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40th IssuE 2011 2012 Towards a safer India. Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief s ure ed roc y n & P urit t ItIo ies ec ser ed lic l S In Is Po rna ial th nt te ec In reme ia s In e - Sp cu nd nc Pro n I ere ce s o Ref fen ocu ts De F Even 05 07 11 12.59 Intelligent Defence Solutions START WITH THALES Thales is a global technology leader in Defence. We serve all armed forces and our systems interoperability C4ISTAR systems capability and unmanned air vehicles help to meet the new requirements spawned by new threats. Our solutions can be integrated with any type of air naval terrestrial or space platform. These sophisticated systems detect threats distribute information support command decisions and control engagement in time-constrained contexts and with maximum reliability. We help to optimise the efficiency of military operations by coordinating the assets deployed by joint and coalition forces. Trusted Partner World-leading solutions. World-class partnership. Raytheon is proud to build upon a 40-year heritage of trusted partnership with India by providing worldleading defence and technology solutions including those designed for air traffic management multi-role combat aircraft civil and coastal security and integrated air and missile defence. We remain dedicated to developing India s industrial base and promoting the nation s economic growth -- and to providing the operational advantage we ensure for customers all over the world. INNOVATION IN ALL DOMAINS Visit 2011 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved. Customer Success Is Our Mission is a registered trademark of Raytheon Company. READY FOR TRAINING PILATUS - TAILORED SOLUTIONS FOR BASIC TRAINING Pilatus Aircraft Ltd P .O. Box 992 6371 Stans Switzerland Phone 41 41 619 61 11 Fax 41 41 610 92 30 info 40th IssuE 2011 2012 Minister of Defence inDia Message am happy to learn that SP Guide Publications is bringing out the SP s Military Yearbook 2011. Over the years SP Guide Publications has focused its attention on several strategic issues and challenges facing our Armed Forces. Today the security situation is such that it requires constant monitoring and drawing up quick responses. Our Armed Forces are fully capable of successfully meeting all challenges from any quarter. There is no doubt that our Armed Forces are among one of the best in the world. The SP s Military Yearbook has been recording and analysing developments in the military and related fields within the country and all over the world. I hope that the 40th edition of SP s Military Yearbook will provide valuable inputs to our Armed Forces and defence industry. I am sure that the Yearbook will be appreciated by its readers. Please accept my best wishes for your future endeavours. A.K. Antony SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 5 Towards a safer world 100% MARITIME AWARENESS. WE DELIVER ON PROMISES. For effective maritime surveillance you need a system you can depend on. We are committed to delivering reliability and ensuring your system is back up and operating fast. Our ATOS surveillance mission system integrates multiple EO AESA and acoustic sensors with a modular mission suite to give a complete overview and understanding of the picture. Already installed on nine different fixed and rotary wing platforms ATOS delivers outstanding reliability and data quality meeting the most challenging requirements for maritime security search and rescue border control and anti-submarine warfare. When true data matters most. Tomorrow s technology is here today. 6 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 40th IssuE 2011 2012 Editor-in-Chief Jayant baranwal Copyright 2011 by SP Guide Publications All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be incorporated in any commercial activity. Making copies in any form electronic or otherwise of the information in full or any portion thereof for purposes other than own use is a violation of copyright law. For additional information relating to copyright please contact The Editor-in-Chief SP s Military Yearbook A-133 Arjun Nagar Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi - 110 003 India. Email editor The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the furnishing or use of the information associated instructions claims of productivity gains. Founded by Shri SUKHDEO PRASAD BARANWAL in 1965 Published by Jayant Baranwal SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD New Delhi India Designed by SP Guide Publications Team ISSN 0076-8782 Registered with RNI No. (P.) F.2 (S 11) Press 93 Processed and Printed in India by Pragati Offset Hyderabad Price Inland Rs. 4 995 Foreign (Surface Mail) 395.00 US 700.00 Corporate office A-133 Arjun Nagar Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi 110003 India. Tel 91 (11) 24644693 24644763 24620130 24658322 Fax 91 (11) 24647093 e-Mail info order guidepub Website securing the sky lock on to mbda solutions AIR DOMINANCE by MBDA STORM SHADOW SCALP Photo A. Paringaux DUAL MODE BRIMSTONE LASER GUIDED ZUNI ASRAAM METEOR TAURUS MICA www.mbd a-systems. TM com 10 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue BOOST YOUR OPERATIONAL FIREPOWER singulier et associ s - Photo Getty Images - Stone Sagem AFV Solutions Your armored fighting vehicles deserve state-of-the-art combat capabilities including day night target detection and tracking and high-rate high-precision firing even on the move. Sagem is an acknowledged expert in AFV equipment and modernization with turnkey or modular solutions that considerably boost the capability of your vehicles from IFVs to MBTs. We offer a full range of combat proven systems including optronic sights inertial navigation gun and fire control systems integration in digital networks and self-protection systems. When you choose Sagem s specialized solutions you maximize your fire power. 12 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue Total solutions. It s in our DNA. Our world-leading solutions meet your most demanding requirements in space in the air on land and at sea. We aspire to redefine adaptability performance and reliability for today and tomorrow to fulfill our dream of a safer and secure world. Israel Aerospace Industries E-mail avbahar 14 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 16 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 18 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue WINGS THAT RULE THE SKIES WINGS THAT RULE THE SKIES Visit email marketing SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 19 20 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue END TO END SOLUTIONS. FROM AEROSPACE TO EVERYPLACE. DASH - Display & Sight Helmet ANVIS HUD D-CoMPASSTM Payload Digital Map Generator takes pride in its cooperation with HAL ELBIT Systems Upgraded Mi-17 Fighter Aircraft Full Mission Simulator It takes a company with experience vision and commitment to provide end to end solutions to the diverse demands of some of the world s largest military forces. To be responsible from implementation to installation. And to assure that all the systems from aerospace to everyplace work together as smoothly and effectively as possible. Our comprehensive approach is unique in the field. It s what sets us apart. N E X T I S N O W Readers Comments.... The Guide Publications of New Delhi have brought out the Military Yearbook. It is useful to have suitably compiled information in one volume. I commend the efforts of the Publishers. The Prime Minister has asked me to thank you very much for sending him a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2009-10. Mr Cameron really appreciates your kind thought and is most grateful for your support and good wishes. Yearbook 2009-10. The information provided through the Yearbook is not only very comprehensive and precise but provide valuable information in a concise manner. The articles cover a wide spectrum of topics on contemporary issues and would definitely widen the horizon of our officers. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Former Prime Minister of India It (Military Yearbook) is a valuable book. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Former President of India It was good of you to send me a complimentary copy of Military Yearbook (1970).....I have gone through.....and found its general get up good and contents useful. Mr S Caine (Direct Communications Unit of office of Mr David Cameron Prime Minister of United Kingdom) (as on as on August 19 2010) This has reference to your letter dated 17th November 2010 alongwith which you had kindly sent me a copy of the SP s Military Yearbook 2009-10 as well as copies of various magazines edited by the SP Guide Publications. I wish to thank you for the above-mentioned publications which indeed will prove to be very useful for us. Lt General Dalip Bhardwaj Director General Mech Forces Indian Army (as on August 18 2010) Thank you for sending me a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2009-10. The edition indeed is informative well compiled meticulously designed and presented in an immaculate manner. My compliments to you and your team for all the hard work in producing such an excellent Yearbook. Field Marshal S.H.F.J. Manekshaw Former Chief of the Army Staff Indian Army Military Yearbook is indeed a very interesting and useful document and would be of considerable assistance to all the Services personnel whose profession is the science of war. Mr Giacomo Sanfelice di Monteforte Ambassador of Italy to India (as on November 23 2010) I would like to thank you personally for sending the complimentary copy of SP s Military Lt General Pradeep Khanna General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Headquarters Southern Command Indian Army (as on August 14 2010) Thank you for the copy of the SP s Military Admiral O.S. Dawson Former Chief of the Naval Staff Indian Navy Yearbook 2009-10. This has been very well presented. Please convey my compliments to the Editorial team for their efforts. We shall be disseminating your letter to formations and units for their necessary action. esting series of data put across in a lucid manner. I am sanguine that military readers will benefit immensely from the compilation which is a must to be procured publication for all institutions branches and formations of the Indian Army. Lt General S.R. Ghosh General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Headquarters Western Command Indian Army (as on August 10 201010) Thank you for sending a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2009-10. Please accept my compliments on the making of an excellent Military Yearbook. I find it both well structured and informative. Lt General K.T. Parnaik Director General of Perspective Planning Indian Army (as on August August 9 2010) Thank you for sending a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2009-10. The annual edition has been very well packaged through researched efforts. The contents and data is vastly informative and can be easily assimilated by a large cross section of readers interested in National Security in particular matters Defence . SP s Military Yearbook 2009-10. It is indeed a well compiled and neatly illustrated publication that has been well researched and is an Information Warehouse. My compliments to your editorial team for the same. Hoping to continue this association for a better understanding and mutual exchange of thoughts on Defence & Security related issues. Major General Sanjeev Madhok Additional Director General Public Information Indian Army (as on August 6 2010) SP Guide Publications has been playing a stellar role in publishing the quality articles that comprehensively covers products and their potentials. SP s has maintained printing of the ultimate quality with high standards of credible journalism and informed opinion. It is a delight to go through SP s Military Yearbook 2009-10. Air Marshal S.C. Mukul CISC Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff Indian MoD (as on August 10 2010) Please accept my compliments on publishing a comprehensive SP s Military Yearbook 2009-10. As one glances through the contents it presents a very informative and inter- Lt General J.P. Singh Deputy Chief of the Army Staff (P&S) Indian Army (as on August 8. 2010) I wish to place on record my sincere gratitude for forwarding a copy of your publication Air Marshal J Chandra Director General (Systems) Indian Air Force (as on August 4 2010) 24 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue Contents BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONTENTS REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES india s unique needs. a unique solution for THIS IS HOW C-130J Super HerCuleS The C-130J is more than the aircraft that redefines airlift capability. It is a symbol of commitment and partnership. Configured and equipped to meet India s unique needs. Meeting every development and delivery milestone on time and on budget. Building a foundation for long-term partnership is all a question of how. And it is the how that Lockheed Martin delivers. c130j C o l o u r Pa G e S Message from Minister of Defence india readers Comments editorial 5 22 41 WeaPonS equiPMent & VehiCleS Map Major indian armed Forces headquarters Contributors Profile 45-128 129 130 Sin t tulo-3 1 24 01 2011 14 19 58 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 25 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Cont e n t s CONTENTS Cont e nt s 1 ConCePtS & PerSPeCtiVeS 1 2 3 Military intervention Lt General (Retd) V.R. Raghavan indo-uS Strategic Partnership Ranjit Gupta indo-russian Strategic Partnership smita Purushottam india s look east Policy Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand & Dr Gnanagurunathan 1 5 1 9 13 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 the afghan War 17 Major General (Retd) Dr G.D. Bakshi india s eastern Waters Admiral (Retd) Arun Prakash China s Military build-up Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal india s internal Conflicts Lt General (Retd) Vijay oberoi two-Front War Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor india s nuclear options Colonel (Retd) Ali Ahmed aerospace Capabilities india Pak & China Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia 21 25 31 35 39 43 26 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue Cont e nt s 12 13 14 15 16 energy Security Dr Bhupendra Kumar singh integrated theatre Commands Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch integrated Special Forces Command Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch nuclear Disaster in Japan Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Modelling & Simulation Commander (Retd) Devbrat Chakraborty 47 53 59 63 67 Recognizing threats is our instinct 01 41 37 96 70 Empowering your mission is our speciality Your adversary is fierce. But so is your determination. Which is why we created CAESAR a new-generation artillery system that delivers the performance precision and simplicity you need to succeed. With its 6x6 chassis and unique 52-caliber cannon you ll experience unparalleled tactical and strategic mobility. You ll also benefit from enhanced firepower through quicker response longer range and improved accuracy. CAESAR is fully autonomous and easy to operate. It supports all types of motorised mechanised and armoured units including rapid-deployment forces. Whatever the battlefront or conflict level CAESAR is a great partner to have on your side. Photo credits Aspheri D. Benson Masterfile Y. Debay - Nexter Systems Caesar_180x112_SP_uk.indd 1 3 08 11 17 07 07 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 27 28 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue Cont e nt s 2 teChnoloGy 1 building C4i2Sr Systems Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch 2 battle tank redesigned Major General R.P. Bhadran 3 unmanned underwater Vehicles 83 Commander shishir Upadhyaya 4 uaVs in the indian air Force Air Marshal (Retd) A.K. trikha 5 ballistic Missile Defence Lt General (Retd) V.K. saxena 6 india s Satellite Capability Lt General (Retd) naresh Chand SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 29 73 73 79 87 93 97 Cont e n t s 3 buSineSS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 rebuilding the indian army Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal Modernisation of the indian navy Commodore (Retd) sujeet samaddar Modernising the indian air Force Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Defence Policies & Procedures Major General (Retd) Mrinal suman Defence Procurement Procedure 2011 Major General (Retd) Mrinal suman Defence budget 2011-12 Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Strategic & business environment sanjay Kumar Global Contracts 101 105 109 113 117 123 127 135 101 4 inDian DeFenCe 1 2 3 4 integrated Defence Staff Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand the indian army the indian navy the indian air Force 153 161 185 211 153 30 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue Cont e nt s 5 6 7 8 indian Coast Guard Who s Who in indian Defence indian Defence industry Defence r&D 235 245 265 289 hoMelanD SeCurity 1 2 india s homeland Security Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor india s internal Security Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor 297 307 focus It s true ... there is only one truly global company focused exclusively on modeling simulation and training. Here in India and around the world training and simulation is our business. In fact we train more than 80 000 crewmembers annually at our military and civil aviation training centres including the HATSOFF helicopter training centre in Bangalore. And our CAE Global Academy including two in India is now the world s largest network of ab initio flight schools with the capacity of producing more than 1 800 cadet pilots annually. From experts performing up-front training systems requirements analysis and training systems design to our in-house manufacture and modification capability of the most advanced simulation equipment to our unmatched ability to provide a full range of training support services CAE has a unique Training Systems Integrator (TSI) capability. As a platform-independent company focused on training our expertise and experience come together to provide world-class training systems integration capabilities. We can help the Indian defence forces increase efficiency save money and most importantly stay one step ahead with enhanced mission preparedness. CAE is a world-class training systems integrator offering up-front training needs analysis expert instructors high-fidelity maintenance and aircrew training devices and comprehensive training support services. one step ahead caeindiapvtltd AM159_SP military Yearbook 2011.indd 1 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 31 11-08-23 9 06 AM Cont e nt s 3 4 Maoist insurgency Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch india s Coastal Security Lt General (Retd) naresh Chand 315 321 5 aSian Who S Who Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Cambodia Egypt Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Libya 325 325 325 325 326 326 326 326 327 327 327 327 327 328 328 328 328 328 328 Malaysia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen 329 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 330 331 331 331 331 331 332 332 332 332 332 332 325 People s Republic of China 326 32 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue Cont e nt s 6 reGional balanCe 1 2 GDP & Military expenditure Central & South asia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Afghanistan 3 340 342 343 345 347 349 Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka 351 353 355 358 360 363 365 Malaysia Myanmar (Formerly Burma) Philippines Singapore Taiwan Thailand Vietnam 387 389 391 393 395 397 399 401 404 406 408 410 412 Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon 414 416 418 420 422 333 337 333 east asia Pacific rim & australia Australia Cambodia China Indonesia Japan North Korea (DPRK) South Korea (ROK) Laos 368 370 372 376 378 381 383 385 4 West asia and north africa Algeria Egypt Libya Bahrain Iran 34 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue Cont e nt s Sultanate of Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia 5 424 426 427 Syria United Arab Emirates Republic of Yemen 429 431 433 435 Security in the asia-Pacific region sanjay Kumar equipment & hardware Specifications Army Equipment Naval Equipment Air Equipment 441 463 479 6 441 Always Up-Front A Avionics Solutions ISR & Combat Aircraft Upgrades Avionics Suits for MALE HALE UAVs System-in-a-box for Top-Performing Defense Systems Mini Micro UAVs Always on Line Data Recording & Management Airborne Digital Recorders & Servers HUD Cameras Mission Debriefing Systems Always on Target Inertial Navigation Systems S FOG-based High-End EGI Solutions for Aircraft & AFVs MEMS-based Solutions for UAVs & Guided Weapons Always on Guard RADA a leading provider of advanced military electronics for aerospace and defense applications successfully empowers armed forces the world over. R Radars for Force P Protection Security & Anti-Terrorism Perimeter Surveillance Radars Radars for Active Protection Systems SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 35 Cont e nt s DiaGraMS GraPhS Defence Budget (Comparison) Distribution of Capital Budget Distribution of Revenue Budget Share of Defence Services in Defence Budget 2011-12 Organisation of Integrated Defence Staff The outline structure of INDU as proposed by the Committee on National Defence University Diagrammatic Layout of the Army s Chain of Command Organisation of Indian Army Headquarters Organisation of Indian Navy Headquarters Organisation of Indian Air Force Headquarters Organisation of Indian Coast Guard Headquarters Indian Coast Guard Locations Indian Coast Guard SAR Organisation Summary of the output of the defence industry including ordnance factories and DPSUs during the previous three years (up to November 2009) Organisation Chart of the Department of Defence Production (DDP) Organisation Structure of OFB External Functional Linkages (OFB comes under Department of Defence Production) Performance Summary of DPSUs (up to 2009-10) Values of stores assured by DGQA (in crore) DRDO Ministry of Defence Organisational Structure of Defence Research & Development Organisation Organisation of Ministry of Home Affairs Organisational Command & Control of Central Police Forces 36 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 124 125 125 131 154 156 163 165 187 214 237 239 240 266 267 268 268 271 287 290 291 298 306 Cont e nt s abbreViationS & inDex aDVertiSer inDex airbuS Military alenia aeronautiCa aShok leylanD beMl bharat eleCtroniCS boMbarDier 22 & 23 Business Section Separator 15 26 20 234 - Indian Defence Section 490 NOA FAR REACHING CAPABILITIES ARE NOW CLOSER THAN EVER NOA Nyx Ti for Assault Rifle Meprolight s NOA thermal weapon sights. No thermal night sight goes farther. NOA is the world s only dual-field thermal weapon sight that enables pinpoint target acquisition at distances of over 1 000 meters. Equipped with an FCS assuring automatic ballistic compensation lightweight and low power consumption Meprolight s NOA gives you that own the night advantage. Ti for Sniper Rifle Ti Dual-Field for Sniper Rifle E-mail info SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 37 Cont e nt s Cae DaSSault aViation Diehl DeFenCe DrS teChnoloGieS elbit SySteMS eMbraer eriCSSon euroCoPter FFV orDnanCe FinMeCCaniCa General DynaMiCS CanaDa G-niuS GrSe hal hDW iai iMaGeSat itt loCkheeD Martin MaZaGon DoCk MbDa MeProliGht naVantia nexter SySteMS northroP GruMMan aS northroP GruMMan eS noVa inteGrateD SySteMS oto Melara PilatuS PiPaVaV ShiPyarD c130j isr globalsecurity 31 Back Cover 132 Book Mark 21 Weapons Equipment & Vehicles Section Separator 16 Concepts & Perspectives Section Separator Technology Section Separator Front Cover Indian Defence Section Separator 39 12 19 Book Mark 13 33 172 - Indian Defence Section Contents Section Separator 192 - Indian Defence Section 9 37 25 27 4 Asian Who s Who Section Separator 28 29 2 18 38 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue Cont e n t s Pratt & Whitney raDa raFael raytheon rubin SaGeM SaMtel Selex Galileo tata MotorS textron SySteMS thaleS 210 - Indian Defence Section 35 17 1 10 11 14 6 24 & 40 Book Mark Facing Inside Front Cover T aking the Risk for You G-NIUS Operational Unmanned Ground Systems Drive You to Mission Success. Anywhere. Anytime. On Any Platform. An IAI & Elbit Systems Company e-mail marketing SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 39 40 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 40th IssuE 2011 2012 Editorial I t gives me great pleasure and immense satisfaction to present the 40th edition of SP s Military Yearbook 2011-2012 to our esteemed readers. As we draw closer to the Golden Jubilee Year (2014) of our company we wish to assure our readers of our constant endeavour and commitment to improve the depth and richness of content and the referential nature of our data. Indeed this has been our mantra since the first SP s Military Yearbook--a brainchild of late Shri Sukhdeo Prasad Baranwal--was published way back in 1965. It came in for high praise from the then Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and soon became a byword for excellence in defence reference among the armed forces. The following paragraphs give an overview of global events that impact the Asia-Pacific region in general and South Asia in particular along with the military dimension of the resulting security situation. The arc of instability stretching from the Middle East to South Asia and China has received the most attention. SP s Military Yearbook 2009-2010 being presented to Defence Minister A.K. Antony Politico-Economic Situation As we look at the world at the beginning of the second decade of the 21st century the overall geostrategic outlook is hardly encouraging. The year 2011 has been marked by social economic and political upheavals. Stock markets the world over have been on the downslide once again weighed down by fears that the global economy is heading for a double-dip recession. Watching the SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 41 The cover of Military Yearbook 1965 global economy teetering on the brink of yet another recession analysts have slashed optimistic growth forecasts made in the recent past. The US and Europe are struggling to contain their debt crises with the inevitable political repercussions. The overall decline of the West and the rise of the rest increasingly shape the international political discourse. Analysts around the world predict the dawn of a new world order led by the non-Western giants such as China India and Brazil and wonder about the character of that new order. At this time the Asian region is plunged into the throes of political transformation driven by peoples movements. Called the Arab Spring a revolutionary wave of protests is rocking the Arab world. West Asia (Middle East) particularly where most states are monarchies sheikhdoms or single-party dictatorships is rocked by violent convulsions. The Israel-Palestine struggle the Iraq war and insurgency and fragrance from the Jasmine Revolution that overthrew Tunisia s President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali are spreading over the larger West Asia-North Africa region. Egypt Yemen Syria and Libya are experiencing mass uprisings. The upsurge in Egypt ended Hosni Mubarak s 30-year oppressive rule in February 2011. Syria s quest for popular empowerment has now entered critical mass multiplication of protests and fatalities with the risk of escalation is posing a major obstacle to re-negotiating a genuine social contract between the state and the society. As regards Libya fighting continues around Muammar Gaddafi s compound in Tripoli and it seems time is running out for the regime. Most people in the Arab League s 22 countries share the Tunisians and Egyptians dislike of corrupt dictatorial regimes which do not provide basic public amenities services relieve food shortages or deal with high prices. The Arab states have not done well either and the upsurge may engulf them as well. Anger and frustration are deep and widespread as is the lack of freedom. China has emerged as a major player on the global economic scene. Despite its rapid economic growth however the disparity between urban China and the rural hinterland is among the widest in the world. In recent years there has been large-scale migration of the impoverished rural population to the more prosperous parts of the country on the East Coast where the cities have gone through an unprecedented boom in construction activity. Social discontent also manifests itself in protests by farmers and workers. Tens of thousands of people travel to Beijing each year to petition the authorities and seek redress for land grab and eviction. Other pressing problems include corruption which has pervaded every segment of society and the burgeoning rate of HIV infection. Also devastated by widespread environmental degradation China is now home to many of the world s most-polluted cities a clear downside of the economic boom. Military Dimension of Security In the first decade of the 21st century military force has been the dominant element in statecraft in different parts of the world. Iraq Afghanistan the Korean peninsula Georgia and the Israeli offensives in the Middle East have demonstrated that states continue to rely on military power to retain control. France and the UK have used military capabilities to secure their interests and safeguard their citizens in Africa. The totalitarian regimes in the Middle East have employed military forces to perpetuate dictatorships. Equally the use of force by some major powers against the Gaddafi regime in Libya is demonstrative of the use of coercive power. China s use of military force in maintaining order in Tibet and Zhinjiang and its constant threat against Taiwan add to this list of examples. The Bush Doctrine of pre-emptive use of force against perceived threats from terrorists had widened the scope of the employment of military force as part of statecraft. Therefore some analysts believe that little has changed after the Cold War since the core geostrategic interests of major powers have not changed. If anything the shift from geostrategic to geo-economic core interests have only accentuated the tendency to use military force in managing international relations. 42 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue The Af-Pak region continues to be characterised by the political vacuum in the region. The umbilical link between Afghanistan and Pakistan is highlighted by the Af-Pak policy of the US. The Taliban Al-Qaeda and several other terrorist organisations continue to operate with a fair amount of impunity in and from the territory of Pakistan. The recent killing of Osama bin Laden by US Special Forces in Abbottabad in Pakistan is a case in point. The Taliban-led insurgency in Afghanistan has What will protect India in the 21st century shown no signs of abatement with a significant rise of violence in the southern parts of the country. The year 2011 has been the deadliest for foreign military troops since the US invasion in 2001. The death toll of the coalition troops is 2 686 according to Operation Enduring Freedom data. The violence and the threat of violence through terrorist activities in this region have significantly heightened the feeling of insecurity in South Central and West Asia and China. China considers rapid defence modernisation a logical priority in the backdrop when it states Taiwan independence separatist force and its activities are still the biggest obstacle and threat to the peaceful development of cross-Strait relations. Separatist forces working for the independence of East Turkistan and Tibet have inflicted serious damage on national security and social stability. China s growing military might is reflected in its latest White Paper China s National Defense 2010 released in March 2011. China has categorically referred to the ground troops as the People s Liberation Army (PLA). This underlines the ongoing transformation of the PLA. China has stressed upon the strategic requirements of mobile operations and tri-dimensional offence and defence strategies to regional defence and transregional mobility. In further advancement of the overall transformation of the service the PLA has invested in reform innovation and development. According to the White Paper the PLA places emphasis upon the development of new types of combat forces optimising its organisation and structure strengthening military training in an information-based society accelerating digitisation upgrading and retrofitting of main battle weaponry and deploying new types of weapon platforms significantly boosting their capabilities in long-distance manoeuvres and integrated assaults. China s present strategy vis- -vis India with whom it has a major unresolved boundary dispute remains an indirect one using Pakistan and increasingly other regional countries to create strategic uncertainties for India with a view to divert attention from the growing military imbalance with China. Another major plank of strategy is to deter and discourage Indian military cooperation with western powers and countries in East Asia or the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Pakistan having earlier encouraged trained and funded terrorist groups including the Taliban is now plagued by terrorism insurgency and sectarian violence within its own territory. The country is passing through an unprecedented political economic and social crisis exacerbated by the devastating floods in July-August 2010. Islamic radical elements continue to pose a threat to stability in Pakistan. It seems that their institutions of governance and particularly the army are coming under the sway of Taliban ideology. Pakistan s reluctance in undertaking military operations in North Waziristan to avoid antagonising militant leaders there is in consonance with their strategy and core interests. Pakistan also remains ambivalent on dealing with militant groups in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) and particularly the Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT). It has still not taken any credible action against the terrorists involved in the attack on Mumbai on November 26 2008. India s military capabilities have been a stabilising element in the South Asian region. This defence capability can be utilised in a wide range of security contingencies in the region. The rapidly changing military technology thresholds demand a modern defence capacity. Indian military forces are therefore gearing up for a major modernisation drive. The size of the Indian D a s s a u l t A v i a t i o n S n e c m a T h a l e s PEMA 2M - Cr dit photos K. Tokunaga - Dassault Aviation - Getty images Towards a safer India. 40TH ISSUE 40TH ISSUE 2011 2012 Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief res du roce N & P rity ITIO es ecu sert ED lici l S In IS Po rna al TH nt te eci IN reme ia s In - Sp cu d nce Pro n In re ce s o Refe fen cu ts De Fo Even 2011 2012 Price Inland Rs 4 995 Foreign (Surface Mail) Stg. 395.00 US 700.00 In matter of national defence there can be no substitute for complete trust in the source no compromise on the reliability and the availability of the aircraft and its technologies. For over half a century we have proudly been supporting India s air defence mission. Today we look forward to keeping the privilege of serving India for the next 50 years with the world s most advanced latest generation aircraft Rafale. The OMNIROLE fighter 05 07 11 12.59 SP s MYB Cover 2011-2012 final.indd 1 RAF_inde_221X276_SMY_uk.indd 1 10 06 11 15 52 09 24 The cover of the current edition of SP s Military Yearbook 2011-2012 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 43 Acknowledgements Several distinguished columnists and industry experts on the editorial board worked in unison to make the SP s Military Yearbook 2011-2012 a quality product. It is my pleasure to name SP s team of experts Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Rear Admiral (Retd) S.K. Ramsay armed forces also offers a very significant market for the global aerospace and defence majors. Unfortunately India s military modernisation programme lacks clear focus. Defined priorities and stipulated time frames are generally not adhered to. A Glimpse of Contemporary Events This issue of SP s Military Yearbook 2011-2012 contains contemporary subjects of interest for our readers. The chapter on Concepts and Perspectives has a wide variety of articles covering India s strategic partnership with the US and Russia recalibration of its Look East policy and a host of operational tactical and organisational issues including a glimpse into India s capability to fight a two-front war. The chapter on Technology contains articles on modern battle tanks ballistic missile defence India s satellite capability future of UAVs in the Indian Air force C4I2SR and unmanned underwater vehicles. The chapter on Business gives an up-to-date account of the modernisation of the three services apart from a critical insight into the inadequacies of our procurement and production processes. In this issue we introduce a new section covering India s Strategic and Business Environment which briefly explains to an entrepreneur the defence business environment and the challenges and opportunities in India. The chapter on India s Homeland Security apart from a glimpse of the ingredients of homeland security in India focuses on the reforms carried out in this area in recent times. We can assure our readers that the contents of SP s Military Yearbook 2011-2012 are unmatched in their quality richness of thought depth of analysis vision and data. It is a comprehensive tome of well-researched articles business information and strategic insights. Clarifications Most countries are reluctant to part with information relating to the size and strength of their armed forces and equipment specifications. Sincere efforts have been made to garner information from the most authentic sources for the SP s Military Yearbook 2011-2012. Despite this it is quite possible variations may crop up in some cases. Articles in this volume contain the personal opinions of the contributors and do not reflect the views of the publishers or the Indian Government including the Ministry of Defence. Suggestions for improvements will be appreciated and carried out to the extent possible and practically viable. Jayant Baranwal 44 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue Editor-in-Chief special colour feature Weapons Equipment & Vehicles Airbus Military Alenia Aeronautica Almaz-Antey Ashok Leyland Avrora BEML Bharat Electronics CAE Dassault Defence Land Systems DRS Technologies Elbit Systems Embraer Eurocopter FFV Ordnance G-NUIS GD Canada GRSE Hindustan Aeronautics ImageSat Israel Aerospace Industries ITT Defence Lockheed Martin MAZAGON DOCK MBDA Meprolight Navantia NEXTER SYSTEMS Northrop Grumman NOVA Integrated Systems Oto melara Pipavav Shipyard Pratt & Whitney RADA Rafael Raytheon Rosoboronexport Rubin SAGEM Samtel Display Systems SELEX Galileo Tata Motors Thales REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Copyright 2011 by SP Guide Publications All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be incorporated in any commercial activity. Making copies in any form electronic or otherwise of the information in full or any portion thereof for purposes other than own use is a violation of copyright law. The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the furnishing or use of the information associated instructions claims of productivity gains. W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T & V E H I CLE S Co n t en t s Airbus Military Alenia Aeronautica Almaz-Antey Ashok Leyland Avrora Bharat Electronics BEML CAE Dassault Aviation Defence Land Systems DIEHL Defence DRS Technologies Elbit Systems Embraer Eurocopter FFV Ordnance GRSE GD Canada G-Nius Hindustan Aeronautics Israel Aerospace Industries ImageSat 46 49 51 53 55 57 60 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 76 78 80 81 83 84 86 88 ITT Defence Lockheed Martin MBDA Mazagon Dock Meprolight Navantia Nexter Systems Northrop Grumman NOVA Integrated Systems Oto Melara Pipavav Shipyard Pratt & Whitney RADA Rafael Raytheon Rosoboronexport Rubin Sagem Samtel Display Systems Selex Galileo Tata Motors Thales 90 92 94 95 97 98 100 102 104 106 107 109 Concept Jayant Baranwal SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd New Delhi India Credits Publishers extend special thanks to the companies who have provided the contents and respective photographs for this feature. Also gladly acknowledge their extensive support and co-operation in formulating this feature with maximum possible up-to-date and lively contents. Processed and Printed in India by Pragati Offset Hyderabad SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD Contact Address Corporate Office A-133 Arjun Nagar Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi 110003 India. Phones 91 11 24644693 24644763 24620130 24658322 Fax 91 11 24647093 E-Mail info order guidepub Website 111 113 115 121 122 123 126 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 45 REGIONAL BALANCE 127 ASIAN WHO S WHO 118 INDIAN DEFENCE 110 BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS airbuS Military Strapline here irbus Military is the only military and civic humanitarian transport aircraft manufacturer to develop produce sell and support a comprehensive family of airlifters ranging from three to 45 tonnes of payload. An Airbus daughter company Airbus Military is responsible for the A400M programme as well as the Multi Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) A330 and for further military derivatives based on Airbus civil aircraft. Together with the smaller Light & Medium C295 CN235 and C212 Airbus Military is the global leader in the market for military transport tanker and surveillance aircraft able to perform the most varied missions. Altogether Airbus Military has sold more than 1 000 aircraft to some 130 military civilian and governmental customers. More than 800 of these aircraft have been delivered. Headquartered in Madrid (Spain) the company s facilities are essentially based in Spain. Its A main sites are Getafe where the civil Airbus platforms are converted into Multi Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) aircraft and Seville where the San Pablo factory south of the airport hosts the A400M Final Assembly Line opened in 2007 as well as the complete production and final assembly of the C212 CN235 and C295. Airbus Military was formally created in April 2009 following the integration of the former Military Transport Aircraft Division (MTAD) and of Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada (AMSL) into Airbus. This integration allows for a single and streamlined organisation. In total Airbus Military which has its own P&L accounting counts more than 5 000 employees. Theadvanced integratedavionics systemoftheC295 withmultifunctional displaysprovides improvedsituational awarenessand flightsafety lower pilotworkloadand enhancedmission effectiveness GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Airbus Military builds on the experience developed by the former Construcciones Aeronauticas Sociedad Anonima (CASA) which became part of EADS as MTAD in 2000. Over the years CASA was founded in 1923 and had specialised in the development construction certification and support of small military transport aircraft while playing a leading role in the militarization of civil Airbus platforms. It is also fully in charge of the development of the all new 21st Century tactical and logistical Airlifter the A400M. Having sold more than 1 000 of these aircraft to 130 customers Airbus Military is well established on the world market with products 46 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue alenia aeronautica Finmeccanica s aeronautics Sector T SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 49 REGIONAL BALANCE he aeronautics sector of Finmeccanica is led by Alenia Aeronautica and includes the wholly owned companies Alenia Aermacchi and Alenia North America together with its participation in jvs and consortia like ATR SuperJet International Eurofighter and GMAS. It has a role of primary importance in the world s civil and defence aeronautical industry and it counts a total workforce of ca. 12 600 people and operates in the design development production and integrated support of commercial and military aircraft integrated training systems unmanned aerial vehicles and aerostructures. In 2010 it reported revenues of 2.8 billions orders of 2.5 billions and a backlog of 8.6 billions. Giuseppe Giordo is the Chief Executive Officer of Alenia Aeronautica and the Responsible of Finmeccanica s aeronautics sector. Alenia Aeronautica owns Alenia Aermacchi the world leader in the development and production of trainer aircraft and related ground support services. Alenia Aermacchi s M-346 is today the only aircraft designed to meet the training needs of pilots of new generation combat aircraft. Through its joint ventures ATR and SuperJet International Alenia Aeronautica is the world leader in the regional turboprop market and a top player in the market for regional jets. C-27Jistheonly truemoderntactical twineengineairlifter availabletodayon themarket GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ATR is an equal joint venture between Alenia Aeronautica and EADS based in Toulouse in the South of France. The two aircraft produced by the consortium the ATR 42 and the ATR 72 share the same fuselage section basic systems and cockpit. The aircraft are a reliable efficient and economical transport solution for short range routes all over the world due to a high operational standard and a very high comfort inside the cabin. ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS alMaz-antey russia s answer for secure skies SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 51 REGIONAL BALANCE lmaz-Antey Air Defense Concern was created in 2002 and has nowadays unite over 60 enterprises to become one of the Russia s leading defense companies the world s major supplier of the Russia s air defense systems. According to the Top-100 annual rating of the US-based Defense News Weekly the Concern s place is among 30 world s largest defense companies. One of the latest Concern developments is S-400 Triumph long-range new generation ADS which became operational in August 2007. This system will become the major weaponry for the Russia s aerospace defense concept. Nowadays Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern is involved in the development of the future common system of anti-aircraft and anti-missile weapons of the 5-th generation and in the implementation of the Concept A of the aerial-space defense of the Russian Federation. Concern has a wide export potential with an existing portfolio around USD 6 bln. The AlmazAntey- made ADS have been oper- VladislavV. Mentschikov Almaz-AnteyConcern GeneralDirector GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ated by over 50 nations in SouthEast Asia Middle East Europe Africa and Latin America. The list of defense equipment being offered for export by Almaz-Antey includes the following items nlong-range air defense systems S-300 PMU2 Favorit S-400 Triumph and S-300VM (Antey2500) nmedium-range air defense systems Buk-M1-2 Buk-M2E Pechora-2A nshort-range air defense missile systems Tor-M1 Tor-M2E nautomated control systems Senezh-M1E Rubezh-ME Baikal-1ME PPRU-M nair defense radar stations 96L6E 6C19M2 9C15MV3 Gamma-DE Gamma-C1E Kasta-2E2 nground reconnaissance radar stations Zoopark-1 Credo-1 Fara-1 meteorology system Ulybka ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS aSHok leylaND Strapline here SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 53 REGIONAL BALANCE shok Leyland the flagship company of the Hinduja Group and Technology leaders in the Indian Commercial Vehicle industry are pioneers in the design development and manufacture of special vehicles for the Armed Forces. Ashok Leyland vehicles have been serving the Armed Forces for over last 4 decades in variety of applications i.e. GS role torpedo carriers carrying heavy earthmoving machinery mounting sophisticated electronic communication equipments i.e. radars UAVs indigenously developed Crash Fire Tenders for civil and defence air fields. This apart over 13 000 diesel engines deployed for vital roles as prime movers for cranes AC DC generators compressors etc. The development of the futuristic Stallion 4x4 has greatly contributed to the modernization of the logistics of the Indian Army. Following this Ashok Leyland s Stallion 4x4 has grown to a 58 000 A Poweredby strong fleet and this has become the veritable back bone of logistics operations making Ashok Leyland the largest supplier of logistics vehicles to the Indian Army. The Company took the onus of providing manufacturing know-how by entering into a transfer of technology agreement with the Ordnance Factory Board under Ministry of Defence Government of India and has continuously supported it with product improvements value addiindigenouslydeveloped N -seriesengine developing265kW 2200rpmand1400Nm torqueat1300-1500 rpm theFieldArtillery Truck(FAT)has matchingautomotive drivelinestomeet thetoughoperating conditions. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE tions warranty support product upgrades and future interactions tie-ups for other range of vehicles. In addition over 1500 Light Recovery Vehicles and 600 Truck Fire Fighting over 250 Field Artillery Tractors and 1500 5KL Water Bowsers chassis for aircraft refuellers mechanical runway sweepers and UAVs have joined the services. Ashok Leyland has been providing robust after market engineering support to the field army by conducting ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS avrora Concern avrora Scientific and Production association JSC is the world leader in automated control systems of ship technical facilities M SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 55 REGIONAL BALANCE arch 18th 2010 was the 40th anniversary of the establishment of Concern Avrora Scientific and Production Association the largest designer and supplier of maritime monitoring and control systems in the Russian Federation. In this period the enterprise has taken the leading positions in building the control systems for the technical facilities of ships and submarines of all classes for the Russian and for the foreign Naval Forces. The Concern has been successfully implementing its business targets in close cooperation with the leading enterprises such as CDB ME Rubin Severnoye Design Bureau Nevskoye Design Bureau Central Marine Design Bureau Almaz Academician Krylov Central Research Institute the research institutes of the Russian Navy etc. Among the foreign partners of the Concern a special place has been occupied by India both in respect of quantitative indices of cooperation and in respect of quality of partnership that has been established. During the last 30 years over 80 control systems for technical facilities of various types and purposes as well as trainers have been supplied to India. The articles developed by the enterprise which belonged to the first generation control systems were supplied to the Indian Navy in early 1970s as part of the equipment of 641 Project submarines. Main propulsion plant control systems and those of auxiliary engines as well as auxiliary control systems power generation and conversion control systems system for motion maneuvering and stabilization control for submarines and surface ships these are only several examples of the broad nomenclature of the equipment supplied to the Indian market. The most interesting and significant projects implemented in 19801990s which covered the development and supply of the technical facil- DirectorGeneral oftheConcern Mr.K.Y.Shilov welcomeshighranking delegationfromIndia atDefexpoIndia GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ities control systems for the Indian Navy were the projects for outfitting of 877EKM Project submarines. The next generation of technical facilities control systems developed for the Indian Customer became the technical facilities control systems for the Talwar type frigates and for the modernized 877EKM Project. These were the first systems to implement extensively the digital control principles. At present the Concern is executing the orders ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS bharat electronicS empowering the nation s defence forces SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 57 REGIONAL BALANCE here are a handful of public sector undertakings in India which have created an exceptional record for themselves and earned the coveted Navratna status. Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL) is one of them. The Bangalore-headquartered company which has its manufacturing network spread over 9 Units located across the country has made significant contributions to meet India s defence electronics needs by designing manufacturing and providing product support for state-of-the-art Military Communication systems Radars Naval Systems C4I Systems Weapon Systems Homeland Security Electronic Warfare Systems Tank Electronics Electro Optics and Professional Electronic Components. For the last few years India s defence forces have been in the process of modernising their infrastructure and equipment. BEL has been proactively participating in this modernisation drive. The company is the lead integrator for the pres- T AkashWeapon tigious Akash surface-to-air-missile project for the Indian Air Force (IAF). BEL is executing the project through the consortium approach and will deliver the first squadron of Akash to the IAF by June 2011. Coastal Surveillance Systems The 26 11 Mumbai terror attacks have turned the spotlight on the importance of coastal surveillance. Rising to the occasion BEL has developed a state-of-the-art coastal surveillance system to aid the Indian Navy and Coast Guard in securing the country s vast coastline. BEL designed the system selected the technology and erected the systems along the coast. The company developed the software for the system at its Central Research Laboratory. The software presents a Comprehensive Operational Picture (COP) generated System GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE from distributed and networked sensors systems on an underlay electronic chart. It associates real-time data with the stored database for decision support activities. It also generates alerts on unsafe and anomalous vessel movement and intrusion. The software has recording and replay facility for debriefing purpose. It has a system health monitoring module to ensure effective operational readiness and high availability. Yet another important project which BEL is executing is the Weapon Locating Radar (WLR). Besides this the company has also worked on upgrading the Schilka self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon system. BEL is also working on strategic areas of Tactical Communication Systems Battlefield Management System Command Information Decision Support System Future Infantry Soldier System and High Data Rate Multi-band Software Defined Radio. BEL ended the year 2010-11 on a high clocking a sales turnover of ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS beMl Making a Mark in the Future of engineering B EML Limited is a leading multi-technology and multi-location Mini Ratna Category-I company under the Ministry of Defence offering high-quality products for diverse sectors of economy such as coal mining steel limestone power irrigation construction road building aviation defence metro and railways. BEML has restructured its operations under three distinct Business Groups viz. Mining & Construction Defence and Rail & Metro. It has formed Strategic Business Units and Product Groups following the concept of Business within Business . The company has warehousing facilities at Malaysia. An overseas office has been established in China for outsourcing. Besides local company viz. PT BEML Indonesia has been established in Indonesia to capture the emerging market. . Over the years BEML has demonstrated its engineering strengths and technical prowess by harnessing sophisticated technologies and erecting giant equipment like the multi-crore walking draglines and electric rope shovels for the coal sector. With a commitment to market driven R&D BEML has rolled out over 30 value-added products. Being India s leading defence equipment manufacturer BEML keeps the Indian Army and other defence forces abreast with stateof-the-art military equipment. The company is manufacturing variants of Tatra vehicle for all terrain operations including Bridge Layer Field Artillery Tractor Medium & Heavy Recovery Vehicle Pontoon Mainstream Bridge Systems Crash Fire Tenders Mobile Mast Vehicle. BEML also supplies Engineering Mine Ploughs Tank Transportation Trailers Weapon Loading equipment Armoured Recovery Vehicle Tatrahavy recoveryvehicle GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Milrail Coaches and Wagons apart from Aircraft Weapon Loading Trolley Aircraft Towing Tractor and Radar Carrying Vehicle. Two new product variants developed by BEML s strong technology development team include Combat Post Vehicle and BEML Tatra Driving Simulator to cater for the growing needs of armed forces. BEML plays a major role in the country s Integrated Guided Missile Development Project by supplying Ground Support Vehicles. The company has also created world-class Test Track at its KGF Complex to test defence equipment and vehicles. BEML has launched Aerospace Manufacturing Division to produce and supply of Ground Handling Equipment Toolings and Components for Aerospace Applications. Though the Division functions from Mysore Complex with the signing of MoU with Govt of Karnataka to set up an exclusive Aerospace Manufacturing Complex at the SEZ area near Bangalore International Airport this Division will be housed at Bangalore shortly. n 60 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue Cae New simulation technologies support better prepared and mission ready military forces M SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 61 REGIONAL BALANCE ost know simulation offers a range of compelling benefits for training including significant cost advantages saving wear and tear on weapon systems and addressing environmental impacts. New technologies and capabilities however are helping move simulation beyond traditional training to mission rehearsal and in the future support persistent and dynamic synthetic environments. CAE one of the world leaders in simulation has pioneered a range of developments to support the increased use of simulation for both training and mission rehearsal. One of these developments is called the common database or CDB. The CDB is a non-proprietary standard database that defines a single synthetic representation of the world and all simulation systems use the same database. Originally developed for the United States Special Operations Command and now being implemented by a number of global militaries the CDB is an open architecture database specification that allows the creation of a standardized persistent rapidly updatable synthetic environment. Because the CDB can be updated very quickly it supports mission planning and mission rehearsal requirements. A database that conforms to the CDB specification contains datasets that represent the features of the virtual world also called the synthetic environment that you are trying to CAEhasinitiated aninternalresearch anddevelopmentprojectaimedatdeveloping thefoundationfora persistentanddynamic syntheticenvironment whichwouldrepresent afundamentalparadigmshiftintheuse ofsimulation.Shown hereisasynthetic imageofSiraIslandin Yemen after adynamicevent inthiscase abombexplosion.This dynamiceventwould triggeradatabase updateinreal-time thatthenpersiststo allusersofthesyntheticenvironment. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE create. The implementation of a CDB significantly enhances interoperable training and mission rehearsal capabilities while reducing development time configuration control and associated database development costs. One of the main objectives of the CDB is to ensure unity and correlation between the various simulation subsystems while improving database maintainability. A key benefit is the elimination of all source-level correlation errors. There are multiple benefits to using the CDB but they all directly result in the capability to use simulation for mission preparation and rehearsal because the mission rehearsal timeline is greatly reduced. Military simulation and mission rehearsal end-users have also long desired and recognized the need for the synthetic environment database elements to change in real-time. Weapons make holes and craters combat engineers move the terrain and buildings weather has a dramatic effect on the environment ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS DaSSault PhOTOGRAPh Dassault Aviation - Alex Paringaux SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 63 REGIONAL BALANCE RAFALE The Powerful Punch One of the key advantages of Rafale is its ability to instantly switch between air-to-air and air-to-ground missions. Such is the versatility of the omnirole fighter that it could carry out a precision strike and then shift to interception or combat air patrol during the very same sortie. For ground surface attack missions Rafale can carry laser-guided bombs Modular Air-to-Surface precision weapons (AASM) Scalp cruise missiles and Exocet antiship missiles. Scalp and Exocet are precision stand-off weapons which can hit high value targets deep behind multiple lines of layered defences. Those heavily defended targets are the linchpin of the opponent s defensive system and putting them out of action is often the decisive step which turns the war around. Rafale s ability to deliver these missiles with a variety of attack profiles covering all situations makes it the commander s preferred game-changer . Among the most innovative weapons ever designed for a fighter AASM can be equipped with GPS INS guidance kit or infrared imaging seeker. It is fitted with a range extension kit that allows targets to be attacked at distances exceeding 50 km. The angle of impact can be selected (oblique or vertical) in order to maximise the amount of damages. Rafale can carry up to six AASMs under-wings and six widely separated targets can be engaged by day or night in a single attack run. New versions of AASM are currently being developed with various warheads from 250 to 1 000 kg. The 250 kg variant has proved its worth in situations where collateral damages must be avoided at all costs. Latest AASM AFrenchAir ForceRAFALEin configuration 2x SCALPstand-offcruise missiles 4xMICA(2 EM 2IR) 3x2000 litresdroptanks GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE variant which features dual-mode (laser GPS INS) guidance has been successfully tested in 2010. It allows fixed and fast-moving targets to be engaged with man-in-the-loop control in the most dynamic scenarios. A total of 3 400 AASM are on order for the French Armed Forces. GBU-24 LGB is also becoming available on Rafale with either blast fragmentation or penetrating warhead in the 1 000 kg class. With Damocles targeting pod Rafale is fully capable of self-designating targets for precision strikes. It is designed to identify and pinpoint targets at extended range by day or night. Damocles is fully operational ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Defence lanD SySteMS efence Land Systems India Pvt Ltd (DLSI) is a 74% - 26% joint venture between Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd India and BAE Systems plc. Defence Land Systems India is headquartered in New Delhi with manufacturing based at a purpose built Special Military Vehicle (SMV) facility south of Faridabad just outside of Delhi. Mahindra & Mahindra Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd (M&M) is a US 11.3 billion Indian multinational with leadership position in utility vehicles tractors and information technology and a significant presence in defence infrastructure development and logistics. BAE Systems BAE Systems is the premier global defence security and aerospace company delivering a full range of products and services for air land and naval forces as well as advanced electronics security information technology solutions and customer support services. DLSI is focused on the manufacture of Up-Armoured Light Vehicles High Mobility Vehicles Mine Protected Vehicles Infantry Combat Vehicles (ICV) Artillery Systems and other selected land system weapons and their upgrades. The company intends to become a national centre of excellence for design development manufacture final assembly integration and test of Infantry Combat Vehicles and Artillery Systems in support of the Indian Army s modernisation and upgrade programs. D Marksmanlight INDIAN DEFENCE REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO armouredvehicle DLSI is currently one of the leaders in armouring of light vehicles in India. The company has supplied more than 1000 bullet resistant light vehicles to the Army Para Military Forces and Central and State Police Forces. These vehicles have repeatedly proven itself in combat during anti terrorists anti Naxal operations saving precious lives of our gallant soldiers and policemen. FICV Project M&M is one of the four selected bidders for the Indian Army s prestigious Futuristic Infantry Combat GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 65 BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Diehl Defence competence in Defence and Security D SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 67 REGIONAL BALANCE iehl Defence is a corporate division of the N rnbergbased Diehl Group concentrating all business activities in the fields of defence and security as a holding company. As a competent partner of international armed forces the corporate division is in overall charge of and coordinates the activities of numerous subsidiaries program and affiliated companies. The product spectrum ranges from high-precision guided missiles for army air force and navy intelligent ammunition solutions to innovative reconnaissance and protection systems. In the fields of equipment repair modernization and protection of military vehicles Diehl Defence is also among the leading global suppliers. In-house development and production of high-performance infrared modules fuzes and fuzing systems as well as special batteries for extreme operational conditions ensure necessary independence in terms of critical key components. Long-term strategic partnerships with multinational partners strengthen the system and equipment capabilities of Diehl Defence simultaneously providing access to global markets. Diehl BGT Defence Diehl BGT Defence plays a leading role in important European guided missile programs. The company is prime contractor of the new European air-to-air guided missile IRIS-T which is being procured by the German Greek Italian Norwegian Austrian Swedish and Spanish Air Forces as armament for their combat aircraft. The secondary missile IRIS-T SL selected by the German Airforce and the Federal Office of Defense Technology and Procurement for the tactical air-defense system MEADS is an upgraded version of IRIS-T. A decision in favour of IRIS-T SL secures missile expertise in Germany and offers export pros- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE IRIS-T Air Superiority for Combat Aircraft IRIS-T (InfraRed Imaging SystemTail Thrust Vector Controlled) is one of the most advanced air-toair guided missiles worldwide. The new development has been replacing the Sidewinder air-to-air ASIAN WHO S WHO pects in the IRIS-T partner nations. Apart from IRIS-T and IRIS-T SL the product range in the capability category operational effectiveness comprises the anti-ship missile RBS 15 for the new corvette 130 the RAM system for self-defence of navy vessels the precision-guided missile PARS 3LR for the TIGER support helicopter the missile family Eurospike the new-generation missile LFK NG for army air defence as well as the guided artillery rocket GMLRS. The joint venture Diehl Raytheon Missile Systeme berlingen is responsible for modernization and marketing of the air-to-air guided missiles Sidewinder AIM-9L M. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS DrS technologieS a Finmeccanica company RVS-330 Rugged Vehicle System DRS Tactical Systems Facility Melbourne Florida Scorpiontm Rugged Laptop MRT Military Rugged Tablet ARMOR Rugged Mobile Solutions can count on DRS to focus its resources on innovation quality and cost effectiveness providing a superior value. At sea DRS products and services support the U.S. Navy s newest ships including littoral combat ships destroyers cruisers amphibious landing craft and aircraft carriers. On the ground DRS can be found supporting the U.S. Army s and U.S. Marine Corps mine-resistant ambush-protected (MRAP) vehicles Armored Knight Vehicles Abrams Tanks Bradley Fighting Vehicles and High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles Focused on defense technology DRS develops manufactures and supports a broad range of systems for mission critical and military sustainment requirements as well as homeland security. SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 69 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE (HMMWV) as well as the U.S. Air Force s special operations aircraft. DRS started out as a supplier to the U.S. Navy with its pioneering work in passive submarine detection. The new technology enabled sailors to detect and identify submarines quietly without the noisy telltale pinging of active sonar. DRS original legacy system the AN SQR-17 is still in use today. Since those early years DRS has grown from a small specialty electronics supplier to the highlydiversified defense technology provider it is today with more than 10 000 employees working in ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS D RS Technologies headquartered in Parsippany New Jersey is a leading designer manufacturer and supplier of integrated products services and support to military forces intelligence and homeland security agencies and prime defense contractors worldwide. Focused on defense technology DRS develops manufactures and supports a broad range of systems for mission critical and military sustainment requirements as well as homeland security. Since 1968 DRS has succeeded by having the agility technology and customer focus to respond quickly in a rapidly changing market and has been recognized in recent years as one of the fastest growing and best managed defense technology companies in the world. DRS products and systems are deployed on some of the most technologically advanced platforms in the world. Customers TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS elbit SySteMS elbit Systems offers a broad range of NewGeneration Solutions and Systems for a Wide Variety of Platforms and applications lbit Systems Ltd. is an international defense electronics company engaged in a wide range of programs throughout the world. The Company which includes Elbit Systems and its subsidiaries operates in the areas of aerospace land and naval systems command control communications computers intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance ( C4ISR ) unmanned aircraft systems ( UAS ) advanced electro-optics electro-optic space systems EW suites airborne warning systems ELINT systems data links and military communications systems and radios. The Company also focuses on the upgrading of existing military platforms developing new technologies for defense homeland security and commercial aviation applications and providing a range of support services. Aerospace The company has secured a specialized niche in Eastern and Western E SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 71 REGIONAL BALANCE platform modernizations and weapon system upgrades providing total solutions based on in-house core competencies and technologies. Elbit Systems is unique in its ability to provide complete solutions that go beyond systems and products to long-term maintenance technical support full integration installation product training often partnering with local industries. After Elbit sDASH systemisamatureand provenHMDsystem. Itisamonocular visorprojectedHMCS withcompleteHMCS electronics including anadvanceddigital electro-magnetic helmettrackerforday andnightuse. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE three generations of helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) designed for fixed and rotary wing aircraft there is little doubt that Elbit Systems is a worldwide industry leader. The HMD business has been one of the Company s key growth engines with over 5 500 Elbit Systems HMDs currently deployed in four continents in over 30 countries. The DASH family of helmets is opera- ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS eMbraer SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 73 REGIONAL BALANCE mbraer (Empresa S.A.) is one of the largest aerospace companies in the world and the leader in the category of commercial jets with up to 120 seats. The Company designs produces and sells aircraft and systems for the commercial executive and defense markets. Embraer products are designed to provide excellent performance while being economical to acquire and operate. Built upon a strong tradition of technical excellence and the highest level of engineering skills and customer support Embraer has produced more than 5 000 aircraft currently operating in more than 92 countries during more than 40 years of existence. Headquartered in Brazil and with offices subsidiaries and customer service bases in Singapore Portugal France China and the United States Embraer is a customer-oriented company with a global customer base and internationally respected E partners. Asia-Pacific accounted for 22% of Embraer s total revenues in 2010 affirming the Company s increasing investment in the region. By the end of 2010 the Company backlog was about US 15.6 billion in firm orders and its workforce comprised around 17 100 people. Defense and Government Market Products Embraer is recognized by the excellence of its military aircraft both in Brazil and around the world. Approximately 30 foreign armed forces and governments also rely on Embraer products. Embraer Defense and Security In December 2010 Embraer announced the creation of GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE EMBAEW&C combineshighperformanceActive PhasedArrayradar andafastandflexible Command&Control systemintothe highlyprovenERJ145 regionaljetliner Embraer Defense and Security an important step in consolidating the Company s central role in the process of strengthening Brazil s defense and security industry. Brazil has a growing relevant role on the global geopolitical scenario and has established a long-term vision for strengthening its defense industry said Frederico Fleury Curado Embraer President & CEO. Embraer with its technologicalindustrial capabilities and 40 years of experience in defense programs both in Brazil and abroad is fully committed to supporting the Brazilian Government in ensuring the advanced technological base the Country needs. Luiz Carlos Aguiar has been appointed the President of Embraer BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS eurocoPter a combat proven helicopter stands ready to answer india s military needs the aS550 c3 Fennec ndia is today one of the world s largest markets for defence products and services as it embarks on a massive modernisation exercise for its huge defence establishment. I RainerFaridwith While India s stated requirements range from fighter jets to artillery guns helicopters has been one of the most pressing requirements as it has been struggling with a severe theAS550C3Fennec displayedatAeroIndia 2011inbengaluru GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE shortage of military helicopters and most of the available ones with the armed forces are more than 20 years old. One of the biggest and most anticipated upcoming defence 76 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue FFV ordnance FV Ordnance is and has been for a number of years one of the world s leading suppliers of manportable support weapons. To reach and maintain this position requires continuous and result-focused engineering and product development. A broad development of technology as far to the forefront as possible both technically and in time that can be implemented into products when the situation changes and military tactical requirements arise provides the perfect relationship. FFV Ordnance has for many years developed technology within the areas of internal ballistics external ballistics ignition systems and warhead effect. This is and has been FFV Ordnance s model for success. New times result in new requirements. Within the area of weapons and ammunition and not the least for man-portable weapon systems users place demands for improved or different effect increased product F safety as well as that the weapon shall be lighter and easier to carry. In recent years requirements on the environmental impact of the weapon systems have been highlighted. FFV Ordnance is continuously working on fulfilling these new requirements. The war on terrorism has been partly moved into built-up areas which requires weapon systems that are light and easy to carry and that have good effect in various types of targets and not just in armoured vehicles. But combat is also conducted outside built-up areas and in terrain that is inaccessible for vehicles so the requirement for weapons with a long combat range and various warheads remains or is even increased. Carl-GustafM3 isarobust light weapon easytouse inbothindayand nightoperations. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Combat in built-up areas FFV Ordnance now has more than 20 years of experience with man-portable weapons intended for use by units engaged in urban warfare. LAW AT4 CS HEAT is a further development of the LAW AT4 HEAT or the M136 as it is known in the United States. LAW AT4 CS HEAT has a warhead with increased behind armour effect that is sought after primarily for engagement of light-armoured vehicles. The enemy not only operates from armoured vehicles but also takes cover and operates in buildings. It is therefore a light man-portable weapon with good effect behind walls is needed or simply to create a new entrance into a building without jeopardizing the safety of friendly forces. AT4CS AST where AST stands for Anti-Structure Tandem is a new weapon in the AT4 series. The weapon like the rest of the AT4CS series has a liquid countermass and can be fired from rooms smaller than 25 m3. 78 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue GrSe T he odyssey of GRSE began in 1884 with a vision to convert a small ship repairing unit into a premiere ship building yard the Govt of India took over the Company on 19 April 1960 and placed it under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defence. GRSE then known as GARDEN REACH WORKSHOP LTD was the first shipyard in the independent India to build a Seaward Defence Boat (SDB) and delivered the same to the Indian Navy soon after take over. True to this vision GRSE has now become one of the premier shipbuilding yard with seven units at Kolkata and one unit at Ranchi dedicated for assembly and overhaul of Marine Engines. Today GRSE is holding an excellent order book position of over Rs 8000 - Cr which includes Anti Submarine Warfare Corvettes Inshore Patrol Vessel Offshore Patrol Vessel and Fast Attack Crafts. GRSE has also secured an export order for construction of one Offshore Patrol Vessel for republic of Mauritius. This is the first export order of Defence platform in the history of Defence Shipyards. GRSE is also negotiating with African Countries for construction and delivery of IPVs and LST(L)s and hope to secure some more export orders soon. Negotiation with the Indian Navy are in progress or construction of Landing Craft Utilities (LCUs). GRSE is also engaged in manufacturing Portable Module Bridges which are light weight and can be erected within a short period. This unique invention has also been secured and the Government of India has granted Patent rights for the single and double lane portable steel bridges. Apart from shipbuilding business and steel bridges GRSE is also manufacturing Marine pumps and ship borne deck machineries like Davits Winches Hello Traversing Systems etc . GRSE has embarked upon modernization of the shipbuilding infrastructure at an overall cost of Rs 600 Cr. This includes one dry dock and one inclined birth both 180 mtrs long a modular hall a paint shop and a goliath crane having 250 T lift capacity. Once the mordernization project is completed GRSE will be able to construct four large ships at a time. The project ids expected to be completed by end of 2011. GRSE is interested in creating an exclusive ship design centre but the same may not be possible for GRSE alone to do. GRSE is looking for suitable partners in ship design like National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH). At pres- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ent GRSE is engaged only in building warships but GRSE may consider building other commercial vessels as GRSE possess the experience in constructing bulk carriers dredgers tugs trawlers etc. In the recent past GRSE has also manufactured and delivered about ample FRP boats to various Coastal Police Authorities and A&N Administration for Coastal security. GSRE focus for the next decade will be on developing capability in design and construction of Stealth Frigates Landing Ship Tanks Fast Attack Crafts and other patrol vassels etc. Shipbuilding Industries all over the world have been encountering acute shortage of qualified and trained manpower. GRSE makes continuous endeavour to nourish the young talents from all disciplines. The shipyard has a large pool of highly skilled trained and experienced workforce to produce quality warships and engineering products. With over a hundred years of experience and excellent dedicated workforce GRSE today is fully geared to serving the needs of customers and meeting the exciting challenges of the ever changing technological advances with an aim to become a leading International shipbuilder and become an integral part of Defence preparedness of the Country aimed at self reliance for India s defence forces. n 80 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue GD CaNaDa advanced robotics for Next-generation Mine Countermeasures M aritime mines are one of the most cost-effective weapons in the naval arsenal. They deny access to coastal zones thereby seriously impairing the effectiveness of surface and subsurface assets. For this reason most navies have fleets of mine countermeasures vessels (MCMVs) designed for the six steps of a classic detection classification localization identification re-acquisition neutralization (DCLIRN) response. But the challenges of the underwater environment can make a typical MCM mission extremely time-consuming and error-prone. Furthermore most of the steps require proximity to the mine itself which is dangerous for the MCMV and its crew. As a result most navies are turning to underwater robots for DCLRIN missions. Robots and underwater MCM Several navies currently employ underwater robots in the form of SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 81 REGIONAL BALANCE remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) tethered to their mother ships and flown by wire by an operator. For example the Hydra system on the Royal Swedish Navy s Visby class corvettes uses a pair of ROVs supported by high frequency hull-mounted sonar (HMS) and a precision acoustic positioning system integrated with the Visby s sonar systems. The ROVs allow the Visby and its crew to stand off from a MLO TheMCMVisin radiocontactwith anRF-to-acoustic communications gateway(inthiscasea rigid-hulledinflatable boat) whichalso carriesoperatorsthat remotelycontrolthe disposalvehicle(the SeaFoxROVfromAtlas Elektronik). GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE substantially reducing risk. This approach was state-of-the-art at the time that the Hydra system was designed. The ROV tethers however mean that the ship s stand-off distance is limited to a few hundred meters which may not be far enough for a traditional steel-hulled ship. The ROV-based solution is also constrained in terms of the number of vehicles that can be practically deployed simultaneously from a ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS G-NUiS the World s First Fully operational UGVs G -NIUS Unmanned Ground Systems Ltd. is a pioneer in Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) systems for defense and security applications. G-NIUS provides a comprehensive solution that reduces casualties and facilitates longterm personnel reductions in various operational scenarios including deterrence discovery identification warning confinement and threat destruction. First Fully Operational UGVs Our UGVs have seen extensive operational use by the Israel Defense Forces and are in advanced stages of pilot testing for a variety of defense and security applications including route proving close inspection and border patrol. Comprehensive Operational Solution Reconnaissance & Lead Vehicle integrates advanced electro-optical surveillance payloads radar and fire source detectors to provide reconnaissance from areas threatened by gunfire. At the same time SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 83 REGIONAL BALANCE the UGV acts as an advanced vehicle leading troop movements without endangering lives. Logistics significantly reduces the manpower and potential casualties from logistics missions. The UGV can also be used as an escort for the fighting force through its followme capabilities while carrying food fuel ammunition and fortification equipment and can evacuate casualties under fire. C-IED carries a variety of sensors that enable the disruption and location of IEDs and roadside bombs before they are activated providing the UGV with the ability of responding to threats in a wide variety of scenarios such as explosives convoy ambushes and corridor openings. Security around-the-clock comprehensive defense for bases airfields (Left)Guardium Mark2UGV (Right)Guardium Mark3UGV borders and strategic installations in all weather conditions. Fully and Semi-Autonomous UGVs for All Types of Terrain Guardium UGVTM a semi-autonomous UGV designed to perform routine missions and react autonomously to unscheduled events. Guardium UGV Mark2TM a semiautonomous UGV vehicle featuring improved combat capabilities with a robust toolkit for a variety of operational scenarios. AvantGuard UGCVTM a tracked vehicle offering superb ground maneuverability while operating in harsh terrain environments. Gaurdium UGV Mark3TM a fully-autonomous UGV for complex combat missions complete with a mounted weapon system and designed to operate over less structured environments. n GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS HinduStan aeronauticS Saga of Glorious Seven decades Plus C urrent HAL s Chief Shri Ashok Nayak took over as Company s 15th Chairman on April 01 2009. He has vast experience in manufacturing quality assurance production planning customer services and export. Brief Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) was found way back in year 1940 by a visionary Seth Shri Walchand Hirachand as Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in association with the erstwhile princely State of Mysore. Govt. of India became one of its shareholders in March 1941 and took over the management in 1942. The present day Hindustan Aeronautics Limited a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) under Ministry of Defence and fully owned by Govt. of India was formed on 1st October 1964 by merging of Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot with Hindustan Aircraft Limited. Today LightCombat Aircraft(Tejas) ShriAshokNayak ChiefofHindustan AeronauticsLimited HAL is the largest PSU under Dept. of Defence Production GOI and is declared as Navratna company. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE (HAL) is a premier aeronautical complex of SE Asia with 19 production overhaul divisions 10 colocated R&D centres and 1 Facility Management Division across the country. HAL s expertise encompasses design & development production repair overhaul and upgrade of Aircraft Helicopters Aero-engines Accessories Avionics and Systems. HAL today provides one stop solutions for all the design needs of aircraft & helicopters in airframes airframe systems avionics mission & combat systems using advanced design tools. The 19 manufacturing divisions of HAL are equipped with modern infrastructure with state of 84 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue iSrael aeroSPace induStrieS I srael Aerospace Industries Ltd. (IAI) is a globally recognized leader in the defense and commercial markets. Financial Figures n IAI s 2010 sales totaled 3.15 billion 2.5 billion (80%) of these sales are for export. n IAI s backlog as of December 2010 reached 8.9 billion. n IAI s 2010 net profit totaled 94 million. Core Areas of Activity Space From its own launchers and satellites to ground services IAI offers customers affordable solutions and partnerships with industry leaders in space exploration. IAI develops and produces satellites for various purposes such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) observation satellites (Ofeq Eros Opsat) Synthetic Aperture Radar (TECSAR) and communication satellites such as the Amos series (GEO). Theater Defense IAI s Arrow Weapon System Against Tactical Ballistic Missiles (ATBMs) leads the market. This multi-layer system representing outstanding visionary and techno-logical achievements such as the Green Pine missile detection and fire and control radar as well as other interoperable solutions is the cornerstone of Israel s defense system. MRO & Civil Aircraft Conversion IAI is an expert one-stop-shop for commercial aircraft conversion maintenance repair and overhaul with the ARROWWeapon System thismulti- layersystem representingoutstandingvisionary andtechnological achievementssuchas theGreenPinemissile detectionandfireand controlradar aswell asotherinteroperablesolutions isthe cornerstoneofIsrael s defensesystem. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE engineering equipment and facilities to deliver rapid turnaround at competitive prices. Commercial Aircraft IAI s design engineering and manufacturing capabilities are demonstrated in a highly cost-effective intercontinental range super-midsize business jet. IAI also develops and produces for major international OEM s primary aerostructure assemblies as well as landing gear servo-control and actuator systems. 86 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue iMageSat Unique satellite-based imagery services he availability of intelligence information previously being the privilege of the few offers government and military users major advantages. High resolution space imagery provided on-line by commercial services is providing military users and government agencies an access to high quality imagery products offering unprecedented intelligence and situational understanding. The market is dominated by commercially operated government supported U.S. based providers supplying a significant part of the imagery consumed by the U.S. military in parallel to serving foreign government and commercial clients. Given the limited ownership of such services by international customers timely delivery of imagery is prone to delays particularly in times of emergency when they are committed to their national services while demand for imagery exceeds availability. T Eros-B Bushehr The Israeli operated ImageSat International is offering a different approach providing government users a reliable and dependable yet affordable satellite based high-resolution imagery. ImageSat is offering activenuclearpower plant iran GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE its services competitively efficiently and unrestricted. Based on the technology developed for Israel s Ofeq series of military reconnaissance satellites built by Israel Aerospace Industries 88 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue itt Defence n an era of rapidly evolving threats and unprecedented commercial opportunities ITT Defence International is the right partner for India in these complex times. Our broad portfolio of technologically advanced solutions and strong local presence ideally positions us to help India defend its soldiers citizens and borders while also enhancing economic growth. ITT is one of the world s leading aerospace and defence contractors a leading provider of C4ISR electronics and systems as well as information and technical services. Our highly engineered products and services include night vision equipment battlefield communications systems air traffic management solutions space-based sensors and radar and sonar technologies to protect ships planes and coastlines. During the past seven decades ITT has earned a reputation for breakthrough technologies and ser- I vices. We re proud that the India Ministry of Defence which commands the second largest military in the world depends on ITT as a primary provider of mission-critical technologies. In fact recent developments have highlighted the immediate need to deploy net-centric communications night vision goggles and air traffic management. SpearNetisa handheld highcapacitydataradio whichisapowerful communication toolthatprovides seamless self-healing ad-hocnetworking andmulti-hoprouting capability multiplying theforceeffectiveness ofIndiansoldiers andborderguards wherevertheymaybe deployed. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ITT is pushing the leading edge of tactical communications with the next generation of net-centric radio systems to provide real-time information and a more accurate picture of the battlespace throughout the chain of command. For example our SpearNet handheld high-capacity data radio is a powerful communication tool that provides seamless self-healing ad-hoc networking and multi-hop routing capability multiplying the force effectiveness of Indian soldiers and border guards wherever they may be deployed. Widely recognized as the world s dominant night vision developer and manufacturer ITT is ideally positioned to supply the most advanced equipment for military and homeland security applications including systems for ground and aviation personnel. Generation 3 image intensification the clearest sharpest night vision technology available provides users with superior performance and greater mobility 90 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue lockheed Martin India s C-130J Super Hercules The Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules that India operates is the most advanced airlifter ever built. The C-130J combines the latest in aerospace technology with a proven rugged airframe design resulting in an aircraft that gives an operator more capability with greater operational efficiency. The flexibility of the C-130J for range payload and missions is unmatched by any other aircraft in production or planned. With a range with payload capability of over 4000 nautical miles and coupled with the ability to land on a 2000 foot dirt strip high up in India sC-130J firstflight GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE the mountains the C-130J will be a true force multiplier for the Indian Air Force. The C-130J is not just a cargo transport its range of missions includes special operations aerial refueling search and rescue paradrop electronic surveillance and even weather reconnaissance. 92 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue MbDa ringing together and optimising the most advanced missile technology skills to be found in France Germany Italy and the UK MBDA is unique in the guided missile sector. No other company can meet the missile system requirements of all three operational domains whether in the air on land or at sea. Such an advantage is becoming more apparent with customers around the world keen to maximise supply and servicing logistics as well as missile system modularity. Two European platforms have been short listed for the IAF s MMRCA combat jet. For MBDA this offers the opportunity of supplying a range of weapons that position both Eurofighter Typhoon and Rafale among the most capable of combat jets available anywhere in the world. Air-to-air combat weapons such as MICA and Meteor combined with precision ground strike weapons such as the multi-target Dual Mode Brimstone and the long range SCALP Storm Shadow and Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missiles will ensure India s air dominance long into the B future. Looking at the existing air force fleet of Mirage fighters and Jaguar bombers these also stand to have their battle capability significantly enhanced by MBDA s MICA and ASRAAM missiles respectively. The 21st century faces an increasing threat of attack from the air. Low cost cruise missiles manned and unmanned aircraft not to mention the appearance of a new range of 600 km class ballistic missiles are threats that MBDA is best qualified to counter. Here the Company is recognised as a clear sector leader with its range of ground and naval based air defence systems using Mistral MICA and Aster missiles. A major first was accomplished recently with MBDA s Aster achieving Europe s first successful ballistic missile target intercept. This expertise has resulted in MBDA s involvement as a major partner in the transatlantic MEADS programme. More significantly MBDA is sharing its skills with the Indian DRDO in the well publicised MAITRI air defence project. To protect coastal integrity and Mirage2000 armedwithMICA GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE for blue water operations an effective anti-ship capability is a must particularly with many navies now investing heavily in new ships. MBDA is already supplying the Indian Navy s new Scorpene submarines with its Exocet SM39 missile system. Similarly other versions of the worldfamous Exocet family are being proposed along with Marte for a number of Indian maritime aircraft requirements (both fixed and rotary wing). MBDA s links with Indian industry go back some 40 years thanks to its partnership with BDL currently manufacturing the MILAN missile under licence for the Indian Army. Working with HAL integration of the Mistral ATAM system on the Dhruv helicopter is well advanced and MBDA is also proposing its PARS 3 LR system for the same helicopter s land attack mission. The concept of partnership with Indian industry is key to MBDA s strategy. As it celebrates its tenth year of European integration MBDA looks towards a future featuring ever deeper relations with its Indian partners. n 94 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue MaZaGoN DoCk MDLbuiltfirst into a multi-unit and multi-product company with significant rise in production and sophistication of products. The company s current portfolio of designs spans a wide range of products for both domestic and overseas clients. The first modern warship to be built by the company was the Leander Class frigate INS NILGIRI . Its design was obtained from the British Admiralty and the frigate itself was built in collaboration with M s. Vickers Ltd. and M s. Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd. of Great Britain. Based on the Leander platform the Design Bureau of the Indian Navy designed a new generation frigate with modifications and a greater content of indigenisation. Mazagon Dock was entrusted stealthfrigateShivalik wascommissioned intotheIndianNavyin earlyinApril2010 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 95 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE with the job. The Godavari class of Frigates were a breakthrough in warship design and construction as the ships were larger than the Leanders and even though the same propulsion was used these warships were actually able to generate higher speeds than the Leanders. The first of the class was christened INS GODAVARI . Two more frigates of this class INS GANGA and INS GOMATI were also constructed at MDL. Mazagon Dock has also constructed one training ship TIR and three KHUKRI class of corvettes for the Navy. The Corvettes are smaller warships displacing about 1500 tonnes. Mazagon Dock also built four fast and powerful 1241RE Missile Boats for the Navy. ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS M azagon Dock Limited Mumbai a 9000 2008 Category I Mini Ratna PSU Company is one of the leading shipbuilding yards in India. The Yard was established in the 18th century and over the 200 odd eventful years has earned a reputation for high quality workmanship. The skills and resourcefulness of our workmen is well known to the shipping world in general and the Indian Navy coast guard & ONGC in particular. Initially MDL passed through various ownerships like the P&O lines and the British India Steam Navigation Company. It was incorporated as a Public Limited Company in 1934. After its takeover by the Government in 1960 Mazagon Dock grew rapidly to become the premier war-shipbuilding yard in India producing sophisticated warships for the Navy and offshore structures for the ONGC. It has grown from a single unit small ship Repair Company TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS MeProlight one Stop Shop for Sophisticated Weapon Sights SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 97 REGIONAL BALANCE NOA uncooled thermal sights Meprolight developed a family of uncooled thermal weapon sights X7 Ti for Assault Rifle (Noa Nyx) and dual field magnification. The Noa thermal sight contains an advanced GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO eprolight (www.meprolight. com) designs and manufactures a wide array of electro-optical and optical sights and devices night vision devices uncooled thermal sights and a wide variety of night sights and other tritium- and LEDilluminated products and accessories for safety and security applications for the military law enforcement and civilian communities. All of our products are combat proven and in daily operational use by the Israeli defense forces. Meprolight provides comprehensive end-to-end sharpshooting and sniping solutions for snipers infantry and SWAT teams. The solutions include advanced weapon sights and accessories for day and night shooting designed for quick and instinctive accurate shooting even after physical stress and under pressure. electronic level indicator a critical component in balancing the sight for effective long-range shooting. The innovative sight withstands heavy weapon recoil and enables bidirectional communications with military devices such as range finders and wireless recording systems. The Ti for Assault Rifle (Noa Nyx) is a lightweight sight with an overall weight of less than 1kg. Equipped with a wide FOV and an easily engaged 2x or 4x digital zoom the The Ti for Assault Rifle guarantees high-quality observation and precision target engagement. The innovative dual field magnification includes wide and narrow fields of view (FOV) in the same sight. It enables the sniper maximum flexibility during missions scanning the area with a wide FOV and engaging the target with narrow FOV. Equippedwith awideFOVandan easilyengaged2xor 4xdigitalzoom the TheTiforAssault Rifleguaranteeshighqualityobservation andprecisiontarget engagement. The NOA unique sight has been mounted and successfully operated onto a wide range of sniper rifles including the Dragunov and MMG. The thermal sight is designed for snipers who operate under harsh environmental conditions and need to detect and accurately engage targets at long ranges reaching more than 1 000 meters in variable weather conditions and very limited light availability or total darkness. NOA s state-of-the-art sights are equipped with a cutting-edge Fire Control System (FCS) featuring automatic ballistic compensation based on range and type of weapon and ammunition among others. Additional features include Laser Range Finder interface for automatic target range acquisition and the ability to upload and download data. NOA sights enable wired or wireless transmission of streaming video and real-time video recording as well as integrated capturing and storage of still images. The NOA sights excel in low energy consumption allowing up to 10 hours of continuous operation. n INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY M CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS NavaNtia N avantia the Spanish shipbuilder is a world reference in the design construction and integration of war ships including new generation submarines. It is also engaged in the design and manufacture of Integrated Platform Management Systems Fire Control Systems Command and Control systems Propulsion Plants and through life support for naval vessels. Navantia has strategically situated production centres in the Ferrol Estuary the Cartagena shipyard and the Bay of C diz n Ferrol-Fene Shipyard n Cartagena Shipyard n San Fernando-Puerto Real Shipyard Specialized in New Constructions as well as Shiprepairs in the 3 areas. These shipyards are fully equipped with slipways and docks with sufficient capacity to meet the client s strategic requirements. Orderbook Ferrol-Fene Frigate F-105 for the Spanish Navy (last of a serie of 5). Commissioning will be in 2012. 2 LHD s for the Australian Navy based on the LHD Juan Carlos I. Already launched the first one and to be commissioned in 2013 and 2015. Engineering and technical assistance for the construction (in Australia) of 3 air warfare destroyers based on the F-105 for the Spanish Navy. To be delivered from 2014 to 2017. SpanishNavy s biggestship LHD Juan CarlosI builtby navantiaarrivesin istanbulforastopoverduringherfirst resistancevoyage Cartagena 4 Submarines S-80 for the Spanish Navy. Deliveries are from 2013 to 2015. Engineering and technology transfer for 6 Submarines Scorpene as part of the DCN consortium for the Indian Navy. San Fernando-Puerto Real 3 BAM (Maritime Action Ship) for the Spanish Navy of a series of 4 to be commissioned during 2011 and 2012. 2 Patrol Ships for Venezuela of a series of 8 for the vigilance of the sea have been signed in November 2005. They will be commissioned on 2011. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 98 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue NeXter SySteMS Setting the trend on 21st century artillery systems D uring EuroSatory 2010 Nexter Systems and Larsen & Toubro signed a Consortium Agreement in the field of artillery systems ensuring that both companies will join forces to support the major effort of artillery mod- ernization initiated by the Indian MoD. This agreement targets in particular the MGS (Mounted Gun System) RFP that should be issued in the second half of 2011 for which NEXTER will propose its CAESAR System. CAESAR is currentlydeployed inAfghanistanand Lebanonwiththe FrenchArmy GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE During July 2011 the two companies signed an other Consortium Agreement and announced the formation of Nexter Systems led consortium for 155 mm Towed Gun System (TGS) program for Indian Army. Under the proposal Nexter 100 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue NorthroP GruMMaN Well-Positioned to Support india s Present and evolving Defence requirements with industryleading Capabilities ith its proven industryleading capabilities in intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) Northrop Grumman is wellpositioned to meet the Indian Armed Forces current and future defence and civil requirements. The company offers a portfolio of innovative capabilities across each of its four business sectors - including airborne early warning and control systems for maritime reconnaissance fire control radars coastal surveillance and marine navigation unmanned aircraft systems airborne mine countermeasures and its newest capability lighter-than-air vehicles for maritime and border security and heavy lift operations. These include the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye airborne early warning surveillance aircraft the MQ-8B Fire Scout vertical takeoff unmanned vehicle scalable C4ISR provisions for fast interceptor craft & offshore patrol vessels Harbor and Coastal W Northrop Security system (HCS) Airborne Laser Mine Detection System and the Multi-role Electronically Scanned Array (MESA) radar. Built on a legacy of providing uncompromising airborne early Grumman sMQ-8B FireScoutisamultirole VUAS capable ofautonomoustake offandlandingon anyaviation-capable warshipandvarious landingsites GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE warning and control (AEW&C) capability Northrop Grumman s E-2D Advanced Hawkeye was designed to provide the enhanced capabilities required to meet emerging threats and improved mission effectiveness. Features include completely redesigned aircraft systems a state-of-the-art AN APY-9 radar and a new glass cockpit. All E-2D s are newly manufactured aircraft based on a proven airframe on a proven platform. Exclusive to the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye the APY-9 radar provides a two-generation leap in radar technology allowing the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye to see smaller targets and more of them at a greater range than currently fielded radar systems. On track for initial operational test and evaluation in late 2011 followed by Initial Operational Capability with the U.S. Navy in 2015 the E-2D program continues to meet or exceed all technical and program require- 102 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue NoVa integrated Systems N OVA Integrated Systems Limited a TATA Enterprise is a 100% owned subsidiary of TATA Advanced Systems Limited and a strategic initiative of the TATA group in the Aerospace & Defence Sector. 140 years lineage of the highly respected TATA Group operating in seven business sectors of communications and information technology engineering materials services energy consumer products and chemicals with a total revenues of 67.4 billion (2009-10) and employing around 395 000 people worldwide gives NOVA its cutting edge advantage in meeting the most exacting of challenges and delivering the latest in technology. The company set up as a private sector Defence enterprise envisions design development manufacture integration and life cycle support in the following domains as a partner to the Indian Aerospace & Defense establishments with technology focus in n Missile Systems and Sub Systems n Radars Systems and Sub Systems n Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Systems n Electro-Optical Payloads and Subsystems n Homeland Security System Products n RF Modules for Advanced Radar Technologies Headquartered at the TATA Group headquarters Bombay House in Mumbai the company has its corporate office in New Delhi and Manufacturing facilities in Hyderabad with well established TheNova ProductionFacility willbeConfigured toOfferDesign Development Manufacture& Integrationfor AdvancedAerospace& DefenceTechnologies GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE departments for Operations Quality Assurance Engineering Supply chain management Business development Finance Legal HR & Administration employing the best in class professionals with considerable man years of experience. A distinguished team of consultants from the DRDO and DPSUs bring vast experience in Design Development and Production of defence systems and provide necessary technical support and mentoring for advanced engineering insights into complex technological challenges. World class Infrastructural facilities are set up in Hyderabad with a 104 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue oto Melara T he Indian Ocean with an area of 68 5 million sq km has several important straits gulfs bays and sens most of them being in the northern part. Major shipping lines criss-cross its vast expanse with strategic water ways and choke point linking the Indian Ocean to other important water bodies on the globe. For this reason there is a strong need for maintaining stability security and safety at sea. The defence systems produced by Oto Melara are the ideal solution to achieve this target in particular the 127 64LW naval gun fitted with the kit for the new Vulcano ammunition whose range can reach distances beyond 100 km . The 127 64LW is the most powerful multi role system available on the naval market and it is already under production for the FREMM frigates for the Italian Navy and the F125 program of the German Navy. This rapid fire gun mount is intended for installation on large and medium size ships for surface fire and naval gunfire support as its main role and anti-aircraft fire as its secondary role. The compactness of the gun feeding system makes the installation on narrow section crafts possible. Modular automatic feeding magazines allow the firing of up to four different and immediately selectable types of ammunition. The magazines can be reloaded while the mount is in operation. 127 54LW-38.For Thedefencesystems producedbyOto Melaraaretheideal solutiontomaintainingstability security andsafetyatsea. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE In the ship s main ammunition store projectiles and propelling charges are hoisted to gun level from the feeding magazines. Ammunition flow is reversible so that rounds can be unloaded from the gun automatically. The gun console includes the Vulcano module for the use of guided ammunition that allows the initialization of the guided ammunition navigation system and the computation of firing solutions for Naval Fire Support. n 106 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue PiPaVaV SHiPyarD SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 107 REGIONAL BALANCE SP Guide Publications (SP s) Pipavav Shipyard Ltd has reportedly emerged as the largest shipbuilders in the Indian private sector. What were the factors that inspired creation of futuristic shipbuilding capacity at such a large scale Nikhil Gandhi (Gandhi) A huge gap between Shipbuilding requirements of the Indian Navy and the available capacities is a major factor. We thought of investing in this modern world class shipyard to bring Indian Shipbuilding on the world map. PSL is the largest shipyard in the Country with the state of the Art shipbuilding infrastructure. Shipbuilding industry brings all-round development in the country and development of South Korea is a live example. Despite having a vast coast line a number of shipyards in the country and highly skilled work force India s share in the world shipbuilding is only approx. 1.4% as against approx 36% by both China and South Korea. No major investment in developing a modern shipbuilding infrastructure was undertaken in India till recent past. PSL has taken a lead and set up an ultra modern shipyard having produc- (Top)Launchingof PanamaxBulkCarriers (Left)NikhilGandhi Non-Executive DirectorandChairman PipavavShipyard tion capacity more than the cumulative capacity of all Public and Private Shipyards in the country. In addition we are the only shipyard in India GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE having modular and integrated ship construction capability. Emphasis has been given to create a vendors net work as an integral part of the shipbuilding activities. Presently Indian shipbuilding industry is dependent largely on foreign vendors for major equipments. As the volumes increase we would like to set up our own manufacturing facilities in India. These will meet the requirement of indigenous as well as export orders. We have already set up a large engineering complex at Pipavav for the integrated ship construction based on modular concept and we also have plans to encourage vendors to set up shops locally at SEZ and around Pipavav as we grow further. ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Proven Performance - yesterday today and into the Future GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 109 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS T his marks the 86th year since the founding of Pratt & Whitney and we are proud to continue delivering an ever-expanding collection of propulsion systems to customers around the world. Since our formation unmatched safety dependable reliability and maturity with proven performance have been a hallmark of the Pratt & Whitney name. Accelerates to supersonic speeds in seconds. Operation at metal-searing temperatures with uncompromising reliability. These are some of the performance demands placed on Pratt & Whitney engines that power the world s most technologically sophisticated weapon systems--the F119 powers the F-22 Raptor and the F135 powers the F-35 Lightning II-- today and into the future. The F135 is the world s most powerful fighter engine and has successfully powered more than 1 000 test flights and nearly 1 500 flight hours to date. It promises unparal- leled single engine safety derived from a proven fifth generation fighter engine the F119 that continues to successfully power the F-22. The F135 delivers more than forty thousand pounds of thrust and incorporates stealth technology supersonic speeds and vertical lift capabilities. The F135 brings cutting-edge technology to address the complex and diverse needs of today s military forces and its roots in the rock-solid F119 give customers even greater confidence in its ability to deliver results and reduce risk. Pratt & Whitney s F117 provides exclusive power for the C-17 Globemaster III the world s premier heavy airlifter. Four F117 engines each rated at 40 440 pounds of thrust enable the C-17 transport to carry a payload of 160 600 pounds take off from a 7 600-foot airfield and fly 2 400 nautical miles without refueling which enables the C-17 to Pratt&Whitney enginespowerthe world smosttechnologicallysophisticated weaponsystemssuch astheF135powering theF-35LightningII answer the call for humanitarian aid around the globe. With more than 50 million hours of proven military and commercial service the F117 PW2037 reinforces Pratt & Whitney s promise to deliver Dependable Engines. Pratt & Whitney s F100-series engines are the workhorse for the U.S. Air Force s (USAF) F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon and air forces in 23 nations. More than 7 200 engines have been built since entering into service in 1972. The engines have accumulated more than 21 000 000 flight hours under the most rigorous operational environments found around the world. The latest evolution the F100PW-229 Enhanced Engine Package (EEP) is now in production. Our military products and customers worldwide benefit from a proven and comprehensive range of services to meet all maintenance readiness and product support requirements. n TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Pratt & WHitNey CONTENTS raDa State-of-the-art radars iNS and avionics integration. ADA Electronic Industries Ltd. an Israeli defense electronics system house won worldwide recognition as a leading supplier of avionics systems. Best known for its Video Data Recording and Management product lines RADA has provided Digital Video & Data recorders and Head-Up Display Cameras into thousands of fighter aircraft and trainers supporting training missions and optimized debriefing abilities with Its Ground Debriefing Stations (GDS). RADA s systems are currently installed onboard IAF s Su-30 MiG29 MiG-27 Jaguar IJT and ALH aircraft and on the Sea Harrier of the Indian Navy. Following extensive investment in Research and Development in recent years RADA has expanded its portfolio to include Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) for air and land applications comprehensive avionics solutions (such as aircraft upgrades avionics for UAVs stores management systems mission & interface computers) and the brand new line of state-of-the-art R AESA Radars for force and border protection solutions. RADA s range of advanced Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) was launched two years ago at AeroIndia 2009. The company offers two product classes the R-100F fiber optical gyro (FOG) based high grade navigation systems family for aircraft tanks and artillery and the R-200M Micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) based inertial navigation systems family optimized for unmanned systems guided weapons and ground vehicles. Since the launch of its INS line RADA has established its position as a leading provider of high quality navigation solutions competing on several pro- (Top)RHS-30 radarunit (Above)R-100F GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE grams worldwide for aircraft helicopters and unmanned systems. The company integrates its INS capability with compact low-weight hardware to introduce advanced avionics optimized for small unmanned platforms. In this class RADA offers an all-in-one core-avionics solution for small UAVs known as MAVINS . The company also has a large portfolio of systems customized for partners developing and producing high altitude and medium altitude unmanned platforms (HALE MALE) such as the Heron TP UAV. The latest addition to RADA s portfolio is the family of AESA Radars. RADA offers multi-mission radars that provide hemispheric coverage (MHR) and are in the heart of force protection (the RPS-40 radar) close air-defense (the RPS-42 radar) and border protection (the RHS-44 radar) solutions. These highly sophisticated and powerful yet affordable radar systems are integrated with peripheral C4I systems over standard Ethernet links. In addition RADA s proven RPS-10 radar is the detection sensor for Active Protection Systems (APS) for tanks and AFVs. n 110 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue raFael the Perfect Partner for india s Defense Needs IronDome Expertise in a Wide Range of Defense Solutions Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd designs develops manufactures and supplies a wide range of high-tech defense systems for air land sea and space applications. Tailored to its customer s specific needs Rafael provides stateof-the-art yet cost-effective systems and weapons in the fields of Missiles air defense naval systems target acquisition EW C4ISR communication networks data links electro-optic payloads add-on armor combat vehicle upgrading mine field breaching border and coastal protection systems breaching munitions and much more. SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 111 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO Defenseagainst Shortrangeartillery rockets Rafael The Company Rafael was established as part of Israel s Ministry of Defense more than 50 years ago and was incorporated in 2002. Currently 7% of its sales are invested in R&D. Rafael s know-how is embedded in almost all Israel Defense Forces (IDF) systems in operation today. The company has a special relationship INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS raytheon World-leading solutions. trusted world-class partnerships. aytheon delivers a diverse range of integrated defence and security technologies across air land sea space and cyberspace domains. They are united by a common resolve to defend lives nations and infrastructure against diverse and evolving threats. Our 40-year heritage of trusted industrial partnerships in India continues to push the envelope of air traffic management multi-role combat aircraft civil and coastal security integrated air and missile defence and intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance. We remain dedicated to helping India develop its industrial base -- and to promoting the nation s economic growth through innovative programmes and joint partnerships. Together we re turning innovative thinking into robust reliable and cost-effective solutions. Air Traffic Management For more than 60 years Raytheon R HawkXXIbrings has designed developed and delivered the world s most innovative comprehensive and reliable portfolio of Communication Navigation Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS ATM) solutions for every type of civilian and military application. Few companies possess our depth of expertise or level of experi- SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 113 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO thecombatexperience ofHawkandadded firepowerof SL-AMRAAM. ence in all phases of flight which allows us to safely handle the evolving challenges of increased capacity and efficiency for manned and unmanned air traffic. Our design manufacturing and servicing capabilities continue to enhance a full line of Air Traffic Management systems and products around the globe. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS roSoboroNexPort russian aircraft for india all that the air Force army Navy and Special Forces may need SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 115 REGIONAL BALANCE ussia is steadily increasing its arms exports to the world market. Last year Rosoboronexport the sole arms trade state company raised its military sales value in excess of 8.6 billion USD which largely surpasses the 7.4 billion USD level achieved in 2009 thus setting a new record of the recent years. The equipment was imported by 58 countries whereas Rosoboronexport cooperates with more than 70 countries in total. Notwithstanding Russia s active penetration into new regional markets India still remains its principal partner in military technical cooperation that started in 1964 with first deliveries of the MiG-21 fighters. Aerospace technologies have always been at the heart of this cooperation and this is where most of the large-scale and promising projects are going to be developed. The Su-30MKI multi-role fighter produced by licence at R the HAL s industrial facilities is a vivid illustration of the fact that besides advanced military equipment Russia transfers to India also advanced manufacturing and repair technologies. These days the Indian Air Force is operating more than one hundred of these modern- RussiaandIndia arejointlydeveloping thefifthgeneration fighteraircraft(FGFA) GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE type multi-role fighters to reliably protect the national air space. Their further upgrading is foreseen at the next stage of the programme. In particular it includes plans to integrate the BrahMos Russian-Indian missile into the onboard weapon system of the fighter. ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS rUbin Submarines of aMUr family I n the initial period of history of submarine shipbuilding the submarines were considered as weapon of weak using submarines the countries that were unable to have large fleet of surface ships due to some reasons could rely upon a success in the struggle with powerful naval enemy. Now the situation is drastically changed submarines are no more weapon of weak but on the contrary weapon of strong just countries that are characterized by Theleadship (Sankt-Petersburg)of theproject677 Lada wastransferredtothe RussianNavyin2010 GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE rather established economic position could allow themselves to operate submarines in their navies. Modern submarine is a universal tool of naval warfare capable to solve diverse combat tasks effectively and secretly and practically 118 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue top-tier aerospace and defense partner SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 121 REGIONAL BALANCE agem (Safran group) is one of the world s leading suppliers of optronics avionics and navigation systems electronics and safety critical software. It has 7 000 employees and annual sales of 1.2 billion euros. Safran is a leading international hightechnology group and a tier-1 supplier of systems and equipment for aerospace (propulsion and equipment) defense and security. The group has over 54 000 employees and operations in more than 50 countries. Sagem is organized in three divisions Avionics Optronics & Defense and Safran Electronics. It has international subsidiaries which report to these divisions Optics 1 Inc. (US) Robonic Oy. (Finland) Safran Electronics Canada Inc. (Canada) Safran Electronics Asia Pte. Ltd. (Singapore) Sagem Avionics Inc. (US) Sagem Navigation GmbH (Germany) Vectronix AG (Switzerland) and Vectronix Inc. (US). Sagem is one of only two companies in the world to apply all key inertial navigation technologies mechanical vibrating resonant optical-fiber and laser gyros needed for the air land and sea ensuring national sover- eignty. No. 1 in Europe and No. 3 worldwide in this sector It develops and produces navigation systems ranging from small vibrating sensors to the navigation system of ballistic missile nuclear submarines. The Sigma family of laser gyro navigation systems is used by leading combat platforms including Rafale Su-30MK1 MiG-29 Airbus A400M NH90 and EC725 helicopters FREMM and Horizon frigates Barracuda and Scorp ne submarines Leclerc main battle tank Caesar gun etc. Sagem provides mission planning systems SICOPS to manage air bases and develops and produces the AASM Hammer air-to-ground precision modular weapon. Sagem s Optronics & Defense division offers a wide range of optronic systems for all types of platforms including missiles (seekers). The division offers solutions based on its expertise spanning optronics electronics information and communications systems and systems integration. It is prime contractor for the French FELIN infantry program and a major partner of FIST in the United Kingdom and the IMESS in Switzerland. It also supplies the ThreeSagemAASM Hammerair-to-ground modularweapons andanair-to-airMica missileonaRafale ofthe1-91Gascogne squadronofthe Frenchairforceduring NatooperationUnified ProtectoroverLibya GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Sitel tactical information system of the French army. This division develops and produces drone systems that call on its expertise (avionics optronics communications and ground control). With the Sperwer system Sagem is the European leader in tactical drones and it is also developing the new PatrollerTM medium-altitude longendurance drone. The Safran Electronics division comprises some 1 500 specialists in electronics and safety-critical software. Working for all Safran companies this division develops and produces computers printed circuit boards and the associated software. These items are used for a number of Safran group products including landing and braking systems aircraft engine control systems avionics navigation and optronics systems etc. Sagem has worked successfully with the Indian armed forces and the Indian aviation industry for over 25 years in particular HAL. The company supplies systems and equipment to the Indian forcer notably gyro-laser INS that are used on the Sukho 30 MKI Jaguar MiG27 LCA Hawk and MiG29K and artillery systems. n ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES SaGeM CONTENTS SaMtel DiSPlay SySteMS your Partner for Cockpit Naval and Military Displays avionics equipment and Systems amtel Display Systems (SDS) is a key Indian player in hightechnology products for avionics and military applications in both domestic and international markets. SDS straddles the entire value chain from design development manufacture testing qualification repair & maintenance and obsolescence management of avionics products and equipment for military as well as commercial aircraft. Its products and services include Multi-Functional Displays (MFDs) Smart MultiFunctional Displays (SMFDs) Full Colour Displays (FCD) for commercial aircraft Head Up Displays (HUDs) Helmet Mounted Sight Displays (HMSDs) Automated Test Equipment (ATEs) ISIS Solutions Multifunction Indicators 3ATI & 4ATI Infra Red Search and Track (IRST) Rugged military displays for Land Naval and Airborne platforms Built-to-print (BTP) manufacturing MRO services and Obsolescence Management. SDS is a part of the Samtel Group -- India s largest integrated manufacturer of a wide range of displays S for television avionics industrial and professional applications glass components for displays machinery and engineering services. The group has an annual turnover of Rs 12 billion (USD 270M). SDS s JV with Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) was created to address the avionics requirements of HAL and also take up international projects eventually. SHDS portfolio includes system design development manufacturing MRO and obsolescence management of display systems ATE and IADS for all HAL star platforms - both fixed and rotary wing. The Samtel HAL JV has achieved the unique distinction of being the first public-private partnership in defence avionics space in India to have its cockpit display qualified and productionised for induction on Su-30 MKI aircraft. Samtel Thales Avionics SDS JV with Thales is intended to locally (Left)Samtel s MILcertifiedfacilities atDelhi-NCR(Right) Samtel-HALMFDs inductedonSU-30MKI GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE develop customize manufacture sell and maintain indigenous HelmetMounted Sight and Display Systems and modern Avionics Systems for the Indian and export defence markets. SDS also has a long-term contract with Thales to supply Full Colour Displays for Airbus (A320 A330 340) and is the sole source to supply Honeywell with EFIS 40--an electronic flight instrument system for Honeywell s Bendix King range. An MoU has also been signed between SDS and Saab Avitronics for RIGS HUD. Samtel is operating with SAE AS 9100 Rev-B quality system standard at its production facilities in Delhi NCR. SDS has been awarded with Frost & Sullivan Hot Investment Opportunity Award 2009 and Gold trophy of the EMPI- Indian Express Indian Innovation Awards 2010. Samtel is truly poised to become the ideal partner for all avionics display system integrators around the world. n 122 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue SeleX Galileo S SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 123 REGIONAL BALANCE Core Capabilities SELEX Galileo is at the forefront of technologies considered by many customers as being critical to mission success and survivability. The Company applies these technologies into products in an integrated way to match the required capabilities of Customers. SELEX Galileo is a partner of choice for providing capabilities in Battlespace Surveillance Simulation Training Service and Support Solutions. n In the battle-space SELEX Galileo provides a range of products that enhance battlefield effectiveness through improved situational awareness together with comprehensive Electronic Warfare products and Operational Support solutions principally for airborne and maritime applications. n In the airborne environment the Company delivers fully thedevelopmentof Captor-E an electronicallyscanned radarsolutionforthe Eurofighter-Typhoon theGabbiano surveillanceradar aswellastheGrifo fire-controlradarof whichover450have beensoldworldwide SELEX-Galileoleads GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE ELEX Galileo forms part of the Finmeccanica Group of companies that specialises in the design manufacture and life cycle support for a wide portfolio of products and technologies that span aerospace defence and security applications. Our vision is to deliver to our Customers total awareness and total protection so helping them to see and keeping them safe. integrated surveillance systems that are able to directly support decision makers in their response. They also provide a complete range of nextgeneration electronicallyscanned radar solutions that span the complete spectrum of airborne applications from Mini-UAV s through rotary wing and patrol aircraft to front-line combat aircraft n SELEX Galileo s simulation facilities give crews the constant training they need to reach the highest level of efficiency. n Across the whole business innovative support and service solutions improve the overall outcomes for our Customers while reducing their throughlife costs. Key items in our extensive product portfolio are n Airborne Radars Supplying both mechanically-scanned BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS tata MotorS T ata Motors Limited is India s largest automobile company with revenues of 27.3 billion in 201011. Through subsidiaries and associate companies Tata Motors has operations in the UK South Korea Thailand and Spain. Among them is Jaguar Land Rover. It also has an industrial joint venture with Fiat in India. With over 4 million Tata vehicles plying in India Tata Motors is the country s market leader in commercial vehicles and among the top three in Passenger vehicles. The company is the world s Fourth largest truck manufacturer and the world s second largest bus manufacturer. Tata cars buses and trucks are being marketed in several countries in Europe Africa the Middle East South East Asia and South America. Tata Motors has been associated with the country s defence forces since 1958. Over 1 00 000 vehicles have been supplied to Indian Military and paramilitary forces so far. Tata Motors defence solutions cover the complete range of logistics and armoured vehicles. The recent launch of combat and tactical vehicles and equipment will allow it to leverage the entire defence mobility spectrum. Tata Motors offers products and services that not only meet the needs of the domestic market but are also positioned to meet most of the stringent requirements of armies across the world. Tata Motors exports its range of specialized defence vehicles to countries in the SAARC region ASEAN and Africa. Tata Motors has a range of armoured vehicles for catering to varied needs of Armed forces. It includes Armoured Sumo for CIOps Armoured Safari for VVIPs travel Light Armoured Troop Carrier (LATC) 8x8 weapon platforms Armoured Bus Light Specialist vehicles (LSV) and Mine Protected Vehicles (MPV). Tata Motors is now focusing on modernization and system upgrades of mobility platforms. Project management and system integration expertise has positioned Tata Motors as prime contractor in various upgrades and life extension programme based on in-house GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE core competencies and technologies. Such upgrade programme includes Missiles Carriers Mine Protected Vehicles Main Battle Tanks (MBT) and Infantry Combat Vehicles. In addition to products Tata Motors defence solutions include Consultancy & Advisory Service Prime Contracting Services R&D and Test Services Information Technology (Software Hardware services) manufacturing Services Maintenance and Repair Services Packing Storage and Transport Service. Mr P M Telang Managing Director (India Operations) of Tata Motors Said Our aim is to participate in the entire defence value chain. Besides consolidating our traditional supplies going forward we will also participate in creating vehicles and equipment specific to the defence sector and also offer our expertise in upgrades and life extention programmes. In addition to our own initiatives we will form appropriate partnerships and harness the capabilities of our own subsidiaries and other Tata Group companies . n 126 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue thaleS technology leader in Defence & Security and aerospace & transport Air Force Support Ground Transportation Activities Aerospace Activities T headquarters DelhI lucknow GwalIor SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 127 REGIONAL BALANCE hales has been operating in India since 1953. The Group participated in the creation of Bharat Electronics Ltd. and has been a constant partner of the Indian Armed Forces ever since. After opening its first permanent representative office in Delhi in 1970 Thales created a service company in 2003 Thales International Pvt Ltd with the aim to develop in India customer support and services. A further initiative in 2006 was the creation of a new joint venture Rolta Thales Ltd. (RTL) in the field of C4ISR defence and homeland security. The JV is located in Mumbai. Furthermore in 2008 Thales signed with Samtel a JV agreement to locally develop and produce Helmet Mounted Sight and Display Systems and modern avionics for the defence market. This second JV based in Noida is the basis for all future aerospace development in India. All Thales entities except JV were incorporated in 2008 under Thales India Pvt Ltd. Today Naval Activities Airline Support MuMbaI Aerospace Activities Space Activities hyDerabaD banGalore chennaI kochI Software Development Naval Support VIzaG Ground Transportaion Activities Aerospace Acitvities Radar Activities Naval Support Thales India 260 employees 8 locations 2 Joint Ventures Thales India run offices in Delhi Gwalior Mumbai Visakhapatnam Bangalore Chennai Kochi and Lucknow to better serve its Army Navy Air Force and Civil customers. Major contracts with the MoD have included n Air defence radars and systems (THD 1955 Master M Flycatcher Mark 1...) n Upgrade of Mirage 2000 fleet n Vicon 91 Reconnaissance pods for the Air Force. n FLYCATCHER Mk1 Radar and Fire Control System. n Avionics and INGPS for military n n n n GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE n ASIAN WHO S WHO n n aircraft (Mirage 2000 Mig 21 and 27 Su 30...). Optronics 500 HHTI Sophie and 1000 Catherine Thermal Imagers on T90. EW systems for Army and Navy. Sonars on the Sea King helicopters and Scorpene submarines. Mine Hunting sonar and CMS for the Karwar class refit. Mission Display System (on Mir29). DA 04 and LW08 long-range surveillance radar for Navy. Other equipment on KIRAN CHEETAK LUK DO 228. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Major indian armed Forces Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Udhampur (HQ Northern Command) Army Shimla (HQ Army Training Command) Chandimandir (HQ Western Command) Army New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Army)) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Navy)) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Air Force)) New Delhi (HQ Western Air Command) Lucknow (HQ Central Command) Army Shillong (HQ Eastern Air Command) Allahabad (HQ Central Air Command) Gandhinagar (HQ South-Western Air Command) Kolkata (HQ Eastern Command) Army 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Nagpur (HQ Maintenance Command) IAF Mumbai (HQ Western Naval Command) Pune (HQ Southern Command) Army Vishakhapatnam (HQ Eastern Naval Command) Bengaluru (HQ Training Command) IAF Kochi (HQ Southern Naval Command) Thiruvananthapuram (HQ Southern Air Command) New Delhi (HQ Strategic Forces Command) Port Blair (HQ Andaman & Nicobar Command) New Delhi (HQ Integrated Defence Staff) Jaipur (HQ South-Western Command) Army SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 129 Authors profile air Marshal (retd) a.k. trikha The author s illustrious career in the IAF comprised extensive tenure in the Jaguar strike aircraft bases as Chief Operations Officer base commander. He superannuated from the IAF in the post of AOC-in-C Southern Air Command. n ArTICle On pAge 87 Major General (retd) Dr G.D. bakshi He is a graduate of the national Defence Academy. He was commissioned in the 6th Battalion of the Jammu & Kashmir rifles in 1971 and is a highly combat experienced officer who commanded his Battalion Brigade and Division in live combat environments in J&K. He has authored 23 books and written over a hundred papers for prestigious defence journals to include Strategic Analysis Indian Defence Review and Indian Military Review. n ArTICle On pAge 17 admiral (retd) arun Prakash Admiral Arun prakash retired as naval Chief and Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee in 2006. He commanded the Indian navy s eastern Fleet the national Defence Academy the Andaman & nicobar Joint Command and the Western naval Command. He is currently a member of India s national Security Advisory Board and Chairman of the national Maritime Foundation. n ArTICle On pAge 21 brigadier (retd) Gurmeet kanwal Brigadier gurmeet Kanwal is a well-known military and strategic analyst who commanded an infantry brigade on the l0C with pakistan. He has been a Military Observer in the United nations Mission UnTAg in namibia. He has authored several books and is currently the Director Centre for land Warfare Studies (ClAWS) new Delhi. n ArTICle On pAge 25 101 Colonel (retd) ali ahmed He is a research Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses new Delhi where he works on doctrinal issues. A former Infantry colonel he has been earlier a fellow at the United Services Institution of India new Delhi. He writes for Salute and n ArTICle On pAge 39 Major General (retd) Mrinal Suman general Suman heads the Defence Technical Assessment and Advisory Service (DTAAS) of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). As the first Technical Manager (land Systems) he was closely associated with the evolution and promulgation of the new defence procurement mechanism in which his expertise is well known. n ArTICle On pAge 113 117 air Marshal (retd) b.k. Pandey Air Marshal B.K. pandey retired from the IAF after serving the organisation for nearly 40 years. During his career he held a number of important command and staff appointments the last being that of AOC-in-C of Training Command of the IAF. Currently he is an editor with the Sp guide publications and is a resident of Bangalore. n ArTICle On pAge 63 265 289 lt General (retd) Naresh Chand He is a former Director general Army Air Defence member of Integrated guided Missile Development programme member secretary of the first national radar Council has served with DrDO and was also a consultant with the Bharat electronics ltd. He was also involved in writing the history of the regiment of Artillery history of the Corps of Army Air Defence publishing the first coffee table book for the regiment of Artillery and the Corps of Army Air Defence. At present he is the Technical group editor with Sp guide publications. n ArTICle On pAge 97 321 Dr bhupendra kumar Singh He was a full time Consultant (energy Security) at the Ministry of external Affairs government of India where he helped the government adopt an Integrated energy policy contributed in the formulation of India s national Action plan on Climate Change formulated India s external policy on energy and climate change. He is a Deputy Director (energy) at the Confederation of Indian Industry new Delhi. He is a member of International Association of energy economics USA. n ArTICle On pAge 47 lt General (retd) P.C. katoch lt general p.C. Katoch superannuated as Director general Information Systems of the Indian Army. A third generation army officer he commanded Strike Corps in the South Western Theatre. He has served as Defence Attach in Japan with accreditation to republic of Korea. He is currently settled in gurgaon. n ArTICle On pAge 53 59 73 315 Commander (retd) Devbrat Chakraborty Commander Devbrat Chakraborty was commissioned in the Indian navy in 1986. He holds a Masters degrees in nautical Sciences and Defence and Strategic Studies. He is currently pursuing post-graduation in Advanced Modeling and Simulation at the University of Cranfield UK. He is an alumnus of the Defence Services Staff College in Wellington Indian Institute for Foreign Trade new Delhi and Indian Institute of Management in Bangalore. He is now a maritime operations analyst at the Boeing Analysis & experimentation Centre Bangalore. n ArTICle On pAge 67 ambassador (retd) ranjit Gupta A retired Indian Foreign Service officer ranjit gupta has been India s Ambassador to Yemen (north) Venezuela Oman Thailand and Spain and Head of the non-official office in Taiwan. He is now a member of the national Security Advisory Board and is leading a Joint research 130 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue Author s profile project with the gulf research Centre Dubai and on India gCC relations on behalf of the Ministry of external Affairs. n ArTICle On pAge 5 is currently Senior editorial Adviser of SP s Naval Forces and Technical editor of SP s Military Yearbook. n ArTICle On pAge 185 Major General r.P. bhadran Major general r.p. Bhadran an alumnus of the Indian Military Academy was commissioned to the Armoured Corps in 1979. He acquired a post-graduate degree in Combat Vehicles engineering in 1985. He is currently the Additional Director general Information Systems. n ArTICle On pAge 79 air Marshal (retd) V.k. bhatia The author has the distinction of having accumulated more than 5 000 hours of flying on all types of aircraft but mostly on single-engine fighters in the IAF. He was conferred gallantry awards (Vir Chakra) in both 1965 and 1971 wars against pakistan flying the Mystere and Su-7 respectively. He also has the rare distinction of being the AOC-in-C of three major operational commands of the IAF. He is currently the Senior Visiting editor of SP s Aviation and Technical editor of SP s MIlitary Yearbook. n ArTICle On pAge 43 109 211 Sanjay kumar A security analyst and prolific writer Sanjay Kumar has to his credit a number of articles on security published in leading Indian journals and websites. He is presently associated with the Vivekananda International Foundation new Delhi where he is entrusted with the responsibility of setting up a research resource Centre. n ArTICle On pAge 127 435 lt General (retd) V.k. kapoor lt general V.K. Kapoor was commissioned on February 9 1964. He is a specialist in armoured and mechanised warfare and in the art of war-gaming. prior to superannuating he was the Commandant of the Army War College at Mhow. He has written more than 90 articles for magazines and journals on strategic and military issues. He is currently the editor of SP s Land Forces and Technical editor of SP s Military Yearbook. n ArTICle On pAge 35 123 161 297 307 Commander Shishir Upadhyaya Commander Shishir Upadhyaya is a research Fellow at the national Maritime Foundation new Delhi. He holds dual Masters Degrees in Defence Strategy and Telecommunications and a pg Diploma in Shipping Management. He attended the Combined Intelligence research and Analysis Course with the Australian Defence Force in 2007 and is an alumnus of the prestigious SeAS 2010 Fellowship awarded by the US Department of State. n ArTICle On pAge 83 lt General (retd) V.k. Saxena lt general V.K. Saxena is an alumnus of Defence Services Staff College College of Defence Management and the coveted national Defence College. He is a silver-gunner and the first ever winner of the Director general of Artillery Trophy. He is currently the Commandant of the prestigious Army Air Defence College at gopalpur Orissa. n ArTICle On pAge 93 Smita Purushottam Smita purushottam is a Senior Fellow at the Institute of Defence Studies & Analyses new Delhi. She has served as Joint Secretary at the Foreign Service Institute Ministry of external Affairs Joint Secretary in the Integrated Defence Staff Headquarters in the Ministry of Defence Director Under Secretary (east europe Soviet Union) and SAArC and Under Secretary (Bhutan) in MeA. n ArTICle On pAge 9 lt General (retd) V.r. raghavan The general is a graduate from the royal Military College of Science and Army Staff College UK. general raghavan retired in 1994 as Director general of Military Operations of the Indian Army. Currently he is the Director Delhi policy group and president Centre for Security Analysis. The general has authored many books and a monograph. n ArTICle On pAge 1 Commodore (retd) Sujeet Samaddar Commodore Sujeet Samaddar graduated from IIT roorkee and served the Indian navy until his retirement as principal Director naval plans in 2009. He is an alumnus of College of Air Warfare Secunderabad Defence Services Staff College Wellington national Institute of Defence Studies Tokyo and the United nations University Tokyo. He has been a Fellow of the USI new Delhi and JIIA Tokyo. He is currently Vice president nOVA Integrated Systems. n ArTICle On pAge 105 lt General (retd) Vijay oberoi Commissioned in 1961 he is an International Fellow at the Army War College US. He has been gOC-in-C of Army Training Command and Western Command. Despite losing one leg in 1965 War he retired as the VCOAS in 2001. He was Founder Director of the Centre for land Warfare Studies (ClAWS) and is a prolific writer. n ArTICle On pAge 31 rear admiral (retd) Sushil ramsay rear Admiral Sushil ramsay retired after serving in the Indian navy for 38 years. He provided extensive strategic directions towards capacity building in logistics defence expenditure administrative reforms and restructuring of Services Headquarters. He has been naval Attach in the embassy of India in Moscow. He brigadier (retd) Vinod anand Brigadier Vinod Anand was Brigadier general Staff Joint Operations at Army Training Command in his last assignment. He is a post-graduate in defence and strategic studies. He was a Senior Fellow at the USI of India and is currently a senior fellow with Vivekananda International Foundation. n ArTICle On pAge 13 153 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue 131 IRIS-T far-sighted highly agile and resistant to countermeasures From the outset IRIS-T was designed to meet the new requirements of six European Air Forces. IRIS-T has been selected to arm the Eurofighter Typhoon Tornado JAS 39 Gripen F-16 and F-18 aircraft in those countries. Additionally Austria and Saudi Arabia will equip their Typhoons with IRIS-T Missiles. South Africa and Thailand also have chosen IRIS-T to equip its Gripen. Key design features of IRIS-T are Imaging Infrared Seeker Target Cueing with Helmet Mounted Sight and Other Sensors High-Agility Missile Thrust Vector Controlled Sidewinder Interoperability IRIS-T was developed jointly by Germany Greece Italy Norway Spain and Sweden with Diehl BGT Defence as industrial prime contractor. IRIS-T is in full-scale series production and service introduction started on 5 December 2005. Diehl BGT Defence GmbH & Co. KG P.O. Box 10 11 55 88641 berlingen Germany Phone 49 7551 89-2895 Fax 49 7551 89-4150 info 132 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue Contents One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Military Intervention Indo-US Strategic Partnership Indo-Russian Strategic Partnership India s Look East Policy The Afghan War India s Eastern Waters China s Military Build-up India s Internal Conflicts Two-Front War India s Nuclear Options Aerospace Capabilities India Pak & China Energy Security Integrated Theatre Commands Integrated Special Forces Command Nuclear Disaster in Japan Modelling & Simulation 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 31 35 39 43 47 53 59 63 67 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Concepts & Perspectives CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section one 1 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Use of Force in Statecraft The use of force in the new international security environment of statecraft will require continuous adaptation. What will not change is the close relationship between force diplomacy and political negotiations. n lt General (retd) V.r. raGhaVan Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 1 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE M ilitary force has been viewed all through history as the ultimate arbiter in managing international relations and is one of the main sources of state power. National power has been defined as the capacity to combine economic technological and military power to create condition of advantage in international arena. Even as economy and technology parameters have gained significance in the globalised world force still remains the critical ingredient of national power. Statesmen are yet to find an international system for peace and harmony and hence inter-state violence remains a significant factor in international relations. Rivalry and competition amongst states combined with miscalculations lead to tense confrontations which even diplomacy is unable to lessen. The use of force in situations where the opponents possess nuclear weapons further complicates the situation and imposes both dilemmas and risks of misperceptions. It has been rightly said that not only is diplomacy unable to prevent states from going to war it has also proved insufficient to get states out of war once it commences. As new powers rise in the international arena their sense of roles and rights change increasing the risk of conflict. Global and regional balances of power are characterised currently by unequal distribution of power. In addition globalisation has led to greater interdependence amongst major powers while many states find their monopoly of violence in external and internal conflicts reduced. Yet in the first decade of 21st century military force has been the dominant element in statecraft in different parts of the globe. Iraq Afghanistan Korean peninsula Georgia and the Israeli offensives in the Middle East have demonstrated the continuing reliance by states on military force. France and UK have used military capabilities to secure their interests and safeguard their citizens in Africa. The recent uprisings against totalitarian rulers in the Middle East have revealed the role military forces can perform in maintaining stability or perpetuating dictatorships within states. Equally the threat of using force by some major powers against the Colonel Muammar Gaddafi regime in Libya is demonstrative of this trend. China s use of military force in maintaining order in Tibet and Zhinjiang and its sabre-rattling against Taiwan add to this list of examples. The role of the United Nations is significant in understanding the use of force in international affairs. The UN was expected to work as a forum to avoid the need of force stop conflicts if they erupted provide peacekeeping forces to separate the parties to a conflict and help in finding solutions to the military conflict. In Iraq and Afghanistan the UN was effectively sidelined or bypassed when military force was used by the US-led coalition. The Bush doctrine of pre-emptive use of force against perceived threats from terrorists had widened the scope of using military force as part of statecraft. Some believe that little has changed after the Cold War since the core geostrategic interests of major powers have not changed. If anything the shift from geostrategic to geo-economic core interests for example in the oil producing Middle East have made that region even more susceptible to the use of force in managing international relations. China s muscular naval demonstrations in the seas around Japan and North Korea s military actions against South Korea are examples of this. Russia s formidable military response against Georgia was as much to BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 USAF intervention WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Military CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Contours of the relationship in the obama administration India will most likely strive for a truly multipolar world and therefore graded relationships are likely. If all goes well the US could be on the top of the list. For the US too India could be one of its closest friends but most likely not the best one. This should not be an unsatisfactory outcome for either side. n ranjit GuPta O Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 5 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ne of the most significant geopolitical developments of the first decade of the 21st century has been the unimaginably dramatic transformation of India-US relations. The watershed civilian nuclear deal catapulted India from being a nuclear pariah into the exclusive nuclear club and overturned the single most important issue of bilateral contentiousness. This agreement has become the leit motif of the new relationship. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh s putting his job on the line to win Parliamentary approval of this landmark agreement was indispensable in overcoming ingrained anti-American sentiment in India. In another completely new and enormously significant dimension virtually from scratch the United States and India have held more joint military exercises with each other than with any other country since 2002. These involved the army navy and air force and covered a multidisciplinary array of military activities. These include some naval exercises involving Japan Australia and Singapore also. Reaching out to India was an American initiative otherwise the process would almost certainly have been a non-starter. However this was not due to the blossoming of any sudden love for India but the result of cold calculations of the neo-conservatives who surrounded the then President George W. Bush and Bush s own view of India s potential and that a strong strategic relationship with India is essential to the fulfillment of the long-term US strategic objectives in Asia. The US encouraged its allies and close friends amongst countries of the Arabian Peninsula and East and South East Asia to reorient their own policies vis- -vis India and this has been a very welcome fallout of the strongly developing new relationship between the US and India. This rationale and all these elements have continued to be valid during Barack Obama s presidency. This will inevitably be a period of consolidation. Such periods are always and inevitably less exciting than those which witness spectacular breakthroughs which tend to generate exaggeratedly high expectations. As the canvas of bilateral engagement enlarges and the number of issues increases the process of strengthening relations will require great patience and a lot of hard pushing often frustrating by an increasingly larger number of people and in increasingly larger number of domains. There are new issues where both sides clearly wish to have a strong relationship but unexpected hurdles have emerged partly because India seems to want exceptional treatment and is often hypersensitive about sovereignty concerns while the Americans are perceived as being too legalistic demanding hectoring and prescriptive. Obama is constrained by the traditional approach of Democrats on issues such as non-proliferation and Kashmir and the consequences of the imperative need to wind down America s draining wars. Wracked by one scam after another increasing publicly paraded evidence of deteriorating governance and a perception that a few important cabinet members do not share the enthusiasm and vision of the Prime Minister regarding stronger relations with the US Manmohan Singh s domestic political clout has weakened considerably too. Therefore neither of the two can overcome increasing domestic constraints and GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 PIB Strategic Partnership WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Indo-US CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Changing dimensions in the 21st Century Russia has proven to be of great help in times of crisis for India and is a reliable partner. This is a valuable relationship which has served India over the years and is likely to remain so. However India needs to make an extra effort to maintain it at the high levels by exploring new dimensions of friendship which can be highly beneficial to both countries and for global peace. n SMita PUrUShottaM Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book I Russia s Decline The last decade of the 20th century had brought about an enormous change in Russia s position. With the collapse of the Soviet Union Russia s transition from a centrally planned heavy industry oriented economy to a market economy was accompanied by severe crises and falling gross domestic product (GDP). The West which had failed to appreciate the role that the yearning for freedom had played in the demise of the Soviet system attributed it instead to the success of their GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 9 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO n order to assess the course of the Indo-Russian strategic partnership in the 21st century a brief survey of the overall international environment has been attempted in this article as a purely binary framework would severely constrict useful analysis. Extrapolating linearly from the past would also be simplistic as both India and Russia have changed enormously from the days of the Indo-Soviet partnership when the Soviet Union had stepped in to back India during the 1971 crisis in Bangladesh. And yet while the bewildering pace of global transformation makes hazarding long-term projections a very risky enterprise--geography and balance of power continue to play as few remaining constants in international relations. Their continued silence should therefore mitigate anxieties over hypothesising about future scenarios in bilateral relations. Russian-Chinese Partnership It was no wonder that Russia turned increasingly towards China to record its opposition to unilateralism North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) expansion and the stationing of ballistic missile defences on its doorstep. Russia massively increased exports of military equipment to China supplying 22 billion ( 99 000 crore) worth of armaments to China between 2000 and 2010. China extended a 25 billion ( 1 25 000 crore) loan to build a spur from the EPSO II pipeline originally destined exclusively for the Pacific Coast--which would deliver 15 million tonnes of Siberian oil annually for 20 years to China. A friendly Russia was essential to China during the first decade of the new century as it extended control over Central Asian energy resources transportation networks (including parts of Pakistan occupied Kashmir) and pipelines thus reducing its dependence on sea-routed energy supplies and petro-dollars part of its strategy to edge the dollar out as the dominant international reserve currency and establish its primacy in the Eastern hemisphere. A genuine Russia-Chinese partnership belying years of mutual wariness appeared to be in the making. INDIAN DEFENCE containment policies. They thus persisted with these policies while Western advisers proffered grossly inadequate counsel on economic transition policy which contributed to the Russian economy s collapse. From being a geopolitical pole Russia was relegated to a mid-level power. The crises hardships and foreign policy setbacks that Russia suffered neutralised goodwill towards the West--which was now seen as a source of its problems. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 PIB Strategic Partnership WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Indo-Russian CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m emerging Security Challenges Although India s Look East Policy was started off as an initiative to secure its economic interests it has acquired strategic overtones over the years due to the emergence of China as a dominant power in the region and other unconventional threats. n briGadier (retd) Vinod anand & dr GnanaGUrUnathan B Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 13 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE etter late than never--perhaps this old adage captures India s recalibration of its engagement with South East and East Asia. Although the implosion of Soviet Union had brought about a change in the global order and unipolarity in the early 1990s it has brought minimal change in the status quo in Asia-Pacific and South Asia. The United States maintained its hub and spoke policy in Asia-Pacific to perpetuate its dominance and continued its Pakistan-centric South Asia policy. Even though India has always had global aspirations to become an important player in the international system resource limitation constrained India from pursuing a global role. The liberalisation of Indian economy to overcome the balance of payment crisis in 1991 not only unleashed latent market forces but also resulted in a shift in India s engagement with the world at large South East and East Asian region in particular. As India began to pursue a new identity the success of Asian Tigers attracted India s attention towards them in search for markets increased trade and investment opportunities. India s Look East Policy was unveiled in 1992 with considerable enthusiasm and interest. But the response of the target states was limited in scope and scale towards India s overtures. Nonetheless India s significance as an emerging global player has increased commensurate with its economic development. Year 2012 will be celebrated as two decades of India-ASEAN engagement with a Commemorative Summit thus it is useful to review the progress made so far in our Look East Policy and find portends for the future. As India s global profile improved the new millennium also witnessed two significant developments in the international system. First the emergence of unconventional security challenges in the form of radical extremist Islamist groups with global agendas piracy on the high seas and natural disasters which threatened the legitimacy and efficacy of nation-states second the advent of China as a first-tier power in the international system challenging the predominance of the United States. Historically whenever revisionist power(s) attempted to change the existing international order other powers efforts to maintain the status quo has always resulted in great power conflict and wars. Therefore successfully negotiating these challenges has become the principal priority of the concerned states in the international system. Besides preparing to meet these new security challenges India had also to recalibrate its engagement with countries in South East and East Asia region to enhance its economic development through seeking investment in various sectors and importing technology to facilitate its energy demands and other appropriate fields. Earlier although most states showed initial enthusiasm to engage with India it remained a non-starter. One reason was that their economic and trade demands were met within the region second the United States was able to provide stability and security in the region finally China was yet to show signs of its great power aspirations. But as of now South Korea has become one of the top 10 investors in India and the latest to agree for a civil nuclear cooperation with India. On the other hand India s long association with Japan as a major exporter of raw materials and GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 PIB look east Policy WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India s CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m US Army wikipedia a Victim of Pride and arrogance It would be in India s interest to see that no single state or any state inimical to India ever dominates Afghanistan. Failure of the Afghan state could have dangerous consequences for the region. Hence all regional players need to be co-opted. n Major General (retd) dr G.d. bakShi T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 17 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he Afghan War has been the victim of two extreme episodes of hubris. First the Taliban became a victim of its own propaganda. In 2001 (at the time of Operation Enduring Freedom) despite the withdrawal of Pakistani troops and tanks it decided to fight like a regular army and courted disaster at the hands of the US airpower. It was the Americans turn now to display hubris America seriously under-resourced this war. It switched its attention to Iraq and decided to leave a very small footprint of just 10 000 US troops supported by airpower in Afghanistan. As Seth Jones the US scholar on Taliban says that the US squandered this extraordinary opportunity. No professional Afghan National Army (ANA) was created and the new state was forced to rely upon the discredited warlords and some 50 000-70 000 poorly trained militia men of the Northern Alliance. The battered Taliban fled to sanctuaries in Pakistan s North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and soon reorganised itself. The poppy crop acreage in Afghanistan now shot up by ten times from 20 000 acres in 2001 to 1 83 000 acres in 2001-02 and by 2007 it had reached the astounding level of 4 77 000 acres. The simple fact is that up to 50 per cent of the Afghan population had been killed wounded or had fled as refugees. It could just not sustain the manpower intensive agriculture. Planting poppy needed no manpower and was thus the easiest option. This provided the financial source for the rejuvenation of the Taliban. 2005 2006 2007 1 268 casualties 3 154 casualties 5 818 casualties The bulk of these casualties were caused by IEDs The world which had literally forgotten Afghanistan now saw disaster staring at it. A major effort to save the situation was undertaken. The levels of US International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) troop commitment quadrupled. In two surges it rose from 22 100 troops in 2006 to over 1 00 000 men in 2011. The first surge The first surge of some 17 000 troops and 4 000 trainers was sent in May 2009. It raised overall force levels to 68 000 US and 32 000 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) troops. The American formations inducted were n 82 Combat Aviation Brigade (130 helicopters 4 000 troops) n 2 Marine Expeditionary Force (8 000 marines) n 5 Stryker Brigade (4 000 troops) With this initial surge the US and NATO forces launched Operation GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE Afghanistan was soon producing up to 82 per cent of the world s poppy and 93 per cent of the world s heroin. The Taliban got a windfall of almost 4 billion ( 18 000 crore) a year from this drug trade. The Taliban insurgency began to revive slowly. In 2003 there were almost four attacks per day. This rose to five attacks per day in 2004. Year 2005 was the turning point. The Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) now encouraged the Taliban to resume operations in a major way. The casualty figures speak out for themselves. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 afghan War WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES The CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m MoD China threats & Challenges India s peninsular location at the median of the Indian Ocean places it in a dominating position which is not without its challenges. India s interests lie both in the Persian Gulf Middle East and Africa to its west as well as in South East Asia and the larger Asia-Pacific to the east. It must therefore assume a Janus-faced stance looking at both directions to safeguard its interests and keep a wary eye on emerging threats. n adMiral (retd) arUn PrakaSh Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book I 21 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ndia s Look East Policy initiated in the early 1990s by Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao had its provenance in an unusual set of circumstances. The collapse of the Soviet Union heralded the end of Cold War and the establishment of a new global equation in which the US had no peer or challenger and India found itself friendless. In Asia as Japan entered a period of economic recession China began to emerge as a significant player and the ASEAN nations dramatically improved their economies. India was groping for answers to its economic woes. The Narasimha Rao government administered several urgent firstaid measures in the form of economic reforms which were collectively termed as liberalisation and the doctor who was called in to fix the problem was none other than the incumbent Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh who was then Finance Minister of the country. The Look East Policy was part of India s overall response to the new and changing milieu in the region. A decade and a half later Dr Manmohan Singh said ... India s Look East Policy was not merely an external economic policy it was also a strategic shift in India s vision of the world and India s place in the evolving global economy. Most of all it was about reaching out to our civilisational neighbours. However while reaching out to its neighbours India s foreign policy and security establishments have typically overlooked a cru- Glimpses of Maritime History The most prominent features of the Indian Ocean are the two waterbodies flanking the great Indian peninsula the Arabian Sea separating it from the African continent and the Bay of Bengal from mainland South East Asia. Both have played a crucial role in defining India s maritime environment and thus shaping its history as well as destiny. The waters of the Arabian Sea have sustained a tradition of trade and commerce going back to the third millennium BCE when the denizens of the Indus Valley (2500 BCE) traded with Mesopotamia Egypt and Rome. Indian mariners familiar with the clockwork regularity of the monsoon winds and making use of a magnetic compass (matsya yantra) are said to have sailed freely across this sea in ancient times. It was only in the first century CE when a Greek navigator named Hippalus made the epochal discovery of the cyclic monsoon winds that foreign merchant ships started making a direct ocean passage from African and Arabian ports to India s west coast. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE cial aspect of India s approach the maritime factor. Blessed with an abundance of archipelagos islands straits channels and undersea resources South East Asia is also plagued by maritime disputes threats and challenges. A glance at the naval ambitions of these countries provides an indication of the importance being accorded to the maritime domain. Given India s own extensive maritime interests and concerns it becomes obvious that its eastern seaboard and the Bay of Bengal now merit special attention from strategists as well as foreign policy planners. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 eastern Waters WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India s CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m MoD China implications for india Nuclear weapons are best deterred by nuclear weapons and as a logical corollary only missiles can deter missiles. Hence India must develop test and operationally induct the Agni-III and Agni-IV intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) so as to be able to upgrade its present strategic posture of dissuasion to one of credible deterrence against China. n briGadier (retd) GUrMeet kanWal Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book C India is conscious and watchful of the implications of China s evolving military profile in the immediate and extended neighbourhood. -- Ministry of Defence Annual Report 2010-11 hina is making steady progress on its long march to acquire world power status. China s long-term strategy is clearly to be recognised as the pre-eminent economic and military power in the Asia-Pacific region in the short-term and as a major global power in the long-term. Its strategy of four modernisations formally adopted in 1978 is bearing fruit and is leading to fairly rapid though regionally skewed economic development and military modernisation. In recent years the Chinese have stressed the importance of comprehensive national strength in determining the country s role in international affairs. Their concept of national defence is no longer limited merely to the defence of territory but has been expanded to include the seaboard and outer space. In maritime security the erstwhile strategy of coastal defence has been converted to a strategy of oceanic offensive . The emphasis on bolstering naval and air forces stems from a desire to project power well away from China s shores. Whether China s rise will be entirely peaceful as its leaders have repeatedly professed or one that may be marked by turbulence and chaos as some analysts fear is a vexing issue. History is witness to Development of Comprehensive National Power China s grand strategy seeks to preserve national independence and increase in national power through the balancing of two competing objectives--the development of Comprehensive National Power (CNP zonghe guoli) and the exploitation of existing strategic configuration of power or shi . China s strategy affirms that national unity sovereignty and stability guarantee the survival of the state and the development of a national strategy with China at the centre of Asia. Incorporated in this strategy is Chinese patience or willingness to live with ambiguity before considering the employment of force so that advantage is obtained moral high ground is occupied and supporters or non-supporters are identified. China s national security policy objectives dynamic stability and economic growth are directly linked to the maintenance of unity through preservation of the regime domestic order and territorial integrity. In a RAND study Michael Swaine and Ashley Tellis have written that China s grand strategy seeks to achieve the following three interrelated objectives GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 25 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE the fact that major powershifts have never occurred without large-scale upheavals. Managing the rise of China successfully is the most important fundamental challenge confronting the international community in the 21st century. Writing about China s rise Michael D. Swaine and Ashley J. Tellis have said This process is significant not only because it promises the internal transformation of one of the world s oldest civilisations but also because if concluded successfully it could result in a dramatic power transition within the international system. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 7 Military build-up WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES China s CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Mushrooming Challenges The internal security problems should not be treated as mere law and order problems. They have to be dealt with comprehensively in all their dimensions and at all levels--political economic and social. n lt General (retd) Vijay oberoi Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Major Internal Security Challenges of India Categories of Internal Conflicts Internal conflicts in India can be divided into three categories. The first relates to people taking up arms against the state when other means of redressal of their aspirations and demands are either not met or are glossed over by an uncaring politico-bureaucratic combine. In other words bad governance prevails and only peripheral attempts if that are made to satisfy the mostly legitimate requirements of the populace. The ongoing Maoist insurgency falls squarely in this category. