012 underlines the rise of China s military and economic power and North Korea s political transition and sees established alliance with the United States with presence of its forces as extremely important in order to achieve regional stability . Japanese Self Defence Forces are on the path of upgrading their defence posture to meet emerging challenges from China s rise in a holistic manner even though overall cap on the defence budget at one per cent of the GDP is likely to remain. Political tensions between China and Taiwan have eased over a period. The victory of Ma Yingjeou in Taiwan s presidential elections in January 2012 augurs well for maintaining relations on an even keel though he is unlikely to make additional concessions given that the margin of victory has been greatly reduced. The overall environment on the Korean Peninsula remains tense despite hopeful developments in February 2012 when North Korea and the United States completed talks on the nuclear issue in New York which both sides called constructive . The engagement held after 19 months of break had raised hopes of resumption of six-nation talks involving North and South Korea the United States China Russia and Japan. However the North Korean rocket (read ballistic missile) launched on December 12 2012 have put paid to these expectations. Regional Security in Asia-Pacific Global economic progress in the 21st century has seen the Asia-Pacific region emerge as an arena for geopolitical and regional rivalries with territorial disputes-- both land and maritime--impacting relations between states. South Asia continues to be characterised by constant hostility between nuclear- The cover of the current edition of SP s Military Yearbook 2013 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 47 armed India and Pakistan and the Taliban insurgency in AfghanistanPakistan region. The healthy trend of multilateralism that prevailed in the region and particularly in East and South East Asia has been disturbed. The rising competition in the South China Sea has resulted in greater militarisation with China becoming increasingly aggressive. The US shift of naval assets from Atlantic to the Pacific is viewed as a response to growing concerns of major players as Japan which is underpinning stability in the region on the presence of the US military in Asia-Pacific. Consensus is necessary and evident in meeting some of the security challenges faced in global commons such as maritime piracy terrorism humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. Cyber space and nuclear security are other areas where there is lower congruence to a cooperative approach. These developments are likely to provide an impetus to military modernisation in the region. However the constraining factor will be the budgetary constraints. While a state on state conflict is unlikely in Asia-Pacific in the near future this will require underpinning security by maintaining deterrence for which adequate military capability will be essential. How countries in the region balance fiscal constraints and military capacity building will determine stability in the future. What is the Content This Year SP s Military Yearbook this year carries an exceptional range of interesting articles of highly topical subjects by well-known authors including former Service Chiefs. These articles are included in the chapters on Concepts and Perspectives Business and Technology . The chapter on Concepts and Perspectives includes well analysed articles of military and strategic value on subjects which range from the global to the regional perspectives and which cover the entire area of strategic interest to India s defence planners and industry honchos. In the Business section the new guidelines on defence offsets and defence procurements have been given apart from an article each on the development of defence industry in India and India s strategic and business environment among other subjects. In the chapter on Tech- nology future trends in integrated air defence systems concept nanotechnology in naval applications technologies for future wars and indigenous high-tech development are some of the highlights. All other chapters have been extensively updated by the most knowledgeable persons in defence and military-related matters. sources for facts & figures CIA World Fact Book Military Balance Jane s Weapon Systems Jane s All the World s Aircraft Jane s Fighting Ships Combat Fleets of the World US Military Strength Worldwide Aerospace Daily Armies Armour Armed Forced Journal Handbook of Soviet Weapons Asian Defence Journal Aviation Week and Space Technology Asian Survey Defence News Flight International Tanks of the World Aircraft of the World Sea Power International Defense Review US News & World Report International Herald Tribune Proceedings New York Times Financial Observer Scala New Yorker Omini Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Time Newsweek World Defence Almanac Military Technology CLAWS Journal Annual Report Ministry of Home Affairs 2011-12 Annual Report Ministry of Defence 2011-12 World Bank International Monetary Fund Military Review besides several others. Clarifications Most countries are reluctant to part with information relating to the size and strength of their armed forces and equipment specifications. Sincere efforts have been made to garner information from the most authentic sources for the SP s Military Yearbook 2013. Despite this it is quite possible variations may crop up in some cases. Articles in this volume contain the personal opinions of the contributors and do not reflect the views of the publishers or the Indian Government including the Ministry of Defence. Suggestions for improvements will be appreciated and carried out to the extent possible and practically viable. acknowledgements Several distinguished columnists and industry experts on the editorial board worked in unison to make the SP s Military Yearbook 2013 a quality product. It is my pleasure to name SP s team of experts Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Rear Admiral (Retd) S.K. Ramsay Jayant baranwal editor-in-chief 48 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue special colour feature Weapons Equipment & Vehicles BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Copyright 2012 by SP Guide Publications Allrightsreserved.Theinformationpublished hereinisforthepersonaluseofthereaderand may not be incorporated in any commercial activity.Makingcopiesinanyform electronic or otherwise of the information in full or any portionthereofforpurposesotherthanownuse is a violation of copyright law. The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the furnishingoruseoftheinformation associated instructions claims of productivity gains. W E AP O N S E Q U I P M E N T & V E H I C LE S C on t en t s Agilent Technologies ............................................................................................................. 50 Ansys Software ...................................................................................................................... 54 Ashok Leyland ........................................................................................................................ 56 Avrora ...................................................................................................................................... 58 Bharat Dynamics ................................................................................................................... 60 Diehl Defence ......................................................................................................................... 62 Embraer ................................................................................................................................... 64 Eurocopter............................................................................................................................... 67 FFV Ordnance ......................................................................................................................... 68 Hawker Beechcraft ............................................................................................................... 70 Hindustan Aeronautics ......................................................................................................... 72 Irkut .......................................................................................................................................... 74 Israel Aerospace Industries ................................................................................................ 76 MBDA....................................................................................................................................... 80 Meprolight ............................................................................................................................... 81 Navantia .................................................................................................................................. 82 Nexter Systems ...................................................................................................................... 84 Northrop Grumman................................................................................................................ 86 OTO Melara............................................................................................................................. 88 Pipavav .................................................................................................................................... 89 Pratt & Whitney...................................................................................................................... 91 Rafael ....................................................................................................................................... 92 Rosoboronexport.................................................................................................................... 94 Rubin ........................................................................................................................................ 95 Saab ...................................................................................................................................... 100 Sagem ................................................................................................................................... 102 Samtel Avionics & Defence Systems ............................................................................... 103 Selex Galileo ......................................................................................................................... 104 Tata Motors ........................................................................................................................... 107 Telephonics ........................................................................................................................... 108 Thales..................................................................................................................................... 111 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 49 Concept Jayant Baranwal SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd New Delhi India Credits Publishers extend special thanks to the companieswhohaveprovidedthecontents andrespectivephotographsforthisfeature. Also gladly acknowledge their extensive supportandco-operationinformulatingthis featurewithmaximumpossibleup-to-date and lively contents. Processed and Printed in India by Pragati Offset Hyderabad SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD Contact Address Corporate Office A-133 ArjunNagar OppositeDefenceColony New Delhi 110003 India. Phones 91 11 24644693 24644763 24620130 24658322 Fax 91 11 24647093 E-Mail info order guidepub Website REGIONAL BALANCE Textron Systems ................................................................................................................... 110 ASIAN WHO S WHO Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG ...................................................................................... 98 INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS Lockheed Martin ................................................................................................................... 78 TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Airbus Military ....................................................................................................................... 51 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS A agilent technologieS Surveillance and Intelligence Whether the mission is intercept and collect detect and eradicate monitor and track or trend and analyze our diverse technology base--and deep familiarity with wireless communications--gives you a meaningful edge. ATE From LAN and Web to LXI-based synthetic instruments our approach to ATE is designed to maximize system longevity and productivity. Operational Tests The versatility of our instruments accelerates troubleshooting at the O-level and provides insights that help I-level and depot-level teams quickly pinpoint failed modules and components. Design and Test Platforms that span the entire Aerospace and Defense Market Network analyzers From 5 Hz to 1.05THz choose from a growing selection of RF and Microwave network analyzers ranging from handheld models to mm-wave instruments. Spectrum and signal analyzers Agilent s spectrum and signal analyzers include an extensive array of products from DC to 325 GHz and beyond. Signal generators Agilent offers the widest selection of baseband RF and microwave signal generator products from baseband to 67 GHz from basic to advanced functionality. Oscilloscopes Agilent offers a complete line of oscilloscopes optimized to your test needs from handheld units to high-performance and mixed signal scopes. Logic Analyzers Agilent s logic analyzers minimize your project risk by providing the most reliable accurate data capture and the most complete view of digital system behavior. Modular instrumentation Agilent provides a portfolio of modular devices to fit your diverse needs from cost-sensitive test requirements to high-performance applications. General-purpose instruments Our broad selection of bench-friendly and system-ready power supplies can meet your testing challenges with a wealth of available capabilities. Agilent s digital multimeters have a proven track record for reliability. From a bench top to a test rack to a handheld there s an Agilent digital multimeter that s right for the job. Agilent arbitrary waveform generators provide both wide bandwidth and outstanding signal quality to fit your electronic testing needs. The breadth of the Agilent s Frequency Counters offering allows the best product to be selected for different applications. Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Software Agilent EEsof EDA is the leading supplier of EDA software for communications product design. In-circuit parametric test Agilent offers leading board test solutions for electronics manufacturers to tackle a wide range of PCBA test access and coverage issues for today s complex printed circuit assemblies. n For more details on our products visit http litweb pdf 5990-6626EN.pdf gilent Technologies the world s premier test and measurement company has a long and storied presence in Aerospace Defense around the world and in India. Within the Aerospace Defense industry Agilent is known as a leader in measurement science and recognized for having a broad range of COTS (CommercialOff-The-Shelf) measurement products than any of our competitors. Providing a broad evolving range of application solutions Radar and Electronic Warfare As technology evolves so do the challenges in detection avoidance electronic warfare (EW) and countermeasures. In all cases the testing of today s systems will benefit from high-performance test equipment and EDA solutions. Military Communication From dynamic probing inside an FPGA to testing digital IF and IQ from manufacturing test to operational troubleshooting Agilent can help you ensure system readiness. Satellite guidance payloads and communications Design and validation tools from Agilent provide greater assurance that satellites and subsystems will work every time for the duration of the mission. Avionics Guidance and Navigation Systems Whether you re testing to achieve regulatory certification or meet demanding system specifications solutions from Agilent enable extensive testing of the systems. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 50 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 51 REGIONAL BALANCE irbus Military produces transport tanker and surveillance aircraft both for military missions and a wide range of civic missions for the good of society. It is unique in its field in developing producing selling and supporting a comprehensive family of airlifters ranging from three to 45 tonnes of payload. An Airbus daughter company Airbus Military is responsible for the A400M programme as well as the A330 Multi Role Tanker Transport (A330 MRTT) and for further military derivatives of Airbus civil aircraft plus the CN235 and C295 medium transport surveillance types. Airbus Military is the global leader in its market due to its ability to address the widest range of missions. The company has sold more than 1 000 aircraft to some 130 military civilian and governmental customers. More than 800 of these aircraft have been delivered. Headquartered in Madrid A (Spain) the company s facilities are essentially based in Spain. Its main sites are Getafe where A330s built in Toulouse are converted into A330 MRTTs and Seville where the San Pablo factory hosts the A400M Final Assembly Line opened in 2007 as well as the complete production and final assembly of the CN235 and C295. Airbus Military was formally created in April 2009 following the integration of the former Military Transport Aircraft Division (MTAD) and of Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada (AMSL) into Airbus. This integration allows for a single and streamlined organisation. In total Airbus Military which has its own P&L accounting counts more than 5 000 employees. It builds on the experience developed by the former Construcciones Aeronauticas Sociedad Anonima (CASA) which became part of EADS as MTAD in2 000. CASA was founded in 1923 and had specialized in the devel- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO FiveA400M developmentaircraft areflying opment construction certification and support of small military transport aircraft while playing a leading role in the militarization of civil Airbus platforms. Airbus Military is today well established on the world market with products operated by air forces for tactical and strategic transport and aerial refuelling capabilities as INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES airbuS Military WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS aNSyS Software A NSYS Inc. is one of the world s leading engineering simulation software providers. Its technology has enabled customers to predict with accuracy that their product designs will thrive in the real world. The company s focus is to offer a common platform of fully integrated multiphysics software tools designed to optimize product development processes for a wide range of industries including aerospace automotive civil engineering consumer products chemical process electronics environmental healthcare marine power sports and others. Applied to design concept final-stage testing validation and trouble-shooting existing designs software from ANSYS can significantly speed design and development times reduce costs and provide insight and understanding into product and process performance. ANSYS software not only delivers efficiency it drives innovation. The technology s ability to go beyond physical constraints and perform simulated tests that would other- wise not be possible is critical to exploring and expanding operational boundaries in developing leadingedge products and processes. In this way modeling and simulation can be used to drive new solutions rather than to merely verify existing ones. ANSYS calls this process SimulationDriven Product DevelopmentTM. The Company and its global network of channel partners provide sales support and training for customers. Headquartered in Canonsburg Pennsylvania U.S.A. with more than 60 strategic sales locations throughout the world ANSYS and its subsidiaries employ over 2 000 people and distribute ANSYS products through a network of channel partners in over 40 countries. Visit for more information. Ansys software Product Offering ANSYS offers a comprehensive range of engineering simulation solution sets giving users access to virtually any field of engineering simulation that their design process requires. ANSYS believes engineering simulation should be as easy GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE and efficient as possible in order to ensure that users get the best value. With this in mind the product portfolio has been developed to meet three key user requirements n To provide the best type of software tool for the user s needs whatever that may be -- FEA CFD electronics etc. n To provide the most suitable grade and scope of tool for the user s needs n To provide a fully integrated engineering simulation environment giving the user the flexibility to run multiphysics analyses within one single environment and to upgrade or downgrade their software without issues of compatibility Together these principles help ensure that ANSYS provides a fullportfolio engineering simulation capability that adds value to the engineering design process rather than a solution that only partially solves problems. A number of factors set ANSYS engineering simulation software apart from other CAE tools 54 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue aSHok leylaND a nation s moving force F or over six decades Ashok Leyland has been in the business of moving people and goods and is one of India s largest commercial vehicle manufacturers. Pioneers in the design and development of Defence transport solutions Ashok Leyland is the largest supplier of logistics vehicles to the Indian Army with close to 70 000 Stallion vehicles in use. A relationship of substance The seeds for this relationship of substance with the Indian Army were sown in the 1970s with the supply of 1 000 numbers of the Company s Hippo a vehicle specially configured for the Army. In 1994 the hugely successful Stallion platform was inducted followed by the inking of a Transfer of Technology Agreement with Ordnance Factories Board for the co-production of the Stallion 4x4 at Vehicle Factory Jabalpur. The Stallion platform was first developed as a 4x4 vehicle for various applications such as general service roles troop carriers water bowsers fuel bowsers light recovery vehicles that have been tested and proven in the most demanding of operating conditions in altitudes of over 5 500 metres and in the deserts of Rajasthan and in temperatures of -35 degrees Celsius to 50 degrees Celsius. The Company s expanding TheSuperStallion 8x8 Engineeredto performwithhigh mobilityandpower inarduousdesert terrains GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE portfolio of Defence vehicles feature the Light Recovery Vehicle for the Indian Army DGBR the 5 KL Water Bowser with twin stainless steel insulated walls water tanks mounted on the Stallion for carrying potable water for the jawans at extreme temperatures the Truck Fire Fighting 4x2 gun towing vehicle Topchi 4x4 Mobile Refrigerated Containers and Fuel Dispensers. A new platform the Super Stallion has been introduced to 56 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue avrora JSC Concern avrora Scientific and Production association a reliable partner of india F or over 40 years the Scientific and Production Association Avrora has been the biggest in Russia developer and supplier of monitoring and control systems for technical facilities of maritime objects. During this period the enterprise became a leader in marine instrumentation of control systems for technical facilities of ships and submarines of all classes operational with both Russian and foreign navies. The development of control systems for technical facilities is a multi-sided task which is successfully solved by the Concern Avrora in close collaboration with the leading national ship designers (Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering Severnoye Design Bureau Nevskoye Design Bureau Almaz Central Marine Design Bureau and others) and scientific organizations like the Krylov Central Research Institute as well as the scientific-research institutes of the Russian Navy. Among the foreign partners of the Concern India occupies a spe- cial place both in respect of the quantitative indices of cooperation and in respect of the quality of existing partnership relations. More than 80 control systems of technical facilities of several generations have been delivered to India over the past 30 years. The first-generation control systems developed by the Avrora were supplied to the Indian Navy in the early 1970s as part of the equipment for Project 641 submarines. Since then the volume of cooperation and the range products expanded year after year. Automated information and control systems control systems of main propulsion plant auxiliary engines general ship systems electric power generation and conversion facilities propulsion facilities maneuvering and motion stabilization facilities for submarines and surface ships are not by far a complete list of products supplied to the Indian market. The most interesting and significant projects in the 1980s-1990s KonstantinShilov AvroraDirector General GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE involving the development and supply of control systems for technical facilities (CS TF) for the Indian Navy ships were the works on outfitting the Project 877EKM submarines. Many years of highly efficient operation of these submarines by the Indian Navy have shown high reliability efficiency ease of maintenance of the control systems developed by the Concern and installed on these submarines. The next-generation of the CS TFs developed for the Indian cus- 58 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue bharat DynaMicS SP s Military Yearbook (SP s) You have recently taken over as Chairman and Managing Director (CMD) of BDL. What is your vision for the growth of the company S.N. Mantha (CMD) The vision of BDL is to be a leading world class enterprise in defence industry . Therefore my endeavour during my tenure as CMD of this company will be to adhere to and achieve this vision. The vision document covering longterm strategy to manufacture various missiles providing life time customer support is under preparation. The plan is to send BDL officers to various customer locations and get the feedback. This would enable them to attend to the needs of the customer in practical terms and will thereby become a long-term business strategy to build image of the company. SP s What are the key areas you would like to focus on CMD There are many major projects in pipeline. These can be handled only by creating dedicated production units with infrastructure for each of these projects. In this direction Akash SAMs Mr S.N. Mantha C&MD BDL BDL has already acquired land at different places and my focus would be to raise these production units so that they are ready to take up production and delivery of systems to the users as per the desired schedule. SP s How about the modernisation of the infrastructure CMD A modernisation plan is being evolved outlining the plant and machinery and infrastructure that need to be upgraded or added. This is required to meet capacity enhancement planned for the current projects and new projects which are in the pipeline. SP s Is the process of indigenisation continuing CMD The process of indigenisation is ever continuing at BDL. The initial indigenisation efforts will be towards avoiding import of expensive sub-assemblies and manufac- Milan 2T turing them indigenously at lower cost. Subsequently the indigenisation process continues to attain selfreliance by reducing dependency on foreign countries. In this direction the company has already achieved indigenization to the level of 70-90 per cent in various projects. BDL has been manufacturing missiles for more than 40 years and thus has built up expertise in manufacture of precision and critical components like gyro scope wire spool winding etc. all under one roof. SP s You have projected a turnover of Rs 1 350 crore during 201213. Have you achieved this target CMD Barring very unforeseen events I am confident of achieving the target. All my team members are putting their best efforts to meet the stated sales target. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE SP s What were the challenges thrown up by the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) CMD The challenges thrown up by IGMDP are much different from that 60 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue Diehl Defence competence in Upgrade running Gears Maintenance D iehl Defence Land Systems GmbH is the new brand in the military land vehicle market created from the merger of Diehl Remscheid GmbH & Co. KG globally leading developer and manufacturer of Track Systems and Running Gears for tanks and Industriewerke Saar GmbH proven service provider to the German Bundeswehr and US military in Europe for military wheeled and tracked vehicles repair and maintenance. The complex requirements global military users place on their vehicle fleets require knowledge of the various systems their modules and the accompanying logistical support. This includes developing and modernising vehicles and integrating subsystems modules and components maintenance and spare parts support. With our know-how of many years and the flexibility available we develop bespoke solutions for the optimal fulfilment of customer requirements. Diehl Defence Land Systems GmbH covers this range and traditionally stands for reliability and responsibility with its quality assurance extensive certifications and not least with the family name Diehl. Mobility The company s know-how extends to all main components on the Running Gears such as the Tracks Road-Wheels Idler-Wheels Sprockets etc. Diehl Tracks are used in vehicles on all continents and are characterised by an excellent terrain response with all the components in the entire system being DiehlTracksare usedinvehicleson allcontinentsand arecharacterisedby anexcellentterrain response withall thecomponentsinthe entiresystembeing adjustedideallytothe respectiveareasof deployment GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE adjusted ideally to the respective areas of deployment. Diehl Defence Land Systems GmbH with international branches and co-productions develops and produces more than 100 different Tracks for all types of vehicles (Track OEM for tanks such as the Leopard 1 & 2 armoured personnel carriers like the Marder PUMA Pizarro ASCOD artillery systems such as the M109 PzH2000 transport tanks like the M113 family and other tracked vehicles of all types). All tracked vehicles of the Bundeswehr and almost all leading vehicle manufacturers around the world are fitted with Diehl Tracks 62 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue eMbraer mbraer S.A. is the world s largest manufacturer of commercial jets up to 120 seats and one of Brazil s leading exporters. Founded in 1969 the Company designs produces and sells aircraft and systems for the commercial executive defense and security markets. It has produced more than 5 000 aircraft currently operating in more than 80 countries during its 42 years of existence. Headquartered in S o Jos dos Campos Embraer has offices subsidiaries and customer service bases in China France Portugal Singapore and the United States. Embraer Defense and Security In December 2010 Embraer announced the creation of Embraer Defense & Security an important step in consolidating the Company s central role in the process of strengthening Brazil s defense and security industry. Embraer Defense & Security has a strong presence E in the defense and security markets where it is involved. It plays a strategic role in Brazil s defense system and has supplied over 70% of the Brazilian Air Force (FAB) fleet. With more than 40 years of experience Embraer Defense & Security is present in 48 countries with its aircraft and solutions being operated by more than 30 Armed Forces worldwide. The Company provides integrated solutions and services for defense systems that include mili- Embraerhas alreadydelivered thefirstaircraft whichhasrecently arrivedinBangalore tostartthesystems installations GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE tary aircraft state-of-the-art radar technologies unmanned aerial systems as well as advanced command control communication and intelligence systems such as C4ISR applications. In order to reinforce its position in the defense and security market Embraer Defense & Security has purchased a 90% stake in the radar division of OrbiSat da Amaz nia S.A . and also has a strategic partnership with Atech Neg cios em Tecnologias 64 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue eurocoPter Protecting the waters and coastlines of india a look at eurocopter s light naval multi-role helicopter the aS565 Mb Panther PHOTO Marine Nationale SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 67 REGIONAL BALANCE urocopter s AS565 MB Panther provides a highly capable solution for planned helicopter acquisitions by the Indian Navy and Coast Guard offering a force multiplier with an excellent record that benefits from a heritage of mission-proven rotorcraft in service with military forces worldwide. The all-weather multi-role light helicopter can be operated from ship decks offshore platforms and land bases with demonstrated capabilities to cover the full range of Indian Navy and Coast Guard mission requirements including maritime surveillance search & rescue offshore patrolling and counterterrorism casualty evacuation and vertical replenishment. The AS565 MB Panther also is an ideal complementary asset for such anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and anti-surface unit warfare (ASuW) tasks as submarine and surface target destruction It can launch its own torpedoes and provide over-the-horizon targeting (OTHT) to surface ships. In the coming years it will also be E armed with light anti-ship missile giving it a ship strike capability. For ship borne operations the AS565 Panther main rotor blades can be folded backwards to reduce the helicopter s length and vertical tail fin can be folded to reduce the helicopter s height in order to facilitate hangar entry. The Panther is also equipped with a deck securing device (harpoon) permitting it to be secured on IN ICG and NATO ships via a NATO standard deck grid during launching and landing maneuvers. A benchmark example of the Panther Dauphin helicopter family s mission capabilities is the fleet of 102 TheAS565MB Pantherisanideal complementary assetforantisubmarinewarfare andantisurfaceunit warfare GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE H-65 version flown by the U.S. Coast Guard used to perform duties that range from lifesaving missions after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 to headline-making rescues from sea level to high-altitude mountainous terrain. Other countries such as France Spain China Saudi Arabia Korea and Malaysia also deploy these helicopters in naval and coast guard services. A modernized version the AS565 MBe was introduced in 2011 to offer even better performance levels particularly in hot and high conditions at a lower cost and with increased safety. Today off-the-shelf MB versions can be retrofitted in MBe versions. n ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS FFV ordnance FV Ordnance part of the global defence and security company Saab is for decades one of the world s leading suppliers of manportable support weapons. To reach and maintain this commanding position requires continuous and result-oriented engineering and product development. Being at the cutting edge of technology both technically and in time that can be translated into appropriate products when the situation changes and military tactical requirements arise provides the perfect approach. FFV Ordnance has for many years been at the forefront of development of technology in the fields of internal and external ballistics ignition systems and terminal warhead effects. This is and has been FFV Ordnance s model for success. New times new requirements Changing times result in new requirements. In the field of weapons and ammunition and espe- F cially for man-portable weapon systems users demand improved and different effects increased product safety as well as weapons that are lighter and easier to carry. In recent years requirements to minimise the environmental impact of manufacturing the weapon systems have been highlighted. FFV Ordnance is continuously working on fulfilling these new requirements. The war on terrorism has partly moved into built-up areas which require weapon systems that are light and easy to carry and have a good effect on various types of targets not just on armoured vehicles. But combat is also conducted outside built-up areas and in terrain inaccessible to vehicles so the requirement for weapons with long combat ranges and various types of warheads remains or is even increased. Combat in built-up areas FFV Ordnance now has more than 30 years of experience with man-por- FFVOrdnancenow hasseveraldecades ofexperiencewith man-portableweapons intendedforuseby unitsengagedinconventionalandurban warfare table weapons intended for use by units engaged in urban warfare. LAW AT4CS HEAT is a further development of the LAW AT4 HEAT or the M136 as it is known in the United States. LAW AT4CS HEAT has a warhead with increased behind armour effect that is sought after primarily for engagement of light-armoured vehicles. The enemy not only operates from armoured vehicles but also takes cover in and operates from buildings. Therefore a light manportable weapon with good effect behind walls is needed in order to combat enemy forces in buildings or simply to create a new entrance into a house. The AT4 product family AT4CS AST where AST stands for Anti-Structure Tandem is a new weapon in the AT4 series. The weapon like the rest of the AT4CS series has a liquid countermass and can be fired from rooms smaller than 25 m3. The weapon has a tandem war- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 68 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue Hawker beecHcraft his article addresses two Hawker Beechcraft products of particular importance in India and the Southern Asia region the King Air 350ER and the AT-6 King Air 350ER When Hawker Beechcraft developed the King Air 350ER it viewed the potential market size as something slightly larger than the fleet of approximately 45 aging King Air B200Ts. It has proven to be far more successful with over 100 King Air 350ERs built since it was FAA certified in October 2007. The most notable changes were to increase the fuel capacity from 2 040 liters to 2 990 liters and increase the takeoff weight from 6 804 kg to 7 484 kg. Those changes yielded outstanding range and payload flexibility that is particularly attractive to military and special mission operators. The Beechcraft King Air 350ER useful load is 2 819 kg. with the standard King Air VIP interior. That T gives the aircraft range of over 4 630 km thereby providing the potential to go anywhere in the inhabited world in a very comfortable cabin - without the need to add internal fuel tanks. However most 350ERs are used for some special mission activity and are usually produced in a slick interior with flight crew chairs completed interior sidewalls with floor carpet and the lavatory installed at the back of the airplane but no cabin seats or furniture . This configuration provides maximum use of the aircraft cabin for fitting with mission equipment and opera- KingAir350ER hasverylongrange fordeploymentto themissionarea very longendurancefor surveillancemissions hasstate-of-the-art glasscockpitavionics asstandardequipment enoughusefulloadto supportawidevariety ofmissionsensors andoperatorsandis inexpensivetooperate withveryfuelefficient andlowmaintenance commercialturboprop engines. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE tors. In this slick configuration the useful load is 3 239 kg. Starting with that Useful Load we add crew mission modifications and equipment and up to 2 355 kg. of fuel allowing the aircraft to stay airborne over 12 hours and land with 45 minutes of fuel. For all of these reasons the U.S. military selected the King Air 350ER as its manned Intelligence Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) platform of choice for quick reaction programs. This aircraft is in production and available now has very long range for deployment to the 70 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue HinduStan aeronauticS SP s Military Yearbook (SP s) Can you briefly describe the size and the span of activities of the premier Indian aerospace major Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) R.K. Tyagi (Chairman) HAL is a premier aeronautical aerospace company in Asia with 19 production divisions and ten research and development (R&D) centres in India. HAL s expertise encompasses design production repair overhaul and upgrade of aircraft helicopters aero-engines accessories avionics and systems. The company s sales turnover has crossed 14 000 crore for the year 2011-12. HAL today provides one stop solution for all the design needs of aircraft and helicopters in airframes airframe systems avionics mission and combat systems using advanced design tools. All manufacturing divisions of HAL are equipped with modern infrastructure for production of aircraft and also helicopters. The company has over 32 000 employees of whom 50 per cent have over a decade of aircraft industry experience. HAL has diversified into manufacture and repair overhaul of industrial and marine gas turbine engines. It also manufactures structures for aerospace vehicles. SP s How do you see the roadmap ahead for HAL Chairman HAL has been registering steady growth in term of financial parameters over the last ten years. The sales have grown from 8 625 crore in 2007-08 to 14 204 crore in 2011-12. The trend is expected to continue during Twelfth Thirteenth and Fourteenth five year plans with new programmes such as fifth- Tyagi took R.K. over as the Chairman of HAL in March 2012 generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) multi-role transport aircraft (MTA) HTT-40 light combat aircraft (LCH) light utility helicopter (LUH) Indian multi-role helicopter (IMRH) etc. The company has drawn a long-term perspective plan to realise its cision to become a significant global player in the aerospace industry by covering the period from 20102022 (i.e. up to Thirteenth Plan). This document outlines the roadmap for HAL s march towards the vision through analysis of current position defining strategies to be adopted to overcome challenges and to sustain growth. Detailed plans for technology induction modernisation manpower collaborations etc are being prepared in line with the overall strategy brought out in the perspective plan. SP s Is HAL exploring business opportunities in the global market Chairman HAL is exploring business options including joint ventures with different original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in niche critical technology areas GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 72 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue irkut Progress of the Su-30Mki Program PHOTO Piotr Butowski P rogram of development and manufacture of the Su-30MKI multirole fighter for the Indian Air Force in which Irkut Corporation acted as the prime contractor occupies special position in military-technical cooperation between Russia and India. It made a path for joint efforts of two countries in the field of design development and production of defense equipment. According to experts opinion Su-30MKI combat aircraft is one of the best up-to-date multirole fighters in the world. Fighters of this type formed the basis of combat aviation on India Malaysia and Algeria. Irkut Corporation concluded firm contracts for delivery of about 330 aircraft of Su-30 family to foreign customers and Ministry of Defense of Russia. More than 230 of them have been enlisted. In the beginning of 2012 Ministry of Defense of Russia ordered a large batch of Su-30SM fighters. New contracts are under negotiation. In Particular Indian government approved purchase of another large batch of Su-30MKI aircraft program of modernization of existing fleet of combat aircraft is being discussed. It is worth mentioning that equal participation of the Indian side in implementing Su-30 program from the very beginning became a distinctive feature of the project. While mastering in licensed production state corporation HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics Limited) gained expertise and up-to-date technologies. Su-30MKI aircraft in service with the Indian Air Force First Su-30MKI fighters entered service of the Indian Air Force in September of 2002. Since that time the aircraft have become an object of national glory for Indian servicemen and ordinary people. Many structures in India rightfully admit this combat aircraft as Su-30MKIatAero India2011Airshow GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE their own Indian Ministry of Defense Indian Air Force HAL corporation which produce them under license DRDO experts who participated in the development of single elements of onboard systems and in their integration as well as employees of Bharat Electronics LTD Midhani companies involved in license production of aircraft s components. Flying capacities of the Su-30MKI aircraft demonstrated by the Indian pilots during air shows used to make an invariable impression not only on ordinary Indians but of professional pilots as well. The ultimate proof of the aircraft flight performance and combat capabilities came from a number of trainings of the IAF including those conducted in cooperation with units of Air Force of other countries. In particular during Indo-US 74 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue iSrael aeroSPace induStrieS I AI is a globally recognized leader in development and production of commercial and military aerospace and defense systems. IAI is the largest aerospace & Defense Company and the largest industrial exporter in Israel. IAI provides world leading unique system-of-systems solutions for a broad spectrum of needs in space air land sea and homeland defense. With 60 years of experience creating and supplying advanced systems for the Israel Ministry of Defense and for many demanding customers worldwide IAI exports about 80% of its product to over 50 countries and has over 30 subsidiaries worldwide. Established 1953 Line of business Defense and Commercial Products & Services Development Manufacture Overhaul Upgrading Repair and Maintenance of Aircraft and Aerospace Equipment Electronic Systems Avionics Suites Advanced Radars Tactical Weaponry & Law Enforcement Systems Training and Simulation Systems Network and Situation Awareness Systems. Dov Baharav Chairman of the Board Joseph Weiss President & CEO Financial Figures nIAI s 2011 sales totaled 3.44 billion 78% of these sales are for export. IAIisaworld leaderintotally integratedUAS solutions with morethan1 000 000 operationalhours ofintelligenceand targetingmissions n IAI s backlog as of December 2011 reached 8.7 billion. n IAI s 2011 net profit totaled 83 million. Core Areas of Activity Space From its own launchers and satellites to ground services IAI offers customers affordable solutions and partnerships with industry leaders in space exploration. IAI develops and manufactures satellites for various purposes such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) observation satellites (Ofeq Eros Opsat) Synthetic Aperture Radar (TECSAR) and communication satellites such as the Amos series (GEO). GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 76 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue loCkHeed MartiN india s lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules airlifter T C-130JSuper by the U.S. government is a complete solution. The package includes the six aircraft which have now all been delivered three years of initial support training of aircrew and maintenance technicians spares ground support and test equipment servicing carts forklifts loading vehicles cargo pallets and a team of technical specialists who will be based in India during the three year heculesprovidesthe indianairforcewith modernandeffective airlifttosupporta widerangeofnational requirements he Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules is the most advanced airlifter ever built. The C-130J combines the latest in aerospace technology with a proven rugged airframe design resulting in an aircraft that gives an operator more capability with greater operational efficiency. This is India s first experience with C-130s so the package provided GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE initial support period. Also included in the package is India-unique operational equipment designed to increase Special Operations capabilities. In addition the C-130J Super Hercules provides the Indian Air Force with modern and effective airlift to support a wide range of national requirements. In keeping with Indian Air Force (IAF) requirements the U.S. 78 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue MbDa M BDA is unique in the guided missile sector in its ability to meet the missile system requirements of all three operational domains air land and sea. This offers benefits to customers keen to maximise supply and servicing logistics as well as missile system modularity. MBDA weapons such as MICA and Meteor combined with precision ground strike weapons such as the multi-target Dual Mode Brimstone and the long range SCALP Storm Shadow are capable of ensuring air dominance long into the future. The IAF s Mirage 2000 fleet is being upgraded and will feature MBDA s MICA missile with its IR and RF seeker variants to deal with short to beyond visual range air combat. India s Jaguar bombers also stand to have their battle capability significantly enhanced by MBDA s ASRAAM missiles. The threat of air attack is increasing. Low cost cruise missiles manned and un-manned aircraft and the appearance of new ranges of ballistic missiles are threats that MBDA is best qualified to counter. Here the Company leads with its range of ground and naval based air defence systems using Mistral MICA and Aster missiles. MBDA s Aster recently achieved Europe s first successful ballistic missile target intercept further proof of the Company s unmatched skills. Mistral with its unmatched success rate during all firings of over 96% has been selected by forces around the world. Coastal and blue water operations require an effective anti-ship capability. MBDA is already supplying the Indian Navy s new Scorpene submarines with its Exocet SM39 missile system. Similarly other versions of the world-famous Exocet MBDA sfireand-forgetmistral manpadsvshorad system GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE family are being proposed along with Marte for a number of Indian maritime aircraft requirements (both fixed and rotary wing). MBDA s links with Indian industry go back some 40 years thanks to its partnership with BDL currently manufacturing the MILAN missile under licence for the Indian Army. Working with HAL integration of the Mistral ATAM system on the Dhruv helicopter is well advanced and MBDA is also proposing its PARS 3 LR system for the same helicopter s land attack mission. As well as working with the DRDO MBDA is actively constructing ties at all levels within the country. The concept of partnership with Indian industry is key to MBDA s strategy. As it moves beyond its tenth year of European integration MBDA looks towards a future featuring ever deeper relations with its Indian partners. n 80 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue MeProlight one Stop Shop for Sophisticated Weapon Sights SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 81 REGIONAL BALANCE NOA uncooled thermal sights Meprolight developed a family of uncooled thermal weapon sights X7 Ti for Assault Rifle (Noa Nyx) and dual field magnification. The Noa thermal sight contains an advanced GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO eprolight (www.meprolight. com) designs and manufactures a wide array of electro-optical and optical sights and devices night vision devices uncooled thermal sights and a wide variety of night sights and other tritium- and LEDilluminated products and accessories for safety and security applications for the military law enforcement and civilian communities. All of our products are combat proven and in daily operational use by the Israeli defense forces. Meprolight provides comprehensive end-to-end sharpshooting and sniping solutions for snipers infantry and SWAT teams. The solutions include advanced weapon sights and accessories for day and night shooting designed for quick and instinctive accurate shooting even after physical stress and under pressure. electronic level indicator a critical component in balancing the sight for effective long-range shooting. The innovative sight withstands heavy weapon recoil and enables bidirectional communications with military devices such as range finders and wireless recording systems. The Ti for Assault Rifle (Noa Nyx) is a lightweight sight with an overall weight of less than 1kg. Equipped with a wide FOV and an easily engaged 2x or 4x digital zoom the The Ti for Assault Rifle guarantees high-quality observation and precision target engagement. The innovative dual field magnification includes wide and narrow fields of view (FOV) in the same sight. It enables the sniper maximum flexibility during missions scanning the area with a wide FOV and engaging the target with narrow FOV. Equippedwith awideFOVandan easilyengaged2xor 4xdigitalzoom the TheTiforAssault Rifleguaranteeshighqualityobservation andprecisiontarget engagement. The NOA unique sight has been mounted and successfully operated onto a wide range of sniper rifles including the Dragunov and MMG. The thermal sight is designed for snipers who operate under harsh environmental conditions and need to detect and accurately engage targets at long ranges reaching more than 1 000 meters in variable weather conditions and very limited light availability or total darkness. NOA s state-of-the-art sights are equipped with a cutting-edge Fire Control System (FCS) featuring automatic ballistic compensation based on range and type of weapon and ammunition among others. Additional features include Laser Range Finder interface for automatic target range acquisition and the ability to upload and download data. NOA sights enable wired or wireless transmission of streaming video and real-time video recording as well as integrated capturing and storage of still images. The NOA sights excel in low energy consumption allowing up to 10 hours of continuous operation. n INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY M CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS NavaNtia T he Spanish shipbuilder Navantia 100% owned by SEPI the Spanish Government Industrial Holding is a world reference in the design construction and integration of state-of-the-art war ships including new generation submarines as well as ship repairs & modernizations. It is also engaged in the design and manufacture of Integrated Platform Management Systems Fire Control Systems Command and Control sys- tems Propulsion Plants and through life support for all its products. Even though its main line of activity is in the naval field Navantia designs and manufactures systems for the Army and the Air Force. Most of the most modern ships in service have been designed built and integrated by Navantia not only for the Spanish Navy but also for the navies of Norway Australia and Venezuela. Furthermore commercial NavantiaLHDnow appearsasthemore realisticsolutionfor othernaviesasTurkey andIndia. actions are being held in more than 25 countries. LHD A SHIP FOR THE FUTURE The Spanish LHD is currently in service for the Spanish Navy showing an excellent performance. 2 units were also contracted by the Royal Australian Navy and the Navantia LHD now appears as the more realistic solution for other navies as Turkey and India. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 82 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue NeXter SySteMS Setting the trend on 21st century artillery systems D uring EuroSatory 2010 Nexter Systems and Larsen & Toubro signed a Consortium Agreement in the field of artillery systems ensuring that both companies will join forces to support the major effort of artillery mod- ernization initiated by the Indian MoD. This agreement targets in particular the MGS (Mounted Gun System) RFP that should be issued in the second half of 2011 for which NEXTER will propose its CAESAR System. CAESAR is currentlydeployed inAfghanistanand Lebanonwiththe FrenchArmy GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE During July 2011 the two companies signed an other Consortium Agreement and announced the formation of Nexter Systems led consortium for 155 mm Towed Gun System (TGS) program for Indian Army. Under the proposal Nexter 84 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue NorthroP GruMMaN Northrop Grumman s e-2D advanced hawkeye Well-Positioned to Support india s Present and evolving Defence requirements with WorldClass aeW&C Capabilities uilt on a legacy of providing uncompromising airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) capability Northrop Grumman s E-2D Advanced Hawkeye was designed to provide the enhanced capabilities required to meet emerging threats and improved mission effectiveness from both shore bases as well as from the decks of today s modern aircraft carriers. The E-2D s upgraded systems and capabilities advance the mission and provide a seamless stream of information between the key assets of the fleet. Features include completely redesigned aircraft systems the state-of-the-art AN APY-9 radar and a new glass cockpit. All E-2D s are newly manufactured aircraft based on a proven airframe on a proven platform which is capable of both long-range shore operations and carrier-based operations. Evolving the mission sensors with new technologies and capabilities affordably B brought a new state-of-the-art system without having the challenge of designing a new platform. The APY-9 radar exclusive to the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye provides a transformational leap in radar technology allowing the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye to see greater numbers of smaller targets at a greater range than currently Northrop Grumman sE-2D AdvancedHawkeye isdesignedto providetheenhanced capabilitiesrequiredto meetemergingthreats andimprovedmission effectivenessfrom bothshorebasesas wellasfromthedecks oftoday smodern aircraftcarriers GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE fielded radar systems. The APY-9 was specifically designed for Cruise Missile Defense and integration into the US Navy s Naval Integrated Fire Control Counter Air architecture. This state-of-the-art radar provides the most technologically advanced command and control capability in the world with the ability to collect data and supply information to 86 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue oto Melara roviding fire support to cooperating troops fighting on shore is a crucial requirement for modern naval operations. This capability is becoming more and more demanding due to a specific requirement which is focused upon delivering accurate bombardment well inland through a naval gun striking different kinds of targets while keeping the ship at a safe distance from the littoral threat. In particular the Indian Ocean with an area of 68 5 million sq km has several important straits gulfs bays and sens most of them being in the northern part. Major shipping lines criss-cross its vast expanse with strategic water ways and choke points linking the Indian Ocean to other important water bodies on the globe. For this reason there is a strong need for maintaining stability security and safety at sea. Oto Melara offers a very technological solution for this challeng- P ing scenario which has the advantage to combine a general purpose 127 mm (5 ) naval gun with a family of long range ammunitions named Vulcano. Oto Melara started the production of the new 127 64 LW for the German Bundesmarine (the scope of supply is for 5 guns one for instruction and training purpose four for the new F-125 Frigates). Meanwhile the 127 64 LW has been installed on board the Carlo Bergamini the first Italian FREMM Frigate. The gun mount was specially designed to fire the new Vulcano family of ammunition which is capable to reach a range beyond 100 km with unrivalled accuracy due to its guidance capability. The 127 64 LW can perfectly perform at top level of performance in Naval Gun Support as well as in Anti Surface Warfare (ASuW) and in 127 54LW-38for thedefencesystems producedbyOto Melaraaretheideal solutiontomaintainingstability security andsafetyatsea GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Anti-Air Warfare (AAW). This sort of multirole excellence is made possible by an outstanding 32 rounds per minute rate of fire achievable with both standard and Vulcano ammunition. A new multipurpose fuse rejecting sea clutters grants adequate effectiveness also in the engagement of small crafts as required in Asymmetric Warfare. The compactness of the gun feeding system and the low weight make possible to install this gun also where the cross section of the hull is very narrow and the ship has a medium size displacement (e.g. corvettes displacing about 2000 tons). A stealth shield is fitted to reduce the radar signature to a minimum value while structural compactness minimizes installation costs. n 88 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue PiPavav an infrastructural leviathan SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 89 REGIONAL BALANCE ipavav Defence And Offshore Engineering Company is a testimony to the vision and active participation of the private sector in India s quest to become a major player in the global maritime defence industry with a special focus on the defence and offshore sectors. Pipavav is also touted as the country s first integrated defence company as it looks to expand its horizon to encompass the various areas in the defence sector. The significance of this achievement is now beginning to be comprehended as it is now imperative that the private sector becomes actively involved in the development of GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE manufacturing in the Indian Defence industry which is lagging both in technology and capacity a point that a few entrepreneurs have been able to identify and focus on. For this they need to first establish the requisite infrastructure and technology. A decade ahead of its time the Shipyard is spread over 782 acres of ASIAN WHO S WHO P GoldenSuek-First Shipof75000Dwtfor Export INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Dependable engines Military Needs evolve Pratt & Whitney remains Steadfast PhOTO Lockheed Martin PhOTO U.S. Air Force D SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 91 REGIONAL BALANCE uring the past 87 years military technology and capabilities have changed drastically but one thing has stayed the same Pratt & Whitney s steadfast commitment to delivering an ever-expanding arsenal of propulsion systems to military customers. Since 1925 Pratt & Whitney Military Engines has provided top-of-the-line engines to 29 armed forces around the world. Pratt & Whitney s F117 engines provide exclusive power for the C-17 Globemaster III the world s premier heavy airlifter. The C-17 Globemaster III enables forces around the globe to meet their coalition and humanitarian missions with dependability. Pratt & Whitney s F117 engine continues to prove its durability recently exceeding 9 million engine flight hours. Recently Pratt & Whitney expanded our relationship with India when their military requested 10 new C-17 Globemasters. Our F117 engines will be delivered for this exciting new project later this year in time for the expected completion of the first new aircraft by 2013. This new project with India continues our 20 years of service in military and humanitarian missions worldwide with Pratt & Whitney s F117 engines. As we continue to evolve to meet the needs of today s warfighters we are proud to be the only manufacturer of fifth-generation engines powering the only two fifth-generation fighters in the world the F-22 Raptor and the F-35 Lightning II. Pratt & Whitney s F135 the world s most powerful fighter engine has successfully passed numerous milestones in its more than 10 years of development and testing including surpassing 23 000 hours of testing and the recent successful STOVL sea trials aboard the United States Navy s USS Wasp. The F135 powering Lockheed Martin s F-35 Lightning II has completed more than 2 300 flight tests 3 700 flight hours and nearly 350 vertical landings. Our military products and customers worldwide benefit from a proven and comprehensive range of services to meet all maintenance (left)TheC-17 GlobemasterIII poweredexclusivelyby fourPratt&Whitney engines transports armedforcespersonnel equipmentand humanitarianaid aroundtheglobe (right)Pratt& Whitney sF135CTOL enginepoweredthe firsteverF-35Anight flightearlierthisyear GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE readiness and product support requirements. Pratt & Whitney s Fleet Management Programs and Aftermarket Services organizations collaborate to provide a comprehensive range of products and services including scheduled and unscheduled maintenance functions. We structure our fleet-readiness services and programs so any services required are delivered through a single point of contact that has ultimate responsibility for customer satisfaction. As nations such as India look to the future needs of their aircraft fleets Pratt & Whitney will remain a partner in technology innovation and foresight that pushes the industry forward. Our military engines continue a legacy of providing unmatched safety dependability reliability and maturity to warfighters around the world. As forces continue to support peacekeeping and military missions Pratt & Whitney will remain devoted to delivering world-class propulsion systems to help power our customers into the future. n ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Pratt & WHitNey CONTENTS raFael the Perfect Partner for india s Defense Needs IronDome Expertise in a Wide Range of Defense Solutions Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd designs develops manufactures and supplies a wide range of high-tech defense systems for air land sea and space applications. Tailored to its customer s specific needs Rafael provides stateof-the-art yet cost-effective systems and weapons in the fields of Missiles air defense naval systems target acquisition EW C4ISR communication networks data links electro-optic payloads add-on armor combat vehicle upgrading mine field breaching border and coastal protection systems breaching munitions and much more. Defenseagainst Shortrangeartillery rockets GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Rafael The Company Rafael was established as part of Israel s Ministry of Defense more than 50 years ago and was incorporated in 2002. Currently 7% of its sales are invested in R&D. Rafael s know-how is embedded in almost all Israel Defense Forces (IDF) systems in operation today. The company has a special relationship 92 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue roSoboronexPort ka-226t vs Fennec russia expecting Victory he results of the tender to supply the Indian Air Force and Army with 197 reconnaissance and surveillance helicopters are expected to be announced soon. Rosoboronexport is hoping that the Ka-226T multi-purpose helicopter will win. Its rival is Eurocopter AS550 C3 Fennec helicopter. A distinct advantage of the Russian bid is its cumulative effect the superior Ka-226T chopper is offered together with an attractive offset program. First under the offset program Rosoboronexport proposes to establish joint production of subsystems and components for the Ka-226T followed by the assembly of these machines in India. Second the joint development of new Ka-226T versions is offered. And third this program will enable the two countries strategic partners to go to full-scale industrial cooperation on helicopters. Russia s vast experience in this area and the successful implementation of joint programs in the air- T craft field (licensed production of the MiG-21 MiG-27 Su-30MKI fighters in India ) are a good base for realizing the most ambitious goals. The Ka-226T helicopter stands out among its competitors on the world arms market owing to its superior performance and is optimal for surveillance transportation and search-and-rescue operations in hard-to-reach areas especially in mountainous terrain. Thanks to its coaxial rotor system the Ka-226T has a large reserve thrust and a high climb rate which increases its hover ceiling. The aerodynamic symmetry and lack of cross-coupling in the control chan- Rosoboronexport ishopingthat theKa-226Tmultipurposehelicopter willwin GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE nels simplify piloting the helicopter which is very important when flying at low altitudes. Such a machine is more maneuverable over the entire range of flight speeds. The excellent flight performance and a high level of survivability of the Ka-226T are also provided by two modern Turbomeca Arrius 2G1 engines. By the way the Ka-226T showed itself excellently during the evaluation trials conducted within the tender earlier in India. These tests clearly demonstrated that the Ka-226T had embodied the best Kamov design school achievements easy piloting technique low vibration high reliability flight safety and low maintenance. n 94 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue rubiN Conventional Submarines for Dynamically Developing indian Navy N Dieselelectric Rubin (CDB ME Rubin ). They are supplemented with four Type 209 submarines (IKL-1500) constructed to a German design and diesel electric Scorpene Class submarines designed in France being constructed by Indian Shipyards. The most submarineofpr.877ekm SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 95 REGIONAL BALANCE owadays the Indian Navy is the major submarine power in the region. Its backbone is ten conventional submarines constructed by Russian shipyards to the designs developed by Russian Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE recent acquisition of the Indian Navy is state-of-the-art SSN Chakra . This diversity in the Indian submarine fleet supports the policy pursued by the country s leadership in order to diversify military equipment and technology pro- ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS ruSSian aircraft corPoration MiG Steady Progress R ussian Aircraft Corporation MiG (RAC MiG) is a steadily operating Company which increases manufacture of up-to-date aircraft and has strong potential for progress. RAC MiG incorporates all units required for the production of aircraft. Mikoyan Design Bureau Engineering Center has proved its reputation as one of the leading companies in Russia. Production facilities of the Corporation in Moscow Lukhovitsy and Kalyazin are being modernized and increase serial production of MiG aircraft. JSC RAC MiG comprises of the Flight Test Center named after A.V. Fedotov. JSC RAC MiG is a part of JSC United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) and increases cooperation with many enterprises of UAC. In 2011 MiG Corporation delivered 12 combat aircraft to the customers. There are plans to manufacture 24 aircraft this year. There is a growing demand for MiG aircraft. In these regards General Director of MiG Corporation Sergey Korotkov declares plans to manufacture 36 aircraft annually.The order book of JSC RAC MiG exceeds 6 billion U.S. dollars. It is well balanced as includes both internal and export contracts. India a priority customer According to Sergey Korotkov cooperation with India for most priority foreign customer for RAC MiG has been successfully developing in many directions. In 2011 JSC RAC MiG completed the contract dated 2004 on the delivery of 16 MiG-29K KUB aircraft SergeyKorotkov MIGRACDirector generalperformed aflightonboard two-seatMiG-29KUB fromaircraftcarrier Vikramaditya GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE to the Indian Navy. Besides in the middle of last year production of another 29 MiG-29K KUB fighters has been started according to the second contract with the Indian Ministry of Defense signed 2010. In the summer of 2012 a significant set of tests of MiG-29K and MiG-29KUB aircraft was completed onboard the aircraft carrier Vikramaditya which was radically upgraded in line with contract with Indian Navy. The tests were aimed at checking new aircraft-technical means of flight support aircraft arresting units optical landing system com- 98 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue Saab technology with Foresight aab is a global defence and security company founded in Sweden in 1937. Today it is establishing itself as a long-term defence player in the Indian market. Its contribution to Indo-Swedish partnership goes back to 1970s when India acquired the Carl Gustaf Anti Tank defence system from Saab. Carl Gustaf has proved itself to be a highly modern and capable ground support weapon offering devastating behind- S armour effects and airburst capability. It is man-portable and ruggedized and its multi-purpose capability provides freedom of action for the commander in all environments. Ever since Saab has been a reliable partner in India s defence. Saab is currently pursuing many individual opportunities in the requirements of the Indian defence forces. All of Saab s Business Areas are active in India offering high-tech solutions Theall-newRBS 70NGisaversatile battlefieldgame changerthatutilises state-of-the-art componentsand technologytoprovide ahighlyintegrated modularairdefence system GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE and products such as the C4I EW (Self Protection Systems) Signature Management Missile & Weapon Systems Fighters Sensors (Radars) Maritime Security and Civil Security LPI Radars and Sea Giraffe. Some of the products on offer to India today under various programs are n RBS70 NG The all-new RBS 70 NG is a versatile battlefield game changer that utilises state-of-the- 100 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue SaGeM agem a high-tech company in the Safran group is one of the world s leading suppliers of optronics avionics and navigation systems electronics and safety-critical software. Operating in both civil and military markets Sagem has 7 500 employees and annual sales of 1.26 billion (2011). Safran is a leading international high-tech group and a Tier-1 supplier of systems and equipment for aerospace (propulsion and equipment) defense and security. Safran has over 54 000 employees and operations in more than 50 countries. Sagem is organized in three divisions. Avionics Division. Sagem is one of only two companies in the world to apply all key inertial navigation technologies mechanical vibrating resonant optical-fiber and laser gyros for air land and sea applications. No. 1 in Europe and No. 3 worldwide in this market. The Sigma family of laser gyro navigation systems is used by leading aircraft (Rafale Su-30 MKI MiG29 A400M NH90 EC725) ships S PHOTO COPyRIGHT Philippe Wodka-Gallien Sagem (Safran group) (Fremm Horizon Barracuda and Scorpene submarines) and artillery systems (Caesar Mars Archer etc). This division develops and produces AASM Hammer an air-to-ground all weather precision stand-off missile. Optronics & Defense Division. This division offers a wide range of optronic systems for air naval and ground forces. These systems handle surveillance warning identification and engagement. Sagem is prime contractor for the French FELIN infantry program and a key partner of several infantry programs (FIST in the United Kingdom IMESS in Switzerland). For infantry C4ISR 5000 JIM LR infrared multifunction binoculars are in order or in service in several armies. Sagem has a comprehensive range of naval optronic products from surveillance to fire control Vampir NG EOMS NG and Vigy Observer. Sagem proposes Sagemaasm hammerisseenhere onsolenzaraairbase (corsica france) inmay2011 just beforetobefixed onFrenchAirForce Rafaleforprecision strikemissionsover LibyawithinUnified Protectoroperation ofNATO. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE PatrollerTM a medium-altitude longendurance UAV. Leader in optronics mast for submarines Sagem supplies the masts of the Indian Scorpene program and others in the world Brasil & Chili SSK and France s Triomphant strategic subs and the futur Barracuda. Safran Electronics Division. The Safran Electronics division comprises 1 500 specialists in electronics and safety critical software used in air land and sea platforms. Working for Safran this division develops and produces computers printed circuit boards andassociated software. They are used for a number of Safran products including landing and braking systems engine control systems avionics navigation and optronics systems etc. In addition Sagem provides maintenance repair and overhaul (MRO) services for these products. n 102 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue SaMtel avioniCS & DeFenCe SySteMS aiming to become india s First Complete avionics Firm in Private Domain S SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 103 REGIONAL BALANCE amtel Avionics & Defence Systems (SA) is a key Indian player in high-technology products for avionics and military applications in both domestic and international markets. SA straddles the entire value chain from design development manufacture testing qualification repair & maintenance and obsolescence management of avionics products and equipment for military as well as commercial platforms. The company operates in the domains of Displays Built-to-Print for Avionics LRUs and Opto-electronics. Its products and services include Multi-Functional Displays (MFDs) Smart Multi-Functional Displays (SMFDs) Full Colour Displays (FCD) for commercial aircraft Head Up Displays (HUDs) Helmet Mounted Sight Displays (HMSDs) Automated Test Equipment (ATEs) Multifunction Indicators 3ATI & 4ATI Infra Red Search and Track (IRST) Rugged military displays for Land Naval and Airborne platforms Built-to-print (BTP) manufacturing MRO services and Obsolescence Management. Samtel Avionics & Defence Systems along with its joint ventures with HAL and Thales is now on an accelerated growth path to newer domains in modern avionics systems and applications for military and commercial platforms. The Samtel-HAL JV already enjoys the unique distinction of being the first public-private partnership in defence avionics space in India to indigenously design qualify and serial produce multifunction displays which are currently flying on Su-30 MKI. On the other hand the Samtel-Thales JV is aimed at manufacturing indigenous Helmet-Mounted Sight and Display Systems Infra Red Search and Track (IRST) and AS9100Ccertified qualityprocesses DGAQAapproved manufacturing facility GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE modern Avionics Systems for the Indian and export defence markets. SA has also signed a long-term contract with Honeywell for avionics equipment meant for aircraft in the US. This product has received TSO or Technical Standard Order certification for commercial aircraft which is an authorization of design and production approval. Samtel is an approved supplier of Honeywell worldwide and their only source for production of this display. Samtel s DGAQA approved manufacturing facility and CEMILAC approved design house is located at Greater Noida in Delhi NCR. With a dedicated focus on Quality Samtel is operating with ISO 9001 2008 and SAE AS 9100 Rev-C quality system standard at its production facilities. SA has been awarded with Frost & Sullivan Hot Investment Opportunity Award 2009 and Gold trophy of the EMPI- Indian Express Indian Innovation Awards 2010. Samtel is truly poised to become the ideal partner for all avionics system integrators around the world. n ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS SeleX Galileo S Drakomicrouas fromSelexGalileo ELEX Galileo forms part of the Finmeccanica Group of companies that specialises in the design manufacture and life cycle support for a wide portfolio of products and technologies that span aerospace defence and security applications. Our vision is to deliver to our Customers total awareness and total protection so helping them to see and keeping them safe. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Core Capabilities SELEX Galileo is at the forefront of technologies considered by many customers as being critical to mission success and survivability. The Company applies these technolo- 104 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue Tata12x12MissileLauncher Military and paramilitary forces so far. Tata Motors defence solutions cover the complete range of logistics armoured and specialist vehicles. Tata Motors offer products and services that not only meet the needs of the domestic market but are also positioned to meet most of the stringent requirements of armies across the world and exports its range of specialized defence vehicles to countries in the SAARC region ASEAN and Africa. Tata Motors is now focusing on modernization and system upgrades of mobility platforms which includes Missiles Carriers MPVs MBTs and ICVs. n Since 1964 ASIAN WHO S WHO SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 107 REGIONAL BALANCE INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY ata Motors Limited is India s largest automobile company with revenues of USD 32 .5 Billion in 20011-12. It is also the worlds fourth largest truck and bus manufacturer. Tata Motors has been associated with the country s defence forces since 1958 and has supplied over 1 00 000 vehicles to Indian T CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES tata MotorS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Web World of SP s CONTENTS telePhonicS elephonics is a broad based advanced technology company specializing in cutting-edge radar technology and communication systems serving the Aerospace Defense and Commercial markets around the world. Whether it s in the air on the sea or ground based our advanced electronic systems are on board to ensure the safety and security of thousands of military and civilians worldwide. Radar Solutions Telephonics is among the world leaders in airborne multi-mode radar and Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) systems. Our radar offer long-range detection tracking and identification of small targets in the most severe maritime environments with SAR and ISAR imaging weather avoidance and AIS. We deliver and support the broadest product line of high-performance affordable radar solutions. T Our advanced products enable the mission success of rotary-wing fixed-wing aircraft unmanned aerial vehicles shipboard aerostat and ground-based systems in more than 25 countries around the world. Wired and Wireless Communication Solutions Telephonics is an industry leader in both the defense and civil markets for advanced communication systems. TelephonicsMobile SurveillanceCapability (MSC) GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Our TruLink voice intercom system enables safe and efficient hands-free full-duplex operation. Telephonics fully digital secure Communication Open Architecture system feature designs adaptable to special mission and IP communications. Our secure digital intercom suite is the communications backbone of some 45 platforms around the world. All of our systems are designed to meet stringent customer require- 108 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue textron SySteMS briefs technologies to Potential Customers teammates extron Systems Corporation a business unit of Textron Inc. is accelerating its presence and activities in India. This includes the company s contract to provide 512 Sensor Fuzed Weapons (SFW) to the Indian Air Force for integration onto the Jaguar aircraft as contracted in 2010 as a foreign military sale. Our SFW is unique in that it provides a powerful area attack capability but does not leave behind harmful unexploded ordnance explains Senior Vice President International Business and Government Kevin Cosgriff. Paired with the Jaguar aircraft it will create a formidable capability for the Indian Air Force. In addition the company is briefing multiple parts of the Indian government including the armed forces and security agencies on technologies aimed at current and future requirements. We have offered our support and expertise to the Indian Navy as it explores hovercrafts says Cosgriff. Our Landing Craft Air Cushion ves- T sels are the gold standard and have been in service successfully with the U.S. Navy for decades. They can land on about three-quarters of the world s shorelines accommodate extreme conditions ranging from Arctic cold to equatorial heat and carry large loads for literally hundreds of miles at high speed. It is a proven and versatile asset. Textron Systems also is working with the Ministry of Home Affairs the Defence Research and Development Organisation and the National Intelligence Grid discussing their counter-terrorism needs in areas such as geospatial visualization data translation and management and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) . We offer a spectrum of multisource intelligence software and TextronSystems willprovide512 sensorfuzedweapons totheindianair force GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE display solutions as well as a family of battle-proven UAS command and control technologies to create a powerful security toolkit says Cosgriff. Textron Systems works closely with Textron India Private Limited which was established in 2004 in a state-of-the-art facility in Bangalore s Global Village. Its mission is to support Textron s many well-known brands within the country through engineering expertise sourcing and business development. The location includes electronics labs with space for a vehicle and mechanical engineering workshop. It employs several hundred qualified engineers and professionals supporting engineering aeronautical industrial design product and product management projects. There are numerous opportunities for Textron Systems in India to provide our solutions team with local industry source components from local industry and more noted Cosgriff. We look forward to further strengthening our relationships and increasing our activities throughout India. n 110 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue thaleS technology leader in Defence & Security and aerospace & transport SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 111 REGIONAL BALANCE hales is a trusted partner of defence and security forces worldwide working with them to provide the best possible protection in the field and operate more effectively and more efficiently. Our mission is to support the armed forces in accomplishing their missions in the traditional defence environments air land sea and space and the emerging environments of urban combat and cyber warfare and meet growing demand from governments for integration of defence and security forces. Thales has been operating in India since 1953. The Group participated in the creation of Bharat Electronics Ltd. and has been a constant partner of the Indian Armed Forces ever since. Today Thales India run offices in Delhi Gwalior Mumbai Visakhapatnam Bangalore Chennai Kochi and Lucknow to better serve its Army Navy Air Force and Civil customers. T A Growing Industrial Footprint Through Joint Ventures with Local Industry In 2008 Thales signed a JV agreement with Samtel to locally develop and produce Helmet Mounted Sight and Display Systems and modern avionics for the defence market. This JV based in Noida is the basis for all future aerospace development in India. In August 2012 Thales & BEL announced a Joint Venture to design and manufacture both defence and civilian radars. The CrotaleRadar GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE aim is to make the Joint Venture Company a centre of excellence with the ability to offer solutions specifically aimed at meeting the needs of both Indian and overseas customers. Thales will hold 26% equity the maximum allowed by any foreign company in the defence sector while BEL will hold the remaining 74% equity. Thales activities in India Thales India s long term objective in line with the group s international policy and the Government ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Authors profile air Marshal (retd) a.k. trikha The author s illustrious career in the IAF comprised extensive tenure in the Jaguar strike aircraft bases as Chief Operations Officer and base commander. He superannuated from the IAF in the post of AOC-in-C Southern Air Command. n ArTICle On pAge 85 Chief Staff Officer (Technical) in both the Western and eastern Commands and headed the naval Dockyard at Visakhapatnam. As Controller of Warship production and Acquisition he was responsible for design construction and acquisition of various warships and submarines from shipyards in India russia and Italy. He retired in 2009 as Chief of Materiel. He is in receipt of pVSM AVSM and VSM. n ArTICle On pAge 113 air Marshal (retd) b.k. Pandey Air Marshal B.K. pandey retired from the IAF after serving the organisation for nearly 40 years. During his career he held a number of important command and staff appointments the last being that of AOC-in-C Training Command of the IAF. Currently he is an editor with the Sp guide publications and is a resident of Bengaluru n ArTICle On pAge 273 297 brigadier (retd) Gurmeet kanwal Brigadier gurmeet Kanwal is a well-known military and strategic analyst who commanded an infantry brigade on the l0C with pakistan. He has been a Military Observer in the United nations Mission UnTAg in namibia. He has authored several books and was till recently the Director Centre for land Warfare Studies (ClAWS) new Delhi. n ArTICle On pAge 31 39 109 lt General (retd) b.S. Pawar An alumnus of rashtriya Indian Military College and national Defence Academy lt general (retd) B.S. pawar was commissioned into artillery in June 1968. During a career spanning four decades the officer has held a number of prestigious command and staff appointments. He has the distinction of commanding the largest artillery brigade in J&K in a counter-insurgency environment. He was Major general Artillery Western Command during Operation parakram. He also headed the Army Aviation Corps and was instrumental in the operationalisation of the advanced light helicopter during his tenure. A die-hard aviator and a flying instructor he has over 4 000 hours of flying to his credit and has flown five different types of aircraft. He is a recipient of pVSM and AVSM. n ArTICle On pAge 69 kanwal Sibal Kanwal Sibal was appointed as India s Foreign Secretary in July 2002. He had been India s Ambassador to Turkey (1989-92) Deputy Chief of Mission in the United States (1992-95) with the rank of Ambassador Ambassador to egypt (1995-98) Ambassador to France (1998-2002) and Ambassador to russia (2004-07). He was a member of India s national Security Advisory Board from november 2008 to november 2010. Most recently he was president of the Association of Indian Diplomats (2011-12). He is on the Board of Directors of the new York-based east-West Institute and on the Advisory Board of the Vivekanand International Foundation. He has received the high distinction of grand Officier of the Ordre du Merite from France. n ArTICle On pAge 23 Dr Monika Chansoria Dr Monika Chansoria is currently a Senior Fellow in France and is a Visiting professor and Associate Director of Studies (Directeur d tudes associ ) at the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l Homme paris. In addition she is a research Fellow at the Centre for land Warfare Studies (ClAWS) new Delhi. n ArTICle On pAge 35 Chintamani Mahapatra Chintamani Mahapatra is currently Tagore Chair professor at the Yunnan University China. He holds the regular post of a professor at the School of International Studies Jawaharlal nehru University new Delhi. professor Mahapatra is a visiting fellow with a large number of universities and Think tanks. He is a Visiting faculty at national Defence College Army War College Mhow College of naval Warfare Mumbai College of Air Warfare Indian Society of International law and Diplomacy Foreign Service Institute of Ministry of external Affairs lal Bahadur Shastri Academy of Administration (Civil Services training centre) Mussoorie and several academic staff colleges around India. n ArTICle On pAge 07 M.G. Devasahayam Soon after Indo-China War M.g. Devasahayam was commissioned into the Indian Army (Infantry Madras regiment) and participated in Indo-pak War 1965 aid to civil power (Assam and Tamil nadu) and counter-insurgency operations in nagaland. In 1968 Devasahayam moved from the Army to the Indian Administrative Service in Haryana cadre and then on to corporate and voluntary sectors. Devasahayam was associated with the movement of Jayaprakash narayan during and after emergency (1975-77). He also has the honour of closely working with Mother Teresa in the setting up Shanti-Dan [home for orphans abandoned infants dying destitutes and mentally retarded] at the heart of Chandigarh and a sanctuary for lepers in the city s outskirts. He is recipient of general Service Medals and Samar Seva Medal (War Service Medal) n ArTICle On pAge 57 Vice admiral (retd) Dilip Deshpande Having obtained bachelor s degree in Mechanical engineering from University College of engineering Bengaluru in 1970 Vice Admiral Dilip Deshpande was commissioned in the Indian navy in the engineering Branch in 1969. He has served in various operational command staff and industrial appointments and at naval Headquarters in both Marine engineering and naval Aviation. On promotion to Flag rank he served as 114 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue Author s profile Major General (retd) Mrinal Suman Major general Suman heads the Defence Technical Assessment and Advisory Service (DTAAS) of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). As the first Technical Manager (land Systems) he was closely associated with the evolution and promulgation of the new defence procurement mechanism in which his expertise is well known. n ArTICle On pAge 121 127 133 South Asian security risk and knowledge management consultancy. n ArTICle On pAge 141 451 ranjit Gupta Ambassador ranjit gupta is a retired Indian Foreign Service officer. He has been India s Ambassador to Yemen (north) Venezuela Oman Thailand and Spain and finally head of the non-official office in Taiwan. He is currently a member of the national Security Advisory Board and is leading a Joint research project with the gulf research Centre Dubai and on India gCC relations on behalf of the Ministry of external Affairs. n ArTICle On pAge 11 19 lt General (retd) Naresh Chand He is a former Director general Army Air Defence member of Integrated guided Missile Development programme member secretary of the first national radar Council. He has served with the Defence research and Development Organisation (DrDO) and was also a consultant with the Bharat electronics ltd. He was also involved in writing the history of the regiment of Artillery history of the Corps of Army Air Defence publishing the first coffee table book for the regiment of Artillery and the Corps of Army Air Defence. At present he is the Technical group editor with Sp guide publications. n ArTICle On pAge 97 101 331 brigadier (retd) rumel Dahiya Brigadier rumel Dahiya retired from net Assessment Directorate at Integrated Defence Staff of the Indian armed forces in 2009 and is currently the Deputy Director general Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses new Delhi. He previously served as a Defence Attach to Turkey Syria and lebanon with the Indian Military Training Team in Bhutan and with Military Operations Directorate of the Indian Army. n ArTICle On pAge 27 lt General (retd) P.C. katoch lt general p.C. Katoch superannuated as Director general Information Systems of the Indian Army. A third generation army officer he commanded Strike Corps in the South Western Theatre. He has served as Defence Attach in Japan with accreditation to republic of Korea. n ArTICle On pAge 51 73 327 rear admiral (retd) S. kulshrestha rear Admiral (retd) S. Kulshrestha is a post-graduate from Jodhpur University who joined Indian navy in the year 1975 and was awarded the Sword of Honour in 1976 for being the best naval Officer during initial training. He specialised in Quality Assurance of naval Armament and adorned various key appointments in the navy DrDO establishments ordnance factories and finally rose to become the Director general of naval Armament Inspection (DgnAI) at the Integrated Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence (navy). As DgnAI he was directly responsible for timely availability of reliable and safe naval armament to the operational fleet of the Indian navy. n ArTICle On pAge 89 air Chief Marshal (retd) P.V. Naik Air Chief Marshal p.V. naik is a former Chief of the Air Staff. He retired on July 31 2011. During his illustrious career in the IAF naik held many prestigious command and staff appointments such as AOC-in-C Central Air Command Allahabad and Vice Chief of Air Staff at Air Headquarters new Delhi. n ArTICle On pAge 43 Smita Purushottam Smita purushottam is currently India s Ambassador to Venezuela. She has served as Joint Secretary at the Foreign Service Institute Ministry of external Affairs (MeA) Joint Secretary in the Integrated Defence Staff Headquarters in the Ministry of Defence Director Under Secretary (east europe Soviet Union) and SAArC and Under Secretary (Bhutan) in MeA. She has also served as Deputy Chief of Mission in the Indian embassy in Berlin Minister (political) at the High Commission of India london Counsellor at the Indian embassy in Beijing and Counsellor First Secretary in Indian embassy in Brussels. n ArTICle On pAge 93 Major General r.P. bhadran Major general r.p. Bhadran an alumnus of the Indian Military Academy was commissioned to the Armoured Corps in 1979. He acquired a post-graduate degree in Combat Vehicles engineering in 1985. He is currently the Additional Director general Information Systems. n ArTICle On pAge 81 brigadier (retd) rahul k. bhonsle Brigadier (retd) rahul K. Bhonsle has three decades of experience in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism in India and abroad. He had hands-on experience in military modernisation and training during his service period heading a number of tactical and technical innovation projects at the operational level. post retirement since 2006 he has combined his military expertise with extensive study of future trends and coordinated a number of projects for Directorate of net Assessment Integrated Defence Staff Centre for the Joint Warfare Studies and Centre for land Warfare Studies. He is at present Director of Security-risks a Commodore (retd) Sujeet Samaddar Commodore Sujeet Samaddar graduated from IIT roorkee and served the Indian navy until his retirement as principal Director naval plans in 2009. He is an alumnus of College of Air Warfare Secunderabad Defence Services Staff College Wellington national Institute of Defence Studies Tokyo and the United nations University Tokyo. He has been a Fellow of the USI new Delhi and JIIA Tokyo. post retirement he was Vice president nova Integrated Systems a Tata enterprise. Currently he is Director and CeO ShinMaywa Industries India private limited a wholly-owned subsidiary of ShinMaywa Industries ltd Japan. n ArTICle On pAge 105 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 115 Author s profile admiral (retd) Sureesh Mehta Admiral Sureesh Mehta is a graduate of the Defence Services Staff College Wellington where he subsequently served as Directing Staff. On promotion to the Flag rank he was appointed Flag Officer naval Aviation. In October 1998 he assumed command of the Western Fleet and led the Sword Arm of the Indian navy during Kargil crisis. After holding the position of Director general Indian Coast guard he was appointed Deputy Chief of the naval Staff. He was the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief eastern naval Command before taking over as the Chief of the naval Staff and the Chairman Chiefs of the Staff Committee. He is a recipient of pVSM and AVSM. post retirement he served as High Commissioner of India in new Zealand. n ArTICle On pAge 65 strategic and military issues. He is currently the editor of SP s Land Forces and Technical editor of SP s Military Yearbook. n ArTICle On pAge 137 165 181 305 315 lt General V.k. Saxena lt general V.K. Saxena is an alumnus of Defence Services Staff College College of Defence Management and the coveted national Defence College. He is a silver-gunner and the first ever winner of the Director general of Artillery Trophy for standing first on the long gunnery Staff Course. He has had a wide exposure to varied command and staff assignments. He is currently the Commandant of the prestigious Army Air Defence College at gopalpur Odisha. n ArTICle On pAge 77 rear admiral (retd) Sushil ramsay rear Admiral Sushil ramsay retired after serving in the Indian navy for 38 years. He provided extensive strategic directions and operational expertise towards capacitybuilding in logistics defence expenditure administrative reforms and restructuring of Services Headquarters. He has been naval Attach in the embassy of India in Moscow. He is currently Senior editorial Advisor of SP s Naval Forces and Technical editor of SP s Military Yearbook. n General (retd) V.P. Malik general V.p. Malik was Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army from October 1 1997 to September 30 2000 and the Chairman COSC from January 1 1999 to September 30 2000. He planned coordinated and oversaw execution of the Operation Vijay to successfully defeat pakistan s attempted intrusion in the Kargil sector in 1999. After retirement he was a member of the national Security Advising Board for two years. He writes frequently for newspapers and magazines. n ArTICle On pAge 47 air Marshal (retd) V.k. bhatia The author has the distinction of having accumulated more than 5 000 hours of flying on all types of aircraft but mostly on single-engine fighters in the IAF. He was conferred gallantry awards (Vir Chakra) in both 1965 and 1971 wars against pakistan flying the Mystere and Su-7 respectively. He also has the rare distinction of being the AOC-in-C of three major operational commands of the IAF. He is currently the Senior Visiting editor of SP s Aviation and Technical editor of SP s MIlitary Yearbook. n ArTICle On pAge 117 217 228 lt General (retd) V.r. raghavan The general is a graduate from the royal Military College of Science and Army Staff College UK. After a distinguished career in the Indian Army general raghavan retired in 1994 as Director general of Military Operations of the Indian Army. Currently he is the Director Delhi policy group and president Centre for Security Analysis. n ArTICle On pAge 01 lt General (retd) V.k. kapoor lt general V.K. Kapoor was commissioned on February 9 1964. He is a specialist in armoured and mechanised warfare and in the art of war-gaming. prior to superannuating he was the Commandant of the Army War College at Mhow. He has written more than 120 articles for magazines and journals on brigadier (retd) Vinod anand Brigadier Vinod Anand was Brigadier general Staff Joint Operations at Army Training Command in his last assignment. He is a post-graduate in defence and strategic studies. He was a Senior Fellow at the USI of India and is currently a senior fellow with Vivekananda International Foundation. n ArTICle On pAge 61 157 116 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue Contents One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen India in the Era of Strategic Uncertainty Indo-US Growing Correlation Turmoil in West Asia Afghanistan s Future Stability Winds of Change in Myanmar India-Russia Strategic Partnership Iran-Israel Stand-off China s Future War Zone China s Military Stratagem India s Nuclear Deterrence Future of Aerospace Power India s Defence Sector Reforms Strategy National & Military Civil-Military Relationship Developments in South East Asia India s Incipient Maritime Responsibilities Army Aviation Corps 1 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 35 39 43 47 51 57 61 65 69 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Concepts & Perspectives CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section one 1 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m building economic Capability India has built a network of strategic partnerships around the world. These include economic technological and military components. Indian defence forces have carried a series of military air and naval exercises with a large number of countries. Indian naval visits and collaborative operations with countries extending from the Mediterranean to the Pacific have helped built mutual confidence. lt General (retd) V.r. raGhaVan n Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book M ajor developments in geopolitical and geoeconomic terms are currently transforming the international security scenario into one of uncertainty and volatility. Emergence of new economies in Asia Africa and Latin America coupled with global financial slowdown and the Euro zone crisis has transformed the global power equations. Global balance of power is assessed to be shifting to Asia. The 21st century is being heralded as the Asian century. This is attributed to the impressive rise of China India and South East Asian countries in economic and military terms. Asia is no longer in the lower rung of the global economy. The expansion of G-20 forum and demand for reforms in the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank reflect this trend. In addition to the ongoing power shift energy is increasingly interlinked with geopolitics as demand and competition for global resources sharpen. The ongoing shift creates opportunities and challenges in the future. In an era of strategic uncertainty Indian security choices will be guided as much by these developments as by its fundamental strategic priorities. Indian Security Concerns The present transition has been driven by dramatic changes in information and communication technology economics political and strategic factors. The world has witnessed many changes during the past few decades but the recent trends have a long-lasting impact on the global security architecture. The rise of China and associated geopolitical developments in East Asia uprising in West Asia global financial downturn and Euro zone crisis Afghanistan and international terrorism energy and the quest for new sources and cyber security form the range of India s security concerns. Indian Strategic Priorities India s first strategic priority of sustained economic development has and will continue to remain in order to raise 40 per cent of one billion Indian people out of poverty. India cannot claim to be a successful GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 1 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO state without this major strategic necessity remaining unfulfilled. India requires a stable political environment within and a peaceful international environment to conduct its affairs. Coalition governments being a regular feature of governance with the rise of smaller regional parties in determining foreign and domestic policy issues decisionmaking and reaching a consensus becomes increasingly difficult. In order to pursue its developmental and economic goals a peaceful periphery in the Indian region is a strategic necessity. Intra-state conflicts have prevented India s neighbour from emerging as strong economic entities. Equally a stable international security and economic environment is a strategic necessity for India. India needs access to the world market and resources for continued economic development. Exports account for 20 per cent of India s GDP. India with its unique geopolitical positioning in Asia has an increasingly influential role to play in the regional security. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 PIB MEA Strategic Uncertainty WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India in the Era of CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m President obama s india Policy The key question is whether Indo-US strategic partnership is inching towards a new alliance between the two countries. In the Chinese and Pakistani perception New Delhi and Washington appear to be slowly moving towards a model of relationship that may not fit into traditional definition of alliance but certainly the one that is fast becoming more intense than partnership . n ChintaMani MahaPatra Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book W 7 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE hat is the performance record of President Barack Obama s policy towards India How has he approached a country that the US President describes as an indispensable partner of the United States Has it been a steady progression of relationship since he assumed office Has it witnessed ups and downs and peaks and valleys Has President Obama been able to further elevate US-India relations from what he inherited from his predecessor--President George W. Bush The analysis below shows that the answers to the above questions are in the positive. Eight years of Bush presidency marked one of the most fruitful and positive relationships between India and the United States. This period featured a paradigm shift in the US perception and engagement with a country that stayed away from American Cold War strategies for over 40 years. While America s fight against communism came on the way of a cooperative model of Indo-US relations Washington s determined brawl against terrorism and religious extremism brought the two countries together and heralded a strategic partnership between an erstwhile cold warrior and a non-aligned nation. The significant markers in Indo-US relations since the inception of the Bush Administration were first unprecedented level of military exercises across all services between the two countries second India s participation in reconstruction activities in Afghanistan in the midst of Bush s war against the Al-Qaeda and the Taliban in that country third Indian private companies were not only allowed to operate in Iraq during the US military intervention in that country the Indian Government also considered for sometime an American request to contribute troops to a proposed stabilisation force in Iraq fourth India and the US inked a decade-long framework agreement to foster defence cooperation and finally President George Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh despite substantive domestic procedural and political difficulties managed to sign a civilian nuclear cooperation agreement. The paradigm shift in India-America relationship is underscored by the fact that none of the above five areas of mutual understanding and cooperation were feasible during the Cold War years. More significantly Washington s policy towards China and Pakistan no longer created fissure in bourgeoning security cooperation between India and the United States. The Bush Administration s description of China as a strategic competitor caused no excitement in India and the US expressed no concern about Indian efforts to strike a positive chord in its equation with China. Similarly designation of Pakistan as a major non-North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) ally did not perturb New Delhi. Obama s Entry Another Paradigm Shift When Barack Obama won the presidential election in 2008 India had little to celebrate. Positions of Obama during the election campaigns on foreign policy issues generated little enthusiasm in India. In fact there were apprehensions that Obama could reinvigorate security ties GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 PIB MEA Growing Correlation WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Indo-US CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m implications for india The rise of political Islam in the context of democratic constitutional framework should not be a matter of concern to a pluralist democratic India with a huge Muslim population of its own fully involved in the country s political process. India need not lose sleep due to the ascendancy of political Islam. n ranjit GUPta T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 11 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he Arab world has been engulfed in completely unanticipated and historically unprecedented turmoil since the beginning of 2011. Hundreds of thousands of docile masses rose up spontaneously. There was no known or identifiable leader nor the banner of any specific ideology. It was a movement spearheaded by the younger generation but consciously inclusive of all the diverse elements that constitute a national society demanding not merely reform but also regime change. In the Arab context this was Revolution . Before regimes can be overthrown or dislodged people must overcome fear of regimes and even the most autocratic ones must be ready to die. The centuries old fear of their rulers disappeared. There is no rational explanation for all this but it happened. The long awaited Arab Spring had dawned. Two strongly entrenched ruthless dictators Hosni Mubarak who ruled Egypt with an iron hand for 30 years and Zinedin Ben Ali who was in charge in Tunisia for 23 years were compelled to leave office. Without taking anything away from the courageous protests of common people the unvarnished reality is that they had to go because the armed forces chose not to violently confront their own people. The protests rapidly spread to other countries. They added new dimensions to the multiple feuds that have plagued Yemen for decades where Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) mediation paved the way for Ali Abdullah Saleh to leave after 33 years at the helm. The revolt in Bahrain Prognosis Far more important than the outcomes in individual countries this turmoil has had two major consequences which will have significant continuing impact within the Arab world. First in the longer-term the political rise of Islamist forces will inject a new and powerful factor that could transform the Arab world into a very different persona from what the world has known and dealt with for a long time. Secondly for the immediate future the outcome of the no holds barred stand-off between Saudi Arabia and Iran personifying a vigorous Sunni response to a supposedly rising Shia threat will reshape the geopolitics of the West Asian region. The Rise of Political Islam The Arab Spring enabled the emergence of the long banned exiled and persecuted Islamic parties into the open as the main players even though they were neither in the vanguard nor even active participants. Their well-oiled and organised networks were quickly activated to take advantage of the newly emerging political opportunities. Unlike in the GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE has been squelched. Despite unleashing his security forces to hunt down and destroy the rebel rats Muammar Gaddafi was killed after 42 years of unalloyed dictatorship over Libya. For all practical purposes Syria is now embroiled in a deeply destructive and full-scale civil war. Reform in varying degrees has been initiated in most countries. The cash rich Gulf states have handed out huge financial sops to nip the unrest in the bud. Egypt Libya and Tunisia have managed transitions to democratically elected governments. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 PIB West asia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Turmoil in CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m on the Path of democracy and enduring Freedom As Afghanistan is getting ready for yet another withdrawal of foreign elements the parallels between the withdrawal of the Soviet forces in 1989 and the planned withdrawal of US-led forces in 2014 will be inevitably debated in the wider strategic community. While there are striking similarities there are also differences on the ground which could help the situation in Afghanistan turn for the better. dr aShok k. behUria n Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book F 15 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE or the last three decades Afghanistan has witnessed tremendous socio-political upheavals. It acted as an important factor during the end of the Cold War era in international politics and the triumph of the free world over communism. In the process Afghanistan became an international battlefield where a medieval ideology was transplanted as a shield against communist expansion. The liberal world led by the United States succeeded in the bargain. However the consequence of such success has been disastrous for Afghanistan and the world especially because the world chose to abandon Afghanistan after one decade of intensive engagement. By then Afghanistan had been afflicted with the virus of radicalism which it has refused to shed over the next two decades. Since the appearance of Taliban in the mid-1990s and its cohabitation with the Salafi Wahabi Al-Qaeda this radical Islamic ideology has posed a critical threat to international peace. After a decade of abandonment in the 1990s the world was forced to get back to Afghanistan in the wake of the 9 11 attacks to fight out the very ideology of radical Islam which was carefully nourished in the 1980s. Thus followed the move to rebuild and reconstruct Afghanistan. The last one decade of international engagement has introduced modern state and administrative structures given a fillip to liberalism and democracy and laid the foundations of a new Afghanistan . In the face of stiff resistance from the Taliban a large international force has so far provided security to the process of transition. However the decision of the United States and its allies to pull out their security forces by end 2014 has led to speculations about the survivability of the fledgling process of normalisation in Afghanistan. Against this backdrop the present article seeks answers to the following questions. What are the facts on the ground Does the present process of withdrawal of the US forces signal a throwback to the 1990s What are the impediments to a smooth transition Will the international community re-abandon Afghanistan What is the role of the regional countries What are the best and worst case scenarios What are the implications for an unstable Afghanistan Facts on the Ground Afghanistan has witnessed huge amount of investment on security by international forces since 2001 when Operation Enduring Freedom was launched on October 7 2001. This was also the beginning of the socalled War on Terror . The idea underlying this operation was to fight out international terrorism that manifested itself in the attacks on the World Trade Center twin towers in New York the Pentagon and supposedly an aborted attack on the White House on 9 11. Afghanistan was the immediate target of the US-led international forces because of the fact that the roots of 9 11 were traced to Al-Qaeda led by Osama bin Laden who was given shelter by Taliban Government in Afghanistan. The aim of the war on terror was to dislodge the Taliban dismantle the Al-Qaeda network secure the world from the threat of GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 US Army Future Stability WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Afghanistan s CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m implications for india The Indo-Myanmar relationship holds promise to be much closer than it has ever been in the past and indeed is potentially poised to become the best amongst India s South Asian neighbours after Bhutan n ranjit GUPta Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Political Reform The stand-off between the military regime and Aung San Suu Kyi has been the defining feature of the political scene for past two decades during which she has been kept in detention for 15 years. She was released unconditionally from house arrest on November 13 2010 less than a week after the parliamentary elections. Detailing her activities since then would fill a small book but it would suffice to say that the government has been bending over backwards to ensure her active participation in the country s politics. From a situation of a complete ban of even the mention of her name all her activities have been extensively GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 19 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE F or decades Myanmar has been under the arbitrary and autocratic rule of a ruthless military dictatorship. However since November 2011 it has been undergoing an unexpectedly radical process of political and economic transformation and has emerged as one of the very few really bright spots in a rather troubled world. A new government took over in April 2011 when U. Thein Sein the former General and Prime Minister was sworn in as President. State power in the new governmental structure in Myanmar is now distributed between different poles the Presidency heading the executive the military the parliament and the party within the framework of a written constitution. Such an institutional architecture had not existed for the past two decades. This is an enormous substantive contrast with the past when all State power was concentrated de facto in the hands of Senior General Than Shwe. covered by the local media including front page photographs. Her party was legalised and secured a landslide victory winning 43 out of 44 seats contested in the bye-elections held on April 1 2012. The government made no effort to tamper with the results. After initially refusing she took the mandatory oath pledging to safeguard the Constitution to take her seat in Parliament. Through these actions she has conferred legitimacy to the Constitution which she had earlier termed illegal and to the Parliament elections which she and her party had boycotted in November 2010 and which she had described as fraudulent . She has been appointed the Chairperson of Parliament s important Rule of Law and Tranquillity Committee . She has been allowed to meet all visiting foreign dignitaries. All this is a public manifestation of the regime s recognition of the necessity of her cooperation in shaping the country s future and its commitment to move the country towards democracy. Their statesmanlike working together is the most emblematic feature of the emerging new political scenario in Myanmar. A large number of political prisoners amongst them the most prominent dissidents including the generation-88 student leaders have been released and permitted free access to media and political activity. Freedom of assembly and the right to hold demonstrations (though advance permission from the police is necessary it has been liberally granted) has been allowed. Censorship and access to Internet have been very greatly relaxed. Exiles have been invited to return home and many high-profile activists living abroad have returned. Ministers of education health tourism etc are civilians who are well known professionals from their fields. Partial decentralisation through the establishment of minorities focused legislative and executive structures at the local level for the first time ever is a completely new and welcome aspect of governance in Myanmar. A landmark cease-fire agreement with the armed BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 PIB Myanmar WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Winds of Change in CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m PIB SP Guide Pubns IAF Changing relationship and Future Prospects Russia s recognition of India s pre-eminence in South Asia is part of our strategic understanding. It does not arm our adversaries or help them develop strategic capabilities. It does not insert itself into conflicts in the region and press for solutions that fit into its regional interests or concern itself with a strategic balance in South Asia. All in all India s strategic partnership with Russia is vital for maintaining a balanced and independent Indian foreign policy. kanWal Sibal n ism and terrorism. All this contributes to enduring reasons for cultivating ties of friendship and understanding. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book I Strategic Partnership & Defence Supplies India and Russia established a strategic partnerships in 2000 the first such between India and another country. Today India has such partnerships with several countries prompting India and Russia to elevate their strategic partnership further to a privileged one during the twelfth summit meeting at Prime Minister President level in December 2011. The annual summits between the two countries reflect the importance these two countries attach to their relationship and the need felt to monitor it at the highest level regularly. The thirteenth summit will be held in New Delhi this year when President Putin travels to India. Defence supplies remain the most important pillar of the IndiaRussia relationship. This relationship is based on trust which takes time to build in this sensitive area with political reliability being a critical element. Already 50-70 per cent of equipment with India s armed forces is of Russian origin underlining the strategic stakes involved. Russia s willingness to supply India advanced weaponry and platforms that cannot be obtained from elsewhere notably the nuclear powered submarine that has joined the Indian fleet this year requires that we nurture this relationship with care. Russia is providing technical help in developing the indigenous Arihant. India is collaborating with Russia to develop the fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) and the multi-role transport aircraft (MTA). While the government has released 295 million for completing the preliminary design once it is frozen India as has 23 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ndia s relationship with Russia is characterised by remarkable stability despite enormous changes at the international level. A resilient relationship with Russia which is time-tested and founded on trust remains an asset of great diplomatic value even if Russian power has declined. Russia of course can no longer provide the same kind of political and economic support to India as it did during the Cold War years nor does India need it as the challenges have become different for both countries. A weakened Russia has to contend with challenges from the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) it has developed by mutually supportive strategic understandings with China. India s own relationship with the US has improved very considerably to the point that the two countries have a strategic partnership and the US considers India a lynchpin of its re-balancing strategy towards Asia. However in an uncertain and fluid international environment the core value of the relationship remains as the two countries continue to share some key interests. Russia retains impressive strengths in several strategic areas. It is in a position to offer valuable defence equipment and sensitive military technologies is immensely resource rich and is a permanent member of the UN Security Council. India and Russia have similar views on many geopolitical issues and face common challenges from Islamic radical- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 Partnership WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India-Russia Strategic CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m wikimedia UN From interest-based Cooperation to overtly hostile relationship Each country s desire to dominate the region and their embedded sense of insecurity has created conditions which have raised the spectre of a major regional conflict. It would be useful to go some decades back to analyse the trajectory of relations between Iran and Israel. n briGadier (retd) rUMel dahiya R Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book elations between Iran and Israel are at a historical low. They have enjoyed cordial and cooperative relationship in the past but this relationship has now turned totally adversarial. There are a number of reasons that have caused interest-based cooperative relationship in the past to turn into overtly hostile one as at present. Iran s alleged quest for acquiring nuclear weapons is not the real driving force behind the sharply deteriorated relations between the two countries. It is difficult to imagine Israel using its nuclear weapons in any conflict nor Iran using them ever if and when it acquires them. Therefore there is a need to analyse the actual reasons for the stand-off. Basically each country s desire to dominate the region and their embedded sense of insecurity has created conditions which have raised the spectre of a major regional conflict. That both the states are messianic explains to some extent their behaviour towards each other but even that would be an insufficient explanation since Jews were well treated in Persia since the Biblical times. Therefore ideology may be the effect and not the cause. It would be useful to go some decades back to analyse the trajectory of relations between Iran and Israel. History of Iran-Israel Relations The history of Iran-Israel relations can be broadly divided into two phases--one from the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 until 27 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 and the second from 1979 till date. Iran was the second Muslim country after Turkey to recognise Israel as a sovereign nation. Although no formal diplomatic relations were established Israel maintained a permanent delegation in Tehran which served as a de facto embassy. Iran s relations with its Arab neighbours on the other hand were shaped mainly by enduring sectarian divide and also by Iran s perceived closeness to Israel. Iran surrounded by Sunni countries found David Ben-Gurion s concept of an alliance of the periphery an attractive proposition. It suited both Iran and Israel to develop cooperative relationship to balance their common adversary--the Arab neighbours. Geographic separation ensured that their zones of interest i.e. Levant for Israel and Persian Gulf for Iran did not overlap. Iran and Israel had much in common including close relationship with the United States. By late 1950 therefore based on common threats and common interests the two countries became close allies albeit not formally. Before and after the Six-Day War in 1967 Iran supplied Israel with significant quantities of oil and Israel helped Iran with weapons sale. The joint missile development programme Project Flower symbolised close Iran-Israel ties. They also cooperated closely in propping up Kurds in northern Iraq to check their common adversary Iraq. However Iran did not like to see Israel becoming too powerful. Accordingly Israel s swift and comprehensive victory in 1967 war raised concerns in Iran and the latter started nuancing its position vis- -vis Arabs particularly on the question of Palestine. The d tente between the superpowers British withdrawal of troops East of Suez Canal in 1971 distraction of the United States in Vietnam GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 7 Stand-off WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Iran-Israel CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m xinhuanet infrastructure in tibet The People s Liberation Army (PLA) has been steadily engaged in developing military infrastructure in Tibet. The railway line from Gormo to Lhasa which is to be extended further to Shigatse and on to Kathmandu has made it possible for the PLA to quickly induct and then sustain much larger forces in Tibet than had been the case before it was commissioned. briGadier (retd) GUrMeet kanWal n Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book C 31 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE hina and India both Asian giants and emerging world powers have begun to exercise immense influence in international political and economic affairs. As China s GDP is much larger than that of India it enjoys a correspondingly greater international clout at present. Relations between India and China have been fairly stable at the strategic level. Political and economic relations between India and China are much better now than these have ever been since the 1962 border war between the two countries. Economic relations are much better now than these have been in the past. Mutual economic dependence is growing rapidly every year with bilateral trade increasing at a brisk pace. Even though it is skewed in China s favour bilateral trade has crossed 50 billion and is expected to touch 60-70 billion soon. The two countries have been cooperating in international fora like the World Trade Organisation (WTO) talks and climate change negotiations. There has even been some cooperation on energy security. However growth in the strategic and security relationship has not kept pace with the political and economic relationship. Despite prolonged negotiations at the political level to resolve the long-standing territorial and boundary dispute between the two countries there has been little progress on this sensitive issue. China has a clandestine nuclear warheads-ballistic missiles-military hardware technology transfer rela- Preparing Tibet as Future War Zone On July 10 2012 an intelligence report reportedly issued by the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) warned of the clear and present danger of a conflict being initiated by China along its border with India ostensibly to divert attention from mounting domestic problems including political dissent economic challenges and social discord. On July 26 2012 Ranjit Sinha Director General of Indo-Tibetan Border Police said that China is not a friend and is not to be trusted. The Naresh Chandra Committee on defence reforms has also sounded a warning about China s military preparations. The RAW report points to increased activity by units of the People s Liberation Army (PLA) in the areas across the line of actual control (LAC) by way of enhanced surveillance and military training exercises which could be tantamount to full dress rehearsals. Recent exercises have included one on the rapid induction of airborne divisions into Tibet in 36 to 48 hours from bases in adjacent military GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE tionship with Pakistan that causes apprehension in India. Also in recent years China appears to have raised the ante by way of its shrill political rhetoric frequent transgressions across the line of actual control (LAC) and unprecedented cyber attacks on Indian networks. The security relationship has the potential to act as a spoiler in the larger relationship and will ultimately determine whether the two Asian giants will clash or cooperate for mutual gains. Arguably while the India-China relationship is relatively stable at the strategic level China s political diplomatic and military aggressiveness at the tactical level is acting as a dampener. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 8 Future War Zone WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES China s CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m increased defence Spending expanding regional Prowess Much of the PLA s success over the next decade will be determined by how effectively it integrates emerging capabilities and platforms into the force. By most accounts the PLA is on track to achieve its goal of building a modern regionally-focused military by 2020. n dr Monika ChanSoria C Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 35 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE hina s military modernisation programme that was initiated formally by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in December 1978 has entered its 34th year and is expected to continue to display a continuing pattern of military modernisation. The unremitting debate surrounding the military rise of the People s Republic of China (PRC) is getting more vociferous with each passing day. While posting higher stages of economic growth the military spending power of China has increased exponentially thereby bearing grave implications on Beijing s rapidly expanding prowess and influence within Asia and beyond. China s People s Liberation Army (PLA) chose military planning policy as its focal objective from 1949 onwards since survival was no longer the primary pressing concern for the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Ever since coming into being more than eight decades ago the Red Army s experiences especially during the decades of the late 1930s and early 1940s became the basis for Mao Zedong s people s war (renmin zhanzheng) concept which ultimately took shape of the doctrine of the Red Army and subsequently that of the PLA. The PLA has gradually grown from being merely a petite Chinese Communist Party organ to a guerrilla force comprising workers and peasants--to the PLA of today which has transformed itself into a tri-Service military force. A major component of Mao Zedong s military thought centred on active defence (jiji fangyu) is often referred to as China s military strategy or strategic guideline . The fundamental rule of active defence asserts that China will strike only after the enemy has struck. However the line between accepting the enemy s first strike and the use of pre-emption to defend China from an immediate attack critically continues to remain blurred. Chinese Military Doctrinal Strategy and Thinking For almost half a century now Asia s tectonic plates of power shift have accepted the possibility of China returning to its traditional role as the central actor in Asia. To achieve this end Beijing has diligently worked towards attaining comprehensive national power (zonghe guoli) and accruing traditional attributes of power resulting in perpetuating rule of the CCP sustaining economic growth and development maintaining domestic political stability defending national sovereignty and territorial integrity and securing China s status as a great power. Resultantly China s own diplomacy has steadily grown more omnidirectional and proactive backed by an economy that is an engine of regional growth and most crucially a military that is modernising rapidly. The most proverbial components of the Chinese way of war and diplomacy are bing yi zha li (war is based on deception) shang-bing famou (supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy s strategy) and chu-qi zhi-sheng (win through unexpected moves). China first spelt out key elements concerning its military power in 2004 including defence policy and thrust areas for its broader strategy and continued modernisation. China s military strategy continues to attach importance to the building of the Army however it has accorded priority to the building of the Navy Air Force and Second Artillery Force in order to achieve a GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 9 Stratagem WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES China s Military CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m impact on Military Strategy India s nuclear weapons policy should work in parallel along twin tracks continue to enhance the quality of India s nuclear deterrence while simultaneously working to achieve total nuclear disarmament in as early a time frame as possible. Total nuclear disarmament is in India s national interest as it will eliminate the risk of nuclear war and also provide a level-playing field. briGadier (retd) GUrMeet kanWal n Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book I India s Nuclear Doctrine India s nuclear policy is underpinned by a categorical and unambiguous commitment to no first use of nuclear weapons against nuclear armed adversaries and the non-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states. This is rooted in a deeply ingrained cultural belief that the use of force to resolve inter-state disputes is a repugnant concept. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 39 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO ndia s deteriorating security environment in the mid-1990s and the likely entry into force of the discriminatory Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) forced the government to reconsider its nuclear option of recessed deterrence . After conducting five nuclear tests over two days at Pokhran in May 1998 India declared itself as a state with nuclear weapons. India s nuclear doctrine is built around a no first use policy with credible minimum deterrence . In the interest of strategic stability India is willing to absorb a first strike and will launch punitive nuclear strikes in retaliation to cause unacceptable damage to the adversary if it is attacked with nuclear weapons. India s nuclear weapons are political weapons meant only to deter the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons against India. It is clearly accepted in India that nuclear weapons are not weapons of war-fighting. Hence India has firmly rejected the use of tactical or theatre nuclear weapons despite provocation from across its western border. Though India had the potential to develop nuclear weapons since the first peaceful nuclear explosion at Pokhran in 1974 India steadfastly refrained from exercising its nuclear option and chose instead to work for nuclear disarmament. There is a broad national consensus on the development of a credible minimum nuclear deterrent capability and the doctrine of no first use. Minimum deterrence may be defined as a small force of survivable nuclear weapons [that] would deter an adversary from initiating military action that would threaten a nation s vital interests . India is not looking at establishing any capability beyond this level of deterrence. The concept of deterrence by punishment is central to Indian strategic thinking. By voluntarily renouncing its sovereign right of the first use of nuclear weapons to defeat nuclear threats and to prevent nuclear blackmail India has made an immense strategic sacrifice and imposed a heavy burden upon itself. The government and key decision-makers recognise that should deterrence ever break down India will have to pay an enormous price for a nuclear first strike by an adversary before retaliating in kind. Hundreds of thousands of Indian lives will be lost and more than one city may be turned into rubble. Hence India s no first use doctrine demands a robust infallible and potentially insuperable nuclear deterrent capability to ensure that India never has to suffer a nuclear strike. Several political thinkers and analysts have commented on the nuclear doctrine. The late K. Subrahmanyam arguably India s foremost defence analyst had written in 1986 Today the international system is dominated by nuclear dacoits who are refusing to disarm and there INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 10 deterrence DRDO ISPR PIB WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India s Nuclear CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m DRDO Airbus Militarry Embraer SP Guide Pubns What needs to be done in the indian Scenario We need a comprehensive national strategy on aerospace power spelling out where we go. We need to institutionalise the process so that there are minimum changes. We need a regulatory mechanism with teeth for implementation of the strategy like the US Federal Aviation Administration. This must have representation of all stakeholders. air ChieF MarShal (retd) P.V. naik Threat Spectrum India s strategic perspectives are shaped by its history geography geopolitical realities and the demands of realpolitik. Our native culture our innate traditions of trust and tolerance and our vision of world peace shape our national character which in turn impacts our international relations. These vital parameters are as relevant today as they have been earlier. India shares borders with 11 neighbours. Our relations with some are uneasy and with some hostile. Any unrest within this somewhat hostile neighbourhood spills over into our borders in many forms and with depressing regularity. Unless these geopolitical cross-currents affecting us are subdued they would continue to thwart our desire to move forward. India is facing a full spectrum of threats which emerge from all these issues. The spectrum itself is increasing in complexity and technological sophistication. So with the spectrum changing as well as being unpredictable we have to look at full-spectrum dominance. This is equally applicable to all domains land sea air space as well as information domain. Since the focus of this article is on aerospace power suffice it to say that aerospace power also will have to look in the same direction. As a member of this region India remains vulnerable to the disturbances spilling over from its neighbours. India itself is at crossroads. We witness this giant stirring into wakefulness--into an awareness of its power today. This rise in stature brings with it greater responsibilities and a larger role in regional as well as global affairs. This demands not only a change in policy internal and external but also a fundamental change in our very thinking ethos and value system. n Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book B illy Douhet James Molony Mitchell and Sir Hugh Trenchard were the first proponents of air power as it was known then. They were ahead of their times and consequently were hounded out by one and all for their heretical thoughts. Now as we all know air power is synonymous with aerospace power. In fact both are interchangeable. Environment Today the South Asian region ranks as one of the three flashpoints in the world along with the Middle East and North Korea. That the potential adversaries are nuclear powers with missile capability is a cause for even greater discomfort. It is on the other hand also a region with enormous possibilities some of them unfolding right before our eyes. Within this region lies a group of nations in troubled transition to modernity their external discourse damned by internal contradictions. In a world moving towards integration many of these nations remain torn by ethnic and religious strife economic disparities and political instability. Undoubtedly it is a new world order that is emerging because of complex relationships strategic interests and influences. Asia is the happening place for a variety of factors. For obvious reasons it is also full of turmoil and instabilities. Internal dynamics and external influences have led to increase in the degree of instability and uncertainty. Last but not the least it is the preferred playground for terrorism. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 43 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 11 aerospace Power Future of WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m SP Guide Pubns DRDO Planning versus implementation There is no point in talking about a revolution in military affairs information systems and net-centric warfare if the Indian armed forces cannot induct relevant weapons and equipment on time. We need a greater sense of responsibility and accountability on this score. n General (retd) V.P. Malik Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 47 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO O n March 12 2012 former Chief of Army Staff General V.K. Singh wrote a letter to the Prime Minister informing him that Indian Army s air defence weapon systems were obsolete the infantry was deficient of crew served weapons and lacked night-fighting capabilities and its tank fleet was devoid of critical ammunition. He alleged that there was hollowness in the procedures and processing time for procurements as well as legal impediments by vendors . Publication of this leaked information in the media created a furor less due to its serious strategic implications but more because a classified letter from the Army Chief to the Prime Minister had been leaked. For the military and strategic community however there was nothing new in the letter. The surprise was that none of our worthy politicians bureaucrats or media persons owned up that this was a chronic problem which had dogged the nation for decades and yet the government had failed to rectify. The furore reminded me of my own tenure as Army Chief (1997-2000) nWhile addressing the Prime Minister and his Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) colleagues who had participated in the Combined INDIAN DEFENCE India has lacked an ability to formulate future-oriented defence policies managing only because of short-term measures blunders by its adversaries and force superiority in its favour -- K. Subrahmanyam Commanders Conference held on October 20 1997 I had described the condition of the Indian Army as the spirit is strong but the body is weak . I stated that on account of inadequate defence allocation huge deficiencies of arms ammunition and equipment with more and more weapons and equipment going offroad due to non-availability of spares Army s modernisation programmes was in a state of terminal illness. nIn March 1999 just before the Kargil War I informed the Defence Minister that the Army is finding that major acquisitions get stymied for various reasons and a feeling of cynicism is creeping in. By and large the prevailing situation is that nothing much can be done about the existing hollowness in the Army. By denying essential equipment the armed forces would gradually lose their combat edge which would show adversely in a future conflict. nDuring war while briefing the media a journalist asked me as to how the Army was going to fight in the face of severe shortages. My spontaneous reply was we shall fight with whatever we have. Someone from the Ministry of Defence (MoD) brought this remark to the Prime Minister s attention who told me politely that I need not have used such a language. I explained first my reply was to a direct question posed by a journalist. Second any attempt by me to cover up would have conveyed an impression to the Army rank and file that the Chief was indulging in doubletalk. If that happened they would lose confidence in me. A major lesson of Kargil War was that in every situation of urgent purchase of defence items every vendor no matter which country he may be from tends to exploit the situation. Another lesson is that BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 12 Sector reforms India s Defence WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m DPR SP Guide Pubns lack of land and Continental Strategies India needs a focused National Security Strategy and a National Military Strategy. We must attain information dominance and information assurance ability to paralyse enemy C4I2 infrastructure credible deterrence against state-sponsored terrorism long-range expeditionary strategic forces stand-off weapons to pre-empt enemy attack adequate mix of DEW PGMs ASATs etc. lt General (retd) P.C. katoCh n Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book P What Strategy Means A strategy is a plan of action designed to achieve a vision. It derives from the Greek word strat gia office of general command. There are many definitions of strategy. A simple one calls it the science and art of employing political economic psychological and military forces of a nation or group of nations to afford the maximum support to adopted policies in peace or war. Another one calls it the science and art of military command exercised to meet the enemy in combat under Relating Theory to Strategy 51 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE It is important to relate theory to strategy or while evolving strategy. Theory implies the experience and lessons gained in the past. Clausewitz had said Theory exists so that one need not start afresh each time sorting out the material and ploughing through it but will find it ready to hand and in good order. Theory provides cumulative wisdom harvested through cumulative strategic study of campaigns that help GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO ost-independence India still does not have a national security strategy. Consequently the land and continental strategy remain dependent on the whims of the politicians starting with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru who actually wanted to retrench the Army. The after-effect continues till date with the military deliberately kept out of strategic security decision-making. As a result not only has the growth and modernisation of our military suffered but defence sector reforms are also given short shrift. Integration of the military continues to be a casualty despite way back in 2004 Prime Minister Manmohan Singh had gone on record to say Reforms within the armed forces also involve recognition of the fact that our Navy Air Forces and Army can no longer function in compartments with exclusive chains of command and single service operational plans. Why the State Needs a Strategy In simple terms a strategy is required to ensure the citizenry can enjoy the resources and fruits of development in a safe and secure environment. Chanakya s prescription of Yogakshama (well-being and security) of the people must be the highest responsibility of the ruler--read today s elected leader. Great nations must remain committed to lofty moral principles and humane values but one must understand that the power of principle can be most effectively pursued when it is complemented by the principle of the relevant power of the times. INDIAN DEFENCE advantageous circumstances while another simply defines it as the art of devising or employing plans or stratagems to achieve a goal. For strategy the US War College utilises a simple but powerful formula to express what strategy is and what its critical component parts consist of strategy ends ways means. In this equation ends are objectives or goals ways are the courses of action chosen to achieve those goals and means are the resources either at hand or which must be developed to enable the courses of action. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 13 national & Military Strategy WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Pivotal in a Sovereign Socialist Secular democratic republic In a functioning democracy parliamentary oversight is the best form of civilian control of the military instead of the whims of individual ministers and bureaucrats. Such oversight could play a major role in defining a set of rules governing the relationship between civilian authorities and the military and balancing the financial needs of defence and security with the needs of other sectors. M.G. deVaSahayaM n Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book O 57 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE n the eve of stepping out as Chief of Army Staff General V.K. Singh responded to a question from the Times of India on civil-military relationship I am a firm believer in civilian supremacy over the military in a democracy. I subscribe to the views of the former Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Vishnu Bhagwat that the modern military profession exists as part of the government insofar as the term government includes the executive departments of the nation-state....Modern democracies therefore pay great attention to the supremacy of the political class over the military in governance normally referred to as civilian control of the military . This is clearly how it should be since all ultimate power and decision-making should be wielded by the elected representatives of the people. However civilian supremacy must always be rooted on the fundamental principles of justice merit and fairness. Violation of this in any form must be resisted if we are to protect the institutional integrity of our armed forces. Combined views of the former Naval and Army Chiefs sets forth certain imperatives for civil-military relationship in the country that should be non-negotiable nDemocracy as a vibrant and functioning entity with the elected representatives of the people running the government as per established democratic norms Army as Sentinel of Democracy To define India s democracy we should go to its roots. The Constitution of India which seeks to constitute India into a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic in order to secure to all its citizens justice social economic and political liberty of thought expression belief faith and worship equality of status and opportunity and to promote among them all fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. India s professional armed force is meant to protect and safeguard this democratic republic. On this rests the integrity of the armed forces. A leading newspaper founded by a towering patriot but now in buccaneer s hands insinuated that Army Chief General V.K. Singh plotted a military coup. If these worthies had some sense of history they would have known that the only coup staged in India was by a Prime Minister using a servile President as the tool to declare emergency in June 1975. And it was the Army that put an end to this coup. During the 21 months of active emergency people bereft of freedom and fundamental rights moved in hushed silence stunned and GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE nMilitary profession existing as part of such government nCivilian supremacy to be exercised by the elected representatives of the people nSuch supremacy to be rooted on the principles of justice merit and fairness nViolation of this can be resisted to protect the institutional integrity of armed forces BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 14 relationship Civil-Military PIB WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m india s Political Security economic and Social-Cultural relations There are three distinct trends dominating the developments on South East Asia s politico-strategic firmament-- the inexorable rise of China both economically and militarily creating apprehensions about its intentions the American strategy of rebalancing which includes the so-called return of the United States to Asia-Pacific including South East Asia and the nature of response of South East Asian countries to meet the challenges arising out of the emerging strategic and security environment. briGadier (retd) Vinod anand n Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book T 61 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he developments in South East Asia are intricately linked with what is happening at the global stage and in the other parts of Asia. The present century is being described as an Asian century with shift of power and wealth to Asia. It is not only China that has been termed as an engine of growth but it is also India South East Asian nations and East Asian countries that are driving the current pattern of growth. Long before India had started its trajectory of upward growth some of the South East Asian economies had been termed as Tiger economies due to their faster growth rates. South East Asia assumes great geostrategic significance by virtue of its location that connects the Pacific and Indian Oceans. South East Asian countries sitting astride the choke points of Malacca Sunda and Lombok Straits exercise immense influence on the sea lines of communications (SLOC) passing through this region. According to one estimate 50 per cent of the global trade and one-third of the world s oil pass through these sea lanes. Over half a billion population of South East Asian countries combined with over 1-trillion economies of these nations add to the strategic significance of this land mass. Thus politico-security and economic developments in this region are not only important for security and stability of these nations. They also have implications for its neighbours and other powers which have inter- ests in this region. South East Asian countries have been engaging their neighbours and other world powers both through multilateral and bilateral arrangements. The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) comprising 10 nations has been the common platform to address a multitude of issues in the region. Though at the broader level there has been peace and stability in the region that does not mean that there has been absence of conflicts in the region. The potential for conflict has also seen an upward trajectory because of Chinese assertiveness seen in the region especially in the case of South China Sea islands dispute. In the last decade with the US focus on Iraq and Afghanistan the US engagement with ASEAN saw a decline allowing China to gain ascendancy in the region. China engaged the South East Asian nations bilaterally and through multilateral mechanisms like ASEAN free trade area ASEAN 3 and concepts like Greater Mekong Sub Region (GMSR). China used its economic clout and rising comprehensive national power to increase strategic influence in the region. Having seen the negative impact of its withdrawal from the region the US has of late especially in last two years moved towards correcting the imbalance. India on its part had embarked on its Look East Policy in 1992 when it was also in the process of liberalising its economic policies. This year India is celebrating two decades of this policy. Over the last two decades not only has India intensified its bilateral relationship with the South East Asian nations it has also engaged them through many multilateral platforms like ASEAN and associated structures Ganga-Mekong Initiative the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) and other sub-regional platforms. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 15 South east asia Developments in DoD PIB MEA WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m at the Crossroads of a Major turnaround India s aspirations and quest for global prominence are inextricably linked with the oceans and will remain dependent on our ability and will to use them to maximum advantage. Our geographic location specifically in the maritime context puts us at the centre-stage in today s geostrategic and geoeconomic construct dominated by the needs of energy security and terrorism menace. n adMiral (retd) SUreeSh Mehta Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book I 65 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE n this year s Independence Day eve message to the nation President Pranab Mukherjee recalled that in the year 1700 India contributed the largest share to the world gross domestic product (GDP) of about 26 per cent when the United Kingdom contributed less than three per cent. Much of India s wealth came in from the mountainous silk route and the oceanic voyages to Africa and South East Asia by Indian traders. By 1947 India s contribution slipped to less than four per cent while the United Kingdom doubled to eight per cent peaking to nine per cent in 1850 as the country with the world s largest GDP. At the Lt General S.K. Sinha Memorial Lecture veteran journalist M.J. Akbar while drawing an analogy from history recalled that the Purana Quila was re-built by Humayun as a stout fort with tall walls to ward off the Northern Mongol and Turkish aggressors when the times were tumultuous. Hundred and fifty years later Shahjahan s Red Fort seemingly the only fort designed to keep its doors open at a time of peace and prosperity fell within 50 years to violence and India lost the fabulous Peacock throne to the Persians and the wealthy Moghul Empire was vanquished by the British with the exile of Bahadur Shah to Rangoon in 1857. These pages from the history have one story in common. A nation s security is defined by the contours of its economy and this co-relation if distorted becomes the path to ruin. Distortion here would mean an imbalance between investments in security either excess or deficient or incommensurate with the economy to defend. In the contemporary globalised economy and interconnected security architecture nations are no longer insulated from developments that occur even at distant places and hence must not only hedge against their own futures but also take into account the risks and opportunities that arise from the growth of global economies emerging technologies with its attendant impact on resources strategic posturing and intent of partners and predators contesting for influence and power in the geopolitical ecosystem. This in turn requires an alert and visionary establishment within the state that can map these changes and work towards mitigating emerging risks and seize opportunities as they arise. Post the economic reforms the period beginning from mid-1990s year after year India s GDP expanded faster than most economies on the planet. Handsome growth rates hovering around the double-digit were registered over a sustained period. Twenty years of growth trajectory catapulted the country to the fourth largest economy on purchasing power parity terms. Global developments may have caused crisis-like situations in many export-led economies but India remained relatively unscathed from the Wall Street financial crisis of 2008-09 as also the present economic downturn and turmoil in Europe. Current growth rate of around six per cent facilitated by an internalised economy a growing middle-class reserves of entrepreneurship and private enterprise--are indeed the bulwark of most developed economies many of which are now recording negative growths. It is not difficult to envision that the next two decades are going to be very significant when seen through the prism of our current economic GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 16 responsibilities PIB GSL DCNS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India s Incipient Maritime CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m SP Guide Pubns Army Aviation the arm of the Future the Force Multiplier The Army Aviation needs to play a vastly enhanced role in land operations in the coming years. This is only possible if the arm grows both quantitatively and qualitatively. The gap between desire and reality is currently not very large and is likely to narrow down further provided the acquisitions proceed as planned. n lt General (retd) b.S. PaWar T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 69 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he Indian Army Aviation Corps (AAC) completes 26 years of its existence on November 1. From operating the Auster Krishak two-seat fixed-wing aircraft as part of the Air Force (erstwhile air observation post units) to the induction of light-observation helicopters (Chetak Cheetah) in the early 1970s the birth of the Corps in 1986 and induction of the Hindustan Aeronautical Ltd (HAL) manufactured twin-engine advanced light helicopter (ALH) in 2002 has been a challenging journey plagued by many infirmities related to its growth. Foremost amongst this is the steadfast opposition of the Indian Air Force (IAF) to the AAC s expansion plans related to its role and assets thereby denying the induction and ownership of assets that logically must come under the ambit of the Army. As per media reports this issue has once again been raised by the present Army Chief with the Defence Minister highlighting the Army s priority and concern. Despite its stunted growth and curbed status this fledgling arm of the Indian Army continues to receive accolades for its performance be it the Kargil conflict counter-insurgency operations or the unrelenting operations in the Siachen Glacier the highest battlefield in the world. Routinely operating at 20 000 feet and above on extreme fringes of helicopters flight envelope the Army Aviation has virtually been the lifeline of the troops deployed on the glacier a feat unparalleled anywhere in the world. Currently the AAC has in its inventory the largest number of helicopters amongst the three services a majority being the light observa- tion class (Cheetah and Chetak). These helicopters are obsolete and have been in service for the past 40 years now requiring immediate replacement. Keeping this fleet operational is becoming well-nigh impossible due to its vintage and spares criticality. The Cheetal helicopter (upgraded Cheetah) fielded by HAL as an interim measure is not a satisfactory solution. The Corps today has few helicopters to carry out a number of extremely specialised roles in the tactical battle area (TBA). While the induction of the light utility helicopter (ALH) is under way the medium- and heavy-lift helicopters which form the core of the tactical lift capability continue to be with the IAF. The Army s requirement of small fixed-wing aircraft (Dornier class) in limited numbers for roles like command and control aerial communication hubs logistics including casualty evacuation and communication flights has also not fructified due to objections of the IAF. This is despite the fact that even the Coast Guard and Border Security Force have fixed-wing aircraft in their inventory. However as far as attack helicopters are concerned the government has taken the decision that they will be owned and operated by the Army in the future. A survey of military aviation organisations worldwide reveals the inadequacies of the Indian AAC. All major armies of the world including our adversaries China and Pakistan have a full-fledged air arm of their own comprising all types of helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. The Pakistan Army Aviation boasts of an inventory comprising all class of helicopters including attack- and fixed-wing aircraft. In contrast the Indian AAC remains a stunted force. At present the Army Aviation assets are inadequate for the size of the Indian Army and the tasks it is required to perform. The expansion of the AAC is therefore imperative. The Army Aviation should possess a GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 17 aviation Corps Army WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Technologies for Future Wars Integrated Air Defence Systems Combat Simulation as a Force-Multiplier Fifth Generation Multi-Role Aircraft Nanotechnology Application in the Navy Indigenous High-Tech Development Indigenous Missile Programme Unmanned Military Systems Amphibious Aircraft 73 77 81 85 89 93 97 101 105 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE Contents BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Technology CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section two 2 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 100 100 95 Relax - it s a Diehl Track. 95 75 75 25 25 5 5 0 0 Running Gear System Tracks Wheels Sprockets Protection Mine Protection Roof Protection Ballistic Protection Diehl Defence Land Systems GmbH Vieringhausen 118 42857 Remscheid Phone 49 21 91 976 -0 Fax 49 21 91 976 -206 100 E-Mail sales 100 95 95 75 75 25 25 5 5 0 Defence 0 www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m US Army US Navy Boeing battling Nuclear Missile Cyber insurgent infiltrator attacks We urgently need a RMA to take us into the next level of military potential to meet future challenges. A draft national cyber policy has been evolved but the crux will be its speedy implementation and layered cyber protection for security and critical infrastructure protection leading thereon to information dominance. n lt GeNeral (retd) P.C. katoCh what our voids and weaknesses are with respect to technology and what initiatives we need to take in order to enable India gain its rightful place in the comity of nations. To that end our commitment to technology has to be total. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 73 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO A dvancements in technology have revolutionised warfare already. Technology in modern warfare has reduced the traditional reliance on numbers mass and endurance while increasing the capacity for rapid and focused application of a very large mass of combat power. In the 1991 Gulf War the US dominance was achieved through precision weaponry superior information communications technology and satellites. The power of technological advances coupled with matching strategy and concepts organisations and training was becoming apparent. This was a catalyst for the Chinese People s Liberation Army to get going on the path to informisation . By 2025 technology would have gone to the next step or perhaps the next to next step. With continuing volatility in India s neighbourhood we may be faced with heightened threats in future in the entire spectrum of conflict particularly in the asymmetric sphere along with activated battlefield of space and cyberspace. There is a need therefore to examine how technology will impact future warfare INDIAN DEFENCE We are responsible for what we are and whatever we wish ourselves to be we have the power to make ourselves. If what we are now has been the result of our own past actions it certainly follows that whatever we wish to be in future can be produced by our present actions so we have to know how to act. --Swami Vivekananda Present Impact of Technology on Warfare Technology enables high-tech wars that are short and swift. Ranges accuracy and lethality of weapons have enhanced considerably. Concurrently the space and time continuum has been greatly compressed. There is exponential increase in situational awareness and battlefield transparency as forces are shifting from platform-centric to network-centric capabilities. Handling of the strategic operational and tactical levels simultaneously is possible. Improved battlefield transparency in turn has increased the importance of dispersion of forces and need for deception. Technology has ushered the advent of offensive cyber warfare information dominance space wars and effect-based operations. Ironically technology has also empowered the terrorist to cause more severe damage. The major impact of technology on warfare has been in the following areas nIncreased Range and Lethality Just as munitions have become smarter in the military s ability to target them with increasing accuracy they have also become deadlier. Tonnes of explosive power can be delivered precisely hundreds of kilometres away and in some cases at any point in the globe including by nuclear tipped missiles. Munitions can also destroy underground emplacements very accurately. nReduced Collateral Damage Precision or smart munitions were first used most prominently during the 1991 Persian Gulf War in Iraq. The BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 Future Wars WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Technologies for CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Raytheon SP Guide Pubns MBDA key trends Challenges and Future developments While on one end the severity and lethality in the prosecution of the air threat is growing by leaps and bounds not to be left behind in fielding a befitting counter the IADS is sharpening its teeth riding on the enabling wings of technology n lt GeNeral V.k. SaxeNa I Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Towards further Impotence Two important developments took place over time. Firstly as the assets to be protected grew manifold the cover of GBADWS became further diluted and the satisfaction level further dropped. Secondly the threat punch leaped in severity lethality and reach. The aerial threat vehicles multiplied. Besides the duo of aircraft and helicopters the multiple platforms now include the attack helicopters (AHs) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) cruise missiles anti-radiation missiles (ARMs) and surface-to-surface missiles (SSMs) armed with a slew of a smart and intelligent ammunition with a GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 77 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO n the early years execution of the air threat was based on two major aerial platforms namely the aircraft and helicopters. Their arsenal (front guns guided unguided rockets bombs napalm etc) also manifested in the visual domain of the defender. The conventional counter to such a threat in the context of ground-based air defence weapon system (GBADWS) mainly remained the point defence weapons in the very short range air defence (AD) range (up to 15 km). Since the assets to be protected vastly outnumbered the availability of GBADWS the fait accompli solution was to prioritise the assets and then allot GBADWS. Also the overall scarcity prevented deploying adequate number of GBADWS in multiple rings as would be demanded by the threat profile. precision strike capability in the stand-off ranges well beyond the visual domain. Alternate kill options in directed energy domain and a strong electronic counter-measure (ECM) muscle provided the multiple threat vehicles a greater degree of effectiveness and immunity. The scarce GBADWS cover riding thinly on some selected assets became further impotent and ineffective against the emerging threat. The concept of Integrated Air Defence System (IADS) evolved thus out of necessity. Integrated Air Defence System In its simplest terms and on a micro plane an IADS will essentially imply putting together all the AD resources viz the sensors (radars visual observers other technical means) shooters (guns SAM air superiority fighters and interceptors) and battle management systems (battlefield management command control communication computers information intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (BMC4I2SR)) as one cohesive front to address the opponents air threat. Two Sides of IADS According to an expert opinion the success achieved in the US-led air campaign of 1991 (and later) owed more than anything to the technological and operational capability of the attacker to penetrate and suppress the IADS of the defender. On the flip side a formidable IADS will render a typical air threat campaign largely impotent. Therefore while the attackers are sharpening their tools by increasing the multiplicity of the aerial threat vehicles spatial enlargement of air threat envelopment and acquiring the capabilities of larger throw weight longer reaches precision strikes stand-off capabilities and a degree of immunity in the hostile electronic warfare environment the defenders are responding by taking their IADS to higher and higher INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 Systems WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Integrated Air Defence CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m trends emerging Globally High-end simulation systems offer an effective and wholesome solution if designed to address the entire complex domain of warfare. The growing economic might or soft power of a nation would call for a complimentary hard power to be able to sustain the former. The trend is already visible though subtly. Economic empowerment would bring about a transformation in operational thinking. n Major GeNeral r.P. bhadraN Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book A 81 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE s technology facilitated the design and development of complex systems it was found to be expedient to model such systems and study their behaviour under specific conditions prior to investing in the development of the system. These models were either physical or mathematical as the study demanded and were to behave in the same manner or closely so to the original system. Such implementation of models is known as simulation. In the early era simulations were limited to discrete study of behaviour of systems under specific situations and conditions. Continuous simulation of systems over a period of time or a range of any set of variables was made possible with the advent of modern computers. Today computers are used to model and simulate a wide range of systems and environment to accurately assess their behaviour in real world. Use of military simulations as a tool for decision-making or for honing skills were in vogue even during the medieval period. The game of chess can be seen as a classical example. The entities depict the force components and the rules of the game are a representation of tactics employed during the time. There is ample evidence in historic records that live simulation has been employed for at least two thousand years now. Formal use of war gaming by the military became common in the 19th century. Computer-based simulation began in the 1950s and is now What They Denote Model A model is a physical mathematical or logical representation of a system entity phenomenon or process. Simulation Simulation is a method for implementing the behaviour of a model over time. Modelling and Simulation Modelling and simulation refers to the use of models including prototypes simulators etc either statically or over time to develop data as a basis for making decisions. Simulator A simulator can be defined as a device computer programme or system that performs simulation. Live Simulation Live simulation refers to simulation involving real people operating real systems. A military exercise with troops can be termed as a live simulation of war. Simulators could be used in an exercise to assess the effects of those activities which cannot be undertaken due to safety reasons like fire of weapons. Examples of such simulators are the infantry weapon effect simulating system (IWESS) and the simulated fire (SIMFIRE). Virtual Simulation Virtual simulation refers to a simulation involving GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE commonplace. In almost every case simulation has been a response to a perceived problem e.g. plane crashes due to pilot inexperience or the need for improved decision-making. In modern armies the employment of simulators encompasses the domains of training operational and logistic planning and many other areas. In the past few decades we have seen distributed simulation and the development of virtual environments emerging as an alternative to human-simulator interface. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 US Army Force-Multiplier WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Combat Simulation as a CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m US Army Sukhoi USAF First look First Shot First kill While fifth generation fighters are extremely capable machines they are also expensive enough to strain even the most generous military budgets. Besides the high capital costs studies have shown that cost of operating and supporting an aircraft could exceed the initial purchase price by as much as tenfold. Therefore technologies which help reduce ownership costs by maximising asset utilisation are much sought after. n air MarShal (retd) a.k. trikha Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book I Fifth Generation Aircraft and Enabling Technologies Stealth Of all attributes stealth or low observability is perhaps the most important defining characteristic of a FGFA. It is low visibility against the entire spectrum of sensors (including radar infrared acoustic and GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 85 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO n the history of development of fighter aircraft generational categorisation has been an afterthought. The terminology appeared for the first time in 1996 when F-22 the Raptor made its appearance in the American skies. In the manner of a challenge Russians announced that they will respond with their own fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA). Since then the term has become a common currency in military aviation community. While there are no clear lines of demarcation which either qualify or exclude aircraft from the fifth generation category yet some characteristics or attributes which a fifth generation fighter would possess are now widely accepted. Currently American F-22 Raptor stands in a class of its own and is generally considered the benchmark of a fifth generation fighter s attributes. Several others viz. the US-led joint strike fighter F-35 Russian PAK-FA Indo-Russian FGFA and perhaps Chinese Chengdu J-20 are in various stages of development. even visual) which yields a stealth fighter the edge that neutralises many performance advantages that the adversary might enjoy. By outwitting all defences during the opening phases of the first Gulf War in 1991 F-117A Nighthawk (the first fighter with stealth as its predominant strength) brought home dramatically the exponential value addition of this attribute. Low observability in FGFAs is achieved by a combination of aerodynamic tailoring usage of composite materials (which help both in reducing weight as well as in radar reflectivity) shaping intake ducts to prevent radar echoes from the highly reflective compressor and turbine faces and a host of other techniques which help to reduce its footprint. Visibility to radar depends on an object s radar cross section (RCS) which is a function of target size shape and the material from which it is fabricated. Distance at which a target of a given RCS can be seen also depends on the wavelength of the radar illuminating it. Shaping is the primary method of reducing the strength of the reflected radiation. Target s reflecting surfaces are so designed as to reflect energy away from the source. Thus while the emitting radar receives a much attenuated reflected signal likelihood of radiation deflected in other directions being picked up by a receiver not co-located with the emitter (as in a bi-static arrangement) remains. To reduce the scatter from hotspot regions recourse is taken to both active as well as passive methods. Active hotspot materials detect the incident radiation and respond by emitting signals of equal amplitude but opposite phase to cancel the reflected signal thus reducing the effective RCS of the target. Though workable against simple radars the technique INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 Multi-role aircraft WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Fifth Generation CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Nano Sonic zyvexmarine Providing enhanced Capabilities for defence Nanotechnology is permeating in the commercial arena at a tremendous pace an indicator is the fivefold expansion of nano-business from 32 billion to 150 billion during 2006 to 2008. It is also going to transform the maritime combat space profoundly in near future. Therefore it is imperative to take cognisance of this enabling technology and prepare for incorporating its naval weapon systems and doctrines for winning battles at sea. n rear adMiral (retd) dr S. kulShreStha Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book T 89 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he concept of nanotechnology took birth on December 29 1959 when Nobel laureate Richard Feynman uttered I want to build a billion tiny factories models of each other which are manufacturing simultaneously....The principles of physics as far as I can see do not speak against the possibility of manoeuvring things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws it is something in principle that can be done but in practice it has not been done because we are too big. He was delivering a lecture titled There s Plenty of Room at the Bottom An Invitation to Enter a New Field of Physics at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). By his talk he had excited the realm of physics and opened up endless possibilities of research and exploration. In 1974 Norio Taniguchi introduced the term nanotechnology when he said Nanotechnology mainly consists of the processing of separation consolidation and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule. He was speaking of the so-called top down approach of manufacturing relating to semiconductor processes. In 1986 K. Eric Drexler is credited with giving the word nanotechnology a much wider connotation when he defined the term from the viewpoint of a physicist as large-scale mechano-synthesis based on positional control of chemically reactive molecules. Nanotechnology represents one of those emerging platform technologies that can provide much needed enhanced capabilities to the defence of a country. Nanotechnology is a field that does not stem from one established academic discipline. There are a number of ways in which nanotechnology may be defined. The most common version regards nano-science is the ability to do things--measure see predict and make--on the scale of atoms and molecules and exploit the novel properties found at that scale . Traditionally this scale is defined as being between 0.1 and 100 nanometres (nm) one nm being one-thousandth of a micron (micrometre (mm)) which in turn is one-thousandth of a millimetre (mm). However this definition is open to interpretation and may readily be applied to a number of different technologies that have no obvious common relationship. Another way to characterise nanotechnology is by distinguishing between the fabrications processes of top-down and bottom-up. Top-down technology refers to the fabrication of nano-scale structures by machining and etching technique . However top-down means more than just miniaturisation. At the nanoscale level different laws of physics come into play properties of traditional materials change and the behaviour of surfaces start to dominate the behaviour of bulk materials. On the other hand bottom-up technology--often referred to as molecular nanotechnology (MNT)--applies to the creation of organic and inorganic structures atom by atom or molecule by molecule. It is this area of nanotechnology that has created the most excitement and publicity. In a mature nanotech world macrostructures would simply be grown from their smallest constituent components an anything GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 Nanotechnology application in the Navy WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m SP Guide Pubns Nexter BEL Promoting india s Manufacturing Sector By erecting an integrated civil and military high-tech production structure India can graduate to the next higher stage of economic well-being. The Indian economy must remain open competitive and integrated on its own terms with the rest of the world. At the same time the government has to ensure that all this is achieved in an ecologically responsible fashion. n SMita PuruShottaM Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book T 93 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he sharp depreciation of the Indian rupee over the summer of 2012 should have set the alarm bells ringing in the Indian policy establishment. Overnight the Indian economy shrank by 20 per cent in dollar terms. The economy s import dependence ensured that this would aggravate inflationary trends. The devaluation reflected the falling international competitiveness of the Indian economy and brought into question many aspects of the research and development (R&D)-deficient services sector led Indian growth model based on high imports and the accumulation of unsustainable trade deficits. High growth over a decade had stemmed from the efficiency gains of reforms implemented since 1991. These had partially unleashed the natural exuberance of India s entrepreneurial class. High savings and investment rates and the growth of India s services and manufacturing sectors induced worldwide optimism over the prospects of the Indian economy. But the post-1991 reforms had not focused on developing indigenous manufactures or on tackling the key and related decelerators --the infrastructure deficit practically non-existent R&D and rentier behaviours. Instead India implemented only the easy reforms . And as pointed out in 2001 by neglecting infrastructure India did not derive full advantage from the limited liberalisation effected in this phase (1991-93). The current economic slowdown and whittling down of the manufacturing sector in India can be attributed to the neglect of core sector reforms something China tackled early on with a host of repercussions for sustained growth in many sectors. The Indian economy was forced to skip the manufacturing stage and assume a verisimilitude of the structure of matured economies characterised by a larger share of the services sector in their GDP. The dazzling growth of the information technology sector created a hollow narrative of India s technological prowess masking the technology deficit in the rest of the economy. It also induced complacency regarding the urgency of second generation reforms to strengthen the beleaguered manufacturing sector. Even more tragically no attention was paid to the need for technologically upgrading the economy. The steep fall in the Indian currency was a natural outcome of the processes described above. Sober economists predicted that unless there was a paradigm change India will fade away John Anderson wrote in April 2012 India s best growth days are way behind it and there s a serious risk that India spends the next decade grinding back down to the old Hindu rate . According to him one of the reasons was the structural failure to develop labour-intensive light manufacturing exports in the absence of which India faces a continually widening deficit trend as far as the eye can see. And with a deceleration even in existing exports India s savings rate could also plummet thus endangering further growth. This was in line with Professor Justin Yifu Lin s explanation for the success of developing economy models based on the comparative advantage following strategy of development. Lin had stated A GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 development WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Indigenous High-Tech CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m wikipedia PIB SP Guide Pubns india s integrated Guided Missile development Programme With the launch of Agni-V India has now joined the elite club of the US UK France Russia and China. The country is now set to develop reusable rockets which will combine the technologies of both ballistic and cruise missiles. n lt GeNeral (retd) NareSh ChaNd B Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book y the 1980s the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) became confident that they had acquired adequate know-how in the field of missile technology to develop indigenous missile systems. Thus they conceived the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) in 1983. Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam the erstwhile Project Director for the SLV-3 programme at the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was appointed Director of Defence Electronics and Research Laboratory (DLRL) to lead the programme. Initially it was planned to develop the missiles sequentially but later on it was decided to develop them concurrently as follows nPrithvi Short-range surface-to-surface missile nNag Third generation anti-tank missile nTrishul Short-range low-level surface-to-air missile nAkash Medium-range surface-to-air missile nAgni It was initially planned to develop Agni series of missiles as a technology demonstrator but later on it was converted into a full programme for developing strategic missiles including intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM). first test-firing was carried out in February 1988 from Sriharikota. It has been developed for the Army Navy and the Air Force. It has a range of about 150 km to 350 km and can carry a nuclear warhead. Its guidance system is inertial with terminal guidance. Dhanush is a naval variant of the Prithvi with a range of about 350 km. It has been customised for naval role to be fired from onboard a ship. It has been successfully fired from INS Subhadra and Rajput. Nag Nag is a third generation fire and forget all-weather anti-tank missile which is a top attack missile with a range of more than four km. High explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warhead on Nag is capable of defeating modern tanks having explosive reactive armour or composite armour. Sighting system is imaging infrared which is allweather and the mode of launch is lock on before launch . Nag can be both mounted on a special vehicle or a helicopter. Nag missile carrier (NAMICA) has been specially developed for it. Integration with Dhruv helicopter is being carried out. There have been a large number of trials since the inception of the programme. However the problem with the seeker still exists at higher temperatures. Seeker technology is very exclusive and available in a handful of countries like the United States Russian Federation and France. It is also very costly especially the active seekers. Nag is thus accurate at about 2.5 km in all conditions but in extreme hot conditions the accuracy flounders at higher ranges. Latest report on trials conducted in midAugust 2012 indicate that Nag has again failed and even NAMICA is not pulling its load. Prithvi The Prithvi series is a family of tactical surface-to-surface short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM) whose development started in 1983 and the GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 97 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 7 Programme WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Indigenous Missile CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Surveillance Systems in Ground operations The earlier UAVs were primarily meant for surveillance and intelligence gathering but later on some were given attack capability like the General Atomics MQ-1 Predator which was named UCAVs. UCAVs are now been extensively used by the US in Afghanistan and Pakistan against terrorists. n lt GeNeral (retd) NareSh ChaNd Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Attempts had been made to develop a powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) also called drones since 1915 but the real push came during the Vietnam War by the US Air Force (USAF) after they lost many pilots during missions. Earlier the most famous example was of Gary Powers when his U-2 was shot down over the Soviet Union in 1960. Red Wagon was one of the earlier programmes launched by the USAF. The first US UAV to be downed by the North Vietnamese Navy was during August 1964 in Tonkin Gulf. UAV development and employment by the US was a very hush hush affair and only in 1973 it was disclosed by USAF that it had flown about 3 435 UAV missions during the Vietnam War. The role was of reconnaissance and gathering of intelligence with zero risk to pilots. Since then USAF has not looked back and every combat situation from Vietnam to Afghanistan has seen better and better UAVs. In the 1990s the US gave a contract to AAI Corporation (now it is an operating unit of Textron Systems Corporation) along with Israeli company Mazlat and the US Navy bought Pioneer which was produced by them. It was used extensively during the 1991 Gulf War. The earlier UAVs were primarily meant for surveillance and gathering intelligence but later on some were given attack capability like the General Atomics MQ-1 Predator which was armed with AGM-114 Hellfire air-to-ground missiles and named unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs). UCAVs are now been extensively used by the US in Afghanistan and Pakistan 101 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE against terrorists. Israel is another nation which has been leading in UAV development and extensive employment during the 1973 Yom Kippur War where they were used for carrying out real-time surveillance electronic warfare and decoys. Role The foremost military role is that of battlefield intelligence followed by attack capability decoys and as aerial targets for training of gunners missile and radar operators. They could also be used in a limited logistics role for which development is in progress. The same capabilities can be effectively used for homeland security as well for commercial role. The USAF flies 39 orbits daily over Afghanistan and Iraq and this number is expected to increase as the role gets enlarged. An orbit is a 24-hour combat flight by a single UAV. In the US a law has been passed to permit the use of UAVs for commercial purposes. This will result in proliferation of the UAVs flights in the domestic skies thus the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) had to step in to coordinate and control all aerial movement. FAA defines UAVs as unmanned aerial system to include control systems and ground operators. Classification Classification is carried out by capability and role and may differ from country to country. The US has the largest inventory and is also the largest employer of UAVs thus their classification is universally understood which is generally as follows nSmall Micro UAV like BATMAV. nLow-altitude long-endurance like Gnat 750. RQ-11B Raven B. nMedium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) like MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper. nHigh-altitude long-endurance conventional (HALE). Altitude 60 000 feet to 65 000 feet (19 800 m) less than 300 knots (560 kmph) Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 8 USAF US Army Military Systems WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Unmanned CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m ShinMaywa Beriev Bombardier New technology for Maritime Missions While ships submarines and aircraft are all qualified in some way or the other for fulfilling the mission of maritime security each of these platforms is limited by some capability gap or the other. Modern amphibian aircraft make possible a range of options not achievable by any one platform. Its unique multi-modal design permits airborne seaborne and land operations in a single platform. Amphibious aircraft can operate both on land and water while seaplanes can operate from water surfaces only. n CoMModore (retd) Sujeet SaMaddar Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book W 105 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ith India aspiring for regional power status its Navy must not only be able to address the immediate security needs of the country and defeat the enemies of the state but must also be able to contribute in benign and constabulary operations in its area of interest and influence for the regional good. From a maritime perspective this power status contributes to burden sharing towards protection of global public goods and the oceanic commons to achieve first freedom of navigation and safety at sea second promote regional stability through an open and participative security architecture third proactively alleviate suffering during disasters in the littorals of friendly nations and finally a constabulary capacity to maintain order at sea for the common good of the region. Development of such capabilities and induction of the appropriate enabling systems signal a firm regional commitment towards maintaining regional stability and maritime security and safety but is also an affirmation of delivering on the natural responsibilities that come with great power status. While ships submarines and aircraft are all qualified in some way or the other for fulfilling the above missions each of these platforms is also limited by some capability gap or the other. Modern amphibian aircraft make possible a range of options not achievable by any one platform. Its unique multi-modal design permits airborne seaborne and land operations in a single platform. Amphibious aircraft can operate both on land and water while seaplanes can operate from water surfaces only. Beginning its debut on March 28 1911 when the Hydravion took off from water at Martinque seaplanes by the end of World War I had completed transcontinental flights and in some instances have even been refuelled by ships and submarines at sea. After World War II seaplanes lost their charm though limited civil and commercial applications continued. Recent technological advances have now catapulted seaplanes into a veritable force-multiplier for maritime operations. Seaplanes can now provide mainland-inter island support monitoring servicing and protection of offshore assets EEZ and high seas surveillance reconnaissance and intelligence gathering oceanic search and rescue and casualty evacuation long-range fleet logistic and maintenance support longrange visit board search and seizure operations controlling derelicts humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations and countering small arms and drugs trafficking human migration poaching and toxic cargo dumping at sea etc. Unlike conventional helicopters and aircraft amphibian aircraft can land at the location and enforce the will or the law of the country. The unique feature of these aircraft is that it combines the capabilities of rapid surveillance and prompt response whether for relief or arrest in a single platform. Of particular significance is that as per the United Nations Convention on the Laws of the Sea (UNCLOS) military aircraft are entitled to seize (Article 107) and enjoy right of visit (Article GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 9 aircraft WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Amphibious CONTENTS One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Indian Army Modernisation Indian Navy Modernisation Indian Air Force Modernisation Defence Offset Policy Defence Procurement Procedure Development of Indian Defence Industry Defence Budget 2012-13 India s Business Environment Global Contracts 109 113 117 121 127 133 137 141 149 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE Contents BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Business CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section three 3 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Sikorsky S-70B helicopter Security. One powerful idea. Battle-proven technology. State-of-the-art equipment. The S-70B protects above and below the water with anti-submarine anti-surface mission solutions. Its array of field-proven capabilities and mission-adaptive systems makes the S-70B the world s most capable maritime helicopter. Sikorsky a business unit of United Technologies. TEL 91 11 40881000 Otis Pratt & Whitney Sikorsky UTC Aerospace Systems UTC Climate Controls & Security www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m BAE Systems DRDO SP Guide Pubns rising Gap between aspirations and resources The country needs to spend much more on its defence if another military debacle like that of 1962 war with China is to be avoided. This is one field in which complacency costs lives and imposes unacceptable burdens during crisis situations. n briGadier (retd) GurMeet kanwal A Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 109 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE s an ancient civilisation but a young nation that is still in the process of nation building India faces many threats and challenges to its external and internal security. The foremost among these are the long-festering dispute over Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) with Pakistan and the unresolved territorial and boundary dispute with China. Since its independence from the British on August 15 1947 India has been forced to fight four wars with Pakistan (1947-48 1965 1971 and 1999) and one with China (1962). India s internal security environment has been vitiated by a proxy war through which Pakistan has fuelled an uprising in J&K since 1988-89. Various militant movements in India s Northeastern states and the rising tide of Maoist terrorism in large parts of Central India have also contributed to internal instability. India s regional security is marked by instability in Afghanistan Bangladesh Myanmar Nepal Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite these tensions India has maintained its coherence and its GDP is now growing at an annual rate varying between six per cent and eight per cent. Growth at such a rapid rate would not have been possible but for the sustained vigilance maintained by the Indian armed forces and their many sacrifices in the service of the nation over the last six decades. With personnel strength of approximately 1.1 million soldiers the Indian Army has made a huge contribution towards keeping the nation together particularly in facing internal security challenges. It is a first- rate Army but has been saddled for long with second-rate weapons and equipment despite heavy operational commitments on border management and in counter-insurgency operations. The Army would like to graduate to a network-centric force capable of effects-based operations--in short a light lethal and wired Army. The modernisation dilemma that the Indian Army faces is that the budgetary support available for modernisation is grossly inadequate. It can undertake substantive modernisation only by simultaneously effecting largescale downsizing so as to save on personnel costs--the largest chunk of the Army s annual budget. However it would not be prudent to downsize as the Army s operational commitments on border management and internal security duties require large numbers of manpowerheavy infantry battalions. Hence there is a gap between aspirations and resources. In his budget speech for 2012-13 former Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee set aside 1 93 007 crore ( 40.44 billion) for defence expenditure. This is less than two per cent of the country s projected GDP despite the recommendations of successive Standing Committees on Defence in India s Parliament that it should be at least three per cent if the emerging threats and challenges are to successfully countered. Meanwhile China has increased its official defence expenditure for 2012 by 11.2 per cent to 106 billion while its actual expenditure on defence is likely to be close to 150 billion to 160 billion (3.5 per cent of its GDP). In the current defence budget an amount of 79 578 crore (15 per cent increase 41.15 per cent of the budget) has been allotted on the capital account for the acquisition of modern weapon systems in the GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 Modernisation WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Indian Army CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Indian Navy PIB Boeing an integrated and inclusive approach The process of modernisation of the Indian Navy cannot remain confined to platforms hardware sensors and weapons. These assets have to be manned by a trained and committed crew led by competent officers with outstanding leadership qualities. The Indian Navy has taken the lead in introducing a high level of technological training amongst its officer cadre at the basic training stage. n Vice adMiral (retd) diliP deShPande Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book M 113 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE any authors almost all retired officers of the Navy have articulated in print their vision of how the Indian Navy is being or should be modernised. Serving officers have also articulated though not always in print and generally not on record their views on Navy s modernisation imperatives plans pitfalls focus areas. Both end up giving their grand vision. What is most heartening is that this topic which at one time was restricted to the policy and plans Directorates in Naval Headquarters has begun to attract the attention of others interested in maritime affairs. Any discussion on modernisation begins by acknowledging the country s emergence as an economic power in the world political arena and follows up by listing the three seminally important documents-- The Maritime Doctrine enunciated in 2004 the Maritime Capability Perspective Plan and India s Maritime Military Strategy both brought out in 2006. There followed documents in 2007 detailing guidelines for transformation. It can thus be observed that a serious effort has been made in the last decade-and-a-half to formulate and articulate a vision for the future of the Indian Navy and draw a roadmap for attaining it. This was a necessary first step in the quest for building a Navy that India requires. These documents were the result of a careful and coordinated thought process pieced together by individuals and leaders who were exposed to a large group of international maritime strategists and who had in service developed the required scholarship to be able to put into precise words what others only felt deep down but could not articulate. However it cannot be anybody s suggestion that now the job is done we can sit back and relax. For effective and continued modernisation each new generation would need to continue to indulge in this cerebral exercise. Indigenous Construction Programme Discussions on modernisation quite naturally centres on the creation and maintenance of force levels. Initially in the post-independence era the build-up of the then required force levels was done almost exclusively by procuring a mix of platforms from abroad. Fortunately the wisdom of the pioneers of the Indian Navy that a Navy cannot be bought through import but needs to be built has found wide and universal acceptance. The first and the most successful application of this vision was the indigenous warship construction programme. Programme for indigenous construction of Leander class frigates at the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) was planned and executed so meticulously that it was possible to sustain not only the hulls but also the machinery and equipment through the four Leander classes the two modified Taragiri class and the three Godavari class frigates. In fact the success with these platforms prompted Navy to opt and leapfrog into three more in the form of state-of-the-art Bramhaputra class. Mere construction of Leander class frigates to an imported design alone could not have brought the Navy to its present stature of preeminence in indigenisation of its force levels. Simultaneously with ship GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 Modernisation WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Indian Navy CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Dassault Aviation SP Guide Pubns USAF Airbus Military enhancing its war-fighting capabilities India s economic rise on the world stage coupled with changing geopolitical-cum-security scenarios has transformed the Indian Air Force perceptions of its vastly enhanced roles and responsibilities. But has the IAF been able to equip itself adequately to live up to its aspirations or to match its increasing roles and responsibilities n air MarShal (retd) V.k. bhatia Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book S Background To redux throughout its long and mostly turbulent history the IAF has at times super-cruised and at other times literally stalled in its quest to create operational capabilities to meet the multifarious challenges. This has by and large been due to the knee-jerk policies of the Indian Government which is known to respond only in a reactive mode as far as the country s defence needs are concerned. In the past after each war GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 117 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO ustained and fast-paced economic growth since the dawn of the new millennium has put India in the forefront of the leading nations of the world. Emergence of India as the new economic powerhouse has also put additional responsibilities on the shoulders of its armed forces especially the Indian Air Force (IAF) which has aspired for more than a decade now to transform itself from a mere subcontinental tactical force to an intercontinental strategic aerospace power in conformity with other leading air forces in the world. India s economic rise on the world stage coupled with changing geopolitical-cum-security scenarios has transformed the IAF s perceptions of its vastly enhanced roles and responsibilities. But has the IAF been able to equip itself adequately to live up to its aspirations or to match its increasing roles and responsibilities it was forced to fight with its neighbouring countries India embarked on a soul-searching mission to rationalise its defence needs. In the 1960s post two quick conflicts with China and Pakistan various studies were conducted to strengthen the armed forces. And as far as the IAF was concerned a force level of up to 64 squadrons (with 45 combat squadrons) was recommended to effectively fight against its belligerent neighbours. The closest that the IAF has been able to come to this was the officially declared figure of 39 combat squadrons achieved during the golden era of the 1970s and 1980s. The late 1970s saw the dawn of the golden decade of the IAF with the induction of the Anglo-French Sepecat Jaguar deep penetration strike aircraft (DPSA) into operational service. This was quickly followed by the induction of the Soviet MiG-23s both strike and air defence versions into the IAF in substantial numbers. MiG-27 a fixed-intake improvement of the MiG-23BN did not only follow in quick succession but this variant was also licence-produced by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). At about the same time the IAF also received from the Soviet Union the Mach-3 strategic reconnaissance version of the formidable MiG-25 and the MiG-29 air superiority fighters. But the icing on the cake was the prize acquisition of the multi-role Mirage 2000 from France which formed two front line stateof-the-art IAF combat squadrons in the early 1980s. These also provided much greater teeth in terms of enhanced operational capability and were to show their prowess later during the 1999 Kargil War against Pakistan. These were truly happier times for the IAF but unfortunately the golden period did not last long. The beginning of the 1990s witnessed the then unimaginable and sudden disintegration of the Soviet Union as INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 Modernisation WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Indian Air Force CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m PIB SP Guide Pubns Going through Paradigm transformation The most startling and inexplicable feature of the Defence Offset Guidelines is the division of responsibility between the Acquisition Wing of Department of Defence and Defence Offsets Management Wing (DOMW) of Department of Defence Production. Whereas the former has been allowed to exercise complete control till the signing of the offset contract post-contract management will be carried out under the aegis of DOMW. n Major General (retd) Mrinal SuMan Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book T Spelling out of Objectives Offset policy of every country is always in consonance with its national economic objectives. Inexplicably India s defence offset policy has been without a well-defined aim so far. No one including the MoD knew as to what was being sought through the leverage of offsets. Lack of specific objectives spelt-out in definite terms has been a major weakness. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 121 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO he long-awaited changes in the defence offset policy were finally notified by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) through a press release on August 2 2012. The new Defence Offset Guidelines (DOG) had earlier been approved by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) at its meeting held on July 23 2012. DOG comes into effect from August 1 2012. Major changes that alter the essential character of the defence offset policy have been incorporated. Acceptance of technology against offsets can be construed as a fundamental shift in India s approach towards offsets. Earlier transfer of technology (ToT) under offsets was being opposed on the specious excuse that India lacked necessary wherewithal to price technology realistically. Efforts have been made by the MoD to promulgate a well-evolved policy covering all facets of the offset regime. The salient aspects that impact key stakeholders have been discussed in this article. Many knowledgeable observers compared the policy to a rudderless ship meandering aimlessly. For the first time DOG has explicated the main objective of the defence offset policy. It is to leverage capital acquisitions to develop Indian defence industry by fostering development of internationally competitive enterprises augmenting capacity for research design and development related to defence products and services and encouraging development of synergistic sectors like civil aerospace and internal security. It is a welcome step. It will help all stakeholders and participants to undertake offset programmes that focus on the development of the indigenous defence industry. In other words India s approach is likely to be more focused now. Enlarged Scope of Offset Activities Earlier foreign vendors had only two main avenues open to them to discharge their obligations--one direct purchase or export of eligible products manufactured by or services provided by Indian enterprises and two foreign direct investment (FDI) in Indian defence industry and defence research and development (R&D). In the new guidelines FDI route has been split into three distinct avenues. Further the scope of offset activities has been enlarged by adding two more options-- provision of equipment and technology to government entities and acquisition of technology by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) (see Illustration 1). As mentioned above and shown in Illustration 2 the old route of foreign investment has now been split into the following avenues INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 offset Policy WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Defence CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m US Army USAF BAE Systems an update on Planning and acquisition The government has been making a concerted effort to streamline the entire acquisition process through periodic reviews. Although a number of bold policy initiatives have been taken India has not been able to evolve a truly dynamic vibrant and responsive defence acquisition regime. n Major General (retd) Mrinal SuMan A Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 127 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE defence procurement procedure is a management process by which a nation provides the defence equipment sought by its armed forces in the required time frame and with the best value for money. Core contours of every defence acquisition procedure are shaped by the nature of tasks envisaged for the armed forces level of prevailing excellence in defence technology state of indigenous industry dependence on imports need for synergy of equipment and availability of funds. Consequently every country evolves its own distinct system that suits its national strategic aims and is in consonance with the prevailing environment. Procurement of new weaponry and equipment in all countries is a long complex arduous and time-consuming process. Multiple agencies have to perform vital functions both concurrently and sequentially. A large number of interdependent variables have to be factored in to provide required equipment to the armed forces in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. There are three elements that dictate evolution of all acquisition procedures--equipment should meet performance criteria as specified by the armed forces it should be delivered within the required timelines and it should cost the country the least. Development and sustenance of indigenous defence industry is a natural fallout of the process. India is no exception. The government has been making a concerted effort to streamline the entire acquisition process through periodic reviews. Although a number of bold policy initiatives have been taken India has not been able to evolve a truly dynamic vibrant and responsive defence acquisition regime (see Illustration 1 for a brief of the progress made so far). Prior to 1990 procurement of defence equipment was carried out as per the normal rules governing all government purchases. No separate procedure for the procurement of defence equipment was evolved. After the disintegration of the erstwhile Soviet Union India had to source equipment from diversified sources. Necessity was felt for detailed guidelines for objective decision-making. In 1992 the first version of the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) was issued. It primarily dealt with outright purchases only. Although certain modifications were issued over a period of time DPP suffered from major infirmities. A major revision of DPP was undertaken in 2002 after the Kargil War to inject a higher degree of professionalism and reduce delays. A new integrated set-up called the Acquisition Wing was created under a Special Secretary with members from the civil services defence services and finance. The scope was enlarged to include Buy and Make through Imported Technology cases. First major review of DPP was carried out in 2005 wherein procedure for warship building was added and offset policy introduced. In 2006 with a view to ensure probity signing of the Integrity Pact for deals over 100 crore was mandated. The fast track procedure for emergent procurements was updated. The next review in 2008 focused on ensuring avoidance of single-vendor deals and improving transparency of technical evaluation. Additionally offset banking was allowed. Efforts were made in 2009 to promote the indigenous defence industry by creating another route of defence procurements through GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 Procedure WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Defence Procurement CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m BEL DRDO SP Guide Pubns need for reforms and refurbishment Geographically India is located at the centre of a highly volatile region and knows that it has to be militarily strong to safeguard its national interests. It is also aware of the fact that no nation can feel secure without selfreliance in defence production. Therefore neglect of the Indian defence industry defies logic. n Major General (retd) Mrinal SuMan A Saga of Neglect Defence industry comprises all industrial undertakings engaged in the production of hardware and services for use by the defence forces. The start of the Gun and Shell Factory at Cossipore in 1801 is generally considered to mark the establishment of the Indian defence industry. India had 16 ordnance factories producing low-tech items at the time of independence. Additional factories came up in due course. India has 39 ordnance factories now. In 1954 the Bharat Electronics Ltd was established as the first defence public sector undertaking (DPSU). Currently there are nine DPSUs under MoD including four shipyards. The Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 put defence under Schedule A thereby making it an exclusive reserve of the public sector. After a long gap of 35 years manufacture of components assemblies and sub-assemblies was thrown open to the private sector in 1991. It took MoD another 11 years to allow the private sector to participate in defence production. A policy directive was promulgated in January 2002 allowing 100 per cent private equity with 26 per cent foreign direct investment (FDI). Subsequently the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion issued detailed guidelines for the issuance of licence for the production of arms and ammunition. W Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 133 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE hile addressing the members of the scientific community of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) on July 31 2012 Prime Minister Manmohan Singh lamented the fact that the indigenous defence industrial capability had remained inadequate resulting in continued dependence on imports. Serious concerns had been expressed earlier as well. However no tangible steps have ever been taken to initiate corrective measures. Reforms have been limited to minor procedural changes only. In addition to national security imperatives and economic factors defence industry is generally considered to be an instrument of national sovereignty and pride. Every nation that aspires to acquire a status of influence amongst the comity of nations has to be self-reliant in defence production. Imported defence systems are like crutches that can provide only temporary sustenance but not steadfast power. It was in early 1990s that the Ministry of Defence (MoD) announced its resolve to reduce imports from the then existing level of 70 per cent to 30 per cent within a decade. The same assertion is being repeated at regular intervals. Over 20 years have elapsed and the imports have climbed close to 75 per cent. Worse India is forced to import all modern defence systems as the indigenous defence capability remains limited to the production of low-tech equipment and sub-assemblies. Reasons for the Current Dismal State Geographically India is located at the centre of a highly volatile region and knows that it has to be militarily strong to safeguard its national interests. It is also aware of the fact that no nation can feel secure without self-reliance in defence production. Therefore neglect of the Indian defence industry defies logic. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 defence industry WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Development of Indian CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m USAF Indian Navy Dassault Aviation highest increase in recent years The defence budget has increased to 1 93 407.29 crore. This represents a growth of 17.63 per cent over the previous year s budget. However the actual increase is only 13.5 per cent if the figures of the revised estimates are taken into consideration for the year 2011-12. n lt General (retd) V.k. kaPoor B Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Threats and Challenges The security threats and challenges facing India have increased enormously. While the old adversarial threats due to unresolved borders remain new threats and challenges like terrorism and insurgencies have been added to the old inventory. Thus India needs to prepare itself for the full-spectrum of warfare ranging from low-intensity conflict involving counter-insurgency and counter-terrorist operations to conventional conflicts under the nuclear shadow on two widely separated fronts on its western and eastern flanks. The dilemma is only regarding the extent GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 137 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO uilding a military capability is a long-term exercise. In the Indian context it involves formulation of the 15-year longterm integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) by Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff in consultation with the Service Headquarters (Army Navy and Air Force). The five years capital acquisition plan and the annual acquisition plans are derived from the LTIPP and form the basis of working out the capital budget for all major procurements during a year. The capital budget requirement of each service added to the revenue budget constitutes their overall budget demand during the year for the three services. In addition the defence budget also includes fund allocation for research and development and many other miscellaneous departments of the Ministry of Defence (MoD). of emphasis that should be laid to acquire each type of capability. Thus the requirements of the services are vast and wide-ranging. The Budget 2012-13 presented to the Parliament on March 16 2012 has increased the defence budget to 1 93 407.29 crore ( 40.44 billion). This represents a growth of 17.63 per cent over the previous year s budget. After 2009-10 the budget was increased by 34 per cent due to the heavy increase in revenue expenditure caused by the recommendations of the Sixth Central Pay Commission. It is this year s defence budget which seems to have witnessed the highest increase in recent years. However with the slowdown in the economy this increase appears illusory. The increase in the defence budget has been shown as nearly 18 per cent. However the actual increase is only 13.5 per cent if the figures of the revised estimates (RE) are taken into consideration for the year 2011-12. The upward revision from RE stage of 2011-12 to budget estimates (BE) stage of 2012-13 of the revenue budget amounts to 9 036 crore and of the capital budget is 13 435 crore thus bringing the total increase in defence budget from RE stage of the concluding year to the BE stage of 2012-13 to 22 471 crore. However if the figures of BE stage of the concluding year to BE stage of 2012-13 are taken then the increase is 28 993 crore. Therefore the actual increase from the RE stage is only 13.5 per cent The increase in the defence budget is misleading if one does not see the finer print and understand the totality of the impact on various aspects of the budget. It can be broadly concluded (see figures in the table) that while the share of the defence budget in the GDP has marginally increased its share in Central Government expenditure has fallen. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 7 budget 2012-13 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Defence CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m internal-external threats and responses While there are challenges in the overall strategic and economic environment globally India is set to continue on a path of consistent growth both in economy and defence sectors. While the economic growth in terms of GDP may not be as high as in the past it is likely to remain in tandem with other emerging large economies as China. n briGadier (retd) rahul bhonSle T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 141 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he international strategic and political environment has deteriorated with flux in West Asia after the tumultuous unfolding of Arab Spring economic crisis in Euro zone and depressing growth of the global economy in general. India s neighbourhood remains challenged with Afghanistan-Pakistan region in continuing grip of militancy and terrorism. The uncertainty of the pull out of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in 2014 from Afghanistan without assured indigenous security capacity within is posing a serious threat of spiralling extremist violence in other parts of South Asia and particularly India due to geographic proximity. China s increasingly aggressive posture in the South China Sea in particular and re-balancing by the United States in the Asia Pacific has resulted in a new set of dynamics unfolding in South East Asia which was relatively stable hithertofore. Preoccupation of major states with political and economic stability in their own sphere of influence highlighted the necessity for strengthening defence and security capacity by swing states as India in all spheres. Internally inequitable growth unemployment inadequate education opportunities and denial of basic human freedoms is leading to spectre of radicalisation of youth intolerance and extremism in India. These issues were succinctly highlighted in the address of then President Pratibha Devisingh Patil to the joint sitting of Parliament on March 12 2012 which flagged five challenges faced by India (see Box). The New International Order Polycentrism Globalisation has created structural interdependencies that are shaping inter-state relations in many dimensions-- economic trade culture technology and military to name a few. This has reduced the significance of multi-polarity and enhanced mutual dependencies thereby reducing the possibility of confrontations possible between states. Thus more and more the international order is being defined as polycentric rather than multi-polar. In a polycentric world order the degree of autonomy of each pole is restricted due to interconnections and each country will have to achieve its national interests within the global commons. Uni- or multi-polar decision-making mechanisms are challenged under the polycentric order for it thrives on consensus rather than domination by one or other powers. At the same time states that are removed from polycentrism such as Iran North Korea and to some extent Pakistan will pose a security challenge to the regional and global order. All these states are in the Asia-Pacific region. India shares a long border with Pakistan and has a legacy of disputes and wars. India is dependent on GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE To sum up Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh addressing the Combined Commanders Conference of the Indian armed forces in New Delhi in October 2011 highlighted the multiple challenges faced by the country and called for rapid and integrated response given demands of information age and technology proliferation. The focus in India thus remains on enhancing strategic autonomy and maximising independent thought and action in a complex international and regional environment. Some of the key factors determining the strategic and business environment in the region are discussed as follows BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 8 PIB Indian Navy environment WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India s Business CONTENTS Global Contracts Contract Value 370 million CH-47F model aircraft 14 January 2012 June 2016 Product Job Task Quantity Date of Contract Date of Delivery Remarks Services in support of the bridge requirement for new CH-47F model aircraft to support foreign military sales 377 million Modification of the wideband global SATCOM (WGS) Block-II January 2012 January 2015 January 2012 May 2013 Exercises the option to produce process launch and activate on-orbit satellite vehicle 9 as previously negotiated Acquire engineering design logistics and test and evaluation services in support of the Paladin integrated management system Country Recipient Country Supplier Company US Army The Boeing Company Ridley Park Pennsylvania US Air Force Boeing Satellite Systems Inc. El Segundo California US Army BAE Systems Land 313 million & Armaments L.P. York Pennsylvania www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m 149 693 million C-17 Air Force aircraft Additional 5 January 2012 781 million Lot 4 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft 5 January 2012 133 million EA-18G Lot 36 full rate production airborne electronic attack kits C-17 aircraft 12 February 2012 1.8 billion 10 February 2012 300 million F-15K fighter jets February 2012 Modification to acquire engineering design logistics and test and evaluation services March 2013 US Air Force The Boeing Company Long Beach California To procure five additional C-17 Air Force aircraft SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue May 2015 September 2014 July 2014 5 years contract US Navy Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation Bethpage New York Five low rate initial production Lot 4 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft US Navy The Boeing Company St. Louis Missouri Procurement of 12 EA-18G Lot 36 full rate production airborne electronic attack kits Indian Air Force The Boeing Company Long Beach California Ten C-17 aircraft will be procured for the IAF under FMS Republic of Korea Air Force Boeing Company St. Louis Contract from the Republic of Korea s Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA) REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Country Recipient 676 million CH-47F new build cargo helicopters 32 February 2012 December 2015 32 CH-47F new build cargo helicopters Country Supplier Company Contract Value Product Job Task Quantity Date of Contract Date of Delivery Remarks Business US Army The Boeing Company Ridley Park Pennsylvania 159 million Information technology support services Falcon tactical radio systems February 2012 February 2012 September 2016 Information technology support services to US Army Europe US European Command and US Africa Command The radios for Australia s armed forces. US Army ITT Systems Corporation Colorado Springs Colorado 235 million Australian Department of Defence 322 million 170 million 6 KC-130R and 30 T-56-A-16 engines February 2012 Joint high speed vessels 8 and 9 February 2012 April 2016 Harris Corporation Melbourne Fla. Brisbane US Navy Austal USA Mobile Alabama Construction options for joint high speed vessels 8 and 9 The deal is for 6KC-130R and associated engines Government of Japan US Defense Security Cooperation Agency 360 million Mobile landing platform ship February 2012 January 2015 www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m 150 242 million T700 and T701D turbine engines February 2012 11.4 billion F-15 Saudi advanced aircraft AN TPQ-36 radars 84 March 2012 166 million March 2012 187 million Apache Block III programme March 2012 US Navy General Dynamics National Steel and Shipbuilding Corporation San Diego California Detail design and construction of a third Mobile Landing Platform ship SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue January 2017 October 2020 February 2017 July 2014 US Army GE Engine Services Inc. Arkansas City Kansas Recapitalisation and overhaul services of the T700 and T701D turbine engines Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The Boeing Company Missouri Procure 84 new F-15 Saudi advanced aircraft with systems and munitions Enhanced AN TPQ-36 radars including spares testing and training materials US Army Lockheed Martin Mission System and Sensors Liverpool New York global contracts US Army The Boeing Company Mesa Arizona Development integration and testing requirements on the Apache Block III programme Country Recipient 128 million kronor ( 19.29 million) 150 million V-22 AE1107C turboshaft engines March 2012 October 2017 V-22 AE1107C turboshaft engines for the Navy (232) and the Air Force (33) System maintenance regarding Gripen March 2012 Technical support product maintenance flight testing and flight simulator operation Country Supplier Company Contract Value Product Job Task Quantity Date of Contract Date of Delivery Remarks Swedish Defence Material Administration Defence and security company Saab global contracts US Navy Rolls-Royce Corporation Indianapolis Indiana 497 million Missiles and associated equipment High-performance tactical communication solutions March 2012 March 2012 January 2015 US Air Force Raytheon Corporation Missile Systems Tucson Arizona 51 million Missiles instrumentation units test equipment guidance sections hardware and contractor logistics support Falcon III RF-7800S wideband Secure Personal Radios Falcon II RF-5800M multiband handheld radios and RF-5800H high-frequency manpack radios along with accessories and training services Services in support for the family of medium tactical vehicles Iraq Harris Corporation US Army Oshkosh Corporation Oshkosh Wisconsin 367 million 70 April 2012 Digital Electronic Warfare Systems (DEWS) Common Missile Warning Systems (CMWS) Sniper advanced targeting pod and spares compact multiband data link infrared search and track (IRST) systems and spares IRST pylons and data Digital electronic warfare systems (DEWS) common missile warning systems (CMWS) Laser-guided bombs for the Jaguar fighter aircraft fleet 70 275 April 2012 November 2018 295 million Family of medium tactical vehicles April 2012 September 2014 www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m 151 410 million 366 million April 2012 100 crore ( 20 million approx.) April 2012 Saudi Air Force BAE Systems Contract to deliver 70 Digital Electronic Warfare Systems SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue November 2017 November 2018 US Air Force Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control Orlando Florida 95 sniper advanced targeting pod and spares 35 compact multiband data link 70 infrared search and track (IRST) systems and spares 75 IRST pylons and data US Air Force BAE Systems Nashua New Hamphsire 70 Digital Electronic Warfare Systems Common Missile Warning Systems and spares three DEWS CMWS test stations and associated spares and data Supply of laser-guided bombs for the Jaguar fighter aircraft fleet in the Indian Air Force Business GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS Indian Air Force Lockheed Martin REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Contents One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Integrated Defence Staff The Indian Army The Indian Navy The Indian Air Force Indian Coast Guard Who s Who in Indian Defence Indian Defence Industry Defence R&D 157 165 189 217 243 253 273 297 INDIAN DEFENCE REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO Homeland Security One Two Three Four India s Homeland Security Internal Security Maoist Insurgency India s Coastal Surveillance 305 315 327 331 BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Indian Defence CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section four 4 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Nothing stands prouder than a military family. Training Light Attack Command and Control Mission Success Hawker Beechcraft Corporation is the industry leader in Airborne Surveillance Light Attack and Military Aircrew Training around the world. Learn how Hawker Beechcraft meets the demanding requirements of the task at hand with our state-of-the-art cost effective and sustainable solutions. LEARN MORE VISIT ASIA-PACIFIC 65.6423.0321 2012 Hawker Beechcraft Corporation. All rights reserved. Hawker and Beechcraft are registered trademarks of Hawker Beechcraft Corporation. www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m need for Coordination and Jointness Strengthening our military capabilities and internal security efforts are intricately linked with our broader political and economic objectives. If India has to survive as a modern and progressive nation that wishes to achieve its long-cherished goal of strategic autonomy defence and security reforms have to be ushered in at a faster pace than hitherto before. n brigadier (retd) Vinod anand Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book T 157 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he time has come to take stock of the defence set-up and review what has already been achieved so far and plans be made on how to move further on the path. But empirical evidence suggests that it would not be an easy task given the number of contextual inhibiting factors. The Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was established in 1986 under the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) when it became clear that future wars would be fought jointly by the three services and that the time had come for jointmanship . Working under the COSC Chairman and headed by the Director General Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS) the DPS had under it directorates covering policy and plans international and regional security affairs weapons and equipment and financial planning. It also operated as a think tank for the COSC. The DPS was the forerunner to the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) or what is called in some countries as Joint Staff. The IDS came into being in October 2001 with the merging of the military wing which was established at the time of independence and had functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat for a number of years till it came under the COSC with the DPS. After the Kargil War in 1999 the report of the Kargil Review Committee (KRC) headed by K. Subrahmanyam was examined by a Group of Ministers (GoM). They recommended the formation of the four task forces to review the national security system Key GoM Recommendations After considering the report of the task force on the management of defence the GoM made the following key recommendations nIntegration of the Armed Forces Headquarters with the Ministry of Defence (MoD). nCreation of the posts of CDS and Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS). nSetting up of IDS to support the CDS. nEstablishing a Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA). nOrganising an Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC). nCreation of a Strategic Forces Command (SFC). nEstablishing a Defence Procurement Board (DPB). nSetting up of an Indian National Defence University (INDU). nA number of other long-term recommendations on aspects concerning air space and maritime management budgetary reforms including performance budgeting private sector participation in defence production improvement in service conditions media handling and cost-effectiveness. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE nManagement of Defence nInternal Security nBorder Management nIntelligence Systems and Apparatus The task force on the management of defence headed by Arun Singh recommended among other things the appointment of a Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and the setting up of Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS). BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 PIB IDS defence Staff WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Integrated CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m SP Guide Pubns Indian Army Meeting national Security objectives The Indian Army remains the repository of the Indian citizens hopes and aspirations. In a milieu of degenerating institutions it remains as is often touted the last bastion that inspires confidence. As a result the Indian Army s role has gone far beyond national defence to also substantially address nation building. It is these influences that have shaped the role and functioning of the current Indian Army. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book The global security architecture is shifting towards multi-polarity in power 165 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Global Security Environment GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE I ndia s land frontiers extend to more than 15 500 kilometres with maritime boundaries overlooking three major shipping lanes. India s location vis- -vis both continental Asia and the Indian Ocean region has a strategic significance. It has a landmass of 3.3 million square kilometres and is home to over 1.2 billion people with varying ethnic linguistic religious and cultural background. The topography of India is diverse ranging from the snow-clad Himalayas with peaks over 28 000 feet to deserts thick jungles and vast plains. The Siachen Glacier in the North is the world s highest battlefield with posts located as high as 21 000 feet. India s Western border runs through deserts fertile plains and thickly forested mountains. The North-Eastern frontier also comprises steep high ranges and dense tropical forests. To the South there are ranges close to the sea inland plateaus interspersed with river valleys coastal plains and far-flung island territories such as the Lakshadweep to the West and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the East. On three sides from Gujarat to West Bengal the country is bordered by the Arabian Sea Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands located 1 300 km away from the nearest point on our East Coast assume strategic prominance with respect to the entrance to the Malacca Strait. In the Arabian Sea the Lakshadweep and Minicoy islands situated on the sea lines of communication running eastwards from the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea are 450 km away from the nearest point on the West Coast. India is thus a maritime as well as a continental entity. equations with a discernible shift in the global Centre of Gravity to Asia. India s security environment is defined by global and regional security concerns together with the growing internal security problems. The conventional threats from traditional adversaries continuing presence of terrorist and fundamentalist forces in its western and eastern neighbourhood has prompted India to maintain high level of defence vigilance and preparedness to face any challenge to its security. The developments across India s western borders are alarming and dangerous as the drift in both Pakistan and Afghanistan shows the lack of state control and breakdown of economy law and order and governance. Both states are staying afloat because of the aid from the United States and the international community. Moreover there is also the ever present possibility of hostile radical fundamentalist elements gaining access to the weapons of mass destruction in Pakistan. The proxy war conducted by Pakistan against India and terrorist activities unleashed by the various radical jehadi outfits nurtured by them in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK) are continuing unabated. In the Northeast China s challenge to India s security is looming large on the horizon. Its strategy of encircling India through its neighbours and confining it within the subcontinent is apparent and palpable apart from its outlandish claims on Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh. It has vastly improved the infrastructure in the form of roads and airfields opposite the entire Indian border especially opposite Arunachal Pradesh. Internally the country faces a series of low-intensity conflicts characterised by tribal ethnic and left-wing movements and ideologies and these conflicts have the capacity of deflecting the Indian Government from their long-term social and economic development BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 indian army WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES The CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m We are duty bound to ensure operational readiness to meet any contingency in the external internal security domain General Bikram Singh took over as the Chief of the Army Staff (COAS) on May 31 2012. In an interview with SP s Military Yearbook the COAS shared his thoughts on many important issues including his key focus areas future threats and challenges modernisation of the Army proposal for a Mountain Strike Corps and jointmanship among the three services. SP s Military Yearbook (SP s) How does it feel to take over the Indian Army the second largest Army in the world with its formidable reputation in the battlefield Chief of Army Staff (COAS) I am elated and humbled on being bestowed with this responsibility. The Army and I will endeavour to live up to the expectations and the confidence which has been reposed by the nation. I assure the nation of dedication and professional focus and conduct from its Army. agency relationships. nEnsure welfare of veterans veer naris and widows. SP s What is your perception of the security challenges currently the nation is facing in general and the Indian Army in particular What are the future challenges that we may have to confront COAS The present geopolitical environment in Asia and particularly in South Asia is dynamic. It poses security challenges to our Army across the entire spectrum of conflict including both conventional and unconventional domains. These range from traditional land-centric threats along our borders to asymmetric threats including proxy war and insurgency within our country. Also rapid and exponential growth in the information and communication technologies and cyber space has created fresh technological challenges. Threats emanating from cyber domain have become an everyday reality. In the present milieu--threats are hybridised. There is a need to constantly review the challenges confronting the nation and the Army. The Indian Army is mindful of the conventional threats concurrent to the ongoing proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir and the Northeast. The Army is fully prepared trained and is modernising to counter these security threats. The current and future challenges faced by the Indian Army mandate that we prepare for conventional conflict with concurrent engagement in sub-conventional conflicts. The new dimensions of threat include information and cyber space and militarisation of outer space. The hybrid Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 177 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE SP s What are the key areas that you will focus on during your tenure as the COAS COAS I intend to focus on the following key areas nOperational readiness to enable effective fulfilment of our constitutional obligations and assigned roles. nForce modernisation as per stipulated timelines and address the existing hollowness . nStrengthen our work culture that hinges on professional ethos and uphold our cherished core values of integrity loyalty duty respect selfless service and honour. nEffective human resource management to ensure highest standards of motivation and morale. nEnhance security consciousness and strengthen our secular fabric and apolitical stature. nEnhance jointness with other services and strengthen our inter- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Chief of army Staff SP Guide Pubns WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Interview CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m INDIAN DEFENCE M4 Carbine (Under Consideration) The M4 carbine is a family of firearms tracing its lineage back to earlier carbine versions of the M16 rifle all based on the original AR-15 rifle designed by Eugene Stoner and made by ArmaLite. The M4 is a shorter and lighter variant of the M16A2 assault rifle with 80 per cent parts commonality. It is a gas-operated magazine-fed selective fire shoulder-fired weapon with a telescoping stock. A shortened variant of the M16A2 rifle the M4 has a 14.5 in (370mm) barrel allowing its user to better operate in close quarters combat. The M4 has selective fire options including semi-automatic and three-round burst (like the M16A2 and M16A4) while the M4A1 has the capability to fire fully automatic instead of three-round burst (like the M16A1 and M16A3). The carbine is also capable of mounting an M203 grenade launcher (the M203A1 with a nine-inch barrel as opposed to the standard 12-inch barrel of the M203 used on the M16 series) as well as its successor the M320 grenade launcher. The M4 carbine is heavily used by the US military. MBTs T-90S Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Width over tracks Height over turret roof Engine Road range T-72S Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Height Armament 3 46 500 kg 2.228 m Main 1 x 125mm SBG AA 1 x 12.7mm NSVT (300 rounds) Main gun ammunition Engine Speed Range Armour protection Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2 000 rounds) 45 x APDSFS HEAT HESH (inclusive 6 ATGW) V-12 multi-fuel (V-84) 840 hp at 2 000 rpm 60 kmph (max) 550 km 280mm (max) 3 46 500 kg 3.37 m 2.23 m V-84MS four-stroke 12-cylinder multi-fuel diesel engine developing 840 hp 550 km Armament and Ammunition Main 1 x 125mm SBG which fires an ATGM as well as conventional ammunition. Has a laser range finder and thermal imaging night sight [43 (22 - in autoloader) rounds] Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm MG (2 000 rounds) AA 1 x 12.7mm MG (300 rounds) 8 rounds min Characteristics Weight Length Barrel length Cartridge Action Rate of fire Muzzle velocity Effective range Feed system Sights 6.36 lb (2.88 kg) empty 6.9 lb (3.1 kg) with 30 rounds 33 in (840mm) (stock extended) 29.75 in (756mm) (stock retracted) 14.5 in (370mm) 5.56 45mm NATO Gas-operated rotating bolt 700 950 round min cyclic 2970 ft sec (884 m sec) 500 m for a point target and 600 m for an area target 30 round box magazine or other STANAG magazines Iron or various optics Main gun rate of fire Cbt Improved T-72M-1 (Ajeya) Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Height ( turret roof) Engine 3 43 500 kg 2.19 m Up rated V46-6 engine a 12 cylinder 4 stroke V 60 turbocharged water-cooled multi-fuel direct injection engine developing 1 000 hp at 2 000 rpm. 22.98 hp t 60 kmph 35 to 45 kmph 60 850mm Trench crossing Shallow fording Armament 2.6 to 2.8 m 1.2 m Main 1 x 125mm SBG Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm MG AD 1 x 12.7mm MG 16 to -6 360 3 km 8 rounds min Auto 44 projectiles charges 181 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Power to weight ratio Max speed (on road) Max speed (Cross country) Gradient Ability Vertical obstacle Elevation depression Traverse Max range Main gun rate of fire Ammunition loading Ammunition stowage Note Other improvements include explosive reactive armour integrated fire detection and suppression system and GPS. ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES equipment Catalogue indian army CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m INDIAN DEFENCE T-55 (Up Gunned) Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Height Armament 3 43 000 kg 2.26 m Main 1 x 105mm rifled bore gun Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2 000 rounds) equIpment catalogue IndIan army Main gun ammunition Engine Speed Range Armour AA 1 x 12.7mm NSV M (2800 rounds) 43 rounds x APDSFS HEAT HESH V-2-55 V-12 Diesel rated at 600 bhp 50 kmph (max) 500 km 140mm Arjun (Country of origin India) Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Overall length (with gun forward) Overall height (with AD gun mount) Overall width Ground pressure Armament 4 58 500 kg 10.638 m 3.03 m 3.864 m 0.85 kg cm2 Main 1 x 120mm Rifled gun AA 1 x 12.7mm MG Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm MG 39 rounds (HESH FSAPDS) 6-8 rounds minute Director type & Electro-hydraulic system & Thermal Imaging Ballistic computer Engine Transmission Steering Suspension Fuel Track Max speed Shallow fording Vertical obstacle Trench crossing Gradient Digital MTU 838 Ka 501 10-cylinder liquid cooled Diesel developing 1400 hp at 2 500 rpm 4 Fwd 2 rev Torque converter Mech. Lockup clutch & hydro dynamic retarder Double radii mechanical steering with neutral turn Hydro-gas Renk transmission DHPP (A) Diehl L - German Road 70 kmph Cross country 40 kmph 1.4 m 0.914 m 2.43 m 35 Main gun ammunition Main gun rate of fire Fire control Night vision Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs) Recce Vehs BMP-1 2 Characteristics Crew Weight Length Width Height Armament BMP13 8 BMP23 7 BMP112 500 kg BMP214 300 kg BMP16.74 m BMP26.735 m BMP12.94 m BMP2 3.15 m BMP12.18 m BMP2 2.45 m Main gun BMP1 1 x 73mm SBG (40 rounds) BMP2 1 x 30mm Auto Cannon (500 rounds) Coaxial (Both) 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (1 000 rounds) BMP1 AT-3 BMP2 AT-5 V-16 in line water-cooled diesel rated at 300 bhp BMP1 Land 65 kmph Water 7 kmph BMP2 Land 65 kmph Water 7 kmph 550-600 km (Both) 20mm ATGW Engine Speed Range Armour BRDM-2 Characteristics Crew Weight Armament Engine 4 7 000 kg 6 x AT-3 [ATGM] 1 x 14.5mm KPVT HMG (500 rounds) 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG Co-axial (2 000 rounds) Speed Range Armour GAZ-41 V-8 water-cooled petrol developing 140 hp at 3 400 rpm Land 100 kmph Water 10 kmph 750 km 14mm Arty 130mm M-46 Med Gun Characteristics Crew Calibre Weight (travelling position) Elevation depression 8 130mm 8 450 kg 45 to-2.5 Traverse Projectile weight MV Range Rate of fire GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 50 (total) 33.4 kg 930 m sec 27 km (full charge) 19.1 km (reduced charge) 5-6 rounds min 182 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue 188 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Indian Navy US Navy in Peace and War Self-reliance assumes great significance as the dangerous pitfalls of over-dependence on foreign sources become more and more evident. If suppliers can be so whimsical in peacetime their unreliability in war must give sleepless nights to India s naval planners. The maritime environment in peace as well as the battlespace in war at sea will have to be favourably influenced and moulded by creating capabilities that are considered necessary for the purpose. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 189 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE H istorically the roles of navies worldwide can be said to comprise the military policing constabulary diplomatic and aid to civil power. The military role encompasses deterring conflict (including nuclear conflict) winning the conflict if it does take place projection of military power ashore protection of seaborne trade and protection of offshore assets (including island territories) against enemy attack. The policing constabulary role shared in part with the Coast Guard includes protection of offshore assets coastal security anti-piracy and assisting the national law enforcement apparatus at sea. The diplomatic role stretches from coercion suasion to showing the flag to providing disaster relief to other littoral countries. The aid to civil power role is confined to domestic territory and encompasses providing all variety of assistance required by civil power. The Indian Navy s responsibilities encompass all the roles described above.The Indian Navy is responsible for safeguarding of a wide spectrum of the country s maritime interests comprising a coastline of 7 516.6 kilometres and an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of over two million square kilometres which is expected to increase to over three million sq km after the inclusion of the extended continental shelf for which India s claim is pending resolution at the UN Commission on the Law of the Seas. In its EEZ the country has sovereign rights to explore and exploit economic assets without encroachment or hindrance from others. The country s overseas trade is more than 513.5 million tonnes over 90 per cent of which by volume and 77 per cent by value moves through the medium of the sea to and from 13 major ports and dozens of smaller ones on either coast. India has island territories on both seaboards. To the east more than 1 050 kilometres from the Indian mainland are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands stretching 720 kilometres from north to south. The southern-most of these islands is only 145 kilometres from the western tip of the Indonesian archipelago while in the north Myanmar (Coco islands) lies only 35 kilometres away. To the west about 240 kilometres from the mainland are the Lakshadweep group of islands occupying a strategic location astride vital international shipping lanes. India s merchant marine is close to 9.5 million tonnes gross register tonnage (GRT) comprising over 1 000 ships. The country shares maritime boundaries with seven Indian Ocean littoral states. Another example of the importance of the sea is India s current oil consumption which was 3.1 million barrels per day (bbl d) in 2010 and is likely to rise to 5.3 million bbl d by 2025. Domestic production was 0.75 million barrels per day and is projected to increase marginally. This will mean a substantial increase in oil imports touching 90 per cent of total consumption. Most of this will come by the sea route. Any stoppages or even interruptions will inevitably have a crippling effect on the economy. Thus India is truly a maritime nation and the sea is critical to its survival and prosperity. It is the role of the Indian Navy to ensure that these interests are adequately safeguarded in peace and in war. The Navy will hopefully in the very near future provide the third leg of the nuclear triad which India seeks to develop in order to safeguard its interests as a de facto nuclear weapon state. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 indian navy WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES The CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m My aim is to steer our team and resources in a manner to be able to act as net security provider wherever the country s sovereign interests may lie in the maritime domain Admiral Devendra Kumar Joshi took over as the Chief of the Naval Staff Indian Navy on August 31 2012. In an interview with SP s Military Yearbook the new Chief said that his focus would be to consolidate train and continuously reaudit Indian Navy s preparedness as also achieve seamless man-machine interface. 197 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE SP s Military Yearbook (SP s) Our heartiest congratulations and very warm felicitations on you assuming the helm of the Indian Navy. During your innings as the Chief of the Naval Staff what is your vision of the Indian Navy which is already progressing steadily forward on its growth trajectory Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS) At the very outset I must record my gratitude for the most privileged opportunity given to me and the confidence reposed by entrusting me with the responsibility and honour of commanding one of the biggest navies in the world. The raison d tre of our existence has been encapsulated in the theme of this year i.e. Maritime Power for National Prosperity . Therefore my aim is to steer our team and resources in a manner to be able to act as net security provider wherever the country s sovereign interests may lie in the maritime domain. To fulfil this mandate I have identified a few focus areas which are a sine quo non nIndian Navy today is at the cusp of transformation wherein it is poised for induction of cutting-edge technologies in all the three dimensions viz. air surface and sub-surface. These will significantly enhance our capabilities to tackle emerging maritime challenges. My focus would be to consolidate train and continuously reaudit our preparedness with complete professionalism to optimally exploit these capabilities as also to achieve seamless man-machine interface. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book nSecurity encompassing information data and physical security of our assets infrastructure as well as coastal security. nEffective use of contemporary information technology tools and stateof-the-art intra-Navy communications to ensure that there are no delays in decision-making and staff processes are speedy and efficient. Building a potent and credible Navy is an ongoing process one that gets even more challenging as we strive towards maximum indigenisation. We have been able to meet many of the goals we set for ourselves but there is more to be accomplished. I am very confident that the Navy will continue to grow and maintain its focus on operational excellence. SP s During your naval voyage spanning over 38 years you have earned the reputation of a humble forthright well-meaning and proficient naval commander. What would be your message on how to serve the Indian Navy and through it our country CNS I would like to convey to one and all in the Indian Navy that we have to constantly remind ourselves that each one of us has joined this noble profession of arms as a matter of honour and therefore adherence to ethical and moral values by each one of us is sacrosanct . Moreover our disciplined upbringing in the service places us on a higher pedestal in society wherein each one of us is expected to serve as an exemplar. There is only one requirement--professional excellence in all dimensions in all our endeavours nothing more and nothing less. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Chief of naval Staff SP Guide Pubns WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Interview CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m INDIAN DEFENCE equipment Catalogue indian navy Submarines Shishumar (209) Class Type 1500 Total No. in service Name Specifications Displacement tonnes 4 Shishumar Shankush Shalki Shankul Standard 1 450 Surfaced 1 700 Dived 1 850 211.2 x 21.3 x 19.7 (64.4 x 6.5 x 6) Diesel Electric 4MTU 12V 493 AZ80 GA31L Diesels 4 Siemens alternators 1 Siemens motor 1 shaft Surfaced 11 Dived 22 8 000 snorting at 8 knots 13 000 Surfaced at 10 knots 36 (8 officers) 8 Nos. 21 inch (533mm) tubes carries 14 AEG SUT Mod 1 wire guided active passive torpedoes homing to 28 km at 23 knots 12 km at 35 knots warhead 250 kg. External Strap-on type for 24 Mines Decoys C303 acoustic decoys ESM Argo Phoenix II AR 700 or Koll Morgen Sea Sentry radar warning ESM-DR 3000 Weapon control Singer Librascope MKI CCS 90-1 ISUS Radars Surface Search Thomson-CSF Calypso I-band KH 1007 2007 Sonars Atlas Elektronik CSU 83 active passive search and attack Thomson Sintra DUUV-5 passive ranging and intercept CSU 90-14 Programme HDW concluded an agreement with the Indian Navy on December 11 1981. Out of the four submarines first two were built in West Germany and the balance two at Mazagon Dock Mumbai with supply of material package from HDW. (Submarines forms the tenth Submarine Squadron based in Mumbai. Mid-life-refit-cum-modernisation of the class has been undertaken in a progressive manner starting with Shishumar in 1999.) Mines Countermeasures Dimensions feet (metres) Main machinery Speed knots Range miles Complement torpedoes Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class (Project 877 EKM 8773) Total No. in service Name 10 Sindhughosh Sindhudhvaj Sindhuraj Sindhuvir Sindhuratna Sindhukesari Sindhukirti Sindhuvijay Sindhurakshak Sindhushastra 2 300 surfaced 3 100 dived 238 x 32.5 x 21.7 (73.0 x 10.0 x 6.6) 2 Model 4-2AA-42M diesels 2 generators 1 motor 1 shaft 2 MT-168 auxiliary motors 1 economic speed motor 10 surfaced 17 dived 9 snorting 6 000 at 7 kt snorting 400 at 3 kt dived 68 (7 officers) 6-21 in (533mm) tubes combination of Type 53-65 passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 n miles) at 45 Kt TEST 71 96 anti-submarine active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt or 20 km (10.08 n miles) at 25 kt warhead 220 kg. Total of 18 weapons. Wire-guided torpedo on two tubes. Mines 24 DM-1 in lieu of torpedoes some submarines carry shoulder-held 9M36 Strela-3 (SA-N-8) SAM launcher placed in fin for use on surface. ESM squid head radar warning Porpoise (Indigenous) Uzwl MVU-119EM TFCS Navigation Snoop Tray MRP-25 I-band Sonars MGK 400 hull mounted active passive search and attack medium frequency. MG-519 hull mounted active search high frequency. Being replaced by Sonar USHUS manufactured by BEL Bengaluru in a progressive manner on submarines Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) Main machinery Programmes The Kilo class was launched in the former Soviet Navy in 1979 and India was the first country to acquire these between 1993 and 2000. The Indian Navy procured 10 submarines of this class from Russia. This class of submarine has since been supplied to Algeria Poland Romania Iran and China. Modernisation Medium-refit-cum-modernisation of the submarines is being undertaken in India Russia on a progressive manner since 1997. The submarines are being provided with submarine launched cruise missile (SLCM) capability during this refit.Four have been fitted with the Klub S 3M-54E (anti-ship variant) while the remaining six have been will be fitted with Klub S 3M-14E (land attack variant).Retrofit and trials of submarine launched version of BrahMos missile (a joint Indo-Russian venture) is expected to be undertaken on one of the submarines. An Indian designed main battery with a five-year life has replaced Russian batteries in all of the class. Battery cooling has been improved. Operational First four form the Eleventh Submarine Squadron based at Visakhapatnam and the remaining six comprise the Twelfth Submarine Squadron based at Mumbai.The submarines have progressively undergone midlife modernization refits commencing 1997 which includes installation of the Klub cruise missile and the associated Lama fire control system new sonars electronic warfare systems machinery control systems and an automated information and control system for the weapon package. Sindhuvir was the first to go through this refit at Severodvinsk from 1997-99 followed by Speed knots Range miles Complement Torpedoes Other weapons Countermeasures Weapon control Radars 200 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m equIpment catalogue IndIan navy INDIAN DEFENCE Shipyard Limited Visakhapatnam from 2007 onwards. The last two submarines are expected to be refitted at Visakhapatnam. One submarine is expected to be fitted out with BrahMos cruise missiles the surface version of this Indo-Russian 290 km range supersonic missile is already being fitted on the Indian Navy s surface platforms. Scorpene Class (Project 75) Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) Main machinery (metres) Speed knots Range miles Diving depth Complement Torpedoes Countermeasures Weapons control Radars 1 668 dived 217.8 x 20.3 x 19 (66.4 x 6.2 x 5.8) Diesel-electric 4 MTU 16 V 396 SE84 diesels 1 Jeumont Schneider motor 1 shaft 20 dived 12 surfaced 550 at 4 kt dived 6 500 at 8 kt surfaced More than 300 m (984 ft) 31 (6 officers) 6-21 in (533mm) tubes ESM UDS International SUBTICS Navigation Sagem I-band Sonars Hull-mounted passive and attack medium frequency Programme Project 75 negotiations for construction of six submarines in India were completed and contract concluded in late 2005. The contract envisages construction at MDL with transfer of technology from DCN France. The first submarine is expected to be delivered by 2015 and thereafter one every year to complete delivery by 2018. Details of equipment package are speculative and based on those built for Chilean Navy. Design consideration provides special attention to stealth features with the hull forms the sail and the appendages specifically designed to produce minimum hydrodynamic noise. Armed with Exocet SM 39 anti-ship missile the Scorpene also offers advanced capabilities for mine warfare intelligence gathering and special operations. Dimensions Displacement Propulsion Range INS Chakra (SSN) Displacement tonnes Dimensions metres Main machinery Length 111 m (364 ft) Beam 15 m (49 ft) Draft 11 m (36 ft) 5 000-6 000 tonnes (estimated) PWR using 40 per cent enriched uranium fuel (80 MWe) one turbine (47 000hp 70 MW) one shaft one 7-bladed high-skew propeller (estimated) Unlimited except by food supplies Test depth Complement Sensors and processing Systems armament Launched Status 300m (980ft) (estimated) 95 Bharat Electronics Ltd USHUS 6x533mm torpedoes 12xK-15 Sagarika-- SLBM Shaurya missile (expected) July 26 2009 Undergoing sea trials. Aircraft Carriers Centaur Class Class Indian designation Total No in service Specifications Displacement tonnes Dimensions metres Armament Centaur class INS Viraat 1 Standard 23 900 28700 (full load) 226.9 x 27.4 x 8.8 Aircraft Sea Harriers Helo Sea Kings 42B Chetak Ka- 31 Ka -28 Missiles SAM 1 x Sensors 201 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE EW Main machinery GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Barak M Guns 2 x 30mm Air Search RAWL - 02 Air Surface Search RAWS-08 Navigation 2 x BEL Rashmi FCS EL M STGR for Barak SAM FCS Plessey Type 904 for guns C Pearl system Ex Israel Engines 2 Vickers Armstrong Turbine 2 shafts 76 000 SHP ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE Speed knots Complement Missiles 8 450 surfaced 13 400 dived 113.3 x 13.6 x 9.7 1 VM-5 nuclear PWR 190 MW one OK-7 steam turbine 43 000 hp(m) 2 retractable electric propulsors for low speed and quiet manoeuvring 750 hp(m) (552 kW) 1 shaft 2 spinners 1 006 hp(m) (740 kW) 28-35 dived 10 surfaced 90 (23 officers) SLCM SSM Klub S 3M 54E (anti-ship) 3M 14 E (Land attack) NATO SS-N-27 fired from 21 in (533mm) torpedo tubes.The anti-ship version is a sea-skimmer with 200-kg warhead 200-km range flight altitude of 15 ft and supersonic terminal speed (2.9 Mach) in the final stage. The land-attack missile is inertially guided subsonic (0.8 Mach) has a range of 275 km and a 400-kg warhead. SAM SA-N-10 Igla M launcher on sail. 18 missiles A S Type 40 torpedo. Novator SS-N-16 Stallion fired from 650mm tubes inertial flight to 100 km (54 n miles) Torpedoes 8x21 in (533mm) tubes. Total of 40 weapons. Countermeasures ESM Rim Hat intercept. Radars Surface search Snoop Pair or Snoop Half with back-to-back aerials on same mast as ESM. Sonars Shark Gill (Skat MGK 503) hull-mounted passive active search and attack low medium frequency. Mouse roar hull-mounted active attack high frequency. Skat 3 towed array passive very low frequency. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Arihant Class (SSBN or SSGN) CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Sindhuraj and Sindhukesari at Admiralty Shipyard St Petersburg from 1999-2001. Sindhuratna Sindhughosh and Sindhuvijay have been refitted at Severodvinsk from 2001-03 2002-05 and 2005-07 respectively while Sindhurakshak is currently undergoing refit there. Sindhukirti is undergoing refit to the same standard at the Hindustan CONTENTS Workhorse. High achiever. Lifeline. It s in our power.TM When the mission matters with lives in the balance it s mission-ready. Has been for over 20 years. The C-17 Globemaster III. Delivering relief supplies evacuations airdrops and other humanitarian roles it s all in a day s work. And we re proud that our dependable F117 engines have supplied the power for every mission. Learn more at Military Engines www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Pilatus SP Guide Pubns impacting Modern-day Warfare The role of the Air Force can make or mar the war potential of a modern-day state. Recent international conflicts have proved the overwhelming importance of air power. In the Indian context the contribution of the IAF to the national security effort was emphatically driven home during the Kargil conflict in 1999 when intruding Pakistani soldiers stunned by the strike potential of the IAF and resolute Indian response retreated from their positions inside the line of control. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Looking Back On October 8 1932 the IAF Bill was passed allowing for creation ofNumber 1 Squadron of the IAF with only one flight equipped with four obsolescent Westland Wapiti aircraft at Drigh Road Karachi on April 1 1933. The flight was commanded by a RAF officer and had five pilots and the first batch of Hawai Sepoys . The fledgling IAF went into action for the first time in 1937 during air policing operations in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). During World War II the IAF expanded rapidly GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 217 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE T he Indian Air Force (IAF) would have to seek greater governmental indulgence to acquire additional aircraft. In addition the force will have to vigorously pursue development and acquisition of fifth generation fighter aircraft. Manifestations of flight capabilities (the third dimension) in military affairs have witnessed phenomenal changes. The term air power is used to denote the flight potential of military services. Air power is in itself an indicator of its undeniable impact on modern warfare. The role of the Air Force can make or mar the war potential of a modern-day state. Recent international conflicts have proved the overwhelming importance of air power. In the Indian context the contribution of the IAF to the national security effort was emphatically driven home during the Kargil conflict in 1999 when intruding Pakistani soldiers stunned by the strike potential of the IAF and resolute Indian response retreated from their positions inside the line of control (LoC). However its current effectiveness notwithstanding the origin of the IAF was very humble. to about 10 squadrons. For its achievements during the war the service was awarded the prefix Royal in March 1945. The division of assets and manpower of the armed forces at the time of independence in August 1947 reduced the force level to a little more than half its original size. Two months later the RAF went into action in Kashmir which saw the landing of Dakotas at what was termed the roof of the world . On January 26 1950 India became a Republic and the RIAF dropped the Royal prefix. The 1950s witnessed rapid expansion and modernisation of the IAF both in terms of capital assets and infrastructure. The modernisation process was kicked off in 1948 with the arrival of the Vampire--the first combat jet of the IAF. Subsequently Ouragan Mystere Canberra Hunter and Gnat entered service during the 1950s. Closer strategic and military cooperation with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) resulted in the IAF acquiring three MiG-21 supersonic aircraft in 1963 which then went on to pave the way for subsequent induction of various other combat aircraft and weapon systems of Soviet origin. From this point onwards the IAF inventory acquired a distinct Soviet orientation which is still in evidence 48 years after the first induction of the MiG-21. This also had a great bearing on the evolving shape and structure of the aviation industry in India. The 1965 war saw the IAF aggressively using the famous Gnat demolishing the myth of the F-86 Sabre being the best combat aircraft of that time. The Gnat again played a significant role in the 1971 conflict scoring a number of kills in the air. In the mid-1980s and towards the end of that decade the IAF played a key role during the Sri Lanka and Maldives opera- BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 air Force The Indian WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Cyber warfare has emerged as the fifth dimension of warfare Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. Browne took over as Chief of the Air Staff Indian Air Force (IAF) on July 31 2011. In an interview with SP s Military Yearbook the Air Chief spoke about the major challenges faced by the IAF and the comprehensive modernisation programme. SP s Military Yearbook (SP s) Having completed more than a year now at the helm of one of the largest and battle-tested air forces in the world what do you reckon are the major challenges facing the Indian Air Force How have you planned to cope with these Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) IAF s vision envisages a modern force capable of addressing multi-dimensional and multi-front threats. The wars of the future would be short and intense wherein the application of aerospace power would prove to be the decisive factor in winning. Hence one of the major challenges for us is to ensure that the IAF continues to remain a contemporary aerospace power capable of meeting all security challenges of the future and therefore our capability enhancement plans cater to this requirement. Due importance is also being given to training and preparing our air warriors to absorb new technology in the shortest possible time so that we remain technologically on par with the leading air forces of the world. Additionally emphasis is also being given to synthetic training aids simulators and acquiring modern training aircraft. As you are aware the Hawk aircraft has already been operationalised fully in the training role and this will be followed by the induction of Pilatus basic trainer in February 2013. SP s The IAF in metamorphic transformation is an oft-repeated statement which continues to emanate from different quarters within and outside the Establishment .Do you agree If so could you elaborate especially with regard to its ideology concepts and doctrines etc CAS We have embarked on a comprehensive modernisation programme which will transform the IAF into a strategic force capable of addressing diverse security challenges of the future. Our modernisation programme includes new inductions as well as upgrades of the existing weapon platforms and systems. Induction of additional Su-30MKI light combat aircraft (LCA) medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA) and fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) are planned to enhance our overall combat potential. Upgrades of Jaguar MiG-29 and Mirage 2000 aircraft are also being undertaken to extend their operational life. In addition induction of C-17 C-130J attack helicopters medium-lift and heavy-lift helicopters will also enhance our operational capability. Our air defence network is being made more robust with induction of radars and missiles of various classes. We are also progressing well towards having full network-centric operations. To my mind no other Air Force of our size has embarked on such a modernisation drive and that too within such a short period of time. To enable optimum exploitation of these platforms and networks we are concurrently evolving our concept of operations (CONOPS) and relevant operational doctrines. SP s What are the key ingredients of the IAF s latest revised doctrine Does it mesh well with the Joint Sea-Air-Land Doctrine (if there is any such thing in the true sense of it in the Indian context) Please elucidate. CAS The basic doctrine of the IAF has been revised and declassified. In keeping with the evolutionary nature of warfare and the need to stay relevant across the spectrum of conflict the revised doctrine addresses all the contemporary challenges and war-fighting concepts. It also includes the aspects of air land and maritime operations. SP s What impressions did you form after your recent visit to Russia Would you like to share these especially with regard to the vital IndoRussian Joint FGFA and medium multi-role transport aircraft (MMTA) programmes Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 223 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Chief of the air Staff SP Guide Pubns WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Interview CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m INDIAN DEFENCE equipment Catalogue indian air Force Air Defence and Strike Fighters Mikoyan MiG-21MF Bis NATO reporting names Country of origin Type Number in service Construction Wings Fishbed and Mongol (trainer version) USSR Single-seat multi-role fighter. 180 all variants. Performa0nce Max speed Above 10 000 m At sea level Mach 2.23 Mach 1.1 Delta planform with a 2 anhedral and 57 sweepback with small boundary layer fences at tips. Large blown plain trailing edge flaps. Fuselage Circular section all metal semi Tail Unit monocoque structure. Ram air intake in nose with floating centre body controlled by air speed and alpha angle. Large dorsal spine for avionics and fuel tanks. Air brakes under the leading edge of wing roots. Second air brake forward of the ventral fin. Tail unit of all moving surface type mass balanced at tips. Conventional fin with large inset rudder. Power Plant One Tumansky R-13 turbojet rated at 9 400 lb dry and 14 000 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity 2 750 litres Provision for drop tanks under fuselage and inboard wing pylons. The MiG-21Bis is powered by a Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet rated at 15 000 lb static thrust with reheat. Cockpit K-13 ejection seat with 0-130 kmph capability. Avionics and Equipment ALMAZ search and track radar with a 30 km lock on range. ARK radio compass IFF and Gyro gun sight Armament One twin-barrel 23mm GSh-23 2 cannon with 250 rounds carried internally & up to 2 500 lb of ordnance on four wing pylons. Typical loads include 2 1000 lb RVV-AE R-73 R-60 AAMs S-24 and UB80 UB 57 rocket pods. Dimensions Wing span Length Height Wing area Weights Take-off (combat) Max take-off Mikoyan MiG-27M NATO reporting name Indian Air Force name Country of origin Type Number in service 7.15 m 16.10 m including pitot boom 4.5 m 23.45 m 8 750 kg 10 500 kg Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) 390 km Max rate of climb 6 500 m min g Limits 7 1.5 Note 1 While the FL version of the MiG-21 has been phased out a fleet of 125 MiG-21Bis aircraft with adequate residual airframe life have undergone an avionics and armament upgrade programme which comprises the following nitment of KOPYO multi-mode radar in the nose cone in place of the F original ALMAZ radar which in combination with the active homing RVV-AE Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air missile in place of the R-60 has given the aircraft a Fire-and-Forget capability. Coupled with a new Russian-made Mission Computer the KOPYO radar has also enhanced the aircraft s overall air-to-surface capability. n aircraft has been fitted with a Thales Monolith Ring Laser The Gyro-based INS with integral GPS and GLONASS card. The INS has a drift of 0.5 nm per hour which is automatically updated by the integral GPS giving it a highly reliable navigation system. nhe aircraft has been given a semi-glass cockpit with the fitment of T a Russian made Liquid Crystal Multi-function Display and a Headup Display. n dditional avionics include a HAL-made INCOM jam resistant comA munications equipment and Tarang RWR equipment. n n Israeli Video Recording System has been fitted in the cockpit A which captures HUD as well as visual parameters during air-toground strikes for better post-strike debriefs. The upgraded MiG21Bis aircraft has been renamed the Bison by the Indian Air Force. Note 2 About 70 non-Bison upgrade aircraft to be phased out in 201213. But the 120 upgraded MiG-21Bis aircraft to remain in service with gradual phase out commencing in 2017. Flogger-J Bahadur USSR Single-seat variable geometry strike fighter. 100 Construction Wings Shoulder wing mono-plane with variable sweep angles at 16 deg 45 deg and 72 deg. Full span hydraulically actuated trailing edge flaps in three sections. No ailerons. Instead two-section upper surface spoilers lift dumpers operate differentially in conjunction with horizontal tail surfaces to provide aileron functions Fuselage Conventional semi-monocoque structure with lateral air intakes. Four forward hinged air brakes above and below horizontal tail planes. All moving horizontal surfaces of the tail unit act differentially and symmetrically to provide aileron and elevator functions. Conventional fin houses a large inset rudder. Cockpit KM-21 0-130 kmph ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Bullet proof wind screen and small rearward looking mirror on top of canopy. Kevlar plating around cockpit to withstand hits up to 23mm calibre shells. Power Plant One Tumansky R-29 17 500 lb st dry25 35lb streheat turbojet with variable geometry nozzle. Six fuel tanks with a total capacity of 6 700 litres. Avionics and Systems KLEN Laser marker and ranger in nose cone VHF UHF IFF equipment. Doppler nav attack system and radar altimeter. Gyro gun sight accurate up to 7.5 g loads. Duck nose houses Laser ranging targeting equipment. Doppler nav attack system with radar altimeter. Some aircraft being retrofitted with new nav attack systems and air data computers. Most aircraft fitted with deception broad-band ECM equipment and Flare chaff dispensers. 228 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m equIpment catalogue IndIan aIr force INDIAN DEFENCE Clean Max take-off Performance Max level speed At 30 000 ft At sea level Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Turn rate 15 780 kg 20 250 kg Dimensions Wing span Length overall Height overall Wing area Weights Empty Mikoyan MiG-29A B NATO reporting name Indian Air Force name Country of origin Type Number in service 16 14.30 m 72 8.21 m 18.15 m 5.55 m 27.45 m2 Fulcrum Baaz USSR Single-seat air superiority fighter 65 approx. Construction Wings Low-wing monoplane. Leading edge swept back at 42 with large ogival wing roots. Leading and trailing edge flaps without tabs. Fuselage Semi-monocoque all-metal structure sharply tapered and downswept aft of flatsided cockpit area with ogival dielectric nose cone. Tail Unit Twin vertical fins swept back at 40 and canted outward at 7 with inset rudders. All moving horizontal tailplanes mounted on slim booms along engine nacelles. Rudder & horizontal tailplanes honeycomb filled. Vortex generators mounted on either side and below cockpit. Almost 15 per cent of construction is believed to be of CarbonBoron composite materials. Power Plant Two Tumansky RD-33 turbojets each rated at 11 250 lb dry and 18 500 lb reheat. FOD doors in each air intake duct actuated automatically with raising lowering of nose-wheel on take-off landing run. Total internal fuel capacity of 4 000 litres with a provision for a single 750-litre drop tank to be carried between engines underbelly. Later versions can carry wing drop tanks. Cockpit K-36D zero-zero ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Cockpit is high set and features a two piece blister design. Avionics NO-19 Sapfir-29 (NATO Slot Back ) coherent pulse Doppler radar with a 100-km detection and 70-km track range with full look up down shoot down and multi-tracking capability. Limited look up down shoot down IRST on nose on star-board side. Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H Country of origin Indian Air Force name Type Number in service France Vajra Single-seat multi-role fighter. 50 Dimensions Wing span Length overall Height overall Wing area Weights Empty Normal Interceptor role Max take-off 11.40 m 17.34 m 4.75 m 35.35 m2 15 750 kg 20 000 kg 229 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Construction Wings Low wing delta monoplane with leading edge sweepback of 58 . Full span twin segment leading edge flaps. Two section trailing edge elevons of full length with carbon fiber skin and light alloy honeycomb core. Air brakes above & below each wing. Fuselage Conventional structure waisted Tail Unit according to the area rule. Small fixed strakes over each air intake. Cantilever vertical fin with inset rudder only comprises the tail unit. Rudder actuated by flyby-wire system. Sweepback on fin leading edge 45 . Power Plant One Snecma M-53 P-2 Turbofan rated at 14 462 lb dry and 21 385 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity of 3 980 litres with provision for drop fuel tanks underbelly and inboard wing pylons. Detachable inflight refuelling probe forward of cockpit on starboard side. Avionics Quadruple redundant fly-by-wire system. Invertors transformers and battery units. Thomson-CSF RDM multi-mode radar. Sager Uliss-52 inertial platform ESD Type 2 984 central digital computer and digibus. Comprehensive ECM active passive suite. VHF UHF communications suite HUD nav attack computer etc. Patric Litening pods. Armament Two underbelly 30mm DEFA cannons with 125 rounds each. Up to 13 890 lb of ordnance on nine external hard points. Options include various AAMs including R-73 Magic II & R-530D. Alternatively GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE Performance Max level speed At 30 000 ft Mach 2.35 At sea level Mach 1.06 Max combat radius 650 km g Limits 9.0 -3 Note Midlife upgrade of 63 MiG-29s has commenced with completion of the project by 2013. The upgraded aircraft are likely to stay in service till 2025. BUSINESS 8 340 kg TECHNOLOGY Navattack computers HUD helmet mounted sights operable up to 40 off the axis. Advanced 360 passive RWR of unknown type. Comprehensive VHF UHF communication systems. AoA indicator radar altimeter 3-axis autostabilisation system auto pilot deception jammer in wing root. Armament 1 GSh-301 30mm cannon in port wing root with 150 rounds. Up to six AAMs including R-73 R-27R R-27T Alternate loads of ground attack weapons with a total weight of 3 500 kg on six external hard points. CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 8 200 kg Mach 1.9 Mach 1.3 600 km Max 20 deg sec sustained 14 deg sec g Limits Normal 7.5 -1.5 Ultimate 10 -3 Note About 50 MiG-27aircraft have been given midlife upgrade at the HAL Nasik Division. WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Armament One GSh-23 6 Gattling type cannon with 350 rounds underbelly. Seven external pylons capable of carrying up to 5 000 kg of ordnance. Options include Durandal Beluga FAB 500 750 FAE weapons and various types of rockets and gunpods. X-29L T ASMs are also available. CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m ensuring the Security of Maritime Zones From a meagre force level of seven ships at the time of inception the Indian Coast Guard has made rapid progress through its development plans. The Coast Guard fleet as on April 1 2012 comprises 15 offshore patrol vessels one pollution control vessel 23 fast patrol vessels 23 interceptor boats (IBs) nine hovercraft 31 Dornier aircraft 20 Chetak helicopters and four advanced light helicopters. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 243 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE The Coast Guard Act 1978 specifies the duties and functions of the service mandating adoption of appropriate measures for the following tasks nSafety and protection of artificial islands and offshore terminals installations and devices. nProtection and assistance to fishermen at sea in distress. nPreservation and protection of marine environment. nPrevention and control of marine pollution. nAssistance to customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations. nEnforcement of maritime laws in force. nSafety of life and property at sea. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO Duties and Functions INDIAN DEFENCE T he Indian Coast Guard (ICG) was constituted as an armed force of the Union by an Act of Parliament on August 18 1978 to undertake the predominantly peacetime tasks of ensuring the security of the maritime zones of India with a view to the protection of maritime and other national interests in such zones and matters connected therewith. The Indian Coast Guard functions under the Ministry of Defence primarily for non-military maritime security functions. It has military functions in a war situation when it conjoins with military forces in national defence under the Indian Navy. The Coast Guard began patrolling in earnest with two old frigates inducted from the Navy and five patrol vessels seconded from the Central Board of Excise and Customs. nCollection of scientific data. nOther duties as and when prescribed by the Government of India. The following additional responsibilities have been entrusted to the Coast Guard nCoordinating authority for taking measures to address oil pollution response in the Maritime Zones of India. The Director General of Indian Cost Guard (DGICG) is the Chairman of the National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOSDCP) preparedness meeting. nCoordinating authority for maritime search and rescue in the Indian search and rescue region. The DGICG is the Chairman of the National Maritime Search and Rescue Board. nDGICG is the Chairman of the Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC) and regular meetings are conducted at the national level to identify threats to offshore installations such as internal sabotage terrorist attacks hijacking of platforms drill ships jack up rig blow outs fire hazards etc. nThe authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters. nNominated as the lead intelligence agency (LIA) for the country s coastal sea borders--for the purpose of generating coordinating and sharing intelligence with the agencies concerned including the Central Government. These duties are carried out by the ICG over an EEZ measuring 2.01 million square kilometres that are home to inter-alia 3 565 square kilometres of mangroves 18 000 square kilometres of coral reefs and a potential 4.72 million tonnes of fisheries resources. It is also entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the safety and security of BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 PIB ICG Coast guard WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Indian CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m INDIAN DEFENCE Surface Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels (AOPVs) Samar Sankalp Class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) 6 Flight deck Main machinery Speed knots Range Complement (crew) Can operate ALH & Chetak 2 x Diesels 4625 kW each (16 PA6V280 SEMT PIELSTICK) (1-4) & 2 x 7710 kW each 20 PA6BSTC SEMT PIELSTICK (5&6) 23 60 00 nm at 12 Kn (1-4) and 6 500 nm at 12 Kn (5&6) 129 (including 14 officers) Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Vikram Class Total No. in service 7 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement tonnes Light 1100 Deep 1220 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) 74x11.4x3.2 m Armament 40 60 or 30mm 2A42 Gun and 2 x 12.7mm HMG Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Vishwast Class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Armament 2 Indian built Light 1500 Deep 1840 94 x 12.2 x 3.6 m 30mm CRN 91 with SOP & 2x12.7mm HMG Flight deck Main machinery Speed knots Range miles Complement (crew) Can operate one advanced light engine helicopter (Dhruv) 2MTU 20 V 8000 M90 diesels 24 150 hp(m) (18.0 MW) 2 shafts cp props 26 4 500 nm at 14 knots 109 (including 10 officers) (6.0 MW) 2 shafts cp props 1 Ulstein Aquamaster bow thrusters 1185 hp (883 kW) 20 (Ship is capable of cruising at 0.2 Kn speed during oil skimming mode with bow thruster 6 000 nm at 14 knots 100 (including 11 officers) Flight deck Main machinery Speed knots Range miles Complement (crew) Can operate Chetak 2 diesels 4625 kW each (16PA6V280 SEMT PIELSTICK) 22 4 000 nm at 14 knots 109 (including 10 officers) Pollution Control Vessels (PCVs) Samudra Prahari Class Total No. in service 2 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement tonnes Light 2300 Deep 4300 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) 94 x 15.5 x 4.5 m Armament 30mm CRN 91 gun with SOP & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck Platform for one medium helicopter (ALH) Main machinery 2 Bergen B32 40 L6P Diesels 8 050 hp Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Priyadarshini Class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) 8 Indian built Light 164 Deep 215 48 x 7.5 x 2 m 7 Indian built Light 235 Deep 260 50 x 7.5 x 2 m 6 Singapore Indian Light 151 Deep 195 45 x 7 x 2 m Armament 40 60 or 30mm 2A42 Gun 2 x 12.7mm HMG Main machinery 2 x diesels 1 480 kW each (12V 538 TB 32 MTU) Speed knots 23 Range 2 400 nm at 14 knots Complement (crew) 42 (including 6 officers) Armament Main Machinery Speed knots Range Complement (crew) 30mm 2A42 Gun or 30mm CRN91 Gun with SOP and 2 x 12.7mm HMG 3 x diesels 2 720 kW each (16V 4 000 M90 MTU) 35 1 500 nm at 12 knots 42 (including 6 officers) Speed knots Range miles Complement (crew) Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Sarojini Naidu Class Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs) Tarabai Class 251 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Armament 40 60 Gun Main Machinery 2 x diesels 1 480 kW each(MTU 12V538 TB 82 MTU) Speed knots 26 Range miles 2 400 nm at 14 knots Complement (crew) 42 (including 6 officers) GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Indian built Light 1 840 Deep 2300 102 x 11.5 x 3.65 m (1-4) & 105 x 12-90 x 3.6 (5-6) Armament 76 62 SRGM with electro-optical fire control (EOFCS) & 2 x 12.7mm HMG each (1-4) 02 x 30mm CRN 91 gun each with Stabilised Optronic pedestal (SOP) & 2 x 12.7mm HMG(5&6) WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES equipment Catalogue indian Coast guard CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (As on December 5 2012) President of India & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces .......................................................................... Pranab Mukherjee Vice President..................................................................................................................................................... M. Hamid Ansari Union Government Prime Minister .................................................................................................................................................... Dr Manmohan Singh Minister of Defence............................................................................................................................................. A.K. Antony Minister of State for Defence............................................................................................................................... Jitendra Pratap Singh Ministry of Defence Department Defence Secretary ............................................................................................................................................... Shashi Kant Sharma Secretary (Ex-Servicemen Welfare) ...................................................................................................................... Vijay Chhibber Joint Secretary (Navy Ordnance) ........................................................................................................................ Ram Subhag Singh Joint Secretary (Establishment & Public Grievance & CVO) .................................................................................. Sameer Kumar Khare Joint Secretary (General Air) ............................................................................................................................... Subhash Chandra Joint Secretary (Ex-Serviceman Welfare) .............................................................................................................. A.S. Lakshmi Joint Secretary (Training) ..................................................................................................................................... Vacant Acquisition Wing Director General (Acquisition) ............................................................................................................................. Dr Satish B. Agnihotri Financial Adviser (Acquisition) & AS.................................................................................................................... Vacant Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Land Systems) ........................................................................................ Upamanyu Chatterjee Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Maritime & Systems) .............................................................................. Preeti Sudan Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Air) ......................................................................................................... Arun Kumar Bal Technical Manager (Land Systems) ..................................................................................................................... Major General Sanjeev Shukla Technical Manager (Maritime & Systems) ............................................................................................................ Rear Admiral Pritam Lal Technical Manager (Air) ...................................................................................................................................... Air Vice Marshal R.K. Dhir Finance Manager (Land System) & Joint Secreatry ............................................................................................... Vishvajit Sahay Finance Manager (Maritime & System) & Joint Secretary .................................................................................... Arti Bhatnagar Finance Manager (Air) ......................................................................................................................................... R.K. Arora Department of Defence Production & Supplies Secretary (Defence Production) ........................................................................................................................... R.K. Mathur Additional Secretary (Defence Production) .......................................................................................................... Ashok Kumar Gupta Joint Secretary (Electronic Systems) .................................................................................................................... Vacant Joint Secretary (Land Systems) ............................................................................................................................ Ravi Kant Joint Secretary (Aerospace) ................................................................................................................................. Manoj Saunik Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 253 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 indian Defence WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Who s Who in CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m IndIan defence Pranab Mukherjee Who s Who in indian defence President of India & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces A man of unparalleled experience in governance with the rare distinction of having served at different times as Foreign Defence Commerce and Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee assumed office as the 13th President of India on July 25 2012. After his post-graduation in History and Political Science and a degree in Law from the University of Kolkata he embarked on his professional life as a college teacher and journalist. In 1969 he plunged into full-time public life following his election to the Upper House of the Parliament (Rajya Sabha). Mukherjee was elected to the Rajya Sabha five times and twice to the Lower House of the Parliament (Lok Sabha). He was a member of the Congress Working Committee the highest policy-making body of the party for 23 years. During the period 2004-12 Mukherjee was instrumental in spearheading critical decisions of the government on a range of issues such as Administrative Reforms Right to Information Right to Employment Food Security Energy Security Information Technology and Telecommunication setting up of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) Metro Rail etc through Chairmanship of over 95 Groups of Ministers constituted for the purpose. In the 1970s and 1980s he was instrumental in setting up the Regional Rural Banks (1975) and the EXIM Bank of India as well as National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (1981-82). A powerful orator and scholar Mukherjee s intellectual and political prowess as well as remarkable knowledge of international relations financial affairs and parliamentary process are widely admired. Dr Manmohan Singh Prime Minister of India Dr Manmohan Singh the 15th Prime Minister of India is rightly acclaimed as a thinker and a scholar. Born on September 26 1932 in a village in Punjab province of undivided India Dr Singh completed his matriculation from Punjab University in 1948. His academic career took him to the University of Cambridge in the UK where he earned a first class Honours degree in Economics in 1957 followed by a D.Phil in Economics from Nuffield College at Oxford University in 1962. Dr Singh s academic credentials were burnished by the years he spent on the faculty of Punjab University and the Delhi School of Economics. His brief stint at the UNCTAD Secretariat was prior to his appointment as Secretary General of the South Commission in Geneva between 1987 and 1990. In 1971 Dr Singh served as Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Commerce and subsequently took over as the Chief Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Finance in 1972. Among the numerous positions held by Dr Singh are Secretary in the Ministry of Finance Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission Governor of the Reserve Bank of India Advisor to the Prime Minister and Chairman of the University Grants Commission. The turning point in the economic history of independent India was his tenure as the Finance Minister of India from 1991 to 1996. Among the multitude of awards and honours conferred upon Dr Singh in his public career the most prominent are India s second highest civilian honour the Padma Vibhushan (1987) the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award of the Indian Science Congress Association (1995) the Asia Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993 and 1994) the Euro Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993) the Adam Smith Prize of the University of Cambridge (1956) and the Wright s Prize for Distinguished Performance at St. John s College in Cambridge (1955). Dr Singh has been a member of the Rajya Sabha since 1991 and has served as the Leader of the Opposition from 1998 to 2004. A.K. Antony Defence Minister A.K. Antony took over as the Union Defence Minister on October 24 2006 marking a return to the Indian Cabinet after a long hiatus of 12 years. Born on December 28 1940 in Cherthala of Alappuzha district in Kerala to Aley Kutty and Arakkaparambil Kurian Pillai he is a law graduate from the University of Kerala. He was married on March 17 1985 to Elizabeth Antony and has two sons. His interest in politics and social work dates back to his young days when he headed the students unions. Having been a member of the Congress Party from the beginning he has held several party posts both at the state and national levels. He has also held numerous positions in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1970 onwards and took charge of the portfolio of Union Cabinet Minister of Civil Supplies Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution from 1993 to 1995. Antony who has been the Chief Minister of Kerala thrice is an astute politician with a spotless image. 258 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Who s Who in indian defence IndIan defence Jitendra Pratap Singh Minister of State for Defence and Youth Affairs and Sports Born in the royal family of Alwar in Rajasthan Jitendra Pratap Singh Prabhakar Bahadur is a Member of Parliament from Alwar. He has a Bachelor of Commerce degree from Delhi University. Singh is a member of the All India Congress Committee has been a Member of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly for two terms and was elected to the 15th Lok Sabha on May 18 2009. He has been a Member of Public Accounts Committee and Committee for Transport Tourism and Culture. He is the grandson of Sir Tej Singh Prabhakar KCSI (1911-2009) the last ruling Maharaja of Alwar. He is fond of sports and his special interests include flying aeroplanes and photography and trekking in the Himalayas. He is a national medalist in trap shooting. He is a widely travelled politician. He was inducted as a Minister of State for Defence and Youth Affairs and Sports in the latest Cabinet reshuffle in October 2012. Shashi Kant Sharma Defence Secretary Shashi Kant Sharma is a 1976 batch Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of the Bihar cadre. He has had wide and varied experience both in the state and the Centre by virtue of the type of assignments held by him in both places. He is a post-graduate in Political Science and has also obtained a post-graduate degree in Administration from the University of New York. He has also attended a large number of capsules and courses in financial management urban development and administration during the course of his career both at mid and at senior levels. In the state he has handled Land Revenue Management and District Administration Labour Youth Affairs and Sports Urban Development Social Justice and Empowerment and Road Transport. At the Centre starting from December 2 2003 he has been deputed to the Ministry of Defence and has served as Joint Secretary and has also been DG (Acquisition) for three years. He has had short stints as Secretary in the Ministry of Information and Technology and in the Ministry of Finance before joining the Ministry of Defence once again as the Defence Secretary on July 14 2011. Secretary Defence Production Radha Krishna Mathur Secretary Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises has been appointed as Secretary Department of Defence Production Ministry of Defence. Mathur an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of the 1977 batch from Manipur-Tripura cadre succeeds Shekhar Agarwal who retired on September 30 2012. A B.Tech in Mechanical Engineering from IIT Kanpur and M.Tech in Industrial Engineering from IIT Delhi he has also done his Masters in Business Administration from ICPE Ljubljana Slovenia. Mathur has served in various ministries in the Government of India in different capacities including the Ministry of Industry External Affairs Information and Broadcasting and Textiles. From 2000 to August 2008 he served the Government of Tripura as Principle Secretary and finally as Chief Secretary. From September 2008 to October 2011 he was the Additional Secretary and Special Secretary in the Ministry of Defence. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 259 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS Radha Krishna Mathur TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m IndIan defence Who s Who in indian Defence Public Sector Undertakings R.K. Tyagi Chairman Hindustan Aeronautics Limited R.K. Tyagi took over as Chairman of the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in March 2012. Previously he was Chairman and Managing Director of Pawan Hans Helicopter Ltd. He is an Engineering Graduate in Electronics and Telecommunications (1975) from IIT Roorkee and is also a Masters in Business Administration. Subsequently he also attended an Advanced Leadership course on Public Sector Management for 15 months at the Indian School of Business in Hyderabad in the years 2004-05. He joined Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) as a Graduate Trainee in the year 1976 and through various assignments rose to the position of General Manager in the year 2003 and continued serving ONGC up to May 2007. Anil Kumar Chairman and Managing Director Bharat Electronics Limited Anil Kumar took charge as the Chairman and Managing Director of the Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) on October 1 2011. He was Director (Other Units) of BEL before his elevation as CMD. As Director (Other Units) he headed eight of nine units of BEL located at Ghaziabad Panchkula Navi Mumbai Kotdwara Pune Hyderabad Chennai and Machilipatnam. Anil Kumar joined BEL at Ghaziabad unit in February 1975 after graduating in Mechanical Engineering from Punjab University in 1974. He completed M.Tech from IIT Delhi in 1979 while in service. He has extensive experience in Development and Engineering Production Material Management and Installing and Commissioning of Radar and Communication systems. P. Dwarakanath Chairman and Managing Director Bharat Earth Movers Limited P. Dwarakanath has assumed charge as Chairman and Managing Director of the Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) from October 10 2012. He joined the Board of BEML Limited on March 1 2008 as Director (Metro and Rail Business). He is a graduate in Mechanical Engineering from the National Institute of Technology Warangal. He joined BEML in 1978 as a Management Trainee and served in all business verticals of the company namely Rail and Metro Defence and Mining and Construction. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 270 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Department of Defence Production & Supplies As a matter of policy ordnance factories and defence public sector undertakings have been outsourcing many of their requirements and have over the years developed a wide vendor base which apart from the large-scale industries includes many small-scale enterprises E Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 273 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE stablished in 1962 the Department of Defence Production and Supplies (DDP&S) was mandated to develop a comprehensive production infrastructure with the aim to achieve self-reliance in defence production. Over the years the department has established wide ranging facilities for the production of a variety of defence equipment by ordnance factories and defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs). Products include arms and ammunition tanks armoured vehicles heavy vehicles earth moving equipment combat aircraft helicopters warships submarines missiles ammunition electronic equipment special alloys and special purpose steel. The Department of Defence Production and Supplies has the following organisations under it n Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) n Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) n Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) n Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) n Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) n Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) n Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSEL) n Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) n Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) n Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) n Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) n Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) n Directorate of Standardisation (DOS) n Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) n Directorate of Planning and Coordination (Dte of P&C) Year 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Sales OFs 6 937.81 7 229.31 8 715.26 11 215.01 Sales DPSUs 16 740.25 20 403.64 25 899.64 25 975.06 Total 23 678.06 27 632.95 34 614.90 37 190.07 Note All figures above are in crores of rupees As a matter policy ordnance factories and DPSUs have been outsourcing many of their requirements and have over the years developed a wide vendor base which apart from the large-scale industries includes many small-scale enterprises. Participation by the Private Sector With the strategic objective of self-reliance in defence production the DDP&S has been endeavouring to indigenise defence equipment wherever technologically feasible and economically viable. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH) The ordnance factories and the DPSUs have been on a constant drive to modernise upgrade their capabilities and expand their range of products. They have also developed a large number of major products on their own and have developed capabilities in various fields through transfer of technology. Production and turnover of ordnance factories and the DPSUs have been increasing steadily to meet the increasing requirements of the armed forces. The turnover for the last four years is as follows n BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 7 SP Guide Pubns Defence industry WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Indian CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m achieving technological Self-reliance Today DRDO has transformed into a highly professional and mature organisation with strong technology base and management systems to undertake indigenous development of state-of-the-art defence systems including design development integration and production F Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book ormed on January 1 1958 by merging the units of Defence Science Organisation and the Technical Development Establishments of the armed forces the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) of India was a fledgling research establishment with just 10 laboratories. In 1980 the DRDO became a department under the Central Government. Today it is one of the largest science and technology departments of the Indian Government with a network of 52 laboratories and establishments spread all over the country. With a vision to empower India with cutting-edge technologies and to equip the services with internationally competitive systems DRDO has proven its competence to produce state-of-the-art strategic and tactical military hardware and related technologies in diverse disciplines such as aeronautics armaments combat vehicles combat engineering electronics missiles life sciences advanced materials composites and naval systems. DRDO has expertise in system design system integration testing and evaluation and project management built over the last five decades which has enabled it to develop indigenous capabilities in weapons and delivery systems. Today DRDO has transformed into a highly professional and mature organisation with strong technology base and management systems to undertake indigenous development of state-of-the-art defence systems including design development integration and production. DRDO has achieved technological self-reliance in critical areas including ammunition armoured systems missiles radars avionics and electronic warfare system sensors nuclear biological chemical (NBC) defence low-intensity conflict technologies and advanced computing. DRDO plays a significant role in providing scientific and technological advice to the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in support of defence policy as evaluator of defence equipment for the military operational requirements and generating new technological knowledge to be transferred for development of state-of-the-art weapon systems indigenously. It also advises the government to make technical assessment of international security threats and the military capabilities of both current and potential adversaries. India. The DRDO headquarters has two types of Directorates namely Corporate and Technical. While the former is responsible for matters related to human resource (HR) finance and administration the latter is responsible for all technical and scientific issues. DRDO has two societies under it namely the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) to undertake design and development of advanced technology aircraft and the Society for Integrated Technology Application and Research (SITAR) for designing digital components for various projects. DRDO has around 30 000 knowledge workers on its rolls which includes 7 000 scientists 12 000 technical personnel and 11 000 administrative support staff. DRDO has a mission to design develop and produce state-of-the-art complex and strategic defence systems and technologies to provide technological solutions to the armed forces to optimise combat readiness to build a strong indigenous technology base and to foster quality workforce. A number of projects are being executed through a network of laboratories field stations regional centres of military airworthiness (RCsMA) located across the country. Programmes and Projects DRDO has empowered the country with cutting-edge technologies and provided the services with contemporary systems to enhance their combat effectiveness. The value of products from DRDO inducted into the armed forces stands at 1 30 000 crore. DRDO has a variety of projects in hand. Some of the achievements in the recent past are elaborated on in the succeeding paragraphs. Missile Systems Prithvi A surface-to-surface tactical battlefield missile Prithvi is produced in three versions categorised by range which is 150 250 and 350 km with payload capability varying from one tonne to 500 kg. All the three versions have been inducted into the armed forces. Also as part of user trials Prithvi salvo launch capability has also been proven. PrithviII missile was successfully flight tested on June 9 2011 from Launch Complex III Interim Test Range Chandipur Odisha. Agni-I A surface-to-surface missile with a range of 700 km the Agni-I was successfully flight-tested from Wheeler Island on December 1 2011 by the armed forces from the road mobile launcher system. It has a Organisational Structure With its headquarters at Delhi DRDO is headed by the Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister who is also the Secretary to the Government of GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 297 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 8 Development WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Defence Research & CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m INDIAN DEFENCE indian Defence r&D establishments ADVANCED NUMERICAL RESEARCH & ANALYSIS GROUP (ANURAG) Director C.V.S. Sastry PO DRDO Kanchanbagh Hyderabad 500058 Phone 040-24347630 Fax 040-24347679 CENTRE FOR PERSONAL TALENT MANAGEMENT (CEPTAM) Director Rajesh Goyal Defence Research and Development Organisation Ministry of Defence CEPTAM Metcalfe House Complex Delhi 110054 Phone 011-23810276 23819217 Fax 011-23810287 23882306 23817489 AERIAL DELIVERY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADRDE) Director Dr S.C. Sati Post Box No. 51 Station Road Agra Cantt Agra 282001 Phone 0562-2260023 2258200 Fax 0562-2251677 ARMAMENT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ARDE) Director Anil M. Datar Dr Homi Bhabha Road Armament Post Pashan Pune 411021 Phone 020-25893274 25885007 Fax 020-25893102 Director P.S. Krishnan Suranjan Das Road C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru 560093 Phone 080-25283404 25057001 25057034 Fax 080-25283188 Chief Executive Dr K. Tamilmani Ministry of Defence Defence R&D Organisation Marthahalli Colony Post Bengaluru 560037 Phone 080-25230680 28517272 Fax 080-25230856 25234781 Director Anil M. Datar Dr Homi Bhabha Road Armament Post Pashan Pune 411021 Phone 020-25893274 25885007 Fax 020-25893102 Director Dr P. Sivakumar Avadi Chennai 600054 Phone 044-26383722 26364001 26364003 Fax 044-26383661 CENTRE FOR AIRBORNE SYSTEMS (CABS) Director Dr S. Christopher Ministry of Defence Defence R&D Organisation Belur Yemlur Post Bengaluru 560037 Phone 080-25225121 26572638 Fax 080-25222326 DEFENCE AVIONICS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (DARE) Director P.M. Soundar Rajan Post Box No. 9366 C.V. Raman Nagar Phase II New Thippasandra Post Bengaluru 560093 Phone 080-25347704 25349571 Fax 080-25347717 CENTRE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & ROBOTICS (CAIR) Director V.S. Mahalingam DRDO Complex C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru 560093 Phone 080-25342646 25244298 Extn 2270 2271 Fax 080-25244298 DEFENCE BIO-ENGINEERING AND ELECTRO MEDICAL LABORATORY (DEBEL) CENTRE FOR FIRE EXPLOSIVE & ENVIRONMENT SAFETY (CFEES) Director Dr Sudershan Kumar Ministry of Defence Brigadier S.K. Mazumdar Marg Timapur Delhi 110054 Phone 011-23813239 23907102 23919555 Fax 011-2381 9547 DEFENCE ELECTRONICS APPLICATION LABORATORY (DEAL) Director R.C. Agarwal Post Box 54 Raipur Road Dehradun 248001 Uttarakhand Phone 0135-2787224 Fax 0135-2787290 2787265 GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 301 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO Director Dr V.C. Padaki Post Box No 9326 C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru 560093 Phone 080-25058325 25280692 23446987 Fax 080-25282011 INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS ARMAMENT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ARDE) COMBAT VEHICLES RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (CVRDE) TECHNOLOGY AERONAUTICAL DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADE) CENTRE FOR MILITARY AIRWORTHINESS & CERTIFICATION (CEMILAC) CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m SP Guide Pubns PIB NSG Indian Army the Ministry of Home affairs & Central armed Police Forces In the formative years after independence India focused its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order communal peace and harmony crime control and counter-insurgency which was mainly confined to the Northeast in the early years. But in the past five decades or so besides the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast the focus is also on the extinguished insurgency in Punjab the dissidence and proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir and the burgeoning Naxalite violence. lt GeNeral (retD) V.k. kaPoor n Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book I n the era immediately after independence threats to India were mainly external--from hostile nations. Despite the recommendations of various committees instituted by the government of the day the internal security threats were never so acute as to seriously induce the political leadership to reform the internal security apparatus. However as the challenges and threats to the internal security of India grew the Indian Government felt compelled to focus on this dimension of national security. It is now widely acknowledged that there is more to security than purely military factors. Today s definition of security acknowledges political economic environmental social and human thread among other strands that impact the concept of security. Today it is the concern for security of the lowest common denominator of every society namely the human being or civil security as the Americans term it which has resulted in the development of the concept of human security with focus on the individual and the people. Therefore the definition of security is related to the ability of the state to perform the function of protecting the well-being of its people. Internal Security Management Internal security management has been an important component of India s national security management ever since independence in 1947. The Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of India handles India s internal security management mechanism. In the formative years after independence India focused its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order communal peace and harmony crime control and counter-insurgency which was mainly confined to the Northeast in the early years. But in the past five decades or so besides the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast the focus is also on the extinguished insurgency in Punjab the dissidence Challenges to Internal Security Consequent to the Mumbai terror attacks on November 26 2008 the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government went into high drive GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 305 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO to implement the internal security reforms. The Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram at the Chief Ministers Conference on Internal Security held in New Delhi on August 17 2009 said Let me recall the three challenges to internal security--terrorism insurgency in the North-eastern states and left-wing extremism or Naxalism. Each one of them shares many characteristics with the other two. At the same time each one of them is significantly different from the other two. We have one instrument to confront and defeat the three challenges and that is the police. In the final analysis it is the policemen and the policewomen who can help us win these battles. To that policemen and policewomen this conference must send out a clear message that the government at every level is duty bound to provide them every kind of support--monetary material and moral. The government s resolve to reform the internal security apparatus of the country was apparent in the Home Minister s statement. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 Homeland Security WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India s CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Measures to improve Defence Capabilities In view of the repeated terror attacks on the Indian soil and the disjointed actions by the state government and the police following the attacks in Mumbai and the public outcry thereafter the government was forced to speedily undertake a number of internal security reviews and adopt measures which could either pre-empt future terror attacks or at least improve the crisis management after such attacks occur. n lt GeNeral (retD) V.k. kaPoor Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 315 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE L eft-wing extremism religious fundamentalism and ethnic violence are major challenges facing the country Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said while inaugurating the Annual Conference of Chief Ministers on Internal Security in New Delhi on April 16 2012 and urged states to fight them together with the Central Government. India s internal security remains an area of major concern even 65 years after independence. In the early years the government focused its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order communal peace and harmony crime control and counter-insurgency mainly confined to the Northeast. However in the past six decades or so the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast the dissidence and proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) the burgeoning Naxalite violence which is currently affecting 20 states and union territories (223 districts) the jehadi terrorism unleashed by our unscrupulous western neighbour poor governance in most states all put together have become a serious threat which can destabilise the Indian state if allowed to grow unchecked. This realisation seemed to have dawned on a sluggish United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government after the November 26 2008 terror attacks in Mumbai. In the days following the attacks public anger became palpable and the government was forced to act speedily. India s Home Minister and the Chief Minister of Maharashtra became the first two political casualties. A spate of reforms which were already in the pipeline were announced by the new Home Minister. Meanwhile the perception was growing stronger that India s external and internal security was getting inextricably linked especially on its western borders. A large number of India s internal security problems are connected to jehadi groups based in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK). Pakistan s intelligence agencies and the military are funding training and abetting terror in India and these linkages now stand fully exposed. However despite a restrained but tough stance taken initially the national leadership has now decided to get back to the negotiation table with Pakistan both at the official and at the Track-II level. The internal security situation in the country in 2011 showed distinct signs of improvement over the previous years. The level of infiltration from across the borders and the resultant terrorist activities in the Valley of Kashmir showed a significant decline. The incidents of terrorist violence declined from 708 in 2008 499 in 2009 and 488 in 2010 to 340 in 2011. The number of security forces killed declined from 75 in 2008 79 in 2009 and 69 in 2010 to 33 in 2011. The number of civilians killed also declined from 91 in 2008 71 in 2009 and 47 in 2010 to 31 in 2011. The number of terrorists killed declined from 239 in 2009 and 232 in 2010 to 100 in 2011 showing the effects of better domination of the line of control and the resultantly lower infiltration. In the North-eastern states as well the number of incidents of terrorist violence has come down from 1 297 in 2009 to 627 in 2011. The number of civilians killed has also come down from 264 in 2009 to only 70 in 2011. In both these areas the civil society is emerging and the economy is showing signs of recovery. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 PIB Security WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Internal CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m threats from revolutionary Movements As the Maoist juggernaut gathers steam there is still time for the Indian state to get its act together. Can we afford to fight a three-front war--the third front within India Do we want our additional Army formations raised to be raised sucked into the Maoist insurgency lt GeNeral (retD) P.C. katoCH n Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 327 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE I that the day will come sooner than later when the have-nots would hit the streets. In a way it seems to have already started with the monstrous and grotesque acts of the Maoists. And when that rot occurs not one political turncoat will escape being lynched. ndia s response to the Maoist insurgency is no different from its response to corruption--hapless sans cohesive strategy and most significantly devoid of political will. The continuing irony is deliberate downplaying of the issue in the utopian hope that the problem will wish itself away. Such notions led the Home Minister to state in 2010 The government is confident that the problem of left-wing extremism (LWE) will be overcome in the next three years. We are already midway from the stated three years . To what extent have we resolved the issue Despite the recent spate of kidnappings and killings Maoists are being described as down but not out while some strategists describe the Maoists a ragtag force with some captured weapons and little external support . This is hardly the case and reminds one of Kashmiri militants being tagged ragtag during 199091. The fact is that if anyone is down but not out it is the Indian state in its response to the Maoist issue. Ironically India has traditionally only stirred after extreme crisis situations. Though the Maoists have commenced kidnapping and or killing ground level politicians and bureaucrats perhaps India will consider it extreme crisis only after Maoists start targeting the leadership at the Centre and state capitals. Perhaps the scenario envisaged by the Europeans is not too far as described by a former European Director of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) Europeans believe that Indian leaders in politics and business are so blissfully blinded by the new sometimes ill-gotten wealth and deceit that they are living in defiance insolence and denial to comprehend Maoists The Maoists are well organised in battalions companies platoons intelligence and logistics departments and with arms and improvised explosive device (IED) manufacturing capacity. They undertake overt operations to seek legitimacy and public support for controlling territory. Refusing to recognise national norms rule of law human rights slaughtering and beheading those who oppose them they adopt copycat tactics of Mao s People s War guerrilla as well as mass attack. Their writ already runs over large tracts of territory including vast declared liberated areas . Their strategy is to expand the Red Enclaves rapidly. Financial back up of the Maoist terror industry is estimated at over 1 500 crore growing annually by 15 per cent through drugs ransom looting extortion robbery poppy and ganja cultivation. Income from poppy cultivation is estimated at 2.5 crore per hectare. The Maoists Empire spans over 200 districts in West Bengal Chhattisgarh Bihar Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh Odisha Uttrakhand and Uttar Pradesh. In fact they are present in 20 states and union territories of India and are investing in urban centres. The influence of the Maoist can be gauged from the fact that in the panchayat elections in Jharkhand and Odisha a large number of seats went in favour of the Maoists uncontested with bulk of the others won by proxy candidates of Maoists. During elections in most Maoistaffected areas there was no polling after 3 00 p.m. notwithstanding BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 insurgency WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Maoist CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m PIB SP Guide Pubns ICG increasing Vulnerabilities along the Coastline Management and security of India s maritime zone including the coastline is by itself a formidable and complex task. Complacency on the part of the Government of India and the state governments resulted in the Mumbai terrorist attack on November 26 2008. The attack again brought the crucial matter of coastal security into focus which triggered the government agencies to put appropriate mechanisms in place for effective coastal security. n lt GeNeral (retD) NareSH CHaND Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book I 331 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ndia s Defence Minister A.K. Antony stated in the Shangri-La Dialogue on June 2 2012 that Given India s geographical location extensive maritime interests dependence on the seas for trade and the evolving asymmetric threats in the form of maritime terrorism piracy and drug trafficking maritime security issues have become a strategic priority for us. The first is the concern for safeguarding of our territories and our adjacent waters against seaborne threats. The second is the desire to ensure that the traditional freedoms at sea are preserved to ensure success for all. India has a coastline of 7 516 km touching nine states and four union territories. India s total number of islands is 1 197 which accounts to a stretch of 2 094 km additional coastline. There is more than 2.5 million square km of exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The mining areas allotted under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is about 2 000 km from the southernmost tip of India. A significant portion of India s mercantile trade--almost 90 per cent by volume and 77 per cent by value is carried by the sea through India s 12 major ports and about 198 minor ports. The coasts of Maharashtra and Gujarat are strategically located and prosperous which makes them prone to smuggling poaching of seafood and anti-national activities. Smuggling of gold arms and explosives has been quite common in this area. Explosives were smuggled through Raigad on the Maharashtra coast to carry out the serial blasts in Mumbai during 1993. There is continuous movement of all types of vessels for trade fishing military policing sports and so on. It is understood that there are about 1 50 000 small fishing boats with no modern navigation means or communications. There are also some disputed areas in the EEZ. Thus management and security of India s maritime zone including the coastline is by itself a formidable and complex task. Complacency on the part of the Government of India and the state governments resulted in the Mumbai terrorist attack on November 26 2008. The attack again brought the crucial matter of coastal security into focus which triggered the government agencies to put appropriate mechanisms in place for effective coastal security. Operation Swan On March 12 1993 terrorists carried out a series of explosions in Mumbai which ravaged the city caused 250 fatalities and 700 were injured. The explosives were smuggled through Raigad and Shekhadi. The Government of India launched Operation Swan during August 1993 to prevent clandestine landings along the coasts of Maharashtra and Gujarat by strengthening joint patrolling. Operation Swan involved a three-layer joint security arrangement based on the Indian Navy and the Indian Coast Guard (ICG). It was to have a joint patrolling team including personnel from the Indian Navy ICG state police and Customs. Before the launch of Operation Swan coastal security solely rested with the ICG. A scheme was formulated for implementation in six years with effect from 2005-06 for creating additional infrastructure GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 Surveillance WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India s Coastal CONTENTS Contents Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Cambodia People s Republic of China Egypt Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Libya 337 337 337 337 338 338 338 338 338 339 339 339 339 339 340 340 340 340 340 340 Malaysia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen 340 341 341 341 341 342 342 342 342 342 343 343 343 343 344 344 344 344 344 344 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Asian Who s Who CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section five 5 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS mark 4TM er t 6.5-20x m5 auto-locking adjustment long-range Sniper opTiC built battle for The uS MiliTary S nexT-generaTion leupold TaCTiCal opTiCS are now in ServiCe on Today S baTTlefield. deSigned engineered MaChined aSSeMbled and relenTleSSly TeSTed in oregon uSa. inSiST on Mark 4TM and Mark 8TM MounTing SySTeMS for The MoST deManding appliCaTionS. deSignaTed MarkSMan and baTTle rifle opTiC mark 8TM cqbssTM 1.1-8x ServiCe rifle and Carbine opTiC mark 4TM hamrTM f ixed 4x reflex red dot available now 1-800-leupold 4 TaCTiCalopTiCS leupold.CoM www.leupold.CoM porTland oregon u.S.a. www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (As on November 30 2012) AfghAnistAn Head of State and Government President Hamid Karzai First Vice President Mohammad Qasim Fahim Second Vice President Abdul Karim Khalili Defence Minister Bismillah Khan Mohammadi Foreign Minister Dr Zalmai Rassoul Interior Minister Lt General Ghulam Mujtaba Patang Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces Lt General Sher Mohammad Karimi Commander of the Air Force Major General Abdul Wahab Wardak Ministry of Defence Kabul Afghanistan Phone 0093 (O) 202300331 Phone 0093 (O) 700275707 AustrAliA Head of State Queen Elizabeth II (since January 6 1952). Governor General Quentin Bryce Prime Minister Julia Eileen Gillard Defence Minister Stephen Francis Smith Chief of the Defence Forces General David Hurley Chief of Army Lt Gen David Morrison Chief of Navy Vice Admiral Ray Griggs Chief of Air Force Air Marshal Geoff Brown Chief Joint Operations Lt General Ash Power Department of Defence Russel Offices Suite MF149 Parliament House Canberra ACT 2600 Phone 02 6277 7800 Phone 6162659111 Fax 02 6273 4118 Defence National Phone 1300 3333623 337 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Head of State President Abdel-aziz Bouteflika Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal Minister of National Defence Abdel-aziz Bouteflika Chief of General Staff General Ahmed Salah Gaida Commander of the Land Forces Major General Ahcene Tafer Commander of the Navy Major General Malek Necib Commander of the Gendarmerie Major General Ahmed Boustila Ministry of Defence Avenue des Tagarins Algiers Algeria Phone 2132611515 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book BAhrAin Head of State HM King Hamad bin isa al Khalifa Prime Minister Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa Minister of Interior Lt General Shaikh Rashid bin Abdullah Al Khalifa Deputy Prime Minister Shaikh Ali bin Khalifa Al Khalifa GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE AlgeriA BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY National People s Army HQ Ministry of National Defence Avenue Ali Khoudja Algiers Algeria Phone 2132634176 631765 611515 CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES asian Defence Forces WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Who s Who in CONTENTS Contents One Two Three Four Five Six GDP & Military Expenditure Central & South Asia East Asia Pacific Rim & Australia West Asia and North Africa Security Threats in the Asia-Pacific Region Equipment & Hardware Specifications 345 349 377 417 451 457 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Regional Balance CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section six 6 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m GDP Total Per Capita Based on Current Prices Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Sr No. Country GDP Current Prices ( billion) 19.847 206.545 1 542.06 26.509 118.693 1.701 14.246 8 250.24 255.001 1 946.77 894.854 483.78 130.574 246.78 5 984.39 31.353 200.642 1 151.27 174.628 6.197 GDP Based on PPP ( billion) 31.8 274.496 960.722 32.444 305.513 4.813 36.587 12 382.56 537.758 4 710.81 1 211.96 997.43 155.384 247.946 4 616.88 38.666 232.349 1 621.87 165.941 13.472 (estimates for 2012) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China Egypt India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Korea South Kuwait Kyrgyzstan 619.886 5 659.74 67 982.74 23 027.12 791.086 2 288.21 933.928 6 094.04 3 109.47 1 591.57 3 660.42 6 355.74 3 882.08 32 060.47 46 895.74 4 901.28 12 021.22 23 020.91 993.229 7 521.74 42 354.19 28 182.13 2 036.23 6 474.09 2 398.50 9 146.38 6 557.38 3 851.31 4 957.55 13 103.90 4 619.68 32 212.00 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 6 044.40 13 920.87 32 431.04 GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 46 142.29 1 109.09 43 846.72 2 411.04 345 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO 36 179.43 INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY GDP Current Prices Per Capita ( ) GDP Based on PPP Per Capita ( ) CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 GDP & Military expenditure WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m 349 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Central Asia Central Asia is a region that comprises the five states that belonged to the erstwhile Soviet Union--Kazakhstan Kyrgyztan Tajikistan Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It is a region that once used to be called the Centre of the World . Given its abundant energy resources and by virtue of its geographical location it has consistently been in the limelight. In the 19th century it was the theatre of the classic great game which was played out between the Russian and the British empires. Later it became a prized possession of the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the independence of the Central Asian states. The 9 11 terrorist events in the United States brought further global attention to this region reiterating its geostrategic relevance. Along with this the presence of hydrocarbons has again made this region important. The key players in this region are the United States Russia and China. The Fergana Valley is the best-suited land in Central Asia for hosting a large population. Soviet leader Josef Stalin split the valley up between the Soviet republics that would become the countries of Central Asia to ensure the region remained divided however Uzbekistan controls most of the basin itself Tajikistan controls the most accessible entrance to the valley from the west and Kyrgyzstan controls the high ground around the valley. Uzbekistan also controls several exclaves within Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book South Asia The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9 11. Today international terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Additionally Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK) continues to foment terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989 and now Pakistan-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India bedevilling relationship between the two countries. The impasse in their relationship is the result of Mumbai terrorist attacks on November 26 2008 which emanated from Pakistan. The new political dispensation of coalition politics in Pakistan has not stabilised while the resurgence of Taliban in the ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY C entral and South Asia together account for about one-quarter of the world s population. Both the regions have countries that are mostly underdeveloped and poor. Central Asia lies at the crossroad of Europe and Asia and together with South Asia constitutes one of the most unstable regions of the 21st century. It encompasses the world s largest landmass (39 95 800 sq km) and has vast natural resources including significant reserves of oil and gas. Historically it has acted as a crossroad for the movement of people goods and ideas between Europe Western Asia South Asia and East Asia. On the other hand South Asia is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East. Further India s economic growth and dynamism had made South Asia an attractive destination for foreign investment. Despite the global economic meltdown India s GDP was expected to grow at the rate of eight per cent during 2010 and more thereafter. However 2011-12 has not been so promising. India s economic growth has been slowing for seven successive quarters touching a two-year low of 6.1 per cent in the October-December 2011 period. High interest rates and the drift in the government s decision-making process have led to a sharp fall in investment and consumer demand and have choked growth. The rupee has slumped to below 55 vis- -vis the dollar making costly oil imports even more expensive and imposing a bigger burden on Indians travelling or studying abroad. Kyrgyzstan s portion of the valley affording the Uzbek Government and Uzbek citizens (including militants) access fairly deep into Kyrgyz territory. These complex geographic and political divisions ensure that no one country can dominate Central Asia s core and hence Central Asia itself. Central Asia is also referred to as the backyard of Russia and China . It has emerged as the focal point of rivalry between the United States on one side and Moscow and Beijing on the other side. Post9 11 Central Asia also emerged as the epicentre of geopolitical changes on a global scale. The US became the main economic donor and assumed security responsibility enabling it to establish military presence in the region and set up military bases in four out of the five Central Asian states. Due to intensely competitive ties among countries of the region as well as the key players namely the US Russia and China the American presence now has reduced. It is interesting to note that while each major player tries to accomplish its national interests through their grand strategies the countries of Central Asia are using their own strategies to balance the relationships which seem threatening. Three different strategies have been employed to balance out the major players including strategic partnership non-alignment and a multi-vectored approach . The key to what became known as Kazakhstan s multi-vectored approach is to build strategic partnerships with all three powers. Today this policy has eroded somewhat under pressure from Russia s Eurasec Gazprom and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) but it nonetheless remains in place. The major attraction for key players as also countries like India Japan and the European Union is the vast energy reserves of the Caspian basin. Russia which already enjoys military presence in the region has in conjunction with China sought to counterbalance Washington s influence in the region through SCO. Russia is also further increasing its troop deployment in the region. CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 Central & South asia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance western provinces of Pakistan opposite Afghanistan namely FATA and Baluchistan has further complicated the governance in Pakistan. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) air attacks and the US Predator attacks in Pakistan have further worsened the domestic politics in Pakistan. The 2011 NATO attack in Pakistan also known as the Salala incident occurred when the US-led NATO forces engaged Pakistani security forces at two Pakistani military check posts along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border on November 26 2011 killing 24 Pakistani soldiers. This further exacerbated the worsened relations between the two countries. Pakistan retaliated by ordering the evacuation of Shamsi Airfield and closure of the NATO supply line. The closure of the supply routes via Pakistan into Afghanistan for nearly six months have severely impacted upon the operational fitness of NATO and the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) troops deployed in Afghanistan. Efforts are now on between the United States and Pakistan to open supply line at the earliest. After intense negotiations and an apology by the US Secretary of State Pakistan has allowed resumption of supplies to the NATO forces. The South Asian scene has been marred by hostility between the nuclear-armed India and Pakistan and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is battling terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir in its north-eastern states and in the rest of the country. Left-wing extremism (Naxalite violence) which has affected 20 states and about 220 districts of the Indian Union nearly 40 per cent of India s geographical area is becoming more and more virulent virtually overwhelming the state authority in certain places. In neighbouring Nepal between 2008 and 2011 there have been four different coalition governments led twice by the United Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) which received a plurality of votes in the Constituent Assembly election and twice by the Communist Party of Nepal (United MarxistLeninist). In November 2011 Maoist Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai who was elected in August 2011 and the leaders of the main political parties signed an agreement seeking to conclude the peace process and recommit the Constituent Assembly to finish drafting the constitution by the May 2012 deadline. However Nepal descended into a new crisis on May 27 2012 after rival political parties in the Himalayan nation failed to reach an agreement on a new constitution before the national legislature s term expired at midnight. Baburam Bhattarai dissolved the Constituent Assembly. He said he would remain in power and that his government would hold elections in November for a new assembly. The continued political instability in Nepal will only worsen the situation in a tiny country pinned between China and India. Power failures have become common while the economy has been battered because of the country s political uncertainty. In Sri Lanka with the defeat of LTTE and the demise of Prabhakaran a new chapter has opened. Rehabilitation of the Tamil population will provide long-term peace to this war-torn country. However there is clearly a lack of sincerity on the part of the Sri Lankan Government in pursuing the issue despite the fact that it has enough strength in the legislature to ratify any decision that the present government may choose to take on the ethnic issue. This led to the UN Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) resolution against Sri Lanka titled Promoting reconciliation and accountability in Sri Lanka . International pressure has ultimately made Sri Lanka address the Tamil issue but the progress is very slow. Central & South aSia In Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has sought to increase Bangladesh s presence on the world stage. As a leader of one among the countries most vulnerable to climate change Hasina has been a vocal advocate for mitigation and adaptation by both developed and developing countries aligning with the Copenhagen Accord in January 2010. In a sharp change from previous administrations her government has actively confronted violent extremist groups to deny space to terrorist networks and activities within its borders. The simultaneous elections of the Awami League and the Congress Party in India set the stage for renewed bilateral talks between the countries an atmosphere which has been improved by counter-terrorism cooperation. In January 2010 Hasina travelled to New Delhi to meet Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh where they signed three agreements on mutual legal assistance in criminal matters transfer of sentenced persons and countering terrorism organised crime and illegal drug trafficking and two memoranda of understanding on energy sharing and cultural exchange programmes. In September 2011 Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited Dhaka. India and Bangladesh inked historic agreements to settle their vexed land boundary issues including exchange of 162 enclaves but a last-minute scrapping of Teesta River water sharing deal marred Prime Minister Manmohan Singh s maiden visit to Dhaka. Prime Minister Singh announced 24-hour access to Bangladeshi nationals through the Tin Bigha corridor besides duty-free access to 46 textile items with immediate effect. He also said that India and Bangladesh have agreed to reach a mutually-acceptable solution to water sharing of Teesta and Femi rivers. Pakistan having earlier encouraged trained and funded terrorist groups including the Taliban is now plagued by terrorism insurgency and sectarian violence within its territory. Pakistan is passing through an unprecedented political economic and social crisis exacerbated by worsening relations with the United States and Western powers. Tensions with India over Kashmir have resurfaced regularly ever since the partition of the subcontinent and the two nuclear-armed powers have on numerous occasions been on the brink of renewed conflict. India has accused Pakistan of failing to cooperate adequately over the investigation into the November 2008 terror attacks in Mumbai and suspended talks on improving relations for over two-and-a-half years. Moreover India also accuses Pakistan of not dismantling the terror camps established in PoK and continuing its proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir. Details pertaining to the countries of the region have been given in the following sequence Central & South Asia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka n n n n n n n n n n n n 350 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Central & South aSia regional balance Central & South Asia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 351 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance KAZAKHSTAN Central & South aSia KazaKhStan General Information been and will continue to be the engine of this growth. Landlocked with restricted access to the high seas Kazakhstan relies on its neighbours to export its products especially oil and grain. Although its Caspian Sea ports pipelines and rail lines carrying oil have been upgraded civil aviation and roadways have been neglected. Telecoms are improving but require considerable investment as does the information technology base. Supply and distribution of electricity can be erratic because of regional dependencies. At the end of 2007 global financial markets froze and the loss of capital inflows to Kazakhstani banks caused a credit crunch. The subsequent and sharp fall of oil and commodity prices in 2008 aggravated the economic situation and Kazakhstan plunged into recession. While the global financial crisis took a significant toll on Kazakhstan s economy it has rebounded well. In response to the crisis Kazakhstan s Government devalued the tenge (Kazakhstan s currency) to stabilise market pressures and injected around 10 billion in economic stimulus. Rising commodity prices have helped revive Kazakhstan s economy which registered roughly seven per cent growth in 2010-11. Despite solid macroeconomic indicators the government realises that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries the so-called Dutch disease . In response Kazakhstan has embarked on an ambitious diversification programme aimed at developing targeted sectors like transport pharmaceuticals telecommunications petrochemicals and food processing. In 2010 Kazakhstan joined the Belarus-Kazakhstan-Russia Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade relationships. The government expects to join the World Trade Organisation in 2012 which should also help to develop the manufacturing and service sector base. Defence Total Armed Forces Active 49 000 (Army 30 000 Air 12 000 Navy 3 000 MoD 4 000) Terms of Service 24 months Paramilitary Forces Presidential Guard 2 000 Internal Security Troops 20 000 est. State Border Protection Force 9 000 est. Government Guard 500 Security Environment Kazakhstan faces no significant external threats. Unique in the postSoviet Central Asian region for its significant and sustained economic growth which has translated into consistent standard of living increases for the population Kazakhstan has also had a measured foreign policy since independence. Although Russia and China its two economically and militarily sizeable neighbours are perceived as threatening by some Kazakhs it is not in a military sense. Rather Kazakhs worry about Russian and Chinese investors exerting influence as a result of economic power and they express concern about political bullying. They have managed these problems predominantly by maintaining good relations with these countries as well as building ties with the United States. Kazakhstan has sought not so much to balance any one partner against others as it has to ensure that a network of good relationships prevents conflict. In its own region Kazakhstan has aspired to Central Asian leadership with variable success. Kazakhstan is a strategic fulcrum in the vast Central Asian-Caspian Basin zone a region rich in energy resources and a potential gateway for commerce and communications between Europe and Asia. It is also an area that faces a vast number of security challenges. Ensuring a stable and secure Central Asia is important for the world and for Kazakhstan which has a vital stake in the security of this region. The security perspective of Kazakhstan and the region can be appreciated by considering the following factors Area Capital Coastline Population Ethnic Divisions Religions Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions 27 24 900 sq km Astana 0 km (landlocked) 1 75 22 010 (July 2012 est.) Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1 per cent Russian 23.7 per cent Ukrainian 2.1 per cent Uzbek 2.8 per cent German 1.1 per cent Tatar 1.3 per cent Uighur 1.4 per cent others 4.5 per cent (2009 census) Muslim 47 per cent Russian Orthodox 44 per cent Protestant 2 per cent others 7 per cent Kazakh (Qazaq state language) 64.4 per cent Russian (official used in everyday Business designated the language of inter-ethnic communication ) 95 per cent (2001 est.) 99.5 per cent Republic authoritarian presidential rule with little power outside the executive branch 18 years of age universal 14 provinces and three cities Overview of the Economy Kazakhstan geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics excluding Russia possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals such as uranium copper and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. In 2002 Kazakhstan became the first country in the former Soviet Union to receive an investment-grade credit rating. Kazakhstan s economy has largely recovered from the global financial crisis of 2008 and GDP increased seven per cent year-on-year in 2011. Extractive industries have GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 352 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m 377 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Japan-China Relations Japan s long chain of invasions and war crimes in China between 1894 and 1945 as well as modern Japan s attitude towards its past are major issues affecting the current and future Sino-Japanese relations. SinoJapanese relations had worsened because of the repeated visits to the Yasukuni Shrine by former Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi. One consequence was a complete freeze in mutual visits at the highest political levels between 2001 and 2006. Even exchanges at other levels were affected. The ice was broken in 2006 when Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited China and the ice began to thaw when Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited Japan in 2007. These two Prime Ministerial visits set the stage for President Hu Jintao s warm-spring visit to Japan between May 6 and 11 2008. The relations have been steadily improving between Japan and China. Yoshihiko Noda became Prime Minister in August 2011 following the departure of Naoto Kan who resigned following a brief premiership marred by economic gloom and a nuclear crisis triggered by the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in March 2011. Noda became Japan s sixth Prime Minister in five years and the third premier since his centre-left Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) came to power in August 2009 after winning a landslide election that ended half a century of conservative rule. His predecessor Naoto Kan became Prime Minister in June 2010 following the resignation of Yukio Hatoyama amid a damaging dispute over an unpopular US air base off Okinawa. Noda inherits some daunting challenges from Kan. Support for the DPJ rapidly ebbed away when it failed to rein in the country s huge public debt which in August 2011 stood at twice the size of the economy and the leadership s popularity ratings plummeted even further when it was perceived to be making heavy weather of the task of disaster recovery. Japan-China-Korea Meetings Japan China and Republic of Korea (South Korea) have been regularly holding talks as a part of Tripartite Cooperation among the People s Republic of China Japan and the Republic of Korea. China is hosting the Fifth Trilateral Summit Meeting among China Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK) from May 13 to 14 2012 as the coordinator for this year s trilateral cooperation. After more than 10 years of development of the cooperation the three countries have established a full-fledged mechanism for cooperation and formed an all-dimensional multi-tiered and wide-ranging cooperation framework with the Trilateral Summit Meeting at its core and supported by 18 ministerial meetings in areas like foreign policy economy and trade science and technology and culture and over 50 working-level mechanisms. These trilateral meetings have also served as confidence building measures as all three countries exchange views on each other s security and defence policies and regional issues. In the context of counter-terrorism they expressed their intent to cooperate for the Japan-China-ROK Trilateral Counter-Terrorism Consultations which is specified in the Trilateral Cooperation Vision 2020 adopted at the Japan-China-ROK Trilateral Summit in May 2010. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY E ast Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia though not strictly a part of the region has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important superpowers in the region are the United States China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness is also aware that the latter s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan its historical antagonist. Four major issues continue to impact the security environment in East Asia China-Japan relations North Korea Taiwan and international terrorism. Some analysts feel that Japan is now a shrinking more insular and less relevant nation. Its birth rate dwindles because women don t want to raise children in a society where husbands are forced by corporate loyalties to be absentee parents. Its suicide rate at nearly 25 per 1 00 000 is among the world s highest. Thousands of its rural towns are dens of lonely elderly without the youthful infrastructure to sustain their longevity. Its political system has been shorn of credibility. Its fiscal deficit is very large more than twice its gross domestic product. Japan s old-boy system of corporate cronyism and top-down control continues to flourish as the current Olympus scandal demonstrates. The Fukushima disaster proved again the nation s inability to properly manage a foreseeable crisis. Dodging responsibility not demanding accountability remains the Japanese way . Japan s unique culture of conformity insularity sacrifice and order was superbly suited for a 20th century paradigm of mass production and hardware but has great difficulty adapting to the 21st century dominated by personalisation individuality and software. Japan expects China to further expand its maritime activities in the South China Sea and the Pacific. Its annual defence report in August 2011 gave the latest expression of regional security concerns about China s military build-up. Tokyo s annual white paper also urged caution against cyber attacks and said North Korea s nuclear and missile projects posed serious threats to national security. CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 east asia Pacific rim & australia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance The United States has continued to express concern over the growth of China s influence and military power in the Asia-Pacific region. In its annual report to the Congress in 2011 the US Department of Defense notes China s long-term comprehensive military modernisation is improving the People s Liberation Army s (PLA) capacity to conduct highintensity regional military operations including --anti-access and area denial (A2AD) operations. The terms--anti-access and area denial refer to capabilities that could be employed to deter or counter adversary forces from deploying to or operating within a defined space. China continues to base many of its most advanced systems in the military regions (MRs) opposite Taiwan. Although these capabilities could be employed for a variety of regional crisis or conflict scenarios China has made less progress on capabilities that extend global reach or power projection. Outside of peacetime counter-piracy missions for example China s Navy has little operational experience beyond the regional waters. Although the PLA new roles and missions in the international domain reflect China s expanding set of interests regional contingencies continue to dominate resources and planning. Tensions Between North and South Koreas Tensions between the North and South Korea remain very high following the sinking of a South Korean warship Cheonan that killed 46 sailors and an exchange of artillery fire in November 2010 across the disputed western maritime border that left four South Koreans dead. This incident came as North Korea was transferring power from ailing leader Kim Jong-il who passed away in December 2011 to his son Kim Jong-un--a process that some analysts believe was behind North Korea s above actions. The authoritarian nation maintains one of the world s largest armies clings to its nuclear weapons programme despite broad condemnation and sanctions and regularly flings warlike rhetoric at rival South Korea. Japan normalised relations with South Korea in 1965 but has no formal ties with North Korea. Seoul and Tokyo have been in the final stages of talks for two agreements on logistics and sharing military intelligence. Defense Minister Kim Kwan-jin had planned to visit Japan to sign the intelligence-sharing deal in May 2012 but the visit was postponed at the last minute. South Korea and Japan want to share intelligence on missile and nuclear threats from North Korea. On the nuclear issue involving North Korea there has been no substantive movement. International talks involving the two Koreas China Russia Japan and the US aimed at ending North Korea s nuclear ambitions remain permanently stalled despite Chinese calls for them to resume. The revelation in November 2010 that North Korea has a modern uranium enrichment facility with at least 1 000 centrifuges potentially offering Pyongyang another route to a nuclear weapon made further talks even less likely. The US officials said they were stunned at the scale of the facility although not surprised that it existed. In January 2012 Taiwan held its presidential elections--only the fifth time since Taiwan threw off single-party rule in 1996. During the election voters were concerned with issues like stagnant wages a growing wealth gap and steep housing prices that have frozen young urbanites out of the real estate market. They also considered another important issue whether this vibrantly democratic island should speed slow or halt its wary embrace of China. On January 14 Ma Ying-jeou was re-elected President by a comfortable margin fending off a challenge from his main rival Tsai Ing-wen who criticised his handling of the economy but also sought to exploit fears among voters that Ma s conciliatory approach towards China was eroding the island s sovereignty. Ma s victory was welcomed by Taiwanese business leaders who feared his defeat could irritate China and set back the d tente that East asia pacific rim & australia has served them well during the past three-and-a-half years. China which regards Taiwan as a renegade territory had warned that a win by Tsai whose party has traditionally backed formal independence could threaten the peaceful development of cross-strait ties. Ma a nationalist has overseen a raft of agreements that have revolutionised the way ordinary Chinese and Taiwanese interact. There are now direct flights postal service and new shipping routes between Taiwan and the mainland and a landmark free trade agreement has slashed tariffs on hundreds of goods. The US interest in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming deeper. This can be seen by the fact that it is reposturing its naval forces in the AsiaPacific region. By 2020 the Navy will reposture its forces from today s roughly 50 50 split between the Pacific and the Atlantic to about a 60 40 split between those oceans the US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta told Asian officials at a conference in Singapore in June 2012. This will include six aircraft carriers in this region a majority of their cruisers destroyers combat ships and submarines. It is being done in a steady deliberate and sustainable way--the United States military is rebalancing and brings enhanced capabilities to this vital region. To combat terrorism threat the US has pressed countries in the region to arrest suspected terrorist individuals and organisations funded and trained Indonesia s elite counter-terrorist unit and deployed troops to the southern Philippines to advise the Philippine military in their fight against the violent Abu Sayyaf Group. It has also launched a Regional Maritime Security Initiative to enhance security in the Strait of Malacca increased intelligence sharing operations restarted militarymilitary relations with Indonesia and provided or requested substantial aid for Indonesia and the Philippines from the US Congress. Also since 2001 Thailand and the United States have substantially increased their anti-terrorism cooperation. The responses of countries in the region to both the threat and to the US reaction generally have varied with the intensity of their concerns about the threat to their own stability and domestic politics. In general Singapore Malaysia and the Philippines were quick to crack down on militant groups and share intelligence with the United States and Australia whereas Indonesia began to do so only after attacks and arrests revealed the severity of the threat to its citizens. Since that time Indonesian authorities have been aggressive in their pursuit of terrorists and extremist groups. Many governments view increased American pressure and military presence in their region with ambivalence because of the political sensitivity of the issue with both mainstream Islamic and secular nationalist groups. The Muslim insurgency in southern Thailand has escalated in recent years as has terrorist activity in southern areas of the Philippines. Sharing Intelligence Report Sandwiched between India China Bangladesh Thailand and Laos Myanmar is being wooed by both neighbours and developed countries. Visitors from both the West and East are landing there like an avalanche says India s former Ambassador Rajiv Bhatia. For India Myanmar is a gateway to the economically vibrant South East Asia. For Myanmar India with which it shares a 1 600-km border and centuriesold civilisation ties is the bridge to the growing economy of South Asia. The visit of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh comes after 25 years the last being Rajiv Gandhi in 1987. Sanctions had crippled the country that has seen nearly 50 years of military rule. Today a nominally civilian government rules the country. The military occupies 25 per cent of the seats in the national parliament whose prominent member now is the India-educated pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi. There appears to be a consensus across Myanmar s government headed by President 378 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m East asia pacific rim & australia regional balance East Asia Pacific Rim & Australia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 379 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance Thein Sein and opposition Aung San Suu Kyi-led National League for Democracy that the country needs to move closer to India at it travels down the path of political and economic reforms. Officials in Myanmar feel that now that they are on the path of political reforms they need greater interaction with India one of the world s biggest democracies where the political system has its own checks and balances. India s Look East Policy India s relations with its extended neighbourhood have received a fillip with the formulation of its Look East Policy in the early 1990s. Forging comprehensive and mutually beneficial bonds with South East Asia has been the cornerstone of this policy. India s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh speaking at the India-ASEAN Summit at Hanoi on October 30 2010 said India s economy was expected to witness a sustained growth rate of 9-10 per cent in the coming years which would offer many opportunities for trade and investment. The Summit came out with a five-year Plan of Action outlining roadmap for enhanced multi-faceted cooperation. The Plan of Action contains 82 points identified for implementation to tap the vast potential in various fields. Describing it as an ambitious roadmap for implementation of partnership of peace progress and shared prosperity between the two sides Singh said it shows the desire to develop a multi-faceted India-ASEAN relationship. Manmohan Singh said that India believed that ASEAN is the core around which the process of economic integration of the Asia-Pacific region should be built. The East asia pacific rim & australia India-ASEAN Trade in Goods (TIG) Agreement was signed in Bangkok on August 13 2009 after six years of negotiations and it came into force on January 1 2010. Seen as the world s largest free-trade agreement (FTA) covering a market of almost 1.8 billion people with a combined GDP of 2.8 trillion the India-ASEAN pact envisages tariff liberalisation of over 90 per cent of products traded between the two dynamic regions. Tariffs on over 4 000 product lines will be eliminated by 2016 at the earliest. Details pertaining to economic review security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region are as follows n Australia n Cambodia n China n Indonesia n Japan n North Korea n South Korea n Laos n Malaysia n Myanmar n The Philippines n Singapore n Taiwan n Thailand n Vietnam 380 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m East asia pacific rim & australia australia regional balance Overview of the Economy Australia s abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal iron ore copper gold natural gas uranium and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments such as the 40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project will significantly expand the resources sector. Australia also has a large services sector and is a significant exporter of natural resources energy and food. Key tenets of Australia s trade policy include support for open trade and the successful culmination of the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations particularly for agriculture and services. The Australian economy grew for 17 consecutive years before the global financial crisis. Subsequently the former Kevin Rudd government introduced a fiscal stimulus package worth over 50 billion to offset the effect of the slowing world economy while the Reserve Bank of Australia cut interest rates to historic lows. These policies--and continued demand for commodities especially from China--helped the Australian economy rebound after just one quarter of negative growth. The economy grew by 1.3 per cent during 2009--the best performance in the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) --by 2.7 per cent in 2010 and by three per cent in 2011. Unemployment originally expected to reach 8-10 per cent peaked at 5.7 per cent in late 2009 and fell to five per cent in 2011. As a result of an improved economy the budget deficit is expected to peak below 4.2 per cent of GDP and the government could return to budget surpluses as early as 2015. Australia was one of the first advanced economies to raise interest rates with seven rate hikes between October 2009 and November 2010. The Julia Gillard-led government is focused on raising Australia s economic productivity to ensure the sustainability of growth and continues to manage the symbiotic but sometimes tense economic relationship with China. Australia is engaged in the Trans-Pacific Partnership talks and ongoing free trade agreement negotiations with China Japan and Korea. Defence Total Armed Forces Reserve Foreign Forces AUSTRALIA General Information Area Capital Coastline Maritime Claims Territorial sea Contiguous zone Exclusive economic zone Continental shelf Population Ethnic Divisions Religions 12 nm 24 nm 200 nm 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin 2 20 15 576 (July 2012 est.) White 92 per cent Asian 7 per cent aboriginal and others 1 per cent Protestant 27.4 per cent (Anglican 18.7 per cent Uniting Church 5.7 per cent Presbyterian and Reformed 3 per cent) Catholic 25.8 per cent Eastern Orthodox 2.7 per cent other Christian 7.9 per cent Buddhist 2.1 per cent Muslim 1.7 per cent others 2.4 per cent unspecified 11.3 per cent none 18.7 per cent (2006 Census) English 78.5 per cent Chinese 2.5 per cent Italian 1.6 per cent Greek 1.3 per cent Arabic 1.2 per cent Vietnamese 1 per cent others 8.2 per cent unspecified 5.7 per cent (2006 census) 99 per cent Federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm 18 years of age universal and compulsory Administrative Six states and two territories Active 56 552 (Army 28 246 Navy 14 250 Air 14 056) 20 440 (Army 15 840 Navy 2 000 Air 2 600) US Pacific Command 129 New Zealand Air Force 9 Singapore Air 230 Literacy Government Suffrage Divisions GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 381 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO Languages Security Environment Originally composed of six separate colonies of the British Empire Australia s path to independent statehood began with the formation of a federal state in 1901 and was largely complete by World War II. The last few remaining constitutional links with the United Kingdom were severed in 1986 although Australia remains part of the Commonwealth and the Queen is the head of state represented by a Governor General. The future of the monarchy is a recurring issue in politics. In a 1999 referendum about 55 per cent of Australians voted against becoming a republic. The six states of the federation retain extensive powers particularly over education police the judiciary and transport. Australia s growing orientation towards its Asian neighbours is reflected in its economic policy. It is a key member of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum and aims to forge free trade deals with China and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). It has also played a bigger regional role mediating between warring groups in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands as well as deploying thousands of peacekeepers in newly-independent East Timor. Australia s Defence White Paper 2009 states that Australia will spend more than 70 billion to boost its defence capability over the next 20 years in response to a regional military build-up and global shifts in power. A long-term strategic blueprint for the future of Australia s armed INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS 77 41 220 sq km Canberra 25 760 km TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m 417 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Developments in Iraq Iraq an area once home to some of the earliest civilisations became a battleground for competing forces after the US-led ousting of President Saddam Hussein in 2003. After the counter-insurgency campaign in Iraq in June 2009 the US troops withdrew from Iraq s towns and cities handing over security to Iraqi forces. In line with a pledge by the US President Barack Obama the last US combat troops left Iraq in August 2010. Other US troops left Iraq by the end of 2011. Iraq held a national legislative election in March 2010--choosing 325 legislators in an expanded Council of Representatives (COR)--and after nine months of deadlock the COR approved the new government in December 2010. Nearly nine years after the start of the Second Gulf War in Iraq the US military operations there ended in mid-December 2011. As pro-democracy uprisings have spread across West Asia the rulers of the monarchies are feeling threatened. Saudi Arabia--the region s great bulwark of religious and political conservatism--is feeling increasingly isolated and concerned that the United States may no longer be a reliable backer as officials and diplomats state. The country s rulers were shaken by the forced departure of the Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak a close and valued ally. They are anxiously monitoring the continuing protests in neighbouring Bahrain and in Yemen with which Saudi Arabia shares a porous 1 760-kilometre border. Those concerns come on top of long-festering worries about the situation in Iraq where Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Civil Conflict in Syria In the summer of 2011 Syria s crackdown dragged on thousands of soldiers defected and began launching attacks against the government bringing the country to what the United Nations in December called the verge of civil war. An opposition government in exile was formed the Syrian National Council but the council s internal divisions have kept Western and Arab governments from recognising it as such. The opposition remains a fractious collection of political groups long time exiles grassroots organisers and armed militants divided along ideological ethnic or sectarian lines. The conflict is complicated by Syria s ethnic divisions. The Assads and much of the nation s elite especially the military belong to the Alawite sect a minority in a mostly Sunni country. While the Assad Government has the advantage of crushing firepower and units of loyal elite troops the insurgents should not be underestimated. They are highly motivated and over time demographics should tip in their favour. Alawites constitute about 12 per cent of the 23 million Syrians. Sunni Muslims the opposition s backbone make up about 75 per cent of the population. Nuclear Programme in Iraq Iran s nuclear programme is one of the most polarising issues in one of the world s most volatile regions. While American and European officials believe that Tehran is planning to build nuclear weapons Iran s leader- ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY T he term West Asia is coterminous with the Middle East which describes geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than location within Asia. Due to this perceived Eurocentrism international organisations such as the United Nations have replaced Middle East with the term Western Asia. Except for Israel a Jewish country all other states of West Asia and North Africa are Muslim countries. Ethnically most of the Muslim states are Arab and predominantly Sunni. The exceptions are Iraq which is largely dominated by Shias and Iran which has both non-Arab and Shia populace. This region is the birthplace of three of the world s most widespread religions--Judaism Christianity and Islam. West Asia is an area of unique historical importance. Huge oil deposits which were discovered in the early 20th century have further augmented its strategic importance as the economies of a number of developed countries are critically dependent on its oil. Saudi Arabia is geographically the biggest country in West Asia. It is also the richest as it has the largest oil reserves. Iran Iraq and some of the smaller countries like Kuwait and UAE also have huge oil deposits. Politically most of the states are monarchies sheikhdoms or single-party dictatorships and enjoy very little democratic freedom. the toppling of Saddam Hussein has empowered Iran Saudi Arabia s great rival and nemesis. Arab Spring As far as Arab Leagues democratic deficit and the Arab Spring are concerned many analysts are of the view that this deficit does not appear to be rooted in religious beliefs. However the region s institutional history shows that overwhelming popular support for Islamists may undermine democratic efforts by concentrating political power in the hands of these groups. Indeed the recent past shows that Islamists are just as likely to establish autocratic rule as other groups in the absence of checks on their power. Thus unless other interest groups such as labour unions or commercial interests check their power Islamists may replace secular rulers and usher in a new wave of autocracy in some Arab countries. Currently the analysts are cautious about using the evidence they have regarding democratic change in the Arab world as a guide for future policy decisions. The Israel-Palestine conflict extends well beyond the Middle East. Unresolved for more than 60 years it has become a colossal obstruction to international politics and cooperation. It is felt that 2012 is more likely to be a year in which the conflict escalates once again rather than the one in which an enduring peace is secured. CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 West asia and North africa WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance ship says that its goal in developing a nuclear programme is to generate electricity without dipping into the oil supply it prefers to sell abroad and to provide fuel for medical reactors. Iran and the West have been at odds over its nuclear programme for years. But the dispute has picked up steam since November 2011 with new findings by international inspectors tougher sanctions by the United States and Europe threats by Iran to shut the Strait of Hormuz to oil shipments and Israel signalling increasing readiness to attack Iran s nuclear facilities. In March 2012 the United States and other global powers announced that they had accepted an offer to resume talks about Iran s nuclear programme that broke off in stalemate more than a year before. In midApril diplomats from Iran the United States and other world powers met in Istanbul. The talks went surprisingly well and were something of a turning point in the American thinking about Iran. At the meeting Iranian negotiators seemed more flexible and open to resolving the crisis even though no agreement was reached. In May another round West AsiA And north AfricA of talks were held in Baghdad but they ended with no clear signs of progress though the Iranians agreed to reconvene for more negotiations in Moscow in June 2012. Iran and Western superpowers have started a new round of talks in Turkey. The outcome of talks is still very uncertain. Over the long-term whether or not there are significant strides will depend in large part on finding a workable solution to the question of uranium enrichment. Some experts believe that a long-term solution will require Iran retaining some small-level capacity for uranium enrichment. In the near term however making progress requires that Iran take some confidence-building measures of immediate importance including suspending work at the deeply-buried Fordo enrichment site and halting production of 20 per cent enriched uranium. The other major problems of this region are the fundamentalist Islamic militancy and sectarian violence and terrorism all these pose threats to peace in West Asia. The US is involved in a significant way in clearing up or resolving all of them. 418 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m West AsiA And north AfricA regional balance West Asia & North Africa WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 419 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance ALGERIA West AsiA And north AfricA ALGeriA General Information and a large hydrocarbon stabilisation fund. In addition Algeria s external debt is extremely low at about two per cent of GDP. Algeria has struggled to develop industries outside of hydrocarbons in part because of high costs and an inert state bureaucracy. The government s efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector have done little to reduce high youth unemployment rates or to address housing shortages. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted the Algerian Government to offer more than 23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases. Public spending has increased by 27 per cent annually during the past five years. Long-term economic challenges include diversification from hydrocarbons relaxing state control of the economy and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians. Defence Total Armed Forces Terms of Service Paramilitary Forces Active 1 47 000 Reserve 1 50 000 Conscription 18 months Gendarmerie 20 000 National Security Forces 16 000 Republican Guard 1 200 Legitimate Defence Groups 1 50 000 est. Area Capital Coastline Maritime Claims Territorial sea Exclusive fishing zone Population Ethnic Divisions Religions Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions 23 81 741 sq km Algiers 998 km 12 nm 32-52 nm 3 54 06 303 (July 2012 est.) Arab-Berbers 99 per cent European less than 1 per cent Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99 per cent Christian and Jewish 1 per cent Arabic (official) French Berber dialects 69.9 per cent Republic 18 years of age universal 48 provinces Overview of the Economy Algeria s economy remains dominated by the state a legacy of the country s socialist post-independence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatisation of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy accounting for roughly 60 per cent of budget revenues 30 per cent of GDP and over 95 per cent of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Thanks to strong hydrocarbon revenues Algeria has a cushion of 173 billion in foreign currency reserves Security Environment In the 1990s Algerian politics was dominated by the struggle involving the military and Islamist militants. In 1992 a general election won by an Islamist party was annulled heralding a bloody civil war in which more than 1 50 000 people were slaughtered. An amnesty in 1999 led many rebels to lay down their arms. Abdelaziz Bouteflika with the backing of the military won the presidency in 1999 in an election widely viewed as fraudulent and was re-elected for a second term in 2004 and overwhelmingly won a third term in 2009 after the government amended the constitution in 2008 to remove presidential term limits. Long-standing problems continue to face Bouteflika including large-scale unemployment a shortage of housing unreliable electricity and water supplies government inefficiencies and corruption and the continuing activities of extremist militants. Although political violence in Algeria has declined since the 1990s the country has been shaken by a campaign of bombings carried out by a group calling itself Al-Qaeda in the Land of Islamic Maghreb (AQLIM). The group was formerly known as the Salafist Group for Call and Combat and has its roots in an Islamist militia involved in the civil war in the 1990s. Although experts doubt whether AQLIM has direct operational links with Osama bin Laden its methods which include suicide bombings and its choice of targets such as foreign workers and the UN headquarters in Algiers are thought to be inspired by Al-Qaeda. The North African Government fear that local Islamist groups in Algeria Morocco and Tunisia may be linking up under the umbrella of the new movement. After years of political upheaval and violence Algeria s economy has been given a lift by frequent oil and gas finds. It has estimated oil reserves of nearly 12 billion barrels attracting strong interest from foreign oil firms. Thousands of people have been holding pro-democracy rallies in Algeria s capital Algiers defying a government ban. Scuffles broke out between the protesters and riot police and a number of people were reportedly arrested. Algeria--like Egypt Tunisia and other countries in the region--has recently witnessed demonstrations for greater freedoms and better living standards. Public demonstrations are banned in Algeria because of a state of emergency still in place since 1992. However the government in 2011 introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring including lifting the 19-year-old state of emergency GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 420 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m traditional & non-traditional nuclear & Conventional Seen as a matrix of global economic progress in the 21st century the Asia-Pacific region is emerging as an arena for geopolitical and regional rivalries with territorial disputes both land and maritime impacting relations between states. This has affected the healthy trend of multilateralism that prevailed in the region particularly in East and South East Asia. n brigadier (retd) rahul bhonSle Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book A In the Asia-Pacific East and South East Asia have a strong tradition of 451 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE sia-Pacific security environment remains increasingly complex with a wide variety of threats traditional and non-traditional nuclear and conventional state and non-state existing concomitantly. This exposed states to new security vulnerabilities leading to cooperation in some spheres as well as confrontation in others. Terrorism continued to be a major threat worldwide with piracy and maritime crime adding to hybrid nature of challenges pervading the Asia-Pacific region. Radical political ideologies including right-wing religious radicalism and left-wing extremism signified by Maoist insurgency in India fuelled non-state actors. Support by recalcitrant irresponsible and rogue states to militants continued in a deniable form. State as well as non-state actors exploited technology including cyber technology to a great effect. This has added to overall state of disorder in some parts of the region and particularly West Asia Afghanistan and Pakistan. Oceans as a base for resources combined with ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) by most countries have led to exponential increase in maritime activity economic and as a follow-up military. This is the additional dimension of blue waters supplementing their importance for trade. Thus states are employing newly acquired capabilities for political influence to settle long-standing territorial disputes or resource grab in maritime commons. Provocative and destabilising behaviour of states such as North Korea represents the counter dynamics of possible triggers for state-on-state conflict. Nuclear proliferation and cyber terrorism denote the opposite continuums of an emerging threat spectrum that demands responses spread from government to the private sector and from states to individuals. Continuous challenges due to natural disasters such as the tsunami in Japan supplemented by lack of adequate safety instruments to evade collapse of key infrastructure such as nuclear power reactors have posed new dynamics in the Asia-Pacific region which is vulnerable to catastrophic events given the asymmetry between land and sea mass. Security investments are increasingly challenged by austerity resulting from a decline in the global economy. This is affecting military capacity building even as tensions between states seem to be rising particularly with growing brinkmanship in the South China Sea. While counterbalancing has led to the US strategic shift or pivot towards the Asia-Pacific it has created new fears of a Sino-US conflict in East and South East Asia to which states in the region seem to be increasingly averse. Moreover traditional multilateral security mechanisms such as Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum (ARF) are unable to resolve dilemmas faced by states over issues like maritime boundaries and legacy of control over island territories which have assumed increasing significance by providing additional leeway of an exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Military tensions are thus seen endemic in the Asia-Pacific. A brief survey of the key vectors of security challenges and responses in the region are as follows Multilateralism & Security in Asia-Pacific ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 PIB MEA asia-Pacific region WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Security Threats in the CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance multilateralism based on the successful ASEAN compact. This has been projected in the military and security dimension in the form of dialogues and forums for exchange of views on defence and security. The key examples of which are intra-ASEAN processes with regional partners such as the ASEAN Regional Forum the ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM) the ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting-Plus the East Asia Summit and the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC). These have provided mechanisms for managing contentious issues preventing escalation. Increasing frequency of such meetings such as ADMM-Plus from three to two years are attempts to add to the overall scope for reconciliation. Similar mechanisms however are not evident in West Asia with tensions between the US and Iran having created innate challenges for regional as well as international security with particular reference to energy. Interposed on this larger rubric is the success story of multilateral efforts to combat piracy in the region be it in the Malacca Strait conjoining naval capabilities of several ASEAN countries and extra-regional partners like India. The extensive international cooperation in combating piracy off the Strait of Hormuz is another salient example of such mechanisms operating across diverse state responses ensuring security of key sea lines of communication (SLOC) connecting trade and energy resources with major markets. Combating piracy requires securing the seas as well as the land supporting the pirates. Cooperative security efforts in this dimension have succeeded most significantly in the Malacca Strait and increasingly so in the Gulf of Aden area. Yet dependence on a strong maritime military underlines the need for continued capacity building by navies in this sphere. New strands of multilateralism are emerging such as the first IndiaJapan-South Korea Trilateral Dialogue held on June 29 2012 in New Delhi. This dialogue was based on convergence of strategic interests between the three countries particularly in the Indian Ocean region. From a nuclear security perspective as well cooperation was envisaged to deal with the risks of nuclear and missile proliferation. Joint anti-piracy patrols launched by China India and Japan are now being supplemented by South Korea which is joining the group thereby leading to consolidation of security objectives of states based on common interests. This reinforces growing trend of multilateralism to meet the maritime security challenges affecting the global commons. However it is apparent that cooperative security structures are underpinned by a coagulation of military capacity. Devoid of concepts such as common understanding of the military challenges and interoperability of diverse forces the initiatives in the Eastern Indian Ocean as Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against ships in Asia (RECAAP) and establishment of Information Fusion Centre (IFC) in Singapore which shares information and analysis on white shipping among maritime security partners would not have been successful. India also has its own web-based system for displaying positional information of merchant ships called the Indian Merchant Ship Information System (MSIS). Thus multilateralism and security capacity building bear a direct rather than an inverse co-relation with each other as is normally perceived. Security threatS in the aSia-Pacific region South China Sea and Multilateralism Multilateralism however has limits. This is more than evident in the South China Sea conundrum. These waters have emerged as a major flashpoint threatening regional stability not so much due to piracy but by contentious territorial claims between China on one side and several ASEAN states bilaterally with China on the other. This has certainly posed a major challenge to security in the region whose manifestations are not yet clear but portends could end the long decades of peace and stability in South East Asia. One outcome is the US decision of an Asia-Pacific shift outlined in America s National Security Strategy 2011. This may increase rather than decrease tensions due to possibility of smaller states getting caught in the whirlpool of great power rivalry. Moreover there is no guarantee that the US will stand with China in case it decides to settle some of the contentious issues by use of force. The Scarborough Shoal incident in April between China and the Philippines which had emerged as a flashpoint wherein some contend that the United States failed to stand by its treaty ally in some respects represents the military dilemmas that will be posed to principal actors in this sphere. In July 2012 China has also established the Sansha Garrison Command of the Chinese People s Liberation Army (PLA). This is located on the Yongxing Island and covers Zhongsha Xisha and Nansha. This is the first indication of militarisation of the South China Sea through garrisoning which is likely to induce other players to mirror Chinese actions and build up their physical presence in these waters. Hopes of implementation of the Declaration of Conduct for Parties in the South China Sea signed between ASEAN and China in 2002 in the near future have now withered away as there has been no consensus in the recent ASEAN meet in Cambodia held in July 2012. The Code of Conduct being drafted for the South China Sea another document to prevent conflict in this region and promote stability may also be now put on the back-burner. The division that has emerged in the otherwise stolid ASEAN with reference to China s claim in the South China Sea contested by four ASEAN states--Brunei Malaysia the Philippines and Vietnam--denotes the limits of multilateralism on issues where states seek to assert their rights of sovereignty. Follow-up efforts by Indonesian Foreign Minister Dr Marty Natalegawa has led to a consensus. However China is likely to continue to resolve these issues bilaterally rather than multilaterally through ASEAN where it is worried about extra regional powers playing a role to undermine its interests. These conflicting trends underline the need for building integral security capacity over the long-term at least to pose optimal deterrence to protect their sovereign and territorial interests. The geography of the area would imply the necessity for combined all arms forces land sea and air mainly projected by ships aircraft or helicopters. Apart from the bilateral contentions over outlying island territories and offshore resource hubs the larger issue is that of maritime freedom and rites of passage over international waters. For Asia-Pacific in particular which is more sea than land maritime security will remain a key concern. Ensuring free navigation across the oceans and waters is incumbent on all states abiding by universally agreed laws and principles including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea . Where states choose to contest the same how these security dilemmas will be resolved needs greater clarity. For countries like India which have a long coastline of over 7 500 km and large number of island territories numbering 600 maritime security is assuming greater importance. Moreover 90 per cent of India s trade by volume and 77 per cent by value is transported through the sea. India has a land and maritime boundary with Myanmar and a maritime zone with Indonesia 90 nautical miles from the Andaman Islands. The EEZ is over 2.5 million square kilometres and sea mining areas extend to 2 000 km from the southern tip as per the UNCLOS. Energy-rich oceans are another dimension of maritime security which has so far not been exploited to the degree envisaged. This has resulted in two primary imperatives of maritime security for India safeguarding coastline and the EEZ against varied types of seaborne threats and ensuring freedom of the seas to all. This would denote requirement of what is popularly known as brown and blue water Indian Navy supplemented by other elements of safeguard such as the Coast Guard and Coastal Security Police. The other states in the region are also likely to face a similar challenge in the near future. Maritime capacity will also have to be supplemented by continental military build up for land and sea powers as India with contentious boundary issues with China and settlement of the line of control (LoC) with Pakistan. Air forces are also increasingly enhancing their maritime roles with concepts such as the Air Sea battle gaining impetus in public GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 452 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m ARMY EquIpMEnt Army equipment is listed below in the following order China Main battle tanks (MBTs) Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Light tanks (Lt Tks) Armoured personnel carriers infantry combat Vehicles (APcs) (IcVs) Type-90 ZBD-04 IFV ZBD (Type-97) NORINcO VP1 Type-89 (YW 534) Type-85 (531H) Type WZ 501 Type 77 NORINcO YW 531 APc Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers Type-83 152mm PLZ45 155mm How Enhanced PLZ45 systems (SP Guns and Hows) NORINcO Type-85 122mm How Towed anti-tank (A Tk) guns guns and howitzer Type-59-1 130mm Fd Gun Type-66 152mm Gun How Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRLs) Type-90 122mm (40 round) MR System SP Anti-Aircraft Guns and SAMs Type-80 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System PL-9c (SP AA Guns and SAMs) Low Altitude (Alt) SAM System Towed AA Guns chinese Type-56 14.5mm Gun NORINcO 37mm Type-74 Czech Slovak Republics APcs IcVs Type-98 Type-99 Type-90-II NORINcO Type-85-III Type-62 Type-63 Type 63A SP Guns and Hows SP AA Guns and SAMs Germany MBTs APcs IcVs Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2A7 Leopard 2A6 Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2 MBT Neuer Schutzenpanzer Puma AIFV condor Fuchs Rheinmetall Land System Marder 1A3 IcV 457 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE BRDM-2 OT-64 c (SKOT-2A) BMP-1 & OT90 APc India MBTs Towed ATk Guns Guns and Hows MRLs T-90 Arjun IFG Mk.2 105mm Smerch Pinaka MR System ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS France MBTs Lt Tks APcs IcVs Leclerc AMX-30 AMX-13 Giat AMX-10P Nexter Systems AMX-10P Marines AMX VcI (IcV) Improved VAB 4x4 version (Wheeled) Panhard PVP Panhard M3 GIAT Mk. F3 155mm SP Gun GIAT 155mm GcT SP Gun Panhard M3 VDA Twin 20mm SP AA Gun System crotale Low Alt SAM System Shahine Low Alt SAM System AMX-30 twin 30mm SP AA Gun System TECHNOLOGY T his chapter contains specifications of all important military hardware being employed by the countries mentioned below. Equipment having greater commonality within the region and those of comparatively recent origin have been chosen and presented under separate headings for the Army Navy and Air Force. We have listed each type of hardware under the headings of its country of origin like Russia UK and the US. The development of weapon systems is a long-term process. Over the years a composite unit like a tank ship or an aircraft passes through various phases of development and appears in different versions with varied fitments and operational parameters. We have listed these variants but greater details of each version with specific parameters are given in the dedicated publications. We have also relied on such publications in compiling our data. In this volume specifications have been listed in general terms and common features spelt out. Details of sensors and weapon control systems have been omitted as they may vary from craft to craft even within the same class. CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 equipment & Hardware Specifications WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance ARMY EquIpMEnt (Contd.) Israel MBTs equipment & hardware specifications army Towed AA Guns Merkava Mk3 Merkava 4 Sabra MBT Singapore SP Guns and Hows South Africa APcs IcVs South Korea MBTs Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Howitzer Spain APcs IcVs Type-74 Type-90 Type-87 Type-73 Type-89 Mitsubishi Type SU 60 Type-75 155mm Type 99 155mm Type-75 130mm (30 round) MR System ZU-23-2 Twin 23mm Automatic (Auto) AA Gun S-60 57mm Auto AA Gun 100mm anti-aircraft gun KS-19 Reconnaissance Vehicles (Recce Vehs) RAM family of light AFVs SP Guns and Hows Soltam L-33 155mm Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows Soltam M-71 155mm Gun How Italy SP Guns and Howitzer Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Howitzer SSPH-1 Primus casspir Mk. III Ratel 90 Oto Palmaria 155mm Oto Melara Model 56 105mm Pack How Oto Melara 155mm M109L [SP] Howitzer K1 Hyundai Rotem K2 MBT 155mm KH179 How Japan MBTs Recce Vehs APcs IcVs SP Guns and Hows MRLs BMR-600 Sweden Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Howitzer Bofors FH-77 B 155mm Towed AA Guns Bofors L-40 -70 40mm Auto AA Gun Switzerland APcs IcVs Towed AA Guns pakistan MBTs APc Type MBT 2000 (Al Khalid) Type Al Zarrar Type Saad Type Talha Type M113A2 united Kingdom MBTs Mowag Piranha Oerlikon-contraves GDF-002 and 005 Twin 35mm Auto AA Guns Oerlikon contraves 20mm GAI-B01 Auto AA Guns Russia MBTs Black Eagle Development Tank T-95 T-54 T-55 T-55 (Upgraded) T-62 T-64B T-72 T-80U T-90S Lt Tks PT-76B Recce Vehs BRDM-2 PRP-4 APcs IcVs BMP-1 BMP-2 BMP-3 BMD-1 AcV BTR-50 BTR-80 MT-LB BTR-152VI SP Guns and Hows M 1973 (2S3) 152mm M 1974 (2S1) 122mm (MSTA-S) 152mm Self-Propelled Artillery System 2S19 Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows D-30 122mm Fd Gun M-46 130mm Fd Gun 155mm Gun How D-20 MRLs Splav 300mm BM 9A52 (12 round) Smerch MR System BM-21 122mm (40 round) MR System SP AA Guns and SAMs ZSU-23-4 Quad 23mm SP AA Gun System ZSU-57-2 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System 2K22M Tunguska System SA-6 Gainful Low-to-Med alt SAM System SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System SA-8B SAM System SA-9 Gaskin SAM SA13 Gopher SAM System chieftain Mk. 5 centurion Mk 13 challenger 2 Khalid Vickers MBT Mk3 Lt Tks Alvis Scorpion Recce Vehs Alvis Saladin Daimler Ferret Mk 2 3 APcs IcVs Stormer GKN Def Desert Warrior FV432 SP Guns and Hows AS90 (Braveheart) 155mm SP Gun Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows 105mm Lt Gun (L 118) 155mm Lightweight How (M 777) united States of America MBTs M-1 Abrams M-48 series M 60 A3 Lt Tks M-41 Sting Ray APcs IcVs M-113 A3 SP Guns and Hows 155mm 52-calibre International Howtizer M-107 175mm SP Gun M- 109 Series of 155mm SP How M-110 Series of 203mm SP How (8 inch) Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows M-198 155mm How SP AA Guns and SAMs M-42 Twin 40mm SP AA Gun System M-163 Vulcan 20mm SP AA Gun System M-48 A1 chaparral Low Alt SP SAM GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 458 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m equipment & hardware specifications navy regional balance Bharamputra class Talwar class Shivalik class Leander class ISRAEL Submarines Corvettes Patrol forces NAVAL EQUIPMENT Naval equipment is presented in the order as shown below. CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines Frigates Patrol forces RUSSIA Patrol Submarines Destroyers Frigates Corvettes Frigates INDIA Submarines Air Craft Carrier Destroyers Frigates 479 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Shishumar class Kilo class Foxtrot class Scorpene class Hermes class Kiev class (Ex Admiral Gorshkov) Delhi class Kashin class Godavari class UNITED KINGDOM (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 489) Frigates Leander class Salisbury class Alvand (Vosper Mk. 5) class Lekiu class Missile Craft Dhofar (Province) class Corvettes Qahir class ASIAN WHO S WHO THAILAND Air Craft Carriers Frigates Corvettes Chakri Naruebet class Naresuan class Khamronsin class INDIAN DEFENCE Fast attack missile craft SOUTH KOREA Submarines Destroyers Frigates Corvettes Chang Bogo class KDX-2 class Ulsan class P O Hang class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 200910 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 487) BUSINESS Aircraft Carriers Kilo class Lada class Kashin class Sovremenny class Krivak class Nanuchka class Taran Tul class TECHNOLOGY Destroyers Romeo class Sang-O class Najin class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 483) Soho class TRAL class SO1 class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 483) Soju class -doHainan class-do- CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Patrol Submarines Jin class XIA class Han class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 469) Shang class - do Song class Yuan class Kilo class Ming class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 471) Romeo class - doModified Romeo class - do Luzhou class Sovremenny class Luyang class Luyang II class Luda class Luhai class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 474) Luhu class -do Varyag (Admiral Kuznetsov class) Jiangkai class Jiangkai II class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 200910 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 476) Jiangwei class Jiangwei II class Jianghu 1 II V class Houku (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 478) Houxin class -doHuangfen Hola class -doHuchuan -do- Dolphin class Eilat (SAAR 5) class Hetz (SAAR 4.5) class Reshef class Super Dvora class NORTH KOREA Submarines WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance NAVAL EQUIPMENT (Contd.) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 491) Guided Missile Destroyers Gearing class Frigates Adelaide class Amphibious forces Austin class WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 493) Submarines Agosta class (France Spain) Daphne class (France) HDW class (Germany) Frigates Al Riyadh class (France) Madina class (France) La Fayettes class (France) Descubierta class (Spain) Fast attack missile craft Combattante class (France) Ratcharit class (Italy) Aircraft carriers Principe De Asturias class (Spain) CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines Jin class (Type 094) (SSBN) Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) equipment & hardware specifications navy Torpedoes Countermeasures Radars Sonars Structure 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Yu-3 (SET-65E) active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt warhead 205 kg. Type 921-A radar warning. Surface search Snoop Tray I-band. Trout Cheek hull-mounted active passive search and attack medium frequency. Diving depth 300 m (985 ft). 8 000 449.5 38.7 7.5 (137.0 11.8 2.3) Main machinery Nuclear 2 PWR 150 MW 2 turbines 1 shaft Speed knots To be announced Complement 140 Missiles SLBM 12 JL-2 (CSS-NX-5) 3-stage solid-fuel rocket stellar inertial guidance to over 8 000 km (4 320 n miles) single nuclear warhead of 1 MT or 3-8 MIRV of smaller yield. CEP 300 m approximate Torpedoes 6-21 in (533mm tubes). Countermeasures Decoys ESM. Radars Surface search navigation Type 359 I-band Sonars Hull mounted passive active flank and towed arrays. Structure Likely to be based on the Type 093 SSN design which in turn is believed to be derived from the Russian Victor III design. XIA class (Type-092) (SSBN) Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) Main machinery Speed knots Complement Missiles Patrol Submarines Song class (Type-039 039G) (SSG) Displacement tonnes 1 700 surfaced 2 250 dived Dimensions feet (metres) 246 24.6 17.5 (74.9 7.5 5.3) Main machinery Diesel-electric 4 MTU 16V 396 SE 6 092 hp(m) (4.48 MW) diesels 4 alternators 1 motor 1 shaft Speed knots 15 surfaced 22 dived Complement 60 (10 officers) Missiles SSM C-801A radar active homing to 40 km (22 n miles) at 0.9 Mach warhead 165 kg Torpedoes 6-21 in (533mm) tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET-50) passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 30 kt warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET-65E) active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wake-homing torpedoes may also be fitted Mines In lieu of torpedoes Countermeasures ESM Type 921-A radar warning Radars Surface search I-band Sonars Bow-mounted passive active search and attack medium frequency. Flank array passive search low frequency Operational Basing North (315 316 327 328) East (314 321 322 323 324 325) South (320 326 329) 4 4 Yuan class (Type-041) (SSG) Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) Main machinery 6 500 dived 393.6 33 26.2 (120 10 8) Nuclear turbo-electric 1 PWR 90 MW 1 shaft 22 dived 140 SLBM 12 JL-1 (CSS-N-3) inertial guidance to 2 150 km (1 160 n miles) warhead single nuclear 250 kT. Missiles Torpedoes GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE To be announced 236.2 x 27.5 x (72.0 x 8.4 x ) Diesel-electric 4 diesels 1 motor 2 Stirling AIP (to be confirmed) 1 shaft SSM C-801A inertial cruise active radar homing to 40 km (22 n miles) at 0.9 Mach warhead 165 kg. 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET50) active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 30 kt warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET65E) active passive homing 480 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m equipment & hardware specifications air force regional balance BBJ Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules C-130J C-130J-30 Embraer Legacy (VIP) air eQUipment Air equipment is given as under in the following order Combat airCraft China Hong-6 Jian-7 Jian-8 Jian Hong-7 Jianjiao-7 Qiang-5 FC-1 J-10 J-11 (locally produced Su-27) Eurofighter Typhoon Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H Dassault Aviation Mirage III Dassault Aviation Mirage F-1C Dassault Aviation Mirage 5 Dassault Aviation Rafale LCA IAI Kfir Mikoyan MiG-21 Mikoyan MiG-23 Mikoyan MiG-25 Mikoyan MiG-27M Mikoyan MiG-29 Mikoyan MiG-31 Sukhoi Su-24 Sukhoi Su-25 Sukhoi Su-27 Sukhoi Su-30MK Sukhoi Su-30MKI MiG-35 JAS-39 Gripen BAE Systems Hawk 200 Series BAE Systems Sea Harrier Boeing F-15A B C D Eagle Boeing F A-18A B C D Hornet Lockheed Martin F-16A B C D Fighting Falcon Northrop F-5E Tiger F-22 Raptor Joint Strike Fighter F-35 Brazil HeliCopters France Europe France Germany India Italy Russia United Kingdom United States of America Sweden United Kingdom United States of America training Brazil India United Kingdom China Pakistan Embraer EMB-312 Tucano HAL HJT-16 Kiran HAL HPT-32 Deepak HAL HJT-36 Sitara BAE Systems Hawk 100 (Two-seat version) K-8 Karakoram maritime reConnaissanCe France Russia United States of America Dassault Aviation Atlantique 2 Ilyushin IL-38 Tupolev Tu-142 Lockheed Martin P-3C Orion MMA P-8 Poseidon transport airCraft Germany Russia Dornier Do-228 Ilyushin IL-18 Ilyushin IL-76 Tupolev Tu-134 Tupolev Tu-154 Yakovlev Yak-40 EADS CASA C-212 EADS CASA CN-235M Antonov An-12 Antonov An-24 Antonov An-26 Antonov An-32 BAE Systems HS-748 Boeing 737-100 200 (VIP) Boeing 737-300 Spain Ukraine Brazil Sweden United States of Russia Israel Combat airCraft CHina Hong 6 Westernised designation Embraer AEW Saab 2000 Boeing E-3 Sentry America Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye IL-76 with Phalcon System B-6 495 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue REGIONAL BALANCE United Kingdom United States of America ASIAN WHO S WHO airborne early Warning & Control INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY India Israel Russia Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma AS 532 Cougar Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil AS 550 AS 555 Fennec Eurocopter SA 360 AS 365 Dauphin SA 365 366 Dauphin II AS 565 Panther Eurocopter SA 316 319 Alouette III Eurocopter SA 330 Puma Eurocopter SA 341 342 Gazelle Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 Advance Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv EH-AW 101 VVIP Communication Kamov Ka-25 Kamov Ka-25 B SH Kamov Ka-31 Mil Mi-6 Mil Mi-8 Mil Mi-17 Mil Mi-24 Mil Mi-25 -35 Mil Mi-26 Westland Sea King Bell 407 Bell AH-1 Cobra Super Cobra Boeing AH-64 Apache Boeing CH-47 Chinook Sikorsky UH-60 SH-60 S-70 Blackhawk S-92 CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance air eQUipment (Contd.) Users China. Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 499. Jian 7 Westernised designation Type equipment & hardware specifications air force Users Bangladesh (A-5C) China (Q-5) Myanmar (A-5-C -M) and Pakistan (A-5III). Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 499. fC 1 Export designation Super-7 Users China Pakistan Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 500. Jianji 10 Westernised designation Type Versions Design Design based on other versions (i) J-7 I (ii) F-7A (export version of J-7I exported to Albania Egypt Iraq and Tanzania) (iii) J-7 II (modified and improved version of J-7I also known as J-7B) (iv) F-7 B (upgraded export version based on J-7II with ability to carry air-to-air missiles exported to Bangladesh Iran Jordan Pakistan Zimbabwe) F-7BS (Sri Lanka) (v) J-7 IIA (improved version of J-7 II) (vi) J-7 H (improved version of J-7 II with improved ground attack capability) (vii) F-7 M Airguard (export version of J-7 IIA) (viii) J-7 II M (Chinese version of F-7M) (ix) F-7 P Airbolt (variant of F-7M to meet specific requirements of Pakistan Air Force including ability to carry 4 X air-to-air missiles F-7 MP Airbolt (modified version of F-7 P) (x) J-7C (J-7 III) (design based on MiG-21 MF) (xi) J-7 D (J-7IIIA Improved J-7C version) (xii) J-7E (third generationJ-7 version based on J-7II airframe) (xiii) F-7 MG (export variant of J-7E) (xiv) F-7 PG (variant of F-7 MG modified for Pakistan Air Force) (xv) J 7 FT 7 Tandem two-seat operational trainer based on J-7 II Users China (J-7 II IIA H IIM III IIIA E) Bangladesh (F-7M) Egypt (F-7A B) Iran (F-7M) Myanmar (F-7M) North Korea (F-7) Pakistan (F-7P PG) and Sri Lanka (F-7BS) Jian 8 NATO reporting name Finback Westernised designation F-8 Users China Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 499. Jian Hong 7 Westernised designation B-7 Users PLA Navy. Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 499. Jianjiao 7 Westernised designation Users F-7 Single-seat fighter and close support aircraft MiG-21 F (Soviet) Accommodation Range Armament Combat Radius Users F-10 Multi-role fighter Tail-less delta wing and close-coupled fore planes single sweptback vertical tail outward-canted ventral fins single ventral engine air intake. Pilot only on zero zero ejection seat. 1 000 nm 11 external stores points including one on centerline tandem pairs on fuselage sides and three under each wing the outboard wing stations each carrying PL-8 or later AAMs. Other potential weapons could include Vympel R-73 and R-77 AAMs C-801 or C-802 ASMs and laser guided or free fall bombs. 250-300 nm China J 11 (su-27sK) For details see Su-27 under Russia User China eUrope eurofighter typhoon Crew Length Wingspan Height Wing area Empty weight Loaded weight Max take-off weight Powerplant Dry thrust Thrust with afterburner Maximum speed At altitude At sea level Supercruise Range Ferry range Service ceiling Rate of climb Wing loading Thrust weight 1 or 2 15.96 m (52 ft 5 in) 10.95 m (35 ft 11 in) 5.28 m (17 ft 4 in) 50 m_ (540 ft_) 11 000 kg (24 250 lb) 15 550 kg (34 280 lb) 23 000 kg (51 809 lb) 2 Eurojet EJ200 afterburning turbofans 60 kN (13 500 lbf) each 90 kN (20 250 lbf) each Mach 2 Mach 1.2 (1 470 km h 915 mph) Mach 1.2 (1 470 km h 915 mph) 1 390 km (864 mi) 3 790 km (2 300 mi) 19 812 m (65 000 ft) 315 m s (62 007 ft min) 311 kg m_ (63.7 lb ft_) 1.18 FT-7 Bangladesh (FT-7B) China (JJ-7) Iran (FT-7) Myanmar (FT-7) Pakistan (FT7P PG) and Sri Lanka (FT-7). Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 499. Qiang 5 NATO reporting name Westernised designation Fantan A-5 GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 496 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions A Ammunition and Explosives Andaman & Nicobar Anti-Submarine Mortars Anti Submarine Air Attach Anti-Aircraft Anti-Aircraft Artillery Advanced Aircraft Defence anti-arcraft defence Army Air Defence AAM Air-to-Air Missile AAP Annual Acquisition Plan AAPCC Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee AAPCHC Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee AAR Air-to-Air Refuellers AAV Amphibious assault vehicle AAW Anti-Air Warfare AB Airborne Air Base ABL Airborne Laser ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile Ac ac aircraft ACAS Assistant Chief of the Air Staff ACCCS Artillery Combat Command and Control System ACCP Assistant Controller of Carrier Project ACEMUs Alternating Current Electrical Multiple Units ACIDS Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff ACIDS(PP & FS) Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff (Policy Planning & Force Structures) ACM Advanced Cruise Missile Air Chief Marshal ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Submarines) ACOL Assistant Controller of Logistics ACOP(CP) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Career Planning) ACOP(HRD) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Human Resource Development) ACOP(P&C) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Personnel & Conditions) ACOP Assistant Chief of Personnel Acqn Acquisition ACV Air Cushion Vehicle Armoured Combat Vehicle ACWP&A Assistant Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition AD Air Defence A&E A&N A S Mortars A S AA AA AAA AAD ADA Aeronautical Development Agency Air Defence Artillery ADAMS Air Defence Advanced Mobile System ADC&RS Air defence control and reporting system ADC Aide-de-Camp ADDC Air Defence Direction Centre Addl FA Additional Financial Advisor Addl Additional ADE Aeronautical Development Establishment ADF Australian Defence Force ADG Avn Additional Director General Army Aviation ADG DV Additional Directorate General Discipline and Vigilance ADG EM Additional Directorate General Equipment Management ADG Mov Additional Director General Movements ADG Additional Directorate General Procurement Procurement ADG PS Additional Directorate General Personnel Services ADG Quartering Additional Director General Quartering ADG TA Additional Directorate General Territorial Army ADGES Air Defence Ground Environment System ADGIS Additional Directorate General Information Systems ADGIW Additional Director General Information Warfare ADGMI Assistant Director General Military Intelligence ADGMO Additional Director General Military Operations ADGOL Additional Director General Operational Logistics ADGPI Additional Director General Public Information ADGSI Additional Director General Signal Intelligence Adj Adjusted adjutant ADC&R Air Defence Control and Reporting System ADMM ASEAN Defence Ministers Meet ADRDE Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment AEA Airborne Electronic Attack AEC Army Education Corps AESA Active Electronically Scanned Array AEW Airborne Early Warning AEW&C Airborne Early Warning & Control AF AFA AFB Af-Pak AFSPA AFTA AFV AG AGM AGPL AH AIFV AIP AIP AIS AIT AJT ALCM AlGaAs ALGs ALH ALTB AM AMAS AMD Amn amph AMRAAM AMRs AMTIR ANA ANC ANP ANURAG ANZAC ANZUS AOA AOC AOC-in-C AOM AON AOP AOPVs APAR APC APCs(T) APCs(W) APEC Air Force Auxiliary Fleet Air Force Academy Air Force Base Afghanistan-Pakistan Armed Forces Special Powers Act ASEAN Free Trade Area Armoured Fighting Vehicle Adjutant General Air-to-Ground Missile Actual Ground Position Line Attack Helicopter Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle Air Independent Propulsion Approval In Principle Automatic identification system Automatic identification technologies Advanced Jet Trainer Air Launched Cruise Missile Aluminium gallium arsenide Advanced Landing Grounds Advanced Light Helicopter Airborne Laser Test Bed Acquisition Manager Australian Minesweeping System Anti-missile defence Ammunition Amphibious amphibian Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile Anti-material rifles Amorphous Material Transmitting Infrared Radiation Afghan National Army Andaman & Nicobar Command Afghan National Party Advanced Numerical Research and Analysis Group Australian and New Zealand Army Corps Australia-New Zealand-United States Air Officer-in-Charge Administration Angle of Attack Army Ordnance Corps Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Air Officer-in-Charge Maintenance Acceptance of Necessity Air Officer-in-Charge Personnel Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels Active Phased Array Radar Armoured Personnel Carrier Armoured Personnel Carriers (Tracked) Armoured Personnel Carriers (Wheeled) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation 506 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions APFSDS Appx APSOH AQIM AR&DE ARC AREN ARF ARIS ARM Armd ARMREB ARTRAC Arty ARV AS ASAT ASC ASCM ASCON ASD ASEAN ASEM ASG ASL ASLAV Aslt ASM ASO ASPL ASR ASTE ASuW ASV ASW AT ATACMS ATC ATE ATEP ATGM ATGW Atk ATL ATP ATTF ATTS ATV Auto AUV AUW AV Armour-piercing fin stabilised discarding sabot Approximately Advanced panoramic sonar hull Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb Armament Research and Development Establishment Aviation Research Centre Army Radio Engineering Network ASEAN Regional Forum Anti-resonance isolation system Anti-Radiation Radar Missile Armoured Armament Research Board Army Training Command Artillery Armoured Recovery Vehicle Additional Secretary Anti-Satellite Army Supply Corps Army Service Corps Anti-Ship Cruise Missile Army Static Communication Network Admiral Superintendent Dockyards Association of South East Asian Nations Asia-Europe Meeting Abu Sayyaf Group Advanced Systems Laboratory Australian Light Armoured Vehicle Assault Air-to-Surface Missile Anti-Ship Missile Air Staff Office Akash Self-Propelled Launcher Air Staff Requirements Aircraft and Systems Testing Establishment Anti-Surface Warfare Anti-Surface Vessel armoured security vehicles Anti-Submarine Warfare Anti-tank Army Tactical Missile System Air Traffic Control Advanced Technologies and Engineering Advanced technical exploitation programme Anti-Tank Guided Missile Anti-Tank Guided Weapon Anti-tank Advanced Tactical Laser Acceptance Test Procedure All Tripura Tigers Force Air-Transportable Towed System Advanced Technology Vessel Automatic Autonomous Underwater Vehicles All Up Weight Armoured Vehicles AVIC Avn AVS Committee AVSM AWACS Aviation Industries Corporation Aviation Ajai Vikram Singh Committee Ati Vishist Seva Medal Airborne Warning and Control System C4I C4I2 C4I2SR Command Control Communications Computers and Intelligence Command Control Communications Computers Information and Intelligence Command Control Communications Computers Information management Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Command Control Communications Computers and Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Command Control Communications Computers and (military) Intelligence surveillance target acquisition and reconnaissance Combat Aircraft Complaint Advisory Board Centre for Airborne Systems Computer Aided Engineering Compound Annual Growth Rate Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Calibration Computer Aided Machining Captain Central Asian Republics Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training Chief of the Air Staff Close Air Support Casualty evacuation Category Cavalry College of Air Warfare Carrier Battle Group Confidence Building Measures Combat Central Committee Chief Controller (Research & Development) Central Coordinating Authority Committee on Climate Change Charge Coupled Device Cabinet Committee on Security Combat Capable Trainer Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System Closed Circuit Television Controller of Defence Accounts Custom Duty Exemption Certificate Chief of Defence Force Centre for Defence and International Security Studies College of Defence Management Command Diving Officer Committee for Defence Planning Commander Chief of Defence Staff Corps of Engineers Chief Engineer Central Military Commission Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification B BACN BADZ BARC Bbr Bde BDL BE BECA BEL BEML BFSR BFSR-SR BHEL Bhp BIMSTEC BIS BM BMC2 BMCS BMD BMS Bn (bn) BNP BOPs BRIC M BRIC BRO BSF BSNL BSS Bty BVR BVRAAM BW Battlefield air-borne communication node Base Air Defence Zone Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Bomber Brigade Bharat Dynamics Limited Budget Estimate Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement Bharat Electronics Limited Bharat Earth Movers Limited Battlefield Surveillance Radar Battlefield Surveillance Radar-Short Range Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Brake horsepower Bangladesh India Myanmar Sri Lanka Thailand Economic Cooperation Bureau of Indian Standard Border Management Battle Management Command and Control Bi-Modular Charge System Ballistic Missile Defence Battlefield Management System Battalion Bangladesh National Party Border Out Posts Brazil Russia India China and Mexico Brazil Russia India China Border Roads Organisation Border Security Force Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Battlefield Surveillance System Battery Beyond Visual Range Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile Biological Warfare C4ISR C4ISTAR CA CAB CABS CAE CAGR CAIR Cal CAM Capt CAR CARAT CAS Casevac Cat Cav CAW CBG CBMs Cbt CC CC(R&D) CCA CCC CCD CCS CCT CCTNS CCTV CDA CDEC CDF CDISS CDM CDO CDP Cdr CDS CE CEC CEMILAC C C&R C2 C2RP C2W C3 C3CM C3I Control and Reporting Command and Control Command and Control Reconnaissance Post Command and Control Warfare Command Control & Communications Command Control & Communications Countermeasures Command Control Communications and Intelligence 507 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions CENTO CEP CEPA CEPTAM CERT CFA CFC CFD CFEES CG CGAIS CGAS CGDA CGE CGHQ CGRPT CGS CHRI CI CIA CIAT CICP CIDS CIDSS CIFs CIG CII CIJWS C-in-C CINCAN CIP CIR CIS CISC CISF CISMOA CISO CIWS CJCS CKD CLAWS CLGP CLO CLS cm CM Central Treaty Organisation Circular error probable Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement Centre for Personal Talent Management Computer Emergency Response Team-India Competent Financial Authority Combined Forces Commander Computational Fluid Dynamics Centre for Fire Explosive & Environment Safety Commanding General Combined Group Coast Guard Coast Guard Air Inspection Superintendent Coast Guard Air Station Controller General Defence Accounts Central Government Expenditure Coast Guard Headquarters Coast Guard Refit Production Team Chief of the General Staff Coast Guard Ship Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative Counter-insurgency Central Intelligence Agency Counter-insurgency and Anti-Terrorism Computerised Inventory Control Procedure Chief of Integrated Defence Staff Command Information Decision Support System Counter Insurgency Forces Counter Insurgency Grid Confederation of Indian Industry Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare Commander-in-Chief Commander-in-Chief of the Andaman and Nicobar Command Carriage and Insurance Paid Cargo Integration Review Commonwealth of Independent States Chief of Integrated Defence Staff to Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee Central Industrial Security Force Communication Interoperability and Security Memorandum Agreement Chief Information and Security Officer Close-in Weapon System Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Complete Knocked Down Centre for Land Warfare Studies Cannon-Launched Guided Projectile Chief Law Officer Capsule launch system Centimetre Cruise Missile CMC CMCs CMD CMDS CMM CMOS CMS CMT CMTV CNC CNC CNN CNO CNO CNP CNPC CNS CO CGS Delhi COAS COD CODOG COIN COL COM comb comd COMINT comns Comp COMSAT CONOPS COP COP COS COSC COTS Coy CP CPB CPF CPMF CPI(M) CPI(ML) CPI CP-NPA-NDF Central Military Commission Ceramic matrix composites Chairman & Managing Director Counter Measure Dispensing Systems Common Modular Missile Complimentary metal-oxide semi-conductor Combat management system Carrier Mortar Tracked Continuous Moldline Technology Carrier mortar tracked vehicle Commercial Negotiation Committee Computer Numerical Control Cost Negotiations Committee Cable News Network Chief of Naval Operations Computer networks operation Comprehensive national power China National Petroleum Corporation Chief of the Naval Staff Commanding Officer Coast Guard Ship Delhi Chief of the Army Staff Central Ordinance Depot Combined diesel or gas turbine Counter Insurgency Controller of Logistics Chief of Materials Combined combination Command Communications Intelligence Communications Composite Communication satellite Concept of Operations Chief of Personnel Common operational picture Chief of Staff Chiefs of Staff Committee Commercial off the shelf Company Central Purchase Charged Particle Beams Central Police Forces Central Paramilitary Forces Communist Party of India (Marxist) Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Consumer Price Index Communist Party of Philippines-New People s Army-National Democratic Front Central Police Organisations Carriage Paid To Central Public Works Department Control and Reporting Centre Central research laboratories Common remotely operated weapon station CrPC CRPF CRT CRZ CS CSAR CSE CSFO CSIR CSM CSSC CST CSTO CT CTBT CTBTO CTK FLT CTM CTOT CTPTs CUNPK CVC CVRDE CW CWIN CWP&A CYBERINT Criminal Procedure Code Central Reserve Police Force Cathode-Ray Tube Compact Revolutionary Zone Centre-State Combat Search and Rescue Core System Evaluation Counter Surface Force Operations Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Communications Support Measures China State Shipbuilding Corporation Comparative Statement of Tenders Collective Security Treaty Organisation Counter-terrorist Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation Chetak Flight Communist Terrorist Movement Complete Transfer of Technology Counter Terrorism Pursuit Teams Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping Central Vigilance Commission Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment Continuous Wave Cyber Warning and Information Network Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition Cyber Intelligence D D (Admin) D (AV) D (FE) D (FM) D (INT) D (Log) D (MAT) D (Med) D (MPRT) D (Ops) D (Pers) DA DAC DADCs DAF DAI DARE DAS DASE DASI DASR DCAS Director (Administration) Director (Aviation) Director (Fisheries and Environment) Director (Fleet Maintenance) Director (Intelligence) Director (Logistics) Director (Materials) Director (Medical) Director (Manpower Planning Recruitment & Training) Director (Operations) Director (Personnel) Defence Attach Defence Acquisition Council Division Air Defence Centres Delivered At Frontier Director of Administration Inspection Defence Avionics Research Establishment Director of Air Staff Director of Armament System Equipment Directorate of Air Staff Inspection Directorate of Air Staff Requirements Deputy Chief of Air Staff CPOs CPT CPWD CRC CRL CROWS 508 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions DCF DCMG DCN DCNS DCOAS DCP DD DDG MF DDG DDGMS DDH DDOs DDP DDP DDP&S DDU DE DEAL DEBEL DECS DEE DEO Dept DEQ DES DES DESA DESIDOC Det DEW DF DFM DFPR DFRL DFS DG DG(I&S) DG AAD DG CW DG DCW DGFP DG Inf DGMF DGPP DG WE DG OS DG SP Discounted Cash Flow Defence Crisis Management Group Defence Communications Network Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Deputy Chief of the Army Staff Directorate of Civilian Personnel Demand Draft Deputy Director General Military Farms Deputy Director General Deputy Directorate General Management Studies Destroyer Helicopter Direct Demanding Officers Department of Defence Production Directorate of Data Processing Department of Defence Production & Supplies Delivered Duty Unpaid Directorate of Education Defence Electronics Application Laboratory Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory Director Electronics and Computer Sciences Directorate of Electrical Engineering Defence Exhibition Organisation Department Delivered Ex Quay Delivered Ex-Ship Directorate of Engineering Support Director Ex-Serviceman s Affairs Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre Detachment Directorate of Electronic Warfare Directed Energy Weapons Deuterium Floride Directorate of Fleet Maintenance Delegation of Financial Power Regulations Defence Food Research Laboratory Directorate of Flight Safety Director General Diesel Generator Director General (Inspection and Safety) Directorate General Army Air Defence Directorate General Ceremonials and Welfare Directorate General Discipline Ceremonials and Welfare Directorate General Financial Planning Directorate General Infantry Directorate General of Mechanised Forces Directorate General Perspective Planning Directorate General Weapons and Equipment Director General Ordnance Services Director General Seabird Project DGAFMS DGAQA DGAR DGCA DGDIA DGDPS DGFI DGFT DGI DGICG DGIS DGMI DGMO DGMP DGMS DGMT DGNAI DGNCC DGND DGOF DGOL&SM DGQA DGR DGS&D DGSD DHD DHQ DIA DIAT DIBER DIHAR DIME DIPAS DIPP DIPR Dir DIR(MM) Div DL DLRL DLS DLS DM Directorate General Armed Forces Medical Services Director General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance Director General Assam Rifles Directorate General of Civil Aviation Director General Defence Intelligence Agency Director General Defence Planning Staff Director General of Forces Intelligence Directorate General of Foreign Trade Directorate General of Infantry Director General Indian Coast Guard Directorate General Information Systems Director General Military Intelligence Director General Military Operations Directorate General Manpower Planning Director General Medical Services Directorate General Military Training Director General Naval Armament Inspection Director General National Cadets Corps Director General of Naval Design Director General Ordnance Factories Director General Operational Logistics & Strategic Moves Director General of Quality Assurance Director General Resettlement Director General Supplies & Disposal Directorate General Staff Duties Dimasa Halam Dogah District Headquarters Defence Headquarters Defence Intelligence Agency Defence Institute of Advanced Technology Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research Defence Institute of High Altitude Research Dense Inertial Metal Explosive Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion Defence Institute of Psychological Research Director Director (Material Management) Division Defence Laboratory Defence Electronics Research Laboratory Director Life Sciences Director Logistic Support Director Missiles DMA DMI DMPR DMRC DMRL DMS DMSP DMSRDE DMZ DNA DNAI DNAS DNE DNI DNO DNP DNPF DNRD DNS DNT DOA DOC DOD DODY DOE DOFA DOP DOT DP DP DPA DPB DPC DPJ DPM DPP DPrP DPR DPRK DPS DPS DPSA DPSU DQMG DRDE DRDL DRDO Director of Maintenance Administration Director of Maintenance Inspection Directorate of Manpower Planning & Recruitment Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory Disaster Management Support Defence Meteorological Satellite Programme Defence Material & Store Research and Development Establishment Demilitarised Zone Directorate of Naval Architecture Directorate of Naval Armament Inspection Directorate of Naval Air Staff Director of Naval Education Directorate of Naval Intelligence Director of Naval Operations Director Naval Plans Director Non Public Funds Director Naval Research and Development Director Naval Signals Directorate of Naval Training Director of Administration Director of Contracts Department of Defence Director of Diving Directorate of Dockyards Director of Education Defence Offset Facilitation Agency Directorate of Personnel Directorate of Tactics Doctrine Organisation and Training Delhi Police Delivery Period Directorate of Pay and Allowances Defence Procurement Board Digital Pulse Compression Departmental Promotion Committee Democratic Party of Japan Defence Procurement Manual Defence Procurement Procedure Defence Production Policy Detailed project report Democratic People s Republic of Korea Defence Planning Staff Director of Personnel Services Deep penetration strike aircraft Defence Public Sector Undertaking Deputy Quarter Master General Defence Research & Development Establishment Defence Research & Development Laboratory Defence Research and Development Organisation 509 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions DSA DSCA DSCS DSE DSEI Dse DSIR DSP DSR DSSC DTI DTRL DVE DVE DVI DW DWE Director of Systems Application Draft Supplementary Agreement Defence Security Cooperation Agency Defence Satellite Communications Systems Defence and Security Exhibitions Defence Systems and Equipment International Director of system evaluation Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Directorate of Ship Production Directorate Staff Requirement Defence Services Staff College Department of Trade and Industry Defence Terrain Research Laboratory Directorate of Value Engineering Driver s vision enhancers Digital video interface Directorate of Works Directorate of Weapons Equipment EPABX EPR Eqpt ER ERA ERFB ERP ERV ESM ESP Est Estt ET EU EUMA EurASEC EW EWS Excl Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange Evolutionary Pressurised Reactor Equipment Extended range Explosive Reactive Armour Extended Range Full Bore Enterprise Resource Planning Exchange Rate Variation Electronic Support Measures Engineering Support Package Estimate Establishment Electro Thermal European Union End Use Monitoring Arrangement Eurasian Economic Community Electronic Warfare Electronic Warfare Support Excludes excluding Flt FM FMBT FMC FMCW FMECA FMS FMTC FMUs FOB FOC-in-C FOGA FOL FOMAG FONA FOSM FOST FP FPA FPDA FPGA FPQ FPU FPVs FR FRA FRP FRP FSA FSU Ft FTA FTC Ftr ftrs FY FYDP Flight fleet Financial Manager Future main battle tank Financial Management Cell Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Failure Mode Effect and Criticality Analysis Flight Management System Foreign Military Sales Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty Fleet Maintenance Units Free On Board Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief Flag Officer Goa Area Fuel Oil Lubricants Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra & Gujarat Area Flag Officer Naval Aviation Flag Officer Submarines Flag Officer Sea Training Financial Planning Focal plane array Five Power Defence Arrangement Field Programmable Gate Array Fixed Price Quotation Formed Police Unit Fast Patrol Vessels Financial Regulation Flight Refuelling Aircraft Fibre Reinforced Polymer Full Rate Production Fluid Supply Assembly Former Soviet Union Feet Free Trade Agreement Fast Torpedo Craft Fighter fighters Financial year Five Year Defence Plan F FA FA(DS) FAA FAC FAS FAS FAST FATA FB FBM FBW FCA FCS FCU Fd FDI FE FEALAC FEBA FEDEP FF FFG FGA FGFA FIC FICV FIDs Fin F-INSAS FIPB FIS Flg Offr FLIR Financial Advisor Financial Advisor (Defence Services) Federal Aviation Administration Fast Attack Craft Forward Air Controller Favourable Air Situation Free Alongside Ship Fleet assistance and shipboard training Federally Administrated Tribal Areas Fast Boat Fleet ballistic missile Fly-by-wire Free Carrier Fire Control System Fire Control Unit Field Foreign Direct Investment Forecast estimates Foreign Exchange Forum for East Asia-Latin America Forward Edge of the Battle Area Federation Development Frigate Frigate Guided Missile Fighter Ground-Attack Fifth Generation Fighter aircraft Future Generation Fighter Aircraft Fast Interception Crafts Flight information centres Future infantry combat vehicle Future Indian Destroyers Finance Future Infantry Soldier as a System Foreign Investment Promotion Board Flying Instructors School Flying Officer Forward Looking Infra red E EA EAC EADS EAM EASA EBO ECCM ECM ECO ECS EEZ EFC EFP EGNOS EHS EIC E-in-C ELINT El-Op EM EMC EMCON EMD EMI EMP EMS ENC Engr EO EOCM EOFCS EoI EP Electronic Attack Eastern Air Command Expenditure Angle Clearance European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company External Affairs Minister European Aviation Safety Agreement Effects-based operations Electronic Counter Counter Measures Electronic Counter Measures Economic Cooperation Organisation Electronics & Computer Sciences Exclusive Economic Zone Expenditure Finance Committee Explosively Forged Projectiles European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service Early Harvest Scheme Equipment Induction Cell Engineer-in-Chief Electronic Intelligence Electro-optic Industries Ltd Earnest money Electro Magnetic Compatibility Emissions Control Earnest Money Deposit Electro Magnetic Interference Electro Magnetic Pulse Electromagnetic spectrum Eastern Naval Command Engineer Electro Optical Electro-optical countermeasures Electro-optic Fire Control System Expression of Interest Electronic Protection G GA GaAs GAETEC GAGAN GCC GCI GDP GE GED Gen GFR GGA GHG GHQ GIS GITS II Group Army Ground Attack Gallium arsenide Gallium Arsenide Enabling Technology Centre GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation Gulf Cooperation Council Ground Controlled Interception Gross Domestic Product General Electric General Engineering Department General General Financial Regulations Gain Generator Assembly Greenhouse gas General Headquarters Geographical Information System Gunner s integrated TOW system 510 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions GLONASS GMDSS GMS GOC-in-C GOI GoM GOST Gp GPS GRP GRS GRSE GSB GSD GSL GSLV GSO GSQR GSR GTD GUIDEx Global Navigation Satellite System Global Maritime Distress and Safety System Greater Mekong Sub General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Government of India Group of Ministers Gost Specifications (Russian) Goup Global Positioning System Glass Reinforced Plastic Gross tonnage Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited General Staff Branch General Staff Department Goa Shipyard Limited Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Ground Staff Office General Staff Qualitative Requirements General Service Regulations General Trade Department Guide for Understanding and Implementing Defence Experimentation Global War on Terror HQ IDS HR HRD Hrs HS HUD HuJI HUMINT HUMSA (NG) HuT HVAC HVF Hy Head quarters Integrated Defence Staff Human resources Human Resource Department Hours Home Secretary Head-Up Display Harkat-ul-Jihad-i-Islam Human Intelligence Hull Mounted Sonar Advanced (Next Generation) Hizb-ut-Tahrir Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning System Heavy Vehicles Factory Heavy IIGs IIR IISc IISS IIT IITF IJT ILMS ILT IM IMA IMD IMDP IMF IMI IMINT IMO IMOLS IMMOLS IMU IN INCOTERM INDSAR INDU Inf INMAS INS INSAS INSAT InSb Int INTW IOC IOR IORARC IORB IP IP IP IPBG IPC IPC IPKF IPMT IPR IPS IPVs IR IRBM Indian Insurgent Groups Imaging Infrared Indian Institute of Science International Institute for Strategic Studies Image Intensifier Tubes Indian Institute of Technology India International Trade Fair Intermediate Jet Trainer Integrated Logistics Management System Instructor Led Training Indigenously Manufactured Indian Military Academy India Meteorological Department Integrated Missile Development Programme International Monetary Fund Israel Military Industries Imagery Intelligence International Maritime Organisation Integrated Maintenance and Logistics System Integrated Material Management Online System Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Indian Navy International Commercial Terms Indian (Maritime) Search and Rescue Indian National Defence University Infantry Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences Inertial Navigation System Indian Naval Ship Indian Small Arms System Indian National Satellites Indium antimonide Intelligence Indian Naval Work Up Team Initial Operational Capability Clearance Indian Ocean Region Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation Indian Ocean Rim Block Industrial Policy integrity pact Intellectual Property Integrity Pact Bank Guarantee Indian Penal Code Inshore Patrol Craft Indian Peace Keeping Force Integrated project management teams Intellectual Property Right Integrated Power Systems Inshore Patrol Vessels Infrared Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile I IA IACCS IAEA IAF IAI IAPTC IB IBR IBs IBSA ICBM ICG ICV ID IQ IDF IDPs IDS IDSA IDSN IEA IED IEDs IEEE IEP IFA IFCs IFDSS IFF IFG IFS IFV IGA IGMDP IHPTET Indian Army Integrated Air Command & Control Systems International Atomic Energy Agency Indian Air Force Israeli Air Force Israel Aircraft Industries International Association of Peacekeeping Training Centres Intelligence Bureau Integrally bladed rotor Interceptor Boats India-Brazil-South Africa Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile Indian Coast Guard Infantry Combat Vehicle Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity Indigenous Design Fighter Israel Defence Forces Internally Displaced Persons Integrated Defence Staff Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses Integrated Service Digital Network International Energy Agency Indigenous Explosive Devices Improvised Explosive Devices Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer Integrated Electric Propulsion Integrated Financial Advisor Integrated Functional Commands Integrated Fire Detection & Suppression System Identification Friend or Foe Indian field gun Indian Foreign Service Infantry Fighting Vehicle Inter Governmental Agreement Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology GWOT H HAA HAF HAL HALE HARM HATSOFF HDW HE HEAT HEL HELLADS Helo hel HEMRL HEO HEU HFSWR HHTIs HINDRAF HITPRO HM HMMWV HOBOS Hp Hp ton HPSI HQ High Altitude Airship Hellenic Air Force Hindustan Aeronautics Limited High Altitude Long Endurance High-speed Anti Radiation Missile Helicopter Academy to Train by Simulation of Flying Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG High Explosive High Explosive Anti-tank High Energy Laser High energy liquid laser area defence system Helicopter High Energy Materials Research Laboratory High Earth Orbit Highly Enriched Uranium High Frequency Surface Wave Radar Hand-held thermal imaging devices Hindu Rights Action Force Hit Probability Home Minister High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle Homing and Bombing System Horsepower Horse Power per ton High Power System Integration Headquarters 511 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions IRBs IRDE IRGC India Reserve Battalions Instruments Research & Development Establishment Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force Indian Remote Sensing infrared suppression system Information System Information Sharing and Analysis Centres International Security Assistance Force Information Security Assurance Program Integrated Space Cell Integrated Special Forces Command Interim Self-Governing Authority Inter-Services Intelligence Island M-SAAR Ship Reporting System international ship and port facility security Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Search and Rescue Region Infra Red Search & Tracking System Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis Indian Standard Time Information Technology Information Technology Act 2008 Indo-Tibetan Border Police Integrated Theatre Commands Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Institute of Technology Management International Telecommunication Union Information Warfare JRI JS JSA JSF JSIC JSOW JSQR JSSC JSTARS JTAGS JTC JTFI J-UCAS JV JVC Joint Receipt Inspection Joint Secretary Joint Systems Analysis Joint Strike Fighter Joint Service Intelligence Committee Joint Stand Off Weapon Joint Service Qualitative Requirements Joint Services Staff College Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System Joint Tactical Ground Station Joint Training Committee Joint Task Force on Intelligence Joint Unmanned Combat Air System Joint Venture Joint Venture Company LD LDP LED LEL LEO LeT LFA LFDS LFG LFV LGB LIA LICO LICs LLADS LLTR LMG LND LNG LOA LoC Log LOI LORADS LORROS LOS LP LPA LPAF LPC LPD LPH LPIR LPP LRC LRDE LRF LRIP LRLAP LRMP LRMRASW LRSAM LRTR LRU LS&HR LSA LSD LSL LSM LSP LSRB LSRVs LSS LST(L M) LSV Lt BPVs Lt Liquidated Damages Liberal Democratic Party Light-emitting diodes Low Energy Laser Low Earth Orbit Lashkar-e-Toiba Low frequency active Low Frequency Dunking Sonar Light field gun Light forces vehicle Laser Guided Bomb Lead intelligence agency Low Intensity Conflict Operations Low Intensity Conflicts Liquid Laser Area Defence System Low Level Tactical Radar Light machine gun Local Naval Defence Liquefied Natural Gas Laser Optics Assembly Line of Control Logistics Letter of Intent Long Range Radar & Display System Long-range reconnaissance and observation system Line of Sight Local Purchase Lao People s Army Lao People s Armed Forces Large Patrol Craft Landing Platform Dock Landing Platform Helicopter Low Probability of Intercept Radar Last Purchase Price Line-replaceable components Electronics and Radar Development Establishment Laser Range Finder Low Rate Initial Production Long-range land attack projectile Long-range maritime patrol Long Range (armed) Maritime Patrol Anti Submarine warfare Long Range Surface-to-Air-to-Air Missile long-range tracking radar Line Replaceable Unit Life Sciences & Human Resources Logistics Support Agreement Landing Ship Dock Landing Ship Logistics Landing Ship Medium Limited Series Production Life Sciences Research Board Light Surveillance & Reconnaissance Vehicles Logistic Support Ships Landing Ship Tank (Large Medium) Landing Ship Vehicles Light Bullet Proof Vehicles Light IRIAF IRS IRSS IS ISACs ISAF ISAP ISC ISFC ISGA ISI ISLEREP ISPS ISR ISRO ISRR ISRT ISSA IST IT ITA 2008 ITBP ITCs ITEC ITM ITU IW K KALI KCP KE Kg KGF KIFV KLO Km Km ph KORCOM KRC Kt Kw KYKL Kilo Ampere Linear Injector Kangleipak Communist Party Kinetic Energy Kilogramme Kolar Gold Fields Korean Infantry Fighting Vehicle Kamtapur Liberation Organisation Kilometre kilometres per hour Korea Command Kargil Review Committee Kilo tonne Kilowatt Kanglei Yowal Kunna Lup L L&D L&T LAAD LAC LACM LADAR LAF LASTEC LAV LAW LBL LC LCA LCAC LCD LCH LCM LCP LCPA LCS LCT LCU LCVP Learning & Development Larsen & Toubro Latin America Aero and Defence Line of actual control Land attack cruise missile Laser Detection and Ranging Lebanese Armed Force Laser Science & Technology Laboratory Light Armoured Vehicle Light Anti-tank Weapon Long Baseline Landing Craft Letter of Credit Landing Craft Assault Light Combat Aircraft Landing Craft Air Cushion Liquid Crystal Display Light Combat Helicopter Landing Craft Mechanised Landing Craft Personnel Landing Craft Personnel Aircushion littoral combat ship Landing Craft Tank Landing Craft Utility Landing Craft Vehicles and Personnel J J&K JADC JAG JCG JSDF JASSM JCOs JDAM JeM JI JIC JIEDDO JNPP JOCAP JOCOM JOCs JPC Jammu & Kashmir Joint Air Defence Centre Judge Advocate General Japanese Coast Guard Japan Air Self-Defence Force Joint Air to Surface Stand off Missile Joint Combat Operations Joint direct attack munition Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Joint Intelligence Committee Joint Improvised Explosive Devices Defeat Organisation Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project Joint Capsule Joint Operations Committee Joint Operation Centres Joint Planning Committee 512 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions LTAP LTE LTH LTIPP LTPP LTPPFC Ltr ltrs LTTE LUH LUTs LWE LWT Long-term Action Plan Limited Tender Enquiry Light-weight towed howitzer Long Term Integrated Perspective Plan Long Term Perspective Plan Long Term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee Litre litres Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Light Utility Helicopter Local User Terminals Left Wing Extremists Light Weight Torpedo MGCI MGO MGSIS MHA MHC MHI MHPV MHR MIDHANI Mil mily MILF MILSPECS MINDER MIRACL MIS MLRS mm MMG MMRCA MNCs MND MNLF Mob MoD MoD D(MC) MODA MODte MOFTU MOPs MOQ Mor MoS Mot M0U MP MPA MPAT MPVs MR Mekong-Ganga Cooperation Initiative Master General of Ordnance Military Geo-Spatial Information System Ministry of Home Affairs Mine Hunter Coastal Mine Hunter Inshore Mine-Hardened Patrol Vehicle Man Hour Rate Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited Military Moro Islamic Liberation Front Military specifications Miniature Detection Radar Mid Infra-Red Advanced Chemical Laser Management Information System Multiple Launch Rocket System millimetre Medium Machine Gun Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft Multinational Corporations Ministry of National Defence Moro National Liberation Front Mobilisation mobile Ministry of Defence Ministry of Defence D (Monitoring of Contracts) Ministry of Defence & Aviation Military Operations Directorate MiG Operational Flying Training Unit Mobile Observation Posts Massive Ordnance Penetrator Minimum Order Quantity Mortar Minister of State Motorised motor Memorandum of Understanding Military Police Member of Parliament Maritime Patrol Aircraft Multi-purpose Anti Tank Mine-Protected Vehicles Maritime Reconnaissance Motor-Rifle Multiple Rocket Military Region Medium Range Ballistic Missile Multi-role Combat Aircraft Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre Motorised Rifle Division Multi Role Helicopters Multiple Rocket Launcher Manufacturer Recommended List of Spares Multiple Rocket Launcher System Medium-Range Maritime Reconnaissance Medium-range surface-to-air missile Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre Military Secretary Mild steel Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System MSA M-SAR MSC MSDFs MSI Msl MSO MSQA MSS MT Mt mts MTA MTBF MTBO MTBUR MTCR MTHEL MTI mtn MTOE MTOW MTTR MULTA MW MWR MZI Mine Sweeper Auxiliary Maritime Search and Rescue Mine Sweeper Coastal Maritime Self Defence Forces Mine Sweeper inshore Missile Mine Sweeper Ocean Missile System Quality Assurance Missiles & Material Sciences Metric tonne Minute minutes Multi-role Transport Aircraft Meantime between failures Minimum Time Before Overhaul Mean Time Between Unit Replacement Missile Technology Control Regime Mobile Tactical High-Energy Laser Moving Target Indicator mountain Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent Maximum Take off Weight Mean Time To Repair Muslim United Liebration Tigers of Assam Megawatt Millimetre Wave Radar Maritime Zones of India M M&C M&S M sec MA MA MAC MAC Maint MALE MANPADS MARS MARCOS M-ATV Max MBA MBAT MBFSR MBRLS MBT MC MCA MCM MCMV MCSS MCT MDA MDL MDSR MEA MEADS Mech MEM MEO MES MET Mev MF MFCR MFO MFOs MFR MG Materials and Components Modelling & Simulation Metres per second Military Assistant Military Attach Metal Augmented Charge Multi-Agency Centre Maintenance Medium Altitude and Long Endurance man-portable air-defence systems Marine Acoustic Research Ship Marine Commandos MRAP all-terrain vehicles Maximum Master of Business Administration Multi-beam array tracking Mobile Battle Field Surveillance Radar Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher System Main Battle Tank Maintenance Command Medium Combat Aircraft Mine Counter Measures Mine Counter Measures Vessel Mobile Cellular Communications System Mercury Cadmium Telluride Maritime Domain Awareness Mazagon Dock Limited Movement Detection and Security Radar Ministry of External Affairs Medium Extended Air Defence System Mechanised Micro-Electro Mechanical Medium Earth Orbit Military Engineering Service Maintainability Evaluation Trial Million Electron-Volts Main File multi-function control radar Multinational Force and Observers Muslim Fundamentalist Organisations Multi Function Radars Machine Gun N N miles NA NA NADP NAM NATGRID NATO NAY NBC NCC NCOs NCW NDA NDFB NDPG NDRF NDU NE NEC NEO NETD NFU NG NGCI NGN Nautical miles Naval Attach Not-available Numerical Aperture National Academy of Defence Production Non-Aligned Movement National Database Grid North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Naval Aircraft Yard Nuclear biological and chemical National Counterterrorism Centre National Combat Operations Network-centric warfare National Democratic Alliance National Democratic Front of Bodoland National Defence Programme Guidelines National Disaster Response Force National Defence University North East Network-enabled capability Network-enabled operations Noise equivalent temparature difference No first use Next Generation Northrop Grumman and Cobham joint venture Next generation network MRBM MRCA MRCC MRD MRH MRL MRLS MRLS MRMR MRSAM MRSC MS MSAS 513 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions NGO NHQ NHRC NIA NIMA NLC NLFT NM NMRL NMS NMSARCA NOE NOSDCP NPC NPCIL NPOL NPT NPV NREGA NRO NS&ACE NSA NSC NSCN(IM) NSCN(K) NSCS NSCT NSG NSRY NSS NSTL NTRO Non-governmental organisation Naval Headquarters National Human Rights Commission National Investigation Agency National Imagery and Mapping Agency Naval Logistics Committee National Liberation Force of Tripura Nao Sena Medal Naxalite Management Naval Materials Research Laboratory National Military Strategy New Management Strategy National Maritime SAR Coordinating Authority Nap of the Earth National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan National Police Commission Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Net Present Value National Rural Employment Guarantee Act National Reconnaissance Office Naval Systems & Armament & Combat Engineering National Security Adviser National Security Council National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Issac-Muviah) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) National Security Council Secretariat Naval Special Clearance Team National Security Guard Nuclear Suppliers Group Naval Ship Repair Yards National Security Strategy National Security System Naval Science & Technological Laboratory National Talent Research Organisation National Technical Research Organisation North West Frontier Province OEM OF OFB OFILAJ OFILAM OFILAV OFILDD OFILIS OFILKH OFILKN OFILMK OFT OIC OIF OM ONGC OODA Op OPCON OPEC OPLAN Ops Opsec OPV Org ORP ORSA ORV OSCC OSCE OSD OSS OTE OTH-B Original Equipment Manufacturer Ordnance Factory Ordnance Factory Board Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ambajhari Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ambernath Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Avadi Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Dehradun Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ishapore Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Khamaria Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Kanpur Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Medak Operational Flight Trainer Organisation of Islamic Conference Operation Iraqi Freedom Office Memorandum Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited Observe orient decide act Operational Operational control Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Operational plan Operations Operations Security Offshore Patrol Vessel Organised organisation Operational Readiness Platform Operational Research and Systems Analysis Oceanographic Research Vessel Offshore Security Coordination Committee Organisation and Security Cooperation in Europe Officer on Special Duty Office of Strategic Services Open Tender Enquiry Over the Horizon-Backscatter PAVE PBF PBFG PBFT PBL PBs PBR PC PCB PCC PCF PCDA Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Patrol Boat Fast Patrol Boat Fast Guided Patrol Boat Fast Torpedo Performance Based Logistics Patrol Boats Patrol Boat Riverine Personal Computer Printed Circuit Board Patrol Craft Coastal Patrol Coastal Fast Principal Controller Defence Accounts PCFG Patrol Craft Fast Guided PCI Patrol Craft Inshore PCO Patrol Craft Ocean PCPA People s Committee against Police Atrocities PCR Patrol Craft Riverine PD Principal Director (Policy (Policy & Plans) and Plans) PD(AV) Principal Director (Aviation) PD(FM) Principal Director (Fleet Maintenance) PD(HRD) Principal Director (Human Resource Development) PD(MAT) Principal Director (Materials) PD(Ops) Principal Director (Operations) PDD Project definition document PDI Pre Dispatch Delivery Inspection PDMS Point Defence Missile Systems Pdr Pounder Pers Personnel PGMs Precision Guided Munitions PHM Patrol Hydrofoil (with SSM) PHT Patrol Hydrofoil (with torpedo) PHWR Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors PIB Public Investment Board PIVADS Product Improved Vulcan Air Defence System Pl Platoon PLA People s Liberation Army PLAAF People s Liberation Army Air Force PLANAF People s Liberation Army Navy Air Force PM Prime Minister Provost Marshal PMF Paramilitary Forces PMO Prime Minister s Office PMOC Principal Maintenance Officers Committee PNC Price Negotiation Committee PNVS Pilot Night Vision Systems PoK Pakistan Occupied Kashmir POL Petrol Oil and Lubricants POV Professional Officers Valuation PPBP Planning and Participatory Budget Programme PPOC Principal Personal Officers Committee PPP Public-private partnership PPS Principal Private Secretary PQ Procurement Quantity PRA Pressure Recovery Assembly NWFP O O&S O I D LEVEL OASIIS Obs OCU ODAs ODF OEF OEF Operating and Support Operator Intermediate Depot Level On aircraft scheduled inspections industrial service Observation Operational Conversion Unit Operation Detachments Alpha Operational Deployment Force Operation Enduring Freedom Ordnance Equipment Group of Factories P P&C P&MM P&W PA PAC Personnel and Conditions Planning & Material Management Pratt and Whitney Price Agreement Production Agency Project Appraisal Committee Proprietary Article Certificate Patriot advanced capability Pakistan Air Force People s Armed Police Parachute paratroop Perform Achieve and Trade PAF PAP Para PAT 514 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions PRC PREPAK Proc PROM PRT PS PSEs PSI PSLV PSO PSO PSOC PSOH PSQR PSR PSU Psyops PTA PTS PTTs PV PVSM PWG PXE People s Republic of China People s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak Procurement Programmable Read Only Memory Pollution Response Team Private Secretary Public Sector Enterprises Proliferation Security Initiative Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Principal Staff Officer Project sanction order Principal Supply Officers Committee Offshore Patrol Vessel with Hangar Preliminary services qualitative requirements Preliminary Staff Requirements Public Sector Undertaking Psychological Operations Pilotless Target Aircraft Point Tracker Subsystem Post Task Trainers Prototype Vehicle Param Vishist Seva Medal People s War Group Proof and Experimental Establishment RCWS RDS RE REAs ReCAAP Recce Regt Res Retd RF RFI RFID RFP RHQ RIC RL RM RMA RMN RNA ROC ROE ROI ROIC ROK ROP Ro-ro ROV RPFC RPG Rpm RPV RR RR RSTA RUF RUR RWR RWS Remote Control Weapon System Remotely Deployed Sensors Revised Estimate Rapid Environmental Assessments Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery Reconnaissance Regiment Reserves Retired Radio Frequency Request for Information Radio-frequency identification Request for Proposal Regimental Regional Headquarters Russia-India-China Rocket Launcher Resources & Management Raksha Mantri (Minister of Defence) Revolution in Military Affairs Royal Malaysian Navy Royal Nepal Army Republic of China Rosoboronexport Rules of Engagement Region of interest Readout integrated circuit Republic of Korea Road Opening Party Roll-on roll-off Remotely Operated Vehicle Railway Protection Force Commandos Rifle Propelled Grenade RocketPropelled Grenade Revolutions per minute Remotely Piloted Vehicle Rashtriya Rifles Rolls-Royce Reconnaissance surveillance and target acquisition Revolutionary United Front Raksha Udyog Ratna Radar Warning Receiver Remote weapon stations SAM SAPTA SAR SARDP SARS SASE SASO SATCOM SBAS SBG SBI SBIRS SBL SBM SCAP SCAPCC SCAPHCC SCD SCO SCOC SD SDB SDBs SDC SDF SDLF SDR SDS SEAD Secy SES SEZ SF SFC SFC SFF SFTS SFW SG SHBO SHQ SI SIDs SIGINT Sigs SIM SIPRI SITAR SKD SLAM SL-AMRAAM Surface-to-Air Missile South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement Search and Rescue Synthetic Aperture Radar Special Area Road Development Programme Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment Senior Air Staff Officer Satellite Communications Satellite Based Augmentation System Smooth Bore Gun State Bank of India Space-Based Infrared System Space Based Laser Single buoy moorings Services Capital Acquisition Plan Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee Services Capital Acquisition Plan Higher Categorisation Committee Standing Committee on Defence Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Standard Conditions of Contract Security Deposit Small Diameter Bomb Seaward Defence Boats Supreme Defence Council Self Defence Forces Shaft Driven Lift Fan Software Defined Radio software driven Strategic Defence Review Satellite Data System Suppression of Enemy Air Defence Secretary Surface Effects Ship Special economic zone Special Forces Specific fuel consumption Strategic Forces Command Special Frontier Force Special Forces Training School Sensor Fused Weapon Speical Group Special Helicopter Borne Operations Service Headquarters Services Interaction Signal Intelligence Directorates Signals Intelligence Signals Shura Ittehadul Mujahideen Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research Semi Knocked Down Stand-Off Land Attack Missile Surface launched advanced medium-range air-to-air missile Q QA QFI QMG QRM QRs QR SAM QSR Quality Assurance Qualified Flying Instructor Quarter Master General Quick Reaction Missile Quantitative Requirements Quick reaction surface-to-air missile Qualitative Staff Requirements R R&D ENGRS R&D RAAF RAF RAF RAM RAMICS RAS RAW RBG RC RCC RCI RCIED RCL RCS Research & Development Establishment (Engineers) Research and Development Royal Australian Air Force Rapid Action Force Royal Air Force Radar Absorbing Material Rolling Airframe Missile Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System Replenishment at Sea Research and Analysis Wing Royal Bhutan Guards Rate Contract Regional Command Revolutionary Command Council Regional Communication Centres Research Centre Imarat Remotely Controlled Improvised Explosive Devices Recoilless Launcher Radar Cross Section S SA TO RM SA SAAM SAARC SAC SACLOS SAG SAGs SAGE SAM Bdes Scientific Advisor To Raksha Mantri Scientific Advisor South Africa Supplementary Agreement Surface-to-Air Anti-Missile South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Southern Area Command Semi-automatic command-to-light-ofsight Special Action Group Scientific Analysis Group Special Action Groups Semi-Automatic Ground Environment Surface-to-Air Missile Brigades 515 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions SLBD SLBM Sea Lite Beam Director Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile Surface Launcher Ballistic Missile Submarine Launcher Cruise Missile Sea Lines of Communication Sena Medal Submarine Storage Module Device Small and Medium Enterprises Standard Manhour Senior Maintenance Staff Officer Special Maintenance Tools Supply Order Special operations forces Status of Forces Agreement Special Operations Group Standard Operating Procedures Systems of Systems Self-Propelled Self Propelled Artillery Support Helicopters Supreme People s Assembly Self-Propelled Anti Aircraft Gun Stores Procurement Committee Self-Propelled Gun Stratospheric Platform System Southern Philippines Secessionist Groups Support Squadron Services Qualitative Requirements Short Refit Sideways Random Access Memory Short Range Ballistic Missile Security related expenditure scheme Special Ranger Groups Search and Rescue Region Shop Replaceable Unit Special Secretary Sashastra Seema Bal Special Service Bureau Ship sub-mercible ballistic nuclear Diesel submarine coastal Special Service Group Solid State Heat Capacity Small Scale Industries Diesel submarine ASW Surface-to-Surface Missile Nuclear-Fuelled Submarine Short-term Action Plan Surveillance Target Attack Radar System Single Tender Enquiry Special Test Equipment Strategic & Technical Environment Assessment Special Task Forces Strike Stock Short Take-Off Short take-off but arrested recovery Short Take-off and Landing STOVL STP Str STRI STSS Surv SWAC Sys SYSM Short take-off verticle landing Specialized technical panels Strength Simulation Training and Instrumentation Space Tracking and Surveillance System Surveillance South Western Air Command System Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal TOW missile TPC Tps Tpt tptn TR Bdes Trg TRV TS TST TT TTCP TTL TTLS TTP TU TUAV TVC TVM TVN Tube-launched Optically-tracked Wire-guided missile Tender Purchase Committee Troops Transport transportation Tank Brigades Training Torpedo recovery vehicle Training Ship Thermal sight Time Sensitive Targets Target towing The Technical Cooperation Programme Total Technical Life Torpedo tube launch system Taliban s Tehrik-e-Pakistan Transport Unit Tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle Thrust Vector Control Track-via-missile Thrust-vectoring nozzles SLCM SLOCs SM SMD SMEs SMH SMSO SMT SO SOF SOFA SOG SOP SOS SP SP Arty Sp Hels SPA SPAAG SPC SPG SPS SPSG Spt Sqn SQR SR SRAM SRBM SRE SRG SRR SRU SS SSB SSBN SSC SSG SSHC SSI SSK SSM SSN STAP STARS T T TA Tac TacC3I TACDAR TACDE TAPI TAR TBA TBMD TBRL TC TCA TCDL TCS TD TE TEC Temp TEPCO TES THEL TI TIALD TIFA TIFCS TISAS TIZ Tk Tkr TLPS TM TMC TNC TOC TOOC ToT TOTE Tonne Territorial Army Transport Aircraft Tactical Tactical Command Control Communications and Information Tactical Detection and Reporting System Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-PakistanIndia Tibet Autonomous Region Tactical Battle Area Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence Terminal Ballistic Research Laboratory Technical Committee Technical Collaboration Agreement Tactical Common Datalink Tactical communications system Technology Demonstrator Tender Enquiry Technical Evaluation Committee Temporary Tokyo Electric Power Company Theatre Event System Tactical High Energy Laser Thermal Imager Thermal Imaging Airborne Laser Designator Trade and Investment Framework Agreement Tank Integrated Fire Control System Thermal Imaging Stand Alone Sights Territorial Interest Zone Tank Tanker Thunderbolt Lifecycle Programme Support Technical Manager Trinamool Congress Technical Negotiations Committee Tender Negotiation Committee Technical Oversight Committee Technical Offer Opening Committee Transfer of Technology Table of Tools and Equipment U UAC UAE UAS UAV UBGLs UCAR UCAS UCAV UCPDC UDD UFH UGC UGS UGV UHQ UK ULFA UMV UN UNDOF UNIFIL UNIKOM UNLF UNMEE UNMOGIP UNMONUC UNPAs UNPKF UNPROFOR United Aircraft Corporation United Arab Emirates Unmanned Aerial Systems Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Unmanned Air Vehicle Under-barrel grenade launchers Unmanned Combat Armed Rotorcraft Unmanned Combat Aerial Systems Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle Uniform Customs & Practices for Documentary Credits United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship Ultra-lightweight field howitzer University Grants Commission Unattended Ground Sensors Unmanned Ground Vehicle Unified Headquarters United Kingdom United Liberation Front of Asom Unit Maintenance Vehicle United Nations United Nations Disengagement Observer Force United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission United National Liberation Front UN Mission in Ethiopia-Eritrea United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan UN Mission in Congo United Nations Protection Areas United Nations Peace Keeping Force United Nations Protection Force STE STEA STF Stk STO STOBAR STOL 516 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions UNRWA UNSC UNSCR UNTSO UPA URV USAF USBL USD USMC USN USSR UTD Utl UUVs UW UWB UYSM United Nations Relief and Works Agency United Nations Security Council United Nations Security Council Resolution United Nations Truce Supervision Organisation United Progressive Alliance Unit Repair Vehicle United States Air Force Ultra Short Baseline US Dollar United States Marine Corps United States Navy Union of Soviet Socialist Republic Unit Training Device Utility Unarmed Underwater Vehicles Underwater Ultra wideband Uttam Yudh Seva Medal VCAS VCDS VCNS VCOAS Veh VHF VIS-X VLCC VLS VM VOIP VOx VPs VR VRCs VRDE VSM VSSC VTO VTUAV Vice Chief of the Air Staff Vice Chief of Defence Staff Vice Chief of the Naval Staff Vice Chief of theArmy Staff Vehicle Very High Frequency Vehicular intercom systems Very large crude carrier Vertical launch system Vayusena Medal Voice over Internet Protocol Vanadium Oxide Vital points Virtual Reality Village Resource Centres Vehicles Research and Development Establishment Vishist Seva Medal Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre Vertical Take-Off Vertical Take-off UAV WCMD WE Wg WiMAX WLR WMD WPI Wpn WSOI WTO WTT WV&V WWR WZC Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser War Establishment Weapons and Equipment Wing Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access Weapon Locating Radar Weapons of Mass Destruction Wholesale Price Index weapon Weapons Systems ORSA & Infrastructure World Trade Organisation Weapons and Tactics Trainer Weapons Vehicles and Equipment War Wastage Reserves War Zone Campaign Y YSM Yudh Seva Medal V V STOL VAs VBSS Vertical Short Take Off and Landing Vital areas Visit Board Search and Seizure W WAC WASS Western Air Command Western Area Command Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei Z ZnS ZnSe Zinc blende structure Zinc Selenide 517 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index 26 11 2008 Mumbai terrorists attacks 9 11 2001 8 9 13 54 143 144 161 194 246 305 312 313 315 317 329 349 454 456 5 15 54 347 454 Recruiting (ADG Rectg) Additional Director General Remount & Veterinary Service (ADG RVS) Additional Director General Signal Intelligence (ADGSI) Additional Director General Technical Examiner of Works (ADG TE Wks) Additional Director General Territorial Army (ADG TA) Adjutant General (AG) advanced light helicopter (ALH) 170 171 169 350 456 1 4 5 6 65 67 135 172 260 African Union 66 Agni (surface-to-surface missile) 40 97 98 100 Agni-II 40 98 174 185 298 368 369 Agni-III 40 98 99 298 369 Agni-IV 40 98 144 298 Agni-V 40 75 97 98 99 100 143 298 AgustaWestland AW-101 120 147 218 222 237 394 502 AH-64 Apache 123 152 393 408 424 433 437 444 448 495 503 Ahmadinejad Mahmoud 3 28 339 428 429 Ahmadzai Mohammad Najibullah 18 Airborne electronically scanned array 224 Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) 118 120 241 299 388 504 Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) 44 106 120 218 219 222 232 233 241 242 394 Air Craft Carrier --Kiev Class 202 479 --Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (Project-71) 194 202 Aircraft and System Testing Establishment 219 263 268 Air defence (AD) 46 110 117 139 146 163 166 176 178 184 193 210 218 219 220 222 223 226 228 275 286 298 air defence control and reporting system (ADC&RS) 176 Air Defence Direction Centres (ADDCs) 241 242 Air Defence Ground Environment (ADGES) 241 Air Equipment --Combat Aircraft 495 --Transport Aircraft 495 500 --Helicopters 495 501 --Training 495 --Maritime Reconnaissance 495 --Airborne Early Warning & Control 495 504 Africa A 171 170 168 169 170 254 69 70 111 120 175 218 236 243 244 252 280 282 299 224 116 203 300 332 281 297 300 94 102 143 2 7 8 17 18 25 26 29 70 102 109 141 143 311 337 345 347 349 350 353 354 355 356 358 359 361 362 368 372 373 382 386 451 453 456 464 469 470 471 472 497 500 502 361 361 361 361 362 16 17 361 456 9 16 18 142 143 350 356 361 456 17 16 361 16 17 18 5 141 142 190 Abbottabad Pakistan Abdullah Dr. active-cum-passive towed array sonar (ATAS) active electronically scanned array (AESA) Additional Director General Administration & Coordination (ADG Adm & Coord) Additional Director General Army Aviation (ADG Army Avn) Additional Director General Army Postal Services (ADG APS) Additional Director General Engineer Personnel (ADG Engr Pers) Additional Director General Engineer Staff (ADG ES) Additional Director General Engineer Stores & Plant (ADG Engr Stores & Plant) Additional Director General Equipment Management (ADG EM) Additional Director General Information Systems (ADGIS) Additional Director General Information Warfare (ADGIW) Additional Director General Land Works & Environment (ADG LW&E) Additional Director General Military Intelligence (ADGMI) Additional Director General Military Operations (ADGMO) Additional Director General Movements (ADGMOV) Additional Director General Operation Logistics (ADGOL) Additional Director General Personnel Services (ADGPS) Additional Director General Procurement (ADG Procurement) Additional Director General Public Information (ADGPI) Additional Director General Quartering (ADG Quartering) Additional Director General 143 370 17 300 87 88 233 171 170 171 171 171 171 171 169 169 171 169 169 169 169 170 171 169 171 Advanced medium combat aircraft (AMCA) Advanced Panoramic Sonar Hull (AP SOH) Advanced torpedo defence system (ATDS) Advani L.K. Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) Aeronautical Research & Development Board (AR&DB) Aerospace Offsets Policy AeroVironment RQ-11 A.E. Serdyukov Afghanistan --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment --National Army (ANA) --US and NATO forces military intervention Afghan Central Bank Afghan National Police (ANP) Afghan National Security Force (ANSF) Afghanistan-Pakistan (Af-Pak) region 518 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Air Force Academy (AFA) Air Force Administrative College (AFAC) Coimbatore Air Force Network (AFNET) Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Technical College (AFTC) Jallahali Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR) Air Traffic Controllers Training Establishment Hyderabad Airports Authority of India (AAI) Air-to-ground missiles (ATGM) Ajai Vikram Singh (AVS) Committee AK-47 Akash (surface-to-air) missile system 219 226 219 146 219 241 92 219 147 219 286 71 72 101 175 497 176 235 278 328 329 97 98 100 111 175 226 286 287 293 298 65 52 312 71 72 283 12 200 337 345 347 420 421 455 462 469 470 471 472 475 490 492 497 498 500 501 502 420 420 420 420 421 11 115 218 370 20 310 Aneja Air Vice Marshal A. annual acquisition plan (AAP) Annual Defence Dialogue Ansari Zabiuddin Anti radiation missiles (ARMs) Anti-Satellite (ASAT) Anti-ship Cruise Missile (ASCM) anti-submarine warfare (ASW) 322 325 327 328 334 221 128 137 145 198 142 13 77 78 79 210 6 51 56 67 75 99 37 370 429 456 103 114 116 147 193 195 202 203 206 207 211 212 213 260 278 291 369 374 383 388 391 394 398 412 416 423 429 433 446 453 504 32 33 98 110 139 142 143 144 145 146 147 224 253 256 258 331 333 334 87 87 161 2 3 5 3 11 28 141 41 417 420 444 449 139 173 174 182 274 295 299 300 369 457 465 173 38 69 70 72 111 69 70 71 72 111 175 176 457 459 460 461 457 461 462 457 462 463 464 457 464 457 464 465 458 465 466 458 465 466 458 466 467 458 467 458 469 470 471 472 458 473 458 473 458 473 458 473 474 458 474 458 474 458 474 475 476 458 476 168 176 92 168 176 193 Army Training Command (ARTRAC) 110 166 167 173 255 266 Army War College 173 263 264 265 267 artillery combat command and control system (ACCCS) 112 174 176 Arunachal Pradesh 20 32 33 142 165 168 171 218 264 314 324 325 366 454 AS-10 Karen 240 353 360 AS-332 388 398 437 Asaphi La 33 ASEAN countries 6 22 62 63 64 368 389 452 453 ASEAN Defence Ministers Meet Plus Eight (ADMM-Plus Eight) 63 64 452 ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) 62 382 407 408 415 451 452 Ashram Schools 321 Ashok Leyland 300 Asia 5 6 8 10 23 34 35 38 43 61 62 63 67 100 165 172 177 288 298 349 352 360 368 378 386 397 407 417 Asian Defence Forces 337 --Afghanistan 337 --Algeria 337 --Australia 337 --Bahrain 337 --Bangladesh 338 --Cambodia 338 --People s Republic of China 338 --Egypt 338 --Indonesia 338 --Iran 339 --Iraq 339 --Israel 339 --Japan 339 --Jordan 339 --Kazakhstan 340 --Kuwait 340 --Kyrgyzstan 340 --Laos 340 --Lebanon 340 --Libya 340 --Malaysia 340 --Myanmar 341 --Nepal 341 --North Korea 341 --Oman 341 --Pakistan 342 --Philippines 342 --Qatar 342 --Saudi Arabia 342 --Singapore 342 --South Korea 343 --Sri Lanka 343 Antony A.K. Akbar M.J. Aksai Chin occupied by China Akshardham Temple ALH Weapons Systems Integrated (ALH WSI) Algeria APG-79 APG-81 approval of necessity (AON) Arab Peninsula Arab Spring Arjun main battle tank (MBT) --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Ali Zinedin Ben Alize Allahabad All India Radio (AIR) Allied Organisations of the Department of Defence Production and Supplies All Party Delegation (APD) Al-Qaeda Armoured Corps Centre & School Ahmednagar Army Aviation Army Aviation Corps (AAC) Army Cadet College Army Equipment --China --Czech Slovak Republic --France --Germany --India --Israel --Italy --Japan --Pakistan --Russia --Singapore --South Africa --South Korea --Spain --Sweden --Switzerland --United Kingdom --United States of America Army Ordnance Corps (AOC) Army Research Laboratory Army Service Corps (ASC) American Cold War Amphibian Aircraft An-32 AN BLQ-11 AUV Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Islands 294 318 7 15 17 142 372 389 390 406 443 449 7 68 105 108 218 232 364 495 500 104 20 165 189 190 194 215 218 334 335 404 157 158 159 180 190 254 254 261 8 173 247 249 272 277 285 287 292 293 319 320 Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC) Andhra Pradesh 519 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index --Syria --Taiwan --Tajikistan --Turkmenistan --United Arab Emirates --Uzbekistan --Vietnam --Yemen Asian Development Bank Asian Development Bank Report Asia-Pacific 343 343 344 344 344 344 344 344 66 6 2 10 61 62 63 64 67 100 141 378 380 382 386 408 451 452 453 455 456 90 53 218 302 310 314 319 320 363 365 368 309 313 314 367 316 323 170 6 13 14 20 22 61 62 63 64 66 67 368 380 381 386 389 399 406 407 408 451 452 453 298 17 17 69 70 72 77 84 111 120 139 218 222 223 19 20 21 22 378 380 403 404 225 63 66 67 102 337 345 347 377 378 380 381 381 381 381 381 382 383 66 103 104 227 44 106 218 219 222 232 233 241 242 394 30 358 455 470 471 281 468 477 495 498 499 500 504 283 418 430 431 11 12 28 337 338 345 347 417 426 426 426 426 427 62 64 389 390 143 350 54 63 74 109 168 218 262 265 311 329 338 345 347 350 363 363 363 363 364 240 241 218 Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) 49 58 147 148 273 278 288 289 290 Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) 95 133 147 174 175 200 201 203 204 205 206 208 211 214 231 241 270 273 274 275 278 279 286 287 288 300 334 Bharat Forge 111 300 Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) 96 147 286 Bhatia Rajiv 378 Bhonsle Brigadier (Retd) Rahul 141 451 Bhushan Lt General 255 264 Bhutan 19 22 53 63 171 262 264 314 345 347 350 --General Information 365 --Overview of the Economy 365 --Defence 365 --Security Environment 365 366 Biden Joe 8 Bihar 53 114 173 259 274 278 310 314 318 319 320 322 327 328 336 Black Hawk helicopter 70 154 382 383 387 393 394 402 410 BLG-66 Beluga 240 Bluefin 21 UUV 104 BM-21 RL 183 BMC2 78 BMP-1 2 3 103 110 174 182 186 287 353 355 356 358 360 362 369 376 BMP-1 2 ICV 174 458 470 BMP-2 103 110 174 287 353 355 356 358 360 369 376 390 421 429 435 437 446 458 470 Boeing 8 71 102 119 123 125 139 149 150 152 153 155 156 194 211 218 222 283 286 495 499 500 501 503 505 Boeing Business Jet (BBJ) 218 222 234 370 383 402 495 501 Bofors 50 110 111 134 174 183 205 207 208 209 215 458 468 474 487 Border guarding force (BGF) 307 313 314 Border Peace and Tranquility BAeHAL Software Limited Baghdad Bahrain --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Bali Baluchistan Bangladesh Asia-Pacific Nanotechnology Forum Assam Assam Rifles Assistant Military Secretary Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Astra Atmar Hanif Atta N. Muhammad Attack Helicopters Aung San Suu Kyi Avro 748 fleet Australia --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Australia Group autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) AVSC-II AWACS Azerbaijan B Baburam Bhattarai Backward Regions Grant Fund BAE Systems 341 350 371 321 104 149 151 152 154 155 156 174 --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment BAP-100 Base Air Defence Zone (BADZ) Batalik Battlefield Management Command Control Communication Computer Information Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (BMC4I2SR) 77 battlefield surveillance radars (BFSRs) 112 174 battlefield surveillance system (BSS) 112 176 Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) 61 63 404 Behl Air Marshal A.K. 221 Beijing 35 36 38 55 62 64 118 142 328 349 357 382 385 386 392 404 410 453 454 455 Belarus 352 360 470 471 472 Behzad Ahmad 17 Bell AH-1 Cobra Super Cobra 72 495 519 503 Bengal 53 218 Bengaluru 95 143 173 200 218 219 222 230 263 271 280 281 282 284 286 287 288 289 295 296 299 300 301 302 303 Beretta 175 Beriev 108 Beyond visual range 44 86 228 Bhadauria Air Vice Marshal R.K.S. 220 Bhagwat Admiral Vishnu 57 Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) 147 231 272 273 275 278 279 293 520 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Agreement (BPTA) Border Roads Organisation (BRO) Border Security Force (BSF) 33 32 311 368 69 234 280 309 311 314 316 317 323 367 Canada 63 205 286 403 407 455 464 476 478 217 381 382 455 110 130 138 145 222 6 349 80 74 178 179 305 307 309 310 312 316 317 318 321 322 323 325 328 329 2 5 10 25 26 14 349 352 353 354 356 360 366 386 148 309 312 313 314 316 317 323 329 367 246 102 373 338 341 454 318 Chief of Army Staff (COAS) 76 322 309 310 314 316 322 323 328 367 140 48 58 Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) 96 172 173 226 175 71 120 149 150 382 393 394 398 408 410 412 424 426 429 430 448 495 503 255 264 312 255 265 158 159 161 254 51 52 255 269 78 191 255 263 314 China Chauhan Air Marshal J. Cheema Vice Admiral S.P.S. Cheetah 255 268 158 254 261 69 70 72 175 196 208 218 236 281 282 283 317 369 371 387 91 36 85 118 454 10 203 207 244 247 248 249 270 278 285 286 287 294 295 299 301 312 317 69 70 72 175 193 202 203 204 205 207 209 213 214 218 236 243 244 251 252 281 282 283 369 370 502 305 318 321 305 315 320 321 322 315 118 119 142 158 219 220 223 224 225 226 227 254 340 342 343 41 42 47 49 54 57 110 168 169 173 177 178 179 180 254 342 343 49 54 55 157 159 161 162 180 224 343 57 190 191 193 197 198 199 254 342 343 49 55 145 157 158 159 161 162 163 224 254 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 17 18 20 22 23 24 25 26 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 40 41 42 49 52 53 54 55 56 61 62 63 64 67 68 69 74 75 76 93 94 95 96 97 99 100 109 110 112 117 118 119 120 141 142 143 144 145 148 164 165 171 172 173 178 199 200 214 227 241 288 298 311 328 329 338 Canberra capital expenditure Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Caspian Basin Cell Phone Radar (CELLDAR) Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) Border Security Force (Amendment) Bill Bosusco Paolo Brahmaputra class BrahMos 322 329 190 196 204 369 24 48 100 111 143 146 174 195 200 201 202 203 204 205 210 211 222 254 298 299 369 370 415 Brazil 4 45 234 288 299 371 455 476 495 501 504 Brazil Russia India China (BRIC) 6 BRDM-2 182 355 358 360 369 384 421 423 425 446 450 457 458 461 469 Browne Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. 119 142 143 144 158 220 223 254 260 Brunei 62 64 414 452 462 Budget Estimates 137 145 323 Bureau of Police Research and Development 322 325 Burma 20 399 403 404 Burns William 8 Bush George W. 7 9 428 431 buy and make Indian 128 129 130 Chemical Biological Warfare (CBW) Chengdu J-20 Chennai Chetak Central Asia Central Bureau of Investigation Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) Chidambaram P. Chief Ministers Conference Chief Minister of Maharashtra Chief of Air Staff (CAS) Central Coordinating Authority (CCA) Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Central Military Commission Central Police Forces Canteen System (CPFCS) Central Police Organisation (CPO) Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) C C-130 Hercules Transport Aircraft 119 131 146 147 152 153 218 222 223 233 234 383 444 495 501 110 119 125 139 146 147 149 153 222 223 383 47 48 49 50 55 112 159 161 163 174 222 326 333 334 94 144 321 335 62 63 64 172 173 266 311 338 345 347 380 399 407 411 412 414 452 383 383 384 384 384 63 C-17 Globemaster Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) Central Vigilance Commissioner (CVC) Center for Entrepreneurship and Research Commercialisation Duke University Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping (CUNPK) CERT India Ceska Zbrojovka CH-47 Chinook Chief of Naval Staff (CNS) Cabinet Secretary Cambodia --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Cam Ranh Bay Chachra Lt. General Sanjeev Chadha Ajay DG ITBP Chait Lt. General Anil Chairman Chief of Staff Committee (CISC) Chanakya Chandra Air Marshal J. Charged Partical Beam (CPB) Chatterjee Vice Admiral Pradeep K. Chaudhary Arun DG SSB 521 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index 345 347 349 350 352 353 357 358 366 367 368 371 373 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 385 386 388 392 393 395 399 404 406 407 409 410 414 415 429 446 452 453 454 455 456 457 459 460 461 463 470 471 472 479 480 481 482 490 491 495 496 498 500 501 502 504 --Armed Forces modernization --Chinese Communist Party (CCP) --India relations conflict 36 38 426 427 436 437 443 444 447 Coast Guard and Coastal Security Police Cohen Stephen P. College of Air Warfare (CAW) College of Defence Management (CDM) College of Material Management Jabalpur 173 College of National Security Policy combat aircraft 452 42 219 261 268 160 173 261 263 Corvette --Khukri Class --Pauk Li Class --Tarantul Class Cossipore COTS Council of Agencies Serving South Asians (CASSA) Council of Representatives Counter-Insurgency and Anti-Terrorist (CIAT) Schools counter-insurgency (CI) 205 206 205 205 133 274 278 112 161 417 319 322 22 69 70 109 110 118 137 173 175 263 264 305 310 311 313 315 317 329 417 167 329 63 64 164 179 219 328 350 377 407 456 102 103 1 6 74 75 164 226 456 300 455 461 462 80 160 26 118 119 217 224 227 238 273 353 433 444 455 495 222 35 38 392 31 64 142 317 454 --Free Trade Agreement (FTA) 62 63 64 96 368 378 380 381 --General Information 385 --Overview of the Economy 385 --Defence 385 386 --Security Environment 386 387 388 --military modernisation 35 118 382 -- Pakistan alliance nexus relations 55 373 --Russia relations 25 386 --Tibet issue 31 32 33 34 --United States relations 2 8 --PLA Navy 36 338 378 496 --China Occupied Kashmir 52 Colin S. Grey 52 Chinese Defense Ministry 37 Chola Empire 52 Chopra Air Marshal Anil 220 221 255 Chopra Vice Admiral Anil 255 266 circular error probability (CEP) 91 98 183 civil military integration (CMI) 94 95 Claire Sterling 58 Clausewitz 51 Clinton Bill 8 Clinton Hillary Rodham 8 10 62 63 360 373 Coastal Security Scheme 332 333 335 coastal surveillance 211 212 331 332 333 334 Coast Guard 69 74 144 146 189 190 211 243 244 246 247 249 252 257 290 296 332 334 335 358 363 364 367 370 392 394 405 406 409 421 422 423 425 Commercial Negotiation Committee (CNC) command control communications computers information and intelligence (C4I2) command control communications computers information and intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (C4I2SR) command control communications computers intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) command information decision support system (CIDSS) Common Display System (CDS) common integrated processors (CIPs) Commando Battalions for Resolute Action (Cobra) Communist Party of India (Maoist) Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) Computer Emergency Response Teams Comoros islands Concept Development Centres (CDCs) concept of operations (CONPOS) confidence-building measures (CBMs) Congo Constitution of India Contract Negotiation Committee (CNC) Control & Reporting Centres (CRCs) Counter-insurgency Force (CIF) counter-insurgency grid (CIG) counter-terrorism 51 56 75 CUTLASS cyber security Czech Republic Czech Tamara System 55 56 75 D 92 154 178 220 176 234 87 310 316 317 322 320 328 329 25 375 393 8 39 48 163 164 107 76 223 33 42 142 166 418 58 172 219 311 317 471 57 307 319 125 131 194 241 D-30 Gun How 183 353 355 356 358 360 362 364 369 373 384 387 396 400 415 421 425 429 433 439 440 446 450 458 471 244 103 300 244 334 328 329 53 324 Dahanu Daksh Daman Dantewada Darjeeling Debroy Bibek Declaration of the Conduct of Parties in South China Sea 62 deep penetration strike aircraft (DPSA) 117 Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) 48 50 95 111 121 128 129 130 145 146 159 161 175 225 295 Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory (DEBEL) 301 Defence Crisis Management Group (DCMG) 159 Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) 273 296 defence industry 48 49 50 76 95 112 121 126 127 133 134 135 136 146 147 148 174 522 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index 225 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 Defence Institute of Works Study Mussoorie Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) Defence Minister s Committee Defence Offsets Facilitation Agency (DOFA) Defence Offsets Guidelines (DOG) 173 157 159 164 254 59 147 295 121 122 125 126 147 148 Defence Services Staff College Wellington 123 124 129 133 134 136 138 139 140 143 145 148 161 162 174 175 178 195 210 219 226 227 241 254 256 274 275 276 280 287 293 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 173 219 260 261 262 263 264 267 268 269 34 47 48 54 58 75 94 95 96 110 119 128 135 136 137 142 143 145 146 147 148 157 161 162 163 167 168 176 190 193 194 222 225 226 243 253 256 259 261 262 264 265 266 269 274 275 278 280 282 288 290 291 292 293 295 296 297 298 301 302 303 313 314 322 326 332 333 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 91 95 103 10 13 32 49 58 74 114 144 218 237 316 312 323 325 259 328 135 187 187 147 244 168 169 170 173 263 158 161 260 261 266 171 170 169 Deputy Director General Military Farms (DDG MF) 171 Deputy Director General Pioneers (DDG Pnr) 171 Deputy General Ordnance Services (DG OS) 171 Deputy Master General of Ordnance (Deputy MGO) 171 Deputy Quarter Master General (DQMG) 171 Deshpande Vice Admiral (Retd) Dilip 113 Destroyer 66 92 114 190 194 195 198 202 203 212 260 262 263 266 267 290 269 378 388 395 398 410 453 454 479 480 481 491 492 --Delhi Class (Project-15) 202 --Kolkata Class 203 --Rajput (Kashin II) Class 202 Destruction of enemy air defence (DEAD) 78 DF-2 3 4 5 37 DF-3A 99 386 DF-4 99 DF-4 (CSS-3) 386 DF-5 (CSS-4) 99 386 DF-21 37 99 386 DF-21 (CSS-5) 37 DF-31 99 DF-31A 99 DF-31 (CSS-9) 386 Dhanoa Air Vice Marshal B.S. 220 Dhanush 97 202 207 Dharam Vira 324 Dhowan Vice Admiral R.K. 191 255 262 Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) 218 280 299 Diplomatic Information Military and Economic (DIME) 75 Directed Energy Weapon (DEW) 56 74 Director General Army Air Defence (DG AAD) 170 255 Director General Artillery (DG Arty) 170 254 Director General of India Coast Guard (DGICG) 243 Director General Defence Planning Staff (DG DPS) 157 Director General Discipline Ceremonials and Welfare (DG DCW) 170 Director General Electrical & Mechanical Engineers (DG EME) 171 Director General Financial Planning (DGFP) 170 Director General Infantry (DG Inf) 170 Director General Information System (DGIS) 169 176 255 Director General Manpower Defence Ministry of (MoD) Defence Offsets Managment Wing (DOMW) 121 124 125 126 147 defence offset policy 95 121 122 123 124 125 126 128 Defence Planning Guidance 164 Defence Planning Staff (DPS) 157 Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 48 49 76 127 128 129 130 131 132 146 148 173 178 225 227 Defence Procurement Board (DPB) 48 125 128 129 157 159 161 162 Department of Defence Production & Supplies (DDP&S) 161 253 273 274 295 296 298 336 Department of Border Management 306 307 Department of Home 307 Department of Internal Security 307 314 Department of Official Languages 275 307 Department of Pension and Pensioners Welfare 318 Department of State 306 307 Department of Defence Production (DDP) 95 121 124 130 134 253 256 257 259 273 274 275 276 280 293 298 Defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs) 48 49 50 95 112 115 133 134 135 136 147 148 198 219 226 273 274 278 279 296 Defence Research and Development Board (DRDB) 128 161 Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) 210 226 302 Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) 46 48 49 50 55 74 75 76 97 98 99 100 103 104 111 121 122 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Delhi Delhi High Court Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) Delhi Police (DP) Delhi University Denel NTW-20 14.5 Denel NTW-20 14.5mm Department of Public Enterprise Department of Telecommunications (DoT) Deputy Chief of Army Staff Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (DCIDS) Deputy Director General Canteen Services (DDG CS) Deputy Director General Defence Security Corps (DDG DSC) Deputy Director General Management Studies 9DDGMS) 523 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Planning (DGMP) Director General Mechanised Forces (DG Mech Forces) Director General Medical Services (Army) (DG MS(Army)) Director General Military Training (DGMT) Director General of Military Operations (DGMO) Director General Ordnance Factories (DGOF) Director General Operational Logistics & Strategic Move (DGOL&SM) Director General Organisation & Personnel (DG Pers & Org) Director General Personnel (DG Pers) Director General Perspective Planning (DGPP) Director General Rashtriya Rifles (DGRR) Director General Staff Duties (DGSD) Director General Supply & Transport Director General Weapons & Equipment (DG WE) Director General Works (Army) (DG WKS(Army)) Directorate for Interaction with Services for Business (DISB) Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) Directorate of Industry Interface and Technology Managements (DIITM) Directorate of Planning and Coordination Directorate of Standardisation Disaster Management Dornier DO-228 Dornier-228 Dostum 170 70 254 170 192 169 173 168 254 275 Economist The Ecuador Egypt East Asia Summit (EAS) Eastern Air Command 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 447 452 510 63 452 1 218 255 261 267 268 510 322 173 462 11 12 14 28 269 338 345 347 420 422 423 427 432 434 440 444 449 455 463 469 470 472 474 476 477 478 496 497 499 501 502 503 505 422 422 422 422 423 424 237 487 explosive reactive armour (ERA) External Affairs Ministry (MEA) 174 186 40 55 162 173 307 312 F F A-18E F Super Hornet F A-18A B Hornet F A-18D Hornet F A-18 (-C 31 -D 8) F A-18A B C D Hornet F-15 Combat F- 22 A F-35 F-86 Sabre F-117A Night Hawk F-AB Laser Bomb Units Faheem Marshal Fast interceptor crafts (FICs) Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) Federal Aviation Administration Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) FH-77B Fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) 87 383 402 437 495 499 455 86 87 85 86 88 115 382 495 499 500 217 85 86 240 17 195 334 350 43 45 101 96 300 110 174 183 369 23 24 85 119 143 146 147 217 223 224 281 283 325 3 109 144 145 163 258 321 157 158 161 168 170 219 220 268 174 200 214 286 287 478 488 8 193 120 210 218 222 229 233 498 219 84 48 50 96 121 133 145 146 274 409 424 430 274 111 119 140 234 313 72 6 24 63 97 99 117 119 143 162 186 195 201 213 222 224 229 230 231 236 238 239 240 241 286 293 300 169 170 171 170 255 265 170 255 169 255 255 170 171 300 273 274 275 276 295 271 273 274 275 276 294 295 296 EL M-2083 Tethered Aerostat Radar System electronic counter measures (ECM) Electronic Counter Counter Measures (ECCM) electronic support measure (ESM) electronic warfare (EW) --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment EH AW-101 Eilat (SAAR 5) class (FSGHM) EL M 2075 Falcon airborne warming & control system (AWACS) 44 106 120 218 242 394 242 77 424 Finance Commission Finance Minister Financial Planning Fire control system (FCS) Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST) Flight Refuelling Aircraft (FRA) Flying Instructor s School (FIS) Tambaram Force Multiplier Systems Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) 123 273 295 273 295 306 307 309 310 311 316 456 495 500 193 17 E East Asia 1 2 6 13 61 63 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 401 402 403 404 405 78 510 219 116 180 195 218 224 299 electro-optical (EO) 102 Embraer 43 120 218 234 241 299 317 495 501 503 504 Engineer-in-Chief (E-in-C) 168 171 Ethiopia 172 432 516 Euro 1 3 4 10 141 145 258 Eurocopter 70 72 283 433 495 501 502 Eurocopter Tiger 72 Europe 2 4 6 65 67 90 100 150 288 298 349 352 353 358 361 385 404 417 418 349 European Union (EU) 4 392 428 Europe NanoBusiness Association 90 Ewart Terry 103 exclusive economic zones (EEZs) 66 67 105 144 189 207 211 243 331 332 384 451 452 455 Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) 102 103 Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) Foreign military sales (FMS) Formed police unit (FPU) Forward Composite Aviation Bases France 524 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index 455 457 462 463 480 495 497 501 103 224 225 24 66 110 113 114 139 156 190 193 194 195 198 203 243 290 203 204 204 204 205 116 24 103 377 392 455 255 266 291 333 353 355 356 358 360 370 147 198 208 209 215 271 273 275 278 291 292 333 255 267 28 172 60 61 62 1 4 31 48 49 65 66 93 95 109 120 137 138 140 141 143 145 146 148 345 346 347 348 349 352 354 355 357 359 363 370 375 377 380 381 383 385 389 392 393 397 399 401 405 407 409 414 420 422 424 425 426 428 434 436 439 440 441 443 447 449 509 346-348 189 77 48 49 157 161 162 164 168 224 314 318 332 8 10 165 193 194 218 241 244 247 249 255 263 269 313 322 325 331 332 334 335 437 449 107 144 194 199 452 73 85 90 101 417 312 53 Hasnain S.A. HATSOFF Helicopter Training Pvt Ltd Hawai Sepoys Hawk Hawk AMRAAM System Hawk AJT Hawk-132 HCL HDW 1500 Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS) Heavy Vehicle Factory (HVF) Avadi Helina Heron I II high altitude long endurance (HALE) High Explosive Anti Tank (HEAT) high power microwave (HPM) Systems Hikaka Jhina Himachal Pradesh Himalayas Hindustan Aeronautics Limited 493 494 497 499 169 170 254 283 217 132 219 78 219 222 281 120 280 281 95 193 128 137 157 224 110 72 299 237 101 102 97 186 78 329 32 33 311 313 314 324 52 165 259 311 69 76 71 72 117 147 218 219 222 224 225 270 273 275 278 280 281 283 284 285 147 271 273 275 278 292 293 120 369 495 503 120 495 306 307 308 314 321 336 74 32 142 312 8 9 312 110 111 120 226 78 78 119 218 8 32 38 377 481 Francois Bob French Air Force Frigates Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) --Godavari Class --Brahmaputra Class --Talwar Class --Shivalik Class --Leander Class Fuel oil lubricants (FOL) Fukushima Gogoi Air Marshal A.K. Golan Heights Goldwater Nichols Act Greater Mekong Sub Region (GMS) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Future Infantry Soldier As A System (F-INSAS) 111 112 175 178 Futuristic Infantry Combat Vehicle (FICV) 110 174 266 300 G al-Gaddafi Colonel Muammar Abu Minyar G-20 Gandhi Indira Gandhi Rajiv Gandhi Sonia Gandhinagar Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited (GRSE) 11 142 1 10 66 54 58 74 34 54 321 378 21 218 244 247 370 195 198 207 208 209 215 273 278 279 290 291 218 220 221 255 8 101 102 103 104 150 153 156 208 465 488 489 499 111 146 8 29 146 162 173 193 200 232 252 282 286 455 457 464 480 495 500 502 102 99 41 52 143 103 75 91 152 282 335 460 110 119 139 146 222 383 10 101 102 217 193 207 218 239 244 247 248 249 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Military Expenditure Gross Register Tonnage (GRT) Ground-Based Air Defence Weapons Systems (GBADWS) Group of Ministers (GoM) Hindustan Shipyard Limited HJT-16 Kiran HJT-36 Sitara Home Secretary Garud Commando Force Garud Air Marshal A.P. Gates Robert General Atomics MQ-1 Predator General Dynamics Gujarat General Staff Qualitative Requirement (GSQR) George Casey Germany Gulf Cooperation Council Gulf of Aden Gulf War Gunji Gyangtse H HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd Hamas Hanoi Haqqani Group Harpoon 283 283 12 28 432 433 441 63 344 368 380 414 9 17 240 383 398 402 408 410 413 424 437 440 487 488 489 492 German Air Force Ghauri III Gilgit Baltistan Gladiator Global Positioning System (GPS) Globemaster Global Strategic Partnership Gnat Goa Hong Kong Stock Exchange Hoping Hotel Oberoi-Trident Hotel Taj Howitzer 155mm HPT-32 aircraft HQ-2 Missiles HQ-12 SAM System HS-748 ELINT Hu Jintao hull mounted sonar advanced (HUMSA) 116 hull-mounted variable depth sonar (HUMVAD) 116 203 Hunter 209 217 260 268 269 398 402 411 433 439 444 Hurriyat 54 Hussein Saddam 28 417 Hyderabad 21 52 95 219 267 270 280 281 285 287 289 293 294 295 301 302 525 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Hydravion 304 312 317 319 105 --equipment and hardware specification --modernisation plans Indian Coast Guard (ICG) 48 48 178 144 190 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 251 254 266 269 280 291 331 332 335 67 69 72 111 173 176 264 266 157 159 164 1 24 42 46 66 68 104 106 113 114 115 116 143 144 181 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 207 212 213 214 215 243 244 246 260 261 262 263 266 267 269 271 278 280 281 282 290 291 292 293 294 295 298 299 331 332 333 334 335 452 2 10 20 61 63 67 98 165 189 377 389 452 Indra-I II Infantry Combat Vehicles (ICV) Infantry School Mhow infantry weapon effect simulating system ( IWESS) information and communication technology (ICT) Information Fusion Centre (IFC) information systems (IS) 241 242 38 103 110 174 173 81 1 6 177 452 47 50 76 104 168 169 176 254 255 266 299 24 25 45 49 74 93 146 150 164 192 197 219 220 258 286 293 311 352 367 407 25 75 159 180 266 79 86 102 282 194 193 144 194 195 201 144 334 195 193 194 263 193 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329 Indian Ocean Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Indian Mujahideen Indian Search and Rescue Region (ISRQ) Indian Administrative Service (IAS) Indian Airlines IC-814 India-Russia inter-governmental commission on military technical cooperation (IRIGC-MTC) Indian Army 143 24 41 46 47 48 58 69 70 71 103 109 110 112 120 142 146 148 152 161 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 184 264 265 266 274 275 278 280 282 293 294 295 298 299 309 311 313 328 452 2 10 63 67 74 144 148 165 198 367 452 Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) 54 310 Indian Penal Code (IPC) 1860 324 Indian production agency (IPA) 225 Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) 97 244 280 Indo-Gangetic Plain 218 Indonesia 62 63 64 65 67 107 173 189 190 286 288 338 345 347 378 382 452 453 455 456 --General Information 389 --Overview of the Economy 389 --Defence 389 --Security Environment 389 390 391 Indo-China conflict 313 Indo-Myanmar border 313 Indo-Pacific 66 67 Indo-Pakistan War 54 218 Indo-Russian Aviation Limited 283 Indo-US 7 8 9 10 143 Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force (ITBP) 32 309 311 312 316 317 323 Indain Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC) Indian Ocean region (IOR) Information Technology Enabled Services (ITeS) Information Warfare (IW) infrared (IR) sensors Initial operation clearance (IOC) INS Airavat INS Amba INS Arihant INS Chakra INS Dweeprakshak INS Himgiri INS Kalveri INS Krishna INS Nistar INS Ratnagiri INS Shalki INS Sharab INS Teg INS Vindhyagiri INS Vikramaditya INS Vikrant INS Viraat INS Zamorin Institute of Advanced Technology Studes Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA) Institute of Defence Management Institute of National Integration Pune Integrated Air Command & Control Systems (IACCS) Integrated Coastal Survillance System Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) integrated functional commands (IFCs) 55 Integrated guided missile development programme (IGMDP) 97 526 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Integrated Joint Operations (IJO) Integrated project management teams (IPMT) integrated material management online system (IMMOLS) network Integrated Special Forces Command Integrated Theatre Commands (ITCs) Integrated vehicle health monitoring system (IVHM) Intelligence Bureau (IB) intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) Interceptor boats (IBs) intercontinental-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) intermediate jet trainer (IJT) Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) Internal Security Assistance Force (ISAF) International Aerospace Manufacturing Pvt Ltd International Association of Peacekeeping Training Centres (IAPTC) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) International Monetary Fund (IMF) 36 128 130 219 56 54 55 87 88 54 159 246 318 323 41 45 75 76 110 163 190 243 244 252 332 98 454 211 280 282 37 97 98 143 152 396 16 141 350 361 283 --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Israeli Spike ER Istanbul Ivory Coast --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Islamabad Israel 417 436 437 443 448 430 430 431 431 431 8 9 17 372 373 2 12 14 24 27 28 29 30 91 98 99 101 102 103 135 146 155 174 175 193 201 211 214 237 242 260 282 286 293 298 300 339 345 347 417 418 422 429 435 437 438 455 456 458 487 432 432 432 432 433 72 418 172 Counter-Terrorism Consultations Java Javelin Anti-Tank Missile Jawaharlal Nehru University Jericho-III JF-17 fighter JF-17 Thunder FC-1 JH-7 7A joint operation centres (JOCs) joint operations committee (JOCOM) Joint Planning Committee (JPC) joint service intelligence committee (JSIC) joint training committee (JTC) Joint Venture 377 107 186 328 99 26 118 118 388 144 333 334 159 159 159 159 45 49 71 72 95 100 112 115 119 120 122 123 128 129 134 135 136 146 147 195 198 274 283 286 288 290 255 268 154 339 345 347 434 434 434 434 435 311 191 197 254 260 13 143 172 173 3 353 455 1 66 145 372 375 384 422 430 434 67 161 132 9 41 74 143 329 368 2 3 5 9 10 11 12 13 14 18 26 27 28 29 30 99 102 141 142 143 172 200 339 345 347 353 357 358 361 417 418 431 436 437 440 448 452 455 456 428 428 428 428 429 430 9 27 28 7 10 12 13 17 27 28 29 30 61 73 101 102 103 118 151 156 172 186 339 345 347 382 J J-10 J-11 (Su27SK) J-20 J-21 J-30 Jaguars Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) Kashmir issue 32 38 118 142 388 118 388 496 36 85 118 454 118 147 119 193 218 222 230 240 283 41 32 40 52 109 143 144 65 166 176 177 178 217 218 305 315 349 350 2 6 10 20 22 25 38 63 67 90 143 144 150 173 246 283 339 345 347 349 368 377 378 380 381 382 385 386 390 407 409 451 452 453 454 455 456 458 466 392 392 392 392 393 394 377 Jolly Air Marshal R.K. Jordan --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Joshi Subhash DG BSF Joshi Admiral D.K. Jundal Abu K K-13 AA-2 Atoll Kalam Dr A.P.J. Kamov Kanwal Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kapoor Deepak Kapoor Lt General V.K. Kargil conflict (war) 1999 238 97 70 116 31 39 109 8 137 176 187 305 315 24 47 48 54 69 98 110 117 118 127 157 168 194 217 332 54 157 161 164 168 20 14 17 337 361 362 52 265 269 315 318 53 59 264 340 345 347 349 350 357 358 360 455 352 352 352 352 353 International Seabed Authority International Social Security Association (ISSA) Internet Protocol (IP) Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) Pakistan Iran Japan Kargil Review Committee (KRC) Karen National Union (KNU) Karzai Hamid Kashmir valley Kaul B.M. Kautilya Kazakhstan --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment --nuclear programme Iraq --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment --Democratic Party of Japan (DJP) Japan-China-ROK Trilateral --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment 527 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Kelkar Vijay Khajuria AM D.S. Khalid Al Khalili Abdul Karim Khurshid Salman Kim Jong iI Kim Jong-un Kim Kwan-jin King Abdullah Kiran MK 1&2 Kochi 134 221 110 373 458 467 17 337 21 341 454 378 454 455 343 378 13 226 144 190 193 203 207 209 214 244 247 248 249 271 295 303 333 334 369 166 195 203 207 214 258 271 274 278 287 289 291 294 312 317 328 369 102 146 186 272 293 382 386 454 455 63 149 156 172 343 377 397 454 455 53 397 186 41 312 191 192 255 221 220 255 262 267 12 13 29 172 340 345 347 417 426 436 436 436 436 437 98 111 175 19 20 21 22 378 380 403 404 300 340 349 345 347 350 354 354 354 354 355 Land and Continental Strategy Lao People s Democratic Republic (Laos) --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Larsen & Toubro (L&T) Laser-guided bombs (LCBs) Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) Latin America Lead intelligence agency (LIA) Lebanon 51 52 54 55 62 64 379 399 399 399 399 399 400 95 96 110 300 38 44 142 151 230 239 41 74 144 329 1 4 5 288 243 314 12 28 172 190 438 441 462 471 472 475 477 478 502 438 438 438 438 439 144 178 179 305 310 316 320 321 325 327 350 451 222 31 32 53 386 241 350 375 172 11 12 102 142 190 224 340 346 347 424 425 444 462 463 466 469 470 471 472 477 492 497 498 500 502 503 424 424 425 425 425 426 300 175 76 115 119 223 224 231 268 280 222 224 222 221 72 111 175 280 281 282 79 110 175 281 283 32 142 31 32 33 34 46 71 142 171 41 112 168 217 218 260 262 Lipulekh Pass Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Lockheed Martin 265 309 311 315 317 452 312 14 8 119 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 222 233 495 499 501 504 Kolkata Kolibri Micro Helicopter Konkurs Korean Peninsula Korea Republic of --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Left-wing extremism (LWE) Korean War Kornet E missile Krepon Michael Kumaon Mandal Vikas Nigam Kumar Vice Admiral N.N. Kumar Air Vice Marshal S. Kumaria Air Marshal D.C. Kuwait Letter of Request (LoR) Lhasa Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Liberia Libya Long-range Observation System (LORROS) 174 Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LRSAM) 195 298 Long-term integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) 49 112 128 130 137 145 161 162 163 198 227 300 Long-term perspective plan (LTPP) 128 161 162 178 455 Look East policy 6 20 21 61 64 368 380 454 Lothal 190 Low-level transportable radars (LLTR) 120 147 163 LTPP Formulation Committee (LTPPFC) 161 M M-9 M-11 missiles M-46 SP Gun (Catapult) M777 Ultra lightweight Field Howitzer Mach 3 Maharashtra 40 40 183 111 146 152 183 100 117 144 172 173 193 194 218 244 247 255 263 269 277 284 285 287 303 322 325 327 331 332 336 --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Kvadrat Kyi Aung San Suu Kyrgyzstan --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Life Science Research Board (LSRB) Light-bullet Proff Vehicles (Lt BPVs) light combat aircraft (LCA) --HAL Tejas MKI --MK II --Tejas Light combat helicopter (LCH) Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) Technology Light helicopters Light-Strike Vehicals (LSVs) Light utility helicopter (LUH) Linchi Line of Actual Control (LAC) line of control (LoC) Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) Mahila (Ladies) Battalion Mahindra & Mahindra main battle tank (MBTs) Majhi Jagabandhu Majlis-all-Shura make (high tech) Malacca Strait Malaysia L L-40 -70 Ladakh 458 474 32 33 52 111 168 171 218 264 313 318 Laden Osama bin 9 15 70 75 102 143 163 361 372 389 420 443 Lakshadweep 165 189 218 334 Land attack cruise missile (LACM) 37 --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence 321 310 95 300 274 457 459 328 13 128 129 130 2 6 44 61 64 107 144 165 452 62 64 286 288 340 341 346 347 378 379 380 382 383 390 401 402 407 414 426 452 455 456 463 464 401 401 401 528 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index --Security Environment Maldives Malik General (Retd) V.P. Malyutka Managing Director Army Welfare Education Society (MD AWES) Managing Director Army Welfare Housing Organisation (MD AWHO) Manekshaw Sam Manila Manipur 401 402 54 74 194 217 246 47 54 186 470 170 170 54 63 342 405 20 22 259 310 313 318 320 324 329 54 74 307 327 328 329 330 451 144 190 194 68 113 198 144 335 68 113 198 113 144 113 194 Menon Krishna Menon Shivshankar Merchant ship Information System (MSIS) Mi-8 54 2 34 143 452 218 234 235 353 355 356 358 360 384 388 396 400 423 426 429 446 450 495 24 154 218 222 235 278 356 362 364 374 376 384 387 390 391 400 404 416 421 495 502 71 72 235 370 71 218 384 387 400 495 502 24 99 143 95 123 147 259 102 2 3 5 6 18 30 43 390 404 409 417 432 434 436 438 443 447 118 119 217 218 228 238 260 262 268 269 355 117 118 396 117 240 421 426 446 117 120 421 426 446 495 497 218 229 495 497 117 119 218 228 229 119 117 147 218 222 223 224 239 267 358 360 364 229 115 116 193 194 218 119 218 234 495 502 235 495 502 235 495 502 235 495 502 186 362 369 421 423 425 435 439 440 446 448 36 38 School and Depot Pune MIM-23 B Mine Neutralisation Vehicle (MNV) Ministry of Home Affairs 173 78 104 32 55 164 179 305 307 309 313 316 317 321 322 324 325 332 335 336 40 117 118 119 147 218 222 223 224 238 269 448 229 495 497 147 272 273 275 278 293 294 295 452 Mirage 2000 Mi-17 Mirage 2000H Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) missile system quality assurance (MSQA) Marty Natalegawa Dr Mission Unmanned Tracked (MUNTRA) Mitchell James Molony Mathur Radhakrishna Mizoram Maoist insurgency Marine Commandos (MARCOS) Maritime Capability Perspective Plan Maritime and Costal Security Maritime Capability Perspective Plan (MCPP) Maritime Doctrine Maritime Military Strategy Marine Commando Force Maritime Rescue Coordination Centres (MRCC) Marine Special Force Martinque Marwah Lt General N.C. Moscow Mi-25 Mi 35 Mi-26 Mi-29K Micro navigation system (MINS) Micro small and medium enterprises (MSMES) Microbat Middle East 144 244 246 249 194 105 158 254 261 24 25 58 143 154 265 268 269 283 285 349 356 418 Masson Air Vice Marshal A. 221 Massoud Ahmad Zia 17 Master General of Ordnance (MGO) 168 169 Matheswaran M. 158 254 Matra Durandal Bomb 240 Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) 113 114 147 193 198 203 271 273 275 278 290 291 McMahon Line 53 Medium altitude and long endurance (MALE) 101 102 226 227 237 299 Medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA) 8 24 45 119 139 140 143 146 147 222 223 224 227 455 498 Medium range combat aircraft 110 Medium range surface-to-air missile (MRSAM) 97 98 175 298 Medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) 37 98 298 Medium Transport Aircraft 143 222 224 Meghalaya 218 313 318 324 Mekong-Ganga Cooperation Initiative (MGCI) 63 Menon Alex Paul 329 MiG-21 MiG-23 MiG-23BN MiG-25 MiG-27 M MiG-27 MiG-27S MiG-29 MiG-29A B MIG-29K LCA (Navy) MiG-29M MiG-29 UPG Mil Mi-8 Mil Mi-17 Mil Mi-25 -35 Mil Mi-26 MILAN Military Area Command (MAC) Military College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Secunderabad Military Operations Directorate Military Secretary (X) (MSX) Military Training and Intelligence 173 160 263 265 170 103 43 259 20 22 218 313 324 363 mobile observation posts (MOPs) 241 Molecular Nano Technology (MNT) 89 Morocco 12 420 455 473 478 Morsi Mohamed 14 338 Moscow 24 25 58 143 265 268 269 283 285 349 356 418 Moskva 100 Mozambique 172 311 MQ-9 Reaper 101 MQ-4C 102 MQ-8 Fire Scout 102 MR -SAM 98 120 226 Mubarak Mohamed Hosni 11 417 422 Mujahideen Groups 17 Mujahideen-e-Khalq (MEK) 28 Mukherjee Pranab 3 65 109 258 321 Mullen Mike 8 Multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRL) 111 146 208 298 Multidisciplinary committee TAC 123 124 Multifunction Utility Logistics Equipment Vehicle (MULE) 103 Multinational corporations (MNCs) 96 Multinational Peace Keeping Operation Exercises 172 Multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRV) 98 99 298 Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar 80 Multi-purpose vehicles (MPVs) 103 175 Multi-role transport aircraft (MTA) 23 119 143 147 223 224 281 282 283 Mumbai 8 9 54 143 144 529 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index 161 190 193 194 195 196 200 202 204 205 206 207 209 214 215 244 246 247 248 249 260 261 263 267 269 270 271 285 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 305 312 313 315 317 328 331 334 349 350 368 369 373 456 245 254 257 269 334 103 8 118 9 10 19 20 22 62 63 64 67 189 218 311 341 346 347 367 368 377 378 380 382 399 403 404 407 411 412 452 456 459 460 461 471 472 476 496 497 500 502 403 403 403 403 404 22 20 National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) National Information Board and Computer Emergancy Response Teams National Innovation Council National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH) National Institute of Strategic Studies National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act National League for Democracy (NLD) National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council National Maritime Agenda National military strategy (NMS) National Maritime Search and Rescue (M-SAR) National Mission for an Integrated Science and Technology Advancement Strategy (VISTAS) National Police Commission (NPC) National Rural Health Mission National Science Foundation National Security Advisor (NSA) National Security Advisory Board (NSAB) National Security Commission National Security Council (NSC) National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) National Security Guard (NSG) 325 Naval Equipment --China 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 479 487 479 487 488 489 479 489 490 479 490 491 492 479 492 493 479 493 494 479 480 480 300 92 104 303 193 195 219 305 312 315 322 323 324 326 20 21 51 53 258 272 292 328 53 63 109 173 314 347 350 365 370 371 461 474 476 500 501 502 370 370 371 371 70 372 55 74 75 76 266 7 8 9 10 13 23 32 37 54 59 141 142 144 146 190 219 244 247 249 256 257 260 261 265 266 271 287 288 291 292 293 305 308 309 315 321 324 350 368 370 452 453 318 63 381 382 407 455 39 40 143 144 9 41 43 99 141 341 377 378 379 395 396 397 410 451 454 455 471 479 489 498 502 395 395 395 395 396 101 143 217 372 164 94 273 160 164 319 322 323 330 319 323 20 380 403 94 66 51 55 56 163 164 243 244 246 Muralidharan Vice Admiral M.P. Murphy Stan Musharraf Pervez Myanmar (formerly Burma) --India --Israel --North Korea --Russia --South Korea --Thailand --United Kingdom --United State of America --West European Countries Naval Research Board (NRB) Naval Research Laboratory Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL) Naval Ship Repair Yard (NSRY) Navigation Training School Begumpet Naxalism Naxalite(s) insurgency Nehru Jawaharlal Nepal --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment --China relations --India relations 94 324 321 90 2 34 40 55 94 143 164 40 55 324 54 60 112 164 172 164 226 9 154 309 312 316 317 323 329 330 51 54 55 56 63 163 169 8 --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Neptune Spear Network-centric warfare (NCW) New Delhi N Nag anti-tank missile system Nagaland Nagpur Naresh Chandra Task Force Review Nasr Missile Nath Lt General K. Surendra National Cadet Corps (NCC) National Counter-terrorism Centre (NCTC) National Cyber Command National Defence Academy (NDA) National Defence College 72 97 100 20 22 218 161 162 163 164 224 41 265 176 296 144 318 322 329 330 56 166 173 176 219 160 173 254 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 271 336 36 157 159 160 162 164 164 311 316 12 National Security Strategy (NSS) National Security Strategy Report National Socialist Council of National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) National Technology Advisory Council National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) National UN Course NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) New Pension Scheme New Zealand No first use (NFU) North Korea (DPRK) 164 226 94 96 172 7 9 23 29 55 142 143 201 234 350 356 361 373 393 425 427 456 469 500 502 National Defence University National Disaster Management Authority National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) National Forces Alliance --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment North Vietnamese Navy North West Frontier Province (NWFP) 530 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Northeast 22 52 109 144 163 164 165 166 168 177 178 179 241 260 264 265 305 307 310 311 313 315 324 329 366 313 87 102 149 152 233 286 505 107 106 318 187 9 8 10 42 455 153 193 195 9 66 42 175 40 142 142 Guard Headquarter Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) Original equipment manufacturers (OEM) OSA-AK Osprey V-22 245 13 14 94 95 129 148 219 225 98 111 175 226 71 Pechora Pentagon Pentagon s South Asia Defence and Strategic Yearbook 2010 People s Army People s Committee against People s Liberation Army (PLA) China 98 206 226 239 424 15 37 54 63 362 431 54 328 Northeast Frontier Agency (NEFA) Northrop Grumman Norwegian P-3 Orion Norwegian Sea NSG Act NTW-20 14.5 Nuclear Liability Act Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) Nuclear Risk Reduction Measures (NRRMs) Nuclear Security Summit Nuclear submarines Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Nuclear biological and chemical (NBC) Nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles Nyingchi P P-IV (HAROP) P-18 P-19 Pachari R.K. Pacific Ocean Padmanabhaiah Committee (2000) Pakistan 147 241 241 5 2 63 67 377 410 324 5 7 8 9 10 13 14 16 17 25 26 29 31 32 34 40 41 42 52 54 55 69 74 75 76 98 99 101 102 109 110 112 117 118 119 120 141 142 143 164 165 178 217 226 246 311 315 328 330 342 346 347 349 350 358 361 367 368 372 373 374 376 382 386 407 412 424 439 441 451 452 455 456 458 461 463 466 467 468 469 471 472 474 477 478 486 495 496 497 499 501 502 504 505 506 514 516 372 372 372 372 373 374 69 52 74 165 315 349 373 146 334 221 2 63 143 453 32 142 220 72 328 255 264 16 17 141 318 158 254 120 226 402 Air Force (PLAAF) Army People s Republic of China Peres Shimon Permanent Commissions (PC) Persian Gulf Petrol Forces --Bangaram Class Petrol Vessels Bangaram Class Patrol Vessels --Car Nicobar Class Water Jet FAC --SDB MK5 --Sukanya Class --Super Dvora MK II 207 Philippines 31 35 41 52 63 173 329 410 452 459 38 118 142 514 173 35 36 62 63 64 338 368 377 515 91 339 227 27 73 165 426 428 436 207 207 O Obama Barack 7 8 9 62 356 362 372 417 428 431 453 8 9 10 356 362 431 433 178 173 176 195 243 244 251 291 404 408 415 243 246 142 193 246 270 415 454 12 154 439 440 461 462 471 472 474 476 477 499 500 501 502 504 439 439 440 440 441 17 194 331 83 50 111 174 175 273 274 275 276 Obama Administration Observe orient decide act (OODA) Officers Training Academy Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC) Oil & Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Oman --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Pakistan Army Aviation Pakistan occupied Kashmir Pallam Raju M.M. Palsule AVM K.P. Panetta Leon E. Pangta Pant Air Vice Marshal B.C. PARS-3 French Paramilitary forces (PMF) Parnaik Lt General K.T. Pashtun Patil Pratibha Devisingh Patil Shivraj Home Minister Pattnaik R.K. PC-7 MK II --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Omar Mullah Mohammed Operation Swan Order of Battle (ORBAT) Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) Organisation of Indian Coast 207 207 207 207 37 62 63 64 260 286 342 346 347 378 380 382 390 405 406 414 452 453 455 456 466 475 477 500 501 502 503 --General Information 405 --Overview of the Economy 405 --Defence 405 --Security Environment 405 406 Pilatus PC-7 MkII 120 217 223 226 Pinaka 111 146 183 278 369 457 465 Pinaka multi-barrel rocket system 111 Pinaka RL 183 Planning Commission 94 144 258 322 324 Pokhran 39 40 54 300 Poland 173 193 200 215 455 464 471 Police Act 324 Police Establishment Board 324 Police Modernisation Scheme 319 325 Pollution Control Vessel (PCV) 244 Porbandar 214 244 247 248 249 334 Port Blair 144 193 207 208 244 247 248 250 333 334 369 Post Boast Vehicles (PBV) 98 Prachanda 328 531 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Pradhan Air Vice Marshal P.N. Prahaar precision-guided missiles munitions (PGMs) President Army Standing Establishment Committee Prime Minister s Gram Sadak Yojana Principal Maintenance Officers Committee (PMOC) Principal Personal Officers Committee (PPOC) Principal Supply Officers Committee (PSOC) Principle Staff Officer (PSO) Prithvi 220 298 44 56 75 90 111 120 169 321 160 514 159 514 159 515 168 40 97 98 99 100 174 185 207 293 297 369 88 194 203 195 195 206 191 195 201 170 514 48 58 324 Rajiv DG CISF Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidhyutikaran Yojana Rajshree ICG Ship Raksha Udyog Ratnas Ramachandran Mullapally Ramdas Chief Admiral L. Ranjan Arvind DG NSG Rapid Action Force (RAF) Rapid response force (RRF) Rashtriya Rifles (RR) 313 321 321 333 134 515 306 307 336 58 60 312 310 317 36 146 167 179 255 260 221 58 143 144 154 173 190 --involvement in Afghanistan 26 Rustom 102 227 299 Rwanda 172 S SA-2 & SA-3 SA-5 446 300 371 SA-6 78 78 396 426 430 78 184 353 369 416 421 424 426 446 458 472 184 355 356 358 362 369 396 400 415 416 421 423 425 429 430 435 439 440 442 446 450 78 446 185 358 362 369 435 446 450 458 472 185 239 369 370 374 396 398 404 415 416 435 78 239 458 472 100 201 310 42 17 54 283 52 321 99 254 256 174 309 313 316 366 9 11 12 13 14 28 29 143 342 346 347 417 426 437 440 443 444 455 462 463 464 474 476 477 478 497 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 443 443 443 443 444 445 218 102 173 170 194 195 201 479 193 210 211 213 230 370 444 499 115 193 194 201 Prognostics and Health Management Project 15A Project 17A Project 28 Project 75 Provost Marshal (PM) Public Accounts Committee (PAC) Public Interest Litigation Q Qatar 12 14 17 28 29 342 346 347 441 462 463 474 497 502 441 441 441 441 442 224 17 98 146 175 --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Qualitative requirements (QRs) Quetta Shoora Quick reaction surface-to-air-missile (QRSAM) R R-33-R AA-7 Apex R-550 Magic I R-550 Magic II R-60 AA-8 Aphid Radar Absorbent Material (RAM) Radar Cross Section (RCS) Radio and Navigation Aids (RANADS) Rafael Raghavan Lt. General (Retd) V.R. Raha Air Marshal Arup Rahfat Azita Rajaram AVM H.B. Rajasthan 238 238 238 238 86 488 85 44 487 488 1 255 267 17 221 111 218 259 313 318 Rattan Air Vice Marshal N. Raza Maroof Reconnaissance Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RSTA) 41 45 55 70 75 77 78 87 91 92 102 112 Re-entry Vehicles (RV) 98 Revenue Expenditure 110 137 138 Revised Estimates 137 145 323 Regional Centre for Military Airworthiness (RCMA) 303 Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ship in Asia (RECAAP) 246 452 remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) 103 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) 104 300 remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) 45 request for proposals (RFP) 130 Research & Development (R&D) 42 44 54 55 68 76 90 93 121 145 161 224 276 280 286 300 Research & Development Establishment (R&DE) 303 Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) 31 54 159 Reserve Bank of India (RBI) 145 258 Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) 55 76 91 110 Ribeiro Committee 324 Rice Condoleezza 8 Ring Laser Gyro (RLG) 99 Ring Laser Gyro based inertial navigation system 143 Rohini MPR (Medium Power Radar) 120 Rosoboronexport 24 111 146 154 283 515 Roy Air Marshal P.K. 158 254 261 Royal Air Force 225 260 515 RQ4 Global Hawk 102 Russia (former USSR Soviet Union) 2 6 9 12 23 24 25 26 30 63 70 71 72 74 85 97 98 99 100 107 110 111 114 118 119 120 135 139 SA-7 SA-11 SA-13 SA-16 SA-20 21 SA-8B Osa-AK SA-8B SAM Sagarika Sahay Pranay DG CRPF Sahgal Brigadier Arun Saleh Mohaqiq Amrullah Saltoro Ridge SAMTEL HAL Display System Ltd Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Sarva Siksha Abhiyan Saraswat Dr V.K. Sarath ICV Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) Saudi Arabia --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Saurashtra ScanEagle School of Artillery Scientific Advisor to COAS Scorpene class Sea Eagle Sea Harrier 532 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index 210 262 266 369 494 495 499 115 116 193 201 202 203 204 205 208 213 214 278 369 374 383 423 429 63 66 154 383 394 412 494 120 214 237 322 516 19 --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Singapore Technologies Singh Air Marshal Daljit Singh Air Marshal Jagjeet Singh Air Marshal R. Singh Air Vice Marshal J.V. Singh Arun Singh General V.K. 380 381 382 406 407 408 409 452 453 455 456 458 462 466 473 474 477 499 500 501 503 505 407 407 407 407 408 135 408 473 220 221 269 221 157 161 41 47 54 57 58 60 110 139 148 173 313 255 58 111 169 177 254 260 58 111 169 177 254 260 40 58 255 169 254 262 253 256 259 3 4 6 7 8 10 13 14 21 51 99 133 141 142 143 148 176 253 258 315 321 322 328 350 363 378 380 404 169 170 254 263 324 324 306 308 336 306 308 336 41 47 54 57 58 60 110 139 148 173 31 255 266 220 52 143 312 95 123 146 147 259 375 516 283 515 56 75 286 102 142 144 172 190 194 441 200 300 255 267 4 6 67 187 267 278 455 458 466 473 474 489 515 2 5 22 26 42 54 63 74 141 177 349 351 367 375 378 404 5 66 59 256 257 2 36 37 61 62 63 64 141 142 377 401 405 406 409 410 414 415 451 452 453 454 455 456 1 2 6 13 20 21 61 62 63 64 65 66 141 280 368 378 380 381 390 399 404 407 410 411 412 415 451 452 453 454 456 38 45 63 67 143 154 175 193 207 209 343 368 377 378 380 390 395 397 398 407 409 452 453 454 455 458 469 470 471 473 474 477 478 479 492 493 499 500 501 502 503 504 397 397 397 397 398 218 255 268 269 218 255 267 268 269 516 18 24 26 101 103 117 119 127 193 349 352 354 432 457 458 460 463 467 473 477 322 325 222 54 63 109 168 190 194 217 244 286 289 310 343 346 348 350 375 375 375 375 376 375 Sea King South Asia Sea lines of communication (SLOCs) Seahawk Searcher II Security Related Expenditure Sein U. Thein Services Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) South Block South China Sea 128 145 161 162 515 Categorisation Committee (SCAPCC) 161 Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee (SCAPCHC) 161 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) 6 66 349 Shangri La Summit 453 Shared Awareness and De-confliction 144 Sharma Air Cmde N.K. 221 Sharma Air Marshal R.K. 255 268 Sharma Air Vice Marshal S. 220 Sharma Air Vice Marshal A.K. 221 Sharma Shashi Kant 142 253 259 Sharma Vijay 169 171 Shia 2 3 11 12 26 28 29 30 143 355 361 372 417 Shia-Sunni Friction 2 Shinmaywa 105 106 108 Shinzo Abe 377 Short Service Commission (SSC) 227 short take off & landing (STOL) 107 short-range air defence 78 short-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs) 37 Short service commission officers 176 Shourya 299 Siachen Glacier 32 69 71 165 168 171 262 264 Sibal Munish 169 171 254 Sierra Leone 172 Signal Intelligence directorates (SIDs) 159 Signal Officer-in-Chief (SO-in-C) 169 254 Sikkim 32 33 53 168 171 264 313 314 318 Siliguri Corridor 54 366 Simulated Fire 81 Singapore 45 63 64 135 173 251 260 288 290 300 342 343 346 347 378 South East Asia Singh Lt General Ranbir DG AR Singh Lt General A.K. Singh General Bikram Singh General Bikram Singh Jaswant Singh Lt General Dalbir Singh Lt General S.K. Singh Jitendra Pratap Singh Manmohan South Korea Singh Narendra Singh N.K. Singh Prakash Singh Ratanjit Pratap Narain Singh R.K. Singh General V.K. --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Southern Air Command South-Western Air Command Soviet Union Soviet Union. See Russia Sinha Ranjit Sinha Vice Admiral Shekhar Sinha Vice Marshal S.B.P. Sino-Indian War 52 Sir Creek Sky Marshals Small and Medium enterprise Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research (SITAR) Software Defined Radios (SDRs) Somalia Sonar USHUS Soni Vice Admiral Satish South Africa SP Guns and Hows Specialised India Reserve Battalion Spyder SAM systems Sri Lanka --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment --Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 533 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index SR SAM Stalin Josef Standing Committee on Defence (SCD) State Counter Terrorism Centre (SCTC) State Marine Police State Security Commission Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment (STEA) Strategic Systems Quality Assurance Group (SSQAG) Strategic Defence Review (SDR) Strategic Forces Command (SFC) SU-27UBK Su-30 Su-30K Su-30MKI 226 293 349 50 111 161 162 163 330 332 333 324 2 454 159 295 159 157 159 180 224 32 388 416 40 118 224 281 118 260 498 118 119 143 218 222 223 224 226 230 280 281 298 495 498 32 388 416 498 63 40 100 144 104 40 42 66 100 103 104 105 110 114 115 116 135 144 153 190 192 193 194 195 196 198 200 201 210 263 273 290 291 292 369 374 378 382 387 390 393 396 398 408 410 415 421 423 425 429 433 453 455 479 480 481 487 489 490 492 39 40 47 157 2 27 58 24 142 283 285 220 255 263 55 40 238 370 78 58 324 368 220 78 97 98 195 218 226 239 468 40 41 77 97 100 293 297 298 299 Switzerland Syria Surveillance and Target Aquisition (SATA) Sweden 111 174 110 174 183 186 455 458 474 495 498 504 146 286 455 458 11 12 14 28 29 30 142 343 346 348 417 437 438 442 444 445 445 445 445 446 Tellis Ashley J. Test Pilots School Thailand 6 219 8 21 62 63 64 378 379 190 289 346 348 368 378 380 382 384 403 404 407 411 411 411 411-413 169 254 191 192 255 241 146 174 460 174 58 2 31 32 33 34 36 37 38 40 52 53 142 171 218 371 386 218 61 218 58 57 377 378 392 393 455 120 147 153 222 226 268 269 282 96 111 121 122 123 128 135 147 174 201 209 225 227 273 63 54 97 98 100 111 175 204 261 193 211 495 504 11 12 420 422 427 440 449 71 213 230 236 237 282 501 12 27 28 29 102 418 390 446 455 349 350 357 357 357 357 358 387 387 393 396 480 387 480 387 388 --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment T T-55 110 182 362 369 425 431 446 458 467 469 110 174 110 295 110 146 173 174 181 358 369 421 458 469 69 70 313 516 95 516 --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Thakur Lt General D.S. Thapliyal Vice Admiral A.G. THD-1955 Thermal Imager Thermal Imaging Standalone Sights (TISAS) Thomas P.J. Tibet Tibet Autonomous Region T-72 M1 (Ajeya) T-80 U T-90 (Bhishma) T-90S Su-30MKK Subic Bay submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) Submarines rescue diving recompression system (SRDRS) Submarines Tactical Battle Area (TBA) Tactical communications system (TCS) Tactical detection and reporting system) Taiwan Thiruvananthapuram Tiger Tiger Hill Time magazine Times of India Tokyo 10 trainer aircraft --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment --China relations Tajikistan --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Takeshima Islands Taliban Subrahmanyam K. Suez Canal Suhag Lt General Dalbir Singh Sukhoi Sukumar Air Vice Marshal S. Sun Tzu Sundarji General Krishnaswamy Super 530 D suppression of enemy defence (SEAD) Supreme Court Suresh Air Vice Marshal B. surface-to-air missile (SAM) surface-to-surface missiles Surveillance Radars Talwar class Tanguska Tata Motors Tata HAL Technologies Ltd Technical Offset Evaluation Committee (TOEC) Tehran Tejas 516 32 34 37 344 346 377 378 379 380 409 409 409 409 36 344 346 348 349 350 355 355 356 356 455 7 9 14 15 16 17 18 26 142 349 350 353 359 361 368 372 456 139 194 204 479 175 300 283 124 125 9 14 27 28 29 417 428 429 119 117 194 224 231 280 281 283 293 497 transfer of technology (ToT) Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in South East Asia (TAC) Trefor Moss Trishul Tu-142 Transport Aircraft Tunisia Turbomeca Turkey Turkmenistan --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Type-02 Type-03 Type-031 Type-039 Type-04 Type-041 Type-05 Type-051 051C 051D 534 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index 051Z 051DT Type-054 054A Type-07 Type-092 Type-25T Type-51 Type-52 Type-53 Type-54 Type-55 Type-56 Type-56 (ZPU-4) Type-56 (D-44) Type-56 (M-160) Type-59 Type-60 Type-62 Type-63 63A 63C 388 454 454 387 388 480 494 410 415 373 363 387 404 987 415 373 387 387 415 461 371 373 375 387 364 373 376 387 393 415 364 384 387 415 457 459 384 387 388 396 404 415 425 429 446 457 459 410 387 415 376 387 457 461 364 373 404 412 387 387 373 387 393 458 387 393 404 412 457 458 461 466 387 393 458 467 460 387 387 393 394 404 457 461 387 387 387 393 394 393 373 387 457 460 73 376 387 404 412 457 460 387 388 393 458 466 387 393 387 393 457 458 458 387 387 393 387 388 459 393 394 459 467 404 387 under barrel grenade launcher (UBGL) United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) United Arab Emirates (UAE) --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment United Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) United Kingdom (UK) 112 224 282 28 344 346 348 441 447 447 447 447 448 350 371 6 20 45 63 97 99 102 103 152 153 156 162 193 205 219 225 230 252 381 393 458 474 479 495 498 500 502 363 365 350 172 172 172 9 28 42 142 172 266 331 417 172 310 311 105 107 331 451 452 172 219 23 66 112 144 172 446 101 102 225 407 441 --Army 8 36 102 103 112 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 260 265 356 397 --China relations 455 --Global war on terror (GWOT) 54 118 373 --India relations 7 8 --Navy 9 75 87 92 102 104 149 150 151 152 153 155 156 194 208 213 415 427 453 504 --Special Force 63 70 University of Washington 103 Unlawful Activities Prevention Act 1967 318 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 66 75 77 78 91 101 102 103 118 120 140 146 147 174 193 195 214 226 227 237 295 299 334 369 370 374 376 382 387 388 396 398 402 406 408 409 412 423 424 429 433 unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) 77 78 101 102 111 226 227 unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) 103 104 US-Japan-Australia-India 10 US War College 51 Uttrakhand 327 Uzbekistan 344 346 348 349 350 354 355 356 357 358 359 --General Information 359 --Overview of the Economy 359 --Defence 359 --Security Environment 359- 360 Uzis 328 329 --Air Force (USAF) Type-64 Type-65 Type-66 Type-69 Type-70 Type-71 Type-72 Type-73 Type-74 Type-75 Type-77 Type-78 Type-79 Type-80 Type-80 (SP) Type-80 (ZU-23-2) Type-81 Type-82 Type-83 Type-85 Type-86 Type-87 Type-88 88A Type-89 Type-90 Type-95 Type-96 Type-98 98A Type-99 99A-1 99A-2 Type-PB 90 Type-W87 United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) UN Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) UN Military Contingent Officers Course (UNMCOC) UN Military Observers Course (UNMOC) UN Staff and Logistic Officers Course (UNSLOC) United Nations (UN) --Peace Keeping --Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) --Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) --Peace keeping missions --Security Council (UNSC) --Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) United Progressive Alliance (UPA) United States of America (USA) 404 21 162 305 315 318 325 368 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 12 13 14 15 16 17 23 24 27 28 29 45 60 61 62 63 64 67 68 90 94 95 97 99 101 110 115 118 119 141 143 172 173 241 300 377 417 418 453 54 455 15-18 16 453 V Varadarajan S. Verma Admiral Nirmal K. Vice Chief of Army Staff (VCOAS) Vice Chief of Air Staff (VCAS) Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS) Vice Chief of Naval Staff (VCNS) Vietnam 302 334 168 169 254 220 255 260 157 190 191 255 262 27 38 62 63 64 101 142 173 344 346 348 350 383 384 399 314 414 U Ultra-light howitzer 71 110 140 146 174 --Afghanistan-Pakistan strategy --Withdrawal of forces from Afghanistan --Afghanistan Strategic Partnership Agreement --General Information 535 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Visakhapatnam 414 414 414- 416 144 190 193 195 200 201 206 207 208 209 214 215 247 248 249 285 287 292 293 295 333 334 369 392 393 (WV&E) Wen Jiabao West Asia North Africa 275 276 142 377 481 1 2 6 11 14 26 63 141 349 417 418 455 456 432 433 24 165 173 247 249 278 285 307 314 319 320 322 327 363 218 255 260 262 267 268 417 Sea 62 145 1 20 66 356 384 399 430 31 66 383 399 443 70 94 105 217 381 392 393 432 Xiaoping Deng Xinjiang 34 35 32 36 38 41 357 385 386 387 West Bank West Bengal Y Yang Jiechi Yantar Shipyard Kaliningard Yatung Yemen Republic of 62 194 53 172 344 346 348 417 437 441 444 449 449 449 449 449-450 Western Air Command W Wadhwa Vivek Wagah Border Washington 96 142 7 8 9 10 103 155 156 266 268 339 349 355 372 386 423 428 431 433 440 443 447 455 174 Western Europe West Philippines Wholesale Price Index (WPI) World Bank World Trade Organisation (WTO) World War II --General Information --Overview of the Economy --Defence --Security Environment Z Zhisheng 10 ZSU-23-4 72 175 184 355 358 362 369 400 415 421 423 424 425 429 433 435 446 450 458 472 weapon locating radars (WLRs) weapon systems ORSA & infrastructure (WSOI) 161 weapons vehicles and equipment X Xiaotian General Ma 63 142 536 SP s Military yearbook 2013 41st Issue WE SHALL BE 50 THIS YEAR 2014 SP s Aviation SP s Land Forces SP s Naval Forces are launched starting from 98 and within a span of a few years... Guide Publications is rechristened as SP Guide Publications offering tribute and gratitude to its Founder...Also envisioned is the path of introduction of a few magazines... 2013 SP s Airbuz SP s M.A.I. follows the intensity of magazines introduction... Military Yearbook is rechristened as SP s Military Yearbook conveying gratitude to Founder Publisher... 0 1994 2004 F 50 YEARS