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 31 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE I nternal conflicts have been the bane of India since independence in 1947. There are many reasons for this including the legacy of the British who left the country split on dubious religious grounds with artificial borders which took no account of the ethnicity of the people. The reorganisation of states also produced several anomalies. These have resulted in both internal and external problems of gargantuan proportions. The country s diversity all-round poverty exploitation of the weaker sections of society by greedy businessmen with the active support of the political leadership and their bureaucratic advisors a self-degrading political system to which our politicians are clinging on desperately and widespread corruption are some of the other reasons for the constant mushrooming of internal conflicts. It is unfortunate that our political leadership is unable to cope with the burgeoning internal problems mainly because they look at all internal problems from the prism of electoral politics. Our leaders have not dealt with internal conflicts firmly and have allowed them to become unmanageable. At that stage the leadership has taken recourse to the use of force and in most cases has turned to the Army to tackle the situation. The problems of internal conflicts gets accentuated due to lack of governance and the inability of the political leadership to understand the core issues that are forcing the people of a particular area or ethnicity or religion to take up arms to draw the attention of the rulers. The governing class apparently remains unmoved when the problems are presented to both the bureaucratic officials as well as the elected representatives of the people in a routine manner. Lately the political leaders have taken increasing recourse to doles euphemistically called compensations freebies of many varieties and reservations of all types in lieu of good governance. This is likely to make the situation worse as such populist measures have a finite life and they are no substitute for improving education health infrastructure good governance fair and impartial dealings devoid of nepotism and corruption providing skills and creating employment opportunities. Another facet of internal problems is the worsening law and order situation in the country. The police-politician-criminal nexus has emboldened the criminal elements. Their activities are creating an environment of lawlessness where influential and rich people violate the law with impunity because they know they can get away. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 8 internal Conflicts WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India s CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m China Army Should india Prepare for this Contingency India has exceptional security parameters which are indicative of the type of capabilities that it would have to acquire. The security parameters include 15 000 km of land borders out of which about 7 000 km is the border with Pakistan and China countries with whom India has major territorial disputes 7 516 km of coastline and about 2.1 million square kilometres of exclusive economic zone. n lt General (retd) V.k. kaPoor Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book T 35 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he Chief of Army Staff General V.K. Singh while delivering the inaugural address in a seminar of the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) on October 15 2010 on Emerging Roles and Tasks of the Indian Army referred to Pakistan and China as two irritants . In the same vein but more explicitly in end-December 2009 the former Army Chief General Deepak Kapoor had also stated during a seminar of the Army Training Command that the Indian Army must prepare for a two-front war. The statement of the current Army Chief coming close on the heels of the former Army Chief s declaration indicates that our armed forces are indeed planning and preparing for a contingency in which they may have to confront both neighbours simultaneously. The five thrust areas of the new war doctrine as reported in the media at that time are as follows nTwo-front capability This is the anchor on which India s new war doctrine is based which means that India should be prepared to effectively meet simultaneous threats from China on the northern borders and Pakistan on the western borders. nAsymmetric warfare and sub-conventional threats Both the adversaries can be expected to use asymmetric means in the form of infiltrators and terrorists across porous borders to divide our attention and thus hope to militarily weaken our overall response. Our Future Strategic Direction Thus it seems that from a strategic viewpoint India has shifted to a doctrine of active and aggressive defence as opposed to passive defence in the past. However it would be wrong to assume that these capabilities show India s growing proclivity towards military adventurism. India s record on the contrary shows a matured and measured attitude towards engaging in wars. The doctrine s enunciation of a two-front GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO focus on fast-paced operations could be slowed down considerably by such threats to our lines of communications and the civil infrastructure. We therefore need to have an independent operational capability to confront such threats without diluting the main military effort. This capability is being referred to as a half front capability. nStrategic reach and out-of-areas operations capabilities The new war doctrine also seeks to confront future challenges by acquiring an out of area capability so as to militarily meet the role and aspirations of a regional power. nTri-service operational synergy The key aspects of strategic planning and conduct of future wars will be based on interdependence and operational synergy among the three services. Therefore joint operations space-based capability ballistic missile defence and airborne amphibious and air-land operations must be addressed comprehensively. nMilitary technological dominance over adversaries This will be covered by acquiring capabilities for network-centric warfare information warfare cyber warfare all integrated to facilitate speedy decision-making and exploitation of fleeting tactical opportunities. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 9 War WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Two-Front CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m PIB Indian Navy DRDO the Military dimension At the nuclear level the military cannot be separated from the political. Therefore there is no military dimension to nuclear weapons independent of the political. The national interest necessarily politically determined is to ensure state survival and minimum societal disruption. n Colonel (retd) ali ahMed T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 39 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE here are two approaches to nuclear weapons. The one understandably more subscribed to has it that owing to their destructive power these are special weapons not meant for military use. They are instead meant for deterrence. This position was articulated early in the atomic age with Bernard Brodie the first nuclear theorist maintaining that their advent changed the role of armies from waging war to avoiding war. The second approach came about as the Cold War evolved providing a rationale for the vertical proliferation witnessed in superpower arsenals. This approach treats nuclear weapons as different in order of magnitude but not of kind. While it values deterrence it believes that the military utility ascribed to nuclear weapons undergirds deterrence. It therefore emphasises the military dimension as against the political dimension of nuclear weapons. The political dimension is what makes nuclear weapons be seen as political weapons not for military usage but for deterrence. This is the Indian perspective on nuclear weapons. India sees nuclear weapons as regrettable acquisitions. As a reluctant nuclear power it has acquired these after considerable time and debate in order that these deter nuclear use or the threat of use against it. The necessity was brought about by the nuclearisation of the neighbourhood to India s disadvantage. The disadvantage was negated with the Shakti tests of Pokhran II. Progressively since then India has attempted to redress the asymmetry in its pursuit of a nuclear triad. Its doctrine is explicitly a nuclear war deterrent one positing massive nuclear retaliation in case of nuclear use against India or its forces anywhere. Even if the term massive is discounted its long-standing position has been to inflict unacceptable damage but only in retaliation. However the possibility of deterrence break down admittedly remote cannot be entirely ignored. It is in this circumstance that the military dimension of nuclear weapons comes to fore. Owing to the focus on deterrence the military aspect has remained understudied in India. This paper attempts to shift the spotlight from nuclear deterrence to nuclear employment. In doing so it posits a nuclear employment doctrine for India as against the pre-existing one for nuclear deterrence. This it does by resurrecting the work of General Krishnaswamy Sundarji who was not only the first in India to reflect on this aspect but also surprisingly remains perhaps the lone figure to have done so. The logic informing an employment doctrine is that once deterrence has collapsed for some reason the situation is no longer one of deterrence. Therefore a deterrence doctrine needs to recede and instead a nuclear employment doctrine needs to take over. Though initial deterrence breaks down it does not mean that deterrence is no longer valid. In conflict deterrence remains operational since nuclear weapons continue in the arsenal even after introduction of nuclear weapons into a conflict. Therefore inconflict deterrence must inform the employment doctrine. This would be different from the initial regime of deterrence as the scenario is markedly different post-nuclear use. This article attempts to study this issue. It first establishes that a breakdown in deterrence is not unthinkable. Since this scenario is more GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 10 nuclear options India s WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m SP Guide Pubns Dassault Aviation iaF s Programmes and Strategies The IAF s strategy should be to build adequate all-round operational capabilities both in terms of combat power as well as infrastructure to provide a credible deterrence against its adversaries whether acting singly or jointly. n air MarShal (retd) V.k. bhatia Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 43 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE P akistan s duplicity in its fight against global terrorism stands fully exposed post-Osama bin Laden s elimination by the US Navy SEALs in a daring night raid on the Al-Qaeda chief s hideout in Abbottabad in Pakistan. Governments and intelligentsia across the globe have lambasted Pakistan for its acts of commission and omission. In the article They Got Him. the Economist suggested that it was difficult to believe that Pakistan s blundering spies had no idea of the whereabouts of the Al-Qaeda. In another article Pakistan A Terrorist State published in the Newsweek Salman Rushdie the renowned Booker Prize winner for the book Midnight s Children wrote As the world braces for the terrorists response to the death of their leader it should also demand that Pakistan give satisfactory answers to the very tough questions it must now be asked. If it does not provide those answers perhaps the time has come to declare it a terrorist state and expel it from the comity of nations. Unmindful of the international lambasting the wily Pakistani establishment chose to plead incompetence rather than admitting to its complicity in harbouring the most wanted terrorist in the world. And while the US suspicion of Pakistan s two-faced policy turns into concrete realisation and Obama Administration goes into a tough mode towards its shifty ally that was mollycoddled by previous US administrations despite its fostering of terrorism China--its all-weather friend with whom Pakistan boasts of a relationship which is deeper than the oceans and higher than the mountains --once again rises to the occasion to provide solace to the beleaguered country by asking the international community to understand its friend s predicament and support it in its hour of crisis. Preposterous as it may sound to the international community what becomes crystal clear is the unflinching support that China is ready to provide to its smaller partner (read lackey) even if it indulges in behaviour akin to cold-blooded murder. It also brings to the fore the perpetual politico-military nexus between the two countries and its implications on India s security concerns. India continues to face multiple security threats and challenges from its neighbours. While the old adversarial threats due to unresolved borders remain new threats and challenges have also added to the old inventory. Terrorism in all its varieties and forms is a palpable threat and India also faces insurgencies generally fuelled from outside by the same adversaries. On the one hand proxy war in Jammu & Kashmir fostered and supported in all respects by Pakistan continues unabated and on the other hand China s repeated utterances claiming large portions of Indian territory including the entire state of Arunachal Pradesh inspires little confidence in the minds of India s security establishment vis- -vis its neighbours intensions. Little wonder that a one-and-a-half front or a two-front war theory has started to gain ever-increasing currency among the policymakers and strategists in India. The evolving security paradigm necessitates India to carry out a thorough investigation of its own capabilities vis- -vis its adversaries to prepare itself to adequately meet the emerging and future security and military threats and challenges. It is in the context of military capabilities that the operational capabilities of the three air forces need to be covered in great detail as the air power of a country has become a major contributor and a decisive factor in the outcome of a military conflict. It is a known fact that while the air forces of China and Pakistan (PLAAF and PAF) are BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 11 india Pak & China Aerospace Capabilities WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m U.S. Department of Energy in the Global Competitive environment In a global competitive world India needs to engage energy rich countries in a very strategic manner backed by its energy diplomacy and foreign policy for ensuring continuous availability of commercial energy at competitive prices to support economic growth n dr bhUPendra kUMar SinGh T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Energy Security The concept of energy security is not confined to energy importing countries but also applies to countries which export energy resources. The energy security calculations of exporting country are in several respects the same as that of an importing country. While energy importing country is concerned primarily with access to resources and guaranteed supplies an energy exporter is preoccupied with access to markets and assured demands for its products. In a seller s market buyers want long-term contracts at guaranteed prices but in a buyer s market it is the suppliers who want firm arrangements. 47 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE In 2010 total world primary energy consumption was 11 165 million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE) of which US and China s consumption were 19.5 per cent each followed by Russia (five per cent) and Japan with 4.2 per cent. India too consumed 4.2 per cent. While the consumption rate has declined in the US Russia and in Japan it has increased in China and India being the world s top two fastest growing economies as Table 1 depicts. However in the International Energy Agency s (IEA) new policy scenario world primary energy demand increase by 36 per cent between 2008 and 2035 from around 12 300 MTOE to 16 700 MTOE or 1.2 per cent per year on an average. Fossil fuels oil coal and natural gas remain GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO wenty-first century global realities have modified the very concept of power. Although military strength remained the supreme instrument of power economic growth and development have become a cardiogram of a state s power. The economy of a state exerts major influence on shaping its foreign policy. The first aspect of the economic element in foreign policy is the degree of dependence on external trade. This is related to and is affected by the quantity and availability of domestic natural resources commodity composition of exports range of markets for them size and trends of population and the standard of living and expectations about it. There is a direct relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. Energy consumption is both a necessary condition for growth and a consequence of it. Growing population and expanding economy with the shift in focus of production from agriculture to manufacturing and services sectors has led to increase in energy intensity which has resulted in unprecedented hike in demand for energy sources. Thus the critical relevance of this concept for a nation emanates from the growing imbalance between the demand for energy and its supply from indigenous sources implying thereby growing import dependence for essential requirements of the nation. In the past 35-40 years worldwide energy consumption has nearly doubled driven by population growth rising living standards invention of energy-dependent technologies and consumerism. At the same time limited and depleting oil reserves unstable oil prices the worsening problems of environment and health and the urgent need to address global warming and climate change demand an urgent need for enhancing and strengthening the very concept of energy security. World s Energy Scenario INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 12 Security Energy WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m SP Guide Pubns Indian Navy For jointness & integration of the Military The biggest challenge to jointness is to bring about an attitudinal shift by turning the sense of insecurity and mutual suspicion into a sense of belongingness amongst the services as well as the politico-bureaucratic establishment. While there is an urgent need to appoint a CDS we should get on with initiating the process of establishing ITCs and IFCs in the larger interest of achieving jointness and integration. n lt General (retd) P.C. katoCh Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Future Battlefield 53 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE The battlefield of tomorrow will be non-linear with multidimensional battle spaces characterised by nuclear ambiguity increased lethality a very high degree of mobility with simultaneity of engagement and increased tempo of operations with compressed time and space coupled with high degree of transparency. Given the current dispensations in the GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO L ack of strategic forethought in the politico-bureaucratic dispensation in India and the higher defence set up sans services participation in national defence decision-making has had direct bearing on integration and jointness of the military. Additionally the latent political fear of a military coup egged on by the Indian Police Service (IPS) lobby particularly by the IPS-turned-bureaucrats coupled with bureaucracy that revels in maintaining their primacy by playing on inter-service rivalry and creating avoidable hurdles by exercising overt control over financial expenditures equipment acquisitions and appointments has not permitted the institution of a Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) despite strong recommendations to the effect made by the Group of Ministers (GoM) following the Kargil War. In turn the concept of Integrated Theatre Commands too has been given a silent burial despite various studies undertaken by the military highlighting the tremendous operational and administrative benefits that would accrue with such reorganisation. INDIAN DEFENCE Reforms within the armed forces also involve recognition of the fact that our navy air force and army can no longer function in compartments with exclusive chains of command and single service operational plans. --Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 2004 Despite fully acknowledging that no single service can individually battle present and future conflict situations the state of integration and jointness of our defence services is far from satisfactory notwithstanding periodic statements that all is well . In one of the Unified Commanders Conference not very far back one of the service chiefs stated We have very good synergy within the three Chiefs. We golf together once a month and follow it up with breakfast It was more of a joke but also at least half the truth. If we continue to progress in current fashion then the race of revolution in military affairs (RMA) in true sense will remain a misnomer both regionally and globally. Mere coining of joint warfighting doctrine is of little use unless organisations and structures are created to execute such doctrine. Making cosmetic changes to our organisations is not likely to work. We need to ensure unified command structures speedily through the three services horizontally and vertically in a time bound manner. The very first step in our march towards RMA is to make organisational changes that are necessary to give an impetus to synergising the defence forces for complete integration. We need capacity building to fight as one single concentrated effort combining all elements of the three services. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 13 Commands WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Integrated Theatre CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m SP Guide Pubns Indian Navy For applications across the entire Spectrum of Conflict Proactive employment of Special Forces in the face of non-traditional challenges does not equate automatically to physical attack. The key lies in achieving strategic objectives exploiting the psychological component. We need to develop the necessary political will to contend with emerging strategic challenges. n lt General (retd) P.C. katoCh T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 59 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE here is little doubt that for many years to come threat perceptions will continue to be dominated by sub-conventional conflict and relate more to non-state actors albeit conventional war under the nuclear-biological and chemical (NBC) backdrop will remain a possibility in the subcontinent. Non-state actors are likely to be more and more state-sponsored in our case with increasing difficulty to pinpoint external support. Pakistan s continuing jehadi strategy is on the threshold of cashing on to the terror infrastructure it has so painstakingly built over the years in India nurturing the supporters simultaneously. Appointment of Adnan Shukrijumah to lead Al-Qaeda operatives in the US is mainly due to the 15 long years he has spent in the US. Pakistan is likely to follow the same policy in order to obliterate its fingerprints in future terror strikes--a tactics better than blatant unconvincing denials. Today warfare is no longer confined to the battlefield. The boundaries between war and no war are blurred with asymmetric wars that have no borders no rules and no regulations. Today wars are being fought in industrial bases computer rooms and are viewed instantly by the public in the drawing rooms with the revolution ushered in by information technology. Psychological warfare probably imposes the largest penalty but affords the highest payoffs. Successful psychological warfare demands integrated themes and subjects which need to be developed. India has a variety of Special Forces that have wide applications across the entire spectrum of conflict. They can very well be employed as a controlled response in the emerging strategic environment that is showing signs of escalation. Unfortunately they have only been used as tactical tool in conventional war other than counter-insurgency within our borders save the sole experience as part of the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) in Sri Lanka where they performed well. Radio intercepts of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) were explicit that they respected and feared the troops of our Special Forces. We have failed to acknowledge that Special Forces have ample scope of employment to face challenges of terrorism information asymmetric NBC warfare and the like. Our Special Forces are split over various organisations have different command and control set ups and continue to expand. Time is more than opportune for India to set up an Integrated Special Forces Command in order to synergise our Special Forces and optimise their potential. China s increased belligerence including its strategic footprints in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK) and claim that Arunachal Pradesh is Southern Tibet has exacerbated the strategic environment. Delaying settlement of borders with India aids her periodic nibbling efforts albeit downplayed by India under the pretext of differing perceptions of line of actual control (LAC) . China has been supporting Pakistan s jehadi strategy as part of her own strategic ambitions to keep India in check in addition to the String of Pearls and stated desire to control the Indian Ocean region (IOR). Pakistan s massive radicalisation proved more recently in the aftermath of Governor Salmaan Taseer s assassination portends a future with more and more hatred towards the non-believers . Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO Battlefield India INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 14 Forces Command Integrated Special WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m US Navy US Army wikipedia impact on Civil nuclear industry While nuclear facilities will continue to be vulnerable to natural disasters or technical malfunction hasty decision to bury the nuclear source of energy may neither be prudent nor warranted. On top of the agenda of both developing and developed nations ought to be the larger issue of safety standards of nuclear facilities. n air MarShal (retd) b.k. Pandey Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book O 63 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE n March 11 2011 at 0546 hours UTC (1116 hours IST) a catastrophic earthquake measuring 8.9 on the Richter scale struck at a depth of approximately 80 feet below the surface of the Pacific Ocean 130 km east of Honshu and generated a tsunami that devastated the north-east coast of Japan. The earthquake-tsunami combine caused extensive damage to the Japanese economy initially estimated to be over 300 billion ( 13 50 000 crore) and triggered a crisis at a nuclear power plant necessitating large-scale evacuation. The main and the largest of the four islands that constitute the Japanese nation and the seventh largest island in the world Honshu is only next to the island of Java in Indonesia which is regarded as the most populous in the world. Roughly 1 300 kilometres in length and width varying between 50 km and 230 km the island of Honshu with a coastline of 5 450 km and total area of 2 27 963 square km is larger than Great Britain. The terrain is mountainous and volcanic being frequently jolted by earthquakes. Mount Fuji is the highest terrain feature on the island and continues to be an active volcano. Notwithstanding the fact that Japan has been prone to earthquakes it has continued to build nuclear power generation plants even in seismic zones as the other sources of energy available in the country are totally inadequate to meet the colossal demand of the world s third largest economy. The epicentre of the massive earthquake that generated a tsunami with ocean waves 35 feet high lay around 370 km from the Japanese capital Tokyo. In what is acknowledged as the greatest disaster of the 21st century so far and the worst earthquake in the last 140 years large parts of north- eastern Japan including the port city of Sendai which was a major habitation nearest to the epicentre of the earthquake lay devastated by the overwhelming fury of nature. Apart from the countless who lost their homes and belongings thousands lay dead and many more were reported missing. The misery was compounded by as many as 25 aftershocks measuring 6.0 or above on the Richter scale that continued to rock Japan for a few days after the initial upheaval. While the combined effect of an earthquake and a tsunami by itself can be quite destructive as was the experience at Sendai what turned the episode of March 11 into a near holocaust was the severe damage to the nuclear facility at Fukushima Daiichi located on the eastern coast of the island run by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). Over 40 years old the nuclear reactors at Fukushima are among the largest in the world and even with foolproof protection unable to withstand the fury of nature. This nuclear power generation facility has a total of six units laid out in two reactor groups. Reactor numbers one to four which were commissioned between 1970 and 1979 constitute Group I and the two newer reactors numbered as five and six are part of Group II. Plans to commission by 2016-17 two additional units numbered as seven and eight were hastily abandoned in the wake of the horrendous experience in March 2011. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 15 disaster in japan Nuclear WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Selex Galileo US Army defence experimentation to Support Focused development Improvements in modern-day computing and visualisation techniques and technologies have provided an impetus to the practitioner and has helped gain customer support confidence for the application of defence experimentation. The increasing variety of complex situations that the military customer finds in his day to day activities encourages him to move away from qualitative judgements to scientific ways of decision-making. n CoMMander (retd) deVbrat Chakraborty Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book T 67 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he defence environment has experienced many changes in recent times driven by developments in the political and economic sphere technology the legal environment and society. Application of military power in isolation may not be sufficient to deal with situations that governments and security forces may confront. Military power must instead be applied in conjunction with other state or international interventions such as diplomacy geopolitical considerations and economic measures. There have been considerable changes even in the purely military domain. Such changes include force development in response to asymmetric and unpredictable threats the demands of coalition operations and the need for information supremacy. Moreover as forces move from a platform-centric paradigm to a net-centric paradigm concepts of operations and decision-making processes and actions continuously need to be reviewed in order to ensure that they remain relevant and effective. The challenges associated while dealing with such changes in the defence environment are considerable. Defence strategists and planners are likely to increasingly find themselves in territories like human decisionmaking cycles command and control hierarchies and information management. Defence experimentation offers a cost-effective means to support focused development and transformation of allied forces by advancing our knowledge of the complex networked systems and capabilities that are being fielded. The term experimentation arises from the Latin word experiri which means to try . Experimentation knowledge differs from other types of knowledge. It is always founded on observation or experience. In other words experiments are always empirical. However measurement alone does not make an experiment. Experiments also involve establishing some level of control and manipulating one or more factors of interest in order to establish or track the cause and effect. As per the Guide for Understanding and Implementing Defence Experimentation (GUIDEx) defence experimentation is the application of the experimental method to the solution of complex defence capability development problems potentially across the full spectrum of conflict types such as warfighting peace enforcement humanitarian relief and peace-keeping . It covers the performance of new equipment or the exploration of new concepts and logistics systems integration interoperability (single service joint and coalition) fleet management and cost of ownership. Any aspect of systems development operation and use that involve human decision-making processes can be addressed. More specifically the direct benefits of experimentation are the ability to deliver timely answers with a measured level of confidence thereby contributing to sound risk management of programmes and their components. It thoroughly supports defence problem solving from concepts through capability development to operations. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 16 Simulation Modelling & WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Contents One Two Three Four Five Six Building C4I2SR Systems Battle Tank Redesigned Unmanned Underwater Vehicles UAVs in the Indian Air Force Ballistic Missile Defence India s Satellite Capability 73 79 83 87 93 97 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Technology CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section two 2 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS SUPREME FIREPOWER IN URBAN TERRAIN In the world of lIght shoulder-launched anti-armour systems Carl-Gustaf and AT4 stands supreme. Carl-Gustaf the true multirole weapon system and the AT4 CS (Confined Space) are continuously under development for higher performance in urban terrain. The newly developed AT4 CS AST (Anti-Structure Tandem) as well as new rounds for Carl-Gustaf offers additional capabilities for urban warfare. They are as powerful in use as they are easy to handle. Both these well-proven and reliable weapons can be integrated into your infantry platoons and increase your fighting capacity and survivability giving man-portable artillery support and a broad anti-armour firepower base. Equipped with the Carl-Gustaf and the AT4 CS systems soldiers are provided with effective power in urban surroundings for decades to come. ffV ordnAnCe www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m interoperable Survivable reliable Maintainable If India is to graduate beyond a regional power then our national focus should include establishment of a joint force networked through an effective C4I2SR grid. Emphasis must be placed upon indigenous research and self-reliance to ensure security and redundancy in our system. n lt General (retd) P.C. katoCh I Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 73 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE n the wake of speedy technological advancements command control communications computers information and intelligence (C4I2) systems provide sterling opportunities for the defence and security establishment acting as important force multiplier for commanders at all levels. Akin to any technology undoubtedly there are problems but these are not insurmountable and can be managed. The challenge lies in making C4I2 systems interoperable survivable inexpensive reliable and maintainable on the battlefield. Given the terrific capacity building that C4I2 systems offer and given the effective training on C4I2 systems our forces will have that necessary edge to emerge winners in future conflict situations. Add surveillance and reconnaissance (SR) to C4I2 and you have the acronym C4I2SR implying a group of functionalities and applications of a defence system that integrates the many levels of a military chain of command including troops tanks weapon platforms aircraft surveillance stations and the highest level of tactical and strategic information available in order to back up military decisions and actions. These systems are axiomatically designed to obtain advantages over the adversaries. Rapid developments in technology has revolutionised warfare. The key to success will lie in attaining higher levels of net-centricity effective command and control across the force an accelerated decision-action cycle and an ability to conduct synergised operations simultaneously within the defence and security establishment. Harnessing information technology will act as a force multiplier to enhance operational effectiveness of commanders and troops at all levels by enabling exchange filtering and processing of ever increasing amounts of digital information currently available but not integrated. This is very relevant at all levels and particularly at the cutting-edge where opposing forces are in contact. War Paradigm We are in a state of perpetual conflict. In fact it has become a global phenomenon with many nations engaged in asymmetric wars. Within the protracted full spectrum conflict adaptive and asymmetric threats have overshadowed conventional conflict. The changing nature of conflict has added new complexities and challenges. Conventional conflict is increasingly intertwined with irregular forces using unconventional means and tactics while irregular forces are becoming increasingly lethal with access to technology and equipment that previously only conventional forces used. The rapid development of high technology weapon systems and their possession by powerful states meant that weaker states and non-state groups could no more stand up to powerful states. This led to asymmetric conflict by smaller irregular forces employing terrorism insurgency and guerrilla warfare while exploiting technology networks cyberspace and media. Fighters today are tough techno savvy and ideologically motivated with cultural awareness impacting military operations. Launch of tactical missions has strategic implications. Information space and cyber operations are being waged continuously. There are no rules no regulations and no boundaries either. Defence forces and nations are using networks extensively and are feverishly engaged in bettering niche capabilities above the adver- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 SP Guide Pubns C4i2Sr Systems WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Building CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m SP Guide Pubns US Army an evolutionary transformation With the changing complexion of the battlefield armies will have to rise above the established norms and proven methods adapt to the changes and espouse the best from what technology can offer n Major General r.P. bhadran Changing Complexion of Battlefield Higher density of population widespread urbanisation improved surface communication in most countries globally and an ever increasing aversion to collateral damage during operations have brought in certain new imperatives into the battlefield while rendering certain old ones redundant. Further in the context of the fourth generation warfare a more active United Nations role in restoring order and peace enforcement in conflict zones have become evident lately. This in turn calls for better strategic mobility in the forces of participating countries. These coupled with the developments in the fields of micro electronics automation and information technology during the past over a decade have raised two profoundly pertinent issues which merit due deliberation. These are first the threat profile prevailing against the tank has undergone a drastic change second technology now allows the tank to be designed to be a more viable weapon platform than today. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 79 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE In future most of the battles will be fought in urban or semi-urban terrain. This changed environment has certain major ramifications for the tank. First it is no longer likely that armies would undertake deep manoeuvres as of yesteryears--penetrations will be shallow and battles will be fought closer to the borders. Built-up areas and wide network of waterways will constrain penetration in space while international opinion will limit it in time. The classical tactics of trading space for time will no longer hold true and battles are likely to be much more intense where every inch of territory will be bitterly contested. Second in the context of urban warfare the frontal arc would be GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO The Threat Profile INDIAN DEFENCE T ank as a weapon system has undergone many an evolutionary transformation in nearly a century of its existence. These changes were primarily focused at out-gunning outarmouring and out-powering the adversary. Thus the period between the two World Wars saw the power to weight ratio and gun calibres increasing from 9 1 and 37mm respectively in the 1930s to 15 1 and 90mm towards the end of the war. Armour protection also increased correspondingly during this period from about 45mm to over 120mm. It would be noticed that changes of these nature were guided by two primary imperatives need for enhanced protection and creation of more space within the tank to accommodate the more powerful engine and the larger calibre gun. The increased armour envelop had its attendant implications on weight as well. During the postWorld War period the trend continued till the early 1980s wherein the power to weight ratio and gun calibres rose to 25 1 and 125mm respectively and the weight of the tank stabilised in the region of 57 tonnes to 68 tonnes. These heavier tanks however were not suited for employment in certain types of terrain especially in riverine mountainous terrain and in afforested areas. Air transportability was also severely restricted. Therefore a family of lighter tanks also evolved to meet these specialised requirements. Obviously the levels of protection and firepower of these tanks were much less. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 redesigned WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Battle Tank CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m BAE Systems Saab Group Platforms of the Future Operating underwater is difficult and complex and complicates efforts to coordinate operations among robotic vehicles and surface vessels. Nevertheless UUVs hold great promise as platforms of the future especially as naval operations shift from blue water to the littorals. n CoMMander ShiShir UPadhyaya U Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 83 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE nmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) are vehicles that are able to operate underwater without a human occupant. These vehicles may be divided into two categories remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) controlled by a remote human operator and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) which operate independently. The latter category would constitute a kind of robot. AUVs form the majority of all types of UUVs and hence the term UUV is often used loosely to describe AUVs. The first AUV was developed at the Applied Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington as early as 1957 by Stan Murphy Bob Francois and subsequently Terry Ewart. Over the last five decades hundreds of different types of UUVs have been designed and developed and are currently used in the fields of scientific marine research oil gas exploration and military. Vehicles range in size from man portable lightweight AUVs to large diameter vehicles of over 10 metres length. Most AUVs follow the traditional torpedo shape as this is seen as the best compromise between size usable volume hydrodynamic efficiency and ease of handling. There are some vehicles that make use of a modular design enabling components to be changed easily by the operators. As of 2008 a new class of AUVs are being developed which mimic designs found in nature. Although most are currently in their experimental stages these biomimetic (or bionic) vehicles are able to achieve higher degrees of efficiency in propulsion and manoeuvrability by copying suc- cessful designs in nature. Two such vehicles are Festo s AquaJelly and Evologics Bionik Manta. Today while most AUVs are capable of unsupervised missions most operators remain within range of acoustic telemetry systems in order to maintain a close watch on their investment. This is not always possible. For example Canada operates AUVs to survey the sea floor underneath the Arctic ice in support of their claim under Article 76 of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea. Also ultra-low-power long-range variants such as underwater gliders are becoming capable of operating unattended for weeks or months in littoral and open ocean areas periodically relaying data by satellite to shore before returning to be picked up. Design Sensors Primarily oceanographic tools AUVs carry sensors to navigate autonomously and map features of the ocean. Typical sensors include compasses depth sensors side scan and other sonars magnetometers thermistors and conductivity probes. A demonstration at Monterey Bay in California in September 2006 showed that a 21-inch (533mm) diameter AUV can tow a 300 feet (91 m) long hydrophone array while maintaining a three knot (5.6 km h) cruising speed. Navigation AUVs can navigate using an underwater acoustic positioning system. There are three broad classes of underwater acoustic positioning systems that are used to track underwater vehicles and divers. They are long baseline (LBL) ultra short baseline (USBL) and short baseline (SBL) systems. LBL systems use a network of sea-floor mounted baseline transponders as reference points for navigation. These are generally deployed around the perimeter of a work site. The GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 Underwater Vehicles WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Unmanned CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m SP Guide Pubns PIB IAI Future trends IAF is conscious of the force multiplication impact since UAVs were added to its arsenal about a decade ago. The prevailing military environment in the neighbourhood and future portents can only increase their relevance. From that standpoint it is inevitable that IAF would periodically upgrade its UAV force both qualitatively as well as quantitatively and also diversify their missions. Addition of strike capability to a surveillance platform may be the first qualitative upgradation in the not too distant future. air MarShal (retd) a.k. trikha n Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book U Searcher II is a multi-mission tactical UAV system used for surveil- 87 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE nmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have come to be understood as powered aerial vehicles that do not carry human operators on board. If directed or controlled by a ground or airborne controller it becomes a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). UAVs have been in use for a long time. In more recent times the US employed them extensively during the Vietnam War. However it was Israel which demonstrated their tremendous potential first in the 1973 Yom Kippur War with another spectacular repeat in the 1982 Operation Peace for Galilee campaign in the Syrian Bekaa valley. Well before the offensive Israeli UAVs conducted systematic reconnaissance to build a comprehensive threat library of Syrian surface-to-air missiles (SAM) radars. The gathered data was used to programme their anti-radiation missiles (ARMs). The offensive on June 9 1982 opened with a superbly crafted deception plan. UAVs flew across the battlespace mimicking a full scale attack. As anticipated Syrians reacted furiously by firing large number of SAMs which gave away the location of the emitters. While the SAM launchers were being reloaded fighters attacked the SAM radars with ARMs. Simultaneously laser guided bombs assisted by illumination provided by UAVs wiped out the threatening missile sites. UAVs also helped in picking up the scrambling Syrian fighters and relayed the information to an on station AWACS. While Israeli intercep- Role of UAVs in IAF The Indian Air Force currently employs scores of Searcher II and Heron 1 UAVs of Israeli origin for surveillance and reconnaissance along the western and northern borders. In addition IAF also has Harpy-a hunter killer UAV designed to neutralise hostile radars. Their brief description and capabilities are described below. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Searcher II ASIAN WHO S WHO tors were being directed towards these aircraft other UAVs jammed Syrian ground controlled interception (GCI) communications thus reducing the Syrian jets to sitting ducks. In the course of a single afternoon Syrian Air Force was virtually decimated. The significance of the stunning success of this new tool of war was not lost on the Indian Air Force (IAF). However India at that time was largely locked out of the Western arms market. India also had no diplomatic relation with Israel who was clearly the leader in UAVs. Therefore even while IAF became alive to developments taking place in the field of UAVs it had no access to them. The end of the Cold War marked the beginning of the thaw in India s relations with the West. Ultimately it was the shock of Kargil that brought home the necessity of keeping a constant vigil over several hundreds of kilometres of India s borders. With the improvement of relations with the US and Israel acquisition of UAVs for surveillance and reconnaissance came within the realm of possibility. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 indian air Force WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES UAVs in the CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m US Navy emerging technologies embracing Space Frontiers In little over half a century the severity and lethality of the ballistic missile arsenal has grown exponentially in range reach accuracy and technological prowess. As the technology has gradually transited various developmental milestones the missile arsenal has grown from the TBM to SRBM to MRBM to IRBM class till finally arriving at the range pedestal of ICBM. n lt General (retD) V.k. Saxena Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 93 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO I n the context of putting up a defensive shield overhead against a potential missile attack the world has indeed moved a long way from the days of shock and total helplessness when during World War II Adolf Hitler s Vengeance Weapon 2 (V-2) came screaming down from the upper atmosphere wreaking havoc upon a helpless population. The first ballistic missile had arrived. In little over half a century the severity and lethality of the ballistic missile arsenal has grown exponentially in range reach accuracy and technological prowess. In this context as the technology has gradually transited various developmental milestones the missile arsenal has grown from the tactical ballistic missiles (TBM) to short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM) to medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBM) to intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBM) class till finally arriving at the range pedestal of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) wherein today the missiles not only from China but also from North Korea have the capability to reach the US mainland. The defensive shield against the above threat has grown in a typical cause-effect relationship. The defenders initially could only limit them- INDIAN DEFENCE Space is no longer just an ultimate high ground it is a contested environment and an integral part of joint operation. -- General C. Robert Kehler US Army & Lt General John T Sheridan US Army selves to the terminal phase of the threat missiles when as early as 1962 the concept of ballistic missile intercept through the kinetic energy rockets was developed. With the passage of time and technology the ballistic missile defence (BMD) system architecture developed in multiple tiers of defences. The aim being to put up defence-in-depth as a single tier system could neither ensure fool-proof detection nor a leak-proof engagement. The first of the layered system i.e. the lower tier systems were basically meant to defend against short- or medium-range missiles basically in the terminal phase of the trajectory. Their interception was largely endo-atmospheric. Several fully matured and developed systems were fielded and deployed the world over for example the PAC 3 was battle tested in operation Iraqi Freedom. The current technology is driven towards enhancing the reach of this system (PAC-3 MSE) and developing the air launched hit-to-kill version of PAC-3. Similarly the US-Israeli Arrow series of anti-tactical ballistic missiles (ATBMs) fall in this category. Some more systems include the medium extended air defence system (MEADS) BMD system a joint venture of Lockheed Martin EADS and MBDA which are scheduled for initial deployment in 2014 and the Navy Area theatre ballistic missile defence (TBMD) based on Aegis class of ships and equipped with standard missile (SM-3) class of hit-to-kill interceptor. The Russian TMD systems include S-300 PMU-1 S-300 PMU-2 (SA 10E Favorit ) and S-400 Triumf (SA-2 Growler ) an enhanced version of S-300 PMU-3. The Chinese besides the PMU series have an indigenous Hongqi-10 (150 km further enhanced to 200 km) TMD system capable of countering the missile threat both in the terminal as well as mid-course phase of threat trajectory. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 Missile Defence WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Ballistic CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Potential for national development INSAT and IRS have the potential to be used for India s military needs for transmission of communications and data surveillance weather forecast digital mapping navigation missile warning and a score of other applications. A start has been made by providing the Indian Navy with a dedicated communication satellite. It is certain that ISRO will cater to India s military needs in the future by its dedicated military satellite programme. n lt General (retd) nareSh Chand Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book M oon is a celestial body and a natural satellite that orbits a planet or a smaller body. However in this article by satellite we mean an artificial satellite an object which has been placed into orbit by man. Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite launched by Russia in 1957. After Sputnik 1 Sputnik 2 was launched in the same year and carried the first living passenger a dog named Laika. Russia s Sputnik programme started a space race between the US and Russia. Three months after Sputnik 1 the US launched Explorer 1 on January 31 1958. Since then thousands of satellites have been launched into orbit around the earth and a few have also been placed in orbit around the moon venus etc which have become their artificial satellites. Satellites are used both for civil and military applications like communications navigation weather forecasting intelligence gathering and research. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. The largest artificial satellite currently orbiting the earth is the International Space Station. About 50 countries have launched their own satellites but the launching capabilities exist only in about 10 countries. Type of Orbits Geocentric orbit is an orbit around the Earth and is the most common type of orbit. Sputnik 1 was also put into geocentric orbit. At present about 2 456 satellites are orbiting the earth. Geocentric orbit is further classified by altitude inclination and eccentricity. The commonly used altitude classifications are low earth orbit (LEO) which is below 2 000 km medium earth orbit (MEO) which is higher than that but still below the altitude for geosynchronous orbit at 35 786 km and high earth orbit (HEO) which is an orbit higher than 35 786 km. Anti-satellite weapons are designed to destroy enemy warheads satel- 97 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Important Satellites GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO lites and other space assets by using directed energy weapons and or nuclear and conventional missiles. Communications satellites are stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Navigational satellites enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location by using radio time signals transmitted by the satellites. Global positioning system (GPS) is an example. Reconnaissance satellites are earth observation satellites or communication satellites deployed for military or intelligence applications. Earth observation satellites are intended for non-military use such as environmental monitoring meteorology map making etc. Space stations are man-made structures that are designed for human beings to live in outer space. A space station does not have its own propulsion and other vehicles are used for transportation. Astronomical satellites are used for observation of distant planets galaxies and other outer space objects. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 ISRO ESA Satellite Capability WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India s CONTENTS Contents One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Rebuilding the Indian Army Modernisation of the Indian Navy Modernising the Indian Air Force Defence Policies & Procedures Defence Procurement Procedure 2011 Defence Budget 2011-12 Strategic & Business Environment Global Contracts 101 105 109 113 117 123 127 135 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Business CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section three 3 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Modernisation Plans Stagnating The approach to modernisation must be more focused the priorities must be clearly established and then adhered to. The government must give a firm commitment in terms of funds and the MoD must streamline its procedures and processes for speedy procurement of high priority weapons and equipment. n brigadier (retd) gurMeet kanwal crisis. Growth at such a rapid rate would not have been possible but for the sustained vigilance maintained by the Indian armed forces and the many sacrifices they made in the service of the nation over the last six decades. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 101 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO A young nation with an ancient civilisation India faces many threats and challenges to its external and internal security. The foremost among these are the long-festering dispute over Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) with Pakistan and the unresolved territorial and boundary dispute with China. Since independence on August 15 1947 India has fought four wars with Pakistan (1947-48 1965 1971 and 1999) and one with China (1962). India s internal security environment has been vitiated by a proxy war through which Pakistan has fuelled an uprising in Jammu & Kashmir since 1988-89. Various militant movements in India s Northeastern states and the rising tide of Maoist terrorism in large parts of Central India have also contributed to internal instability. India s regional security is marked by instability in Afghanistan Bangladesh Myanmar Nepal Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite these tensions India has maintained its coherence and its gross domestic product (GDP) is now growing at an annual rate in excess of eight per cent except for the dip suffered during the financial INDIAN DEFENCE Despite our best intentions and earmarking huge budgets and allocating money the modernisation efforts have not borne the desired results. We must continuously reduce and even eliminate procedural delays and bottlenecks in our procurement procedures. -- Defence Minister A.K. Antony December 15 2010 Modernisation Dilemma With a personnel strength of approximately 1.2 million soldiers the Indian Army has made a huge contribution towards keeping the nation together particularly in facing internal security challenges. It is a firstrate army but has been saddled for long with second-rate weapons and equipment despite heavy operational commitments on border management and in counter-insurgency operations. The modernisation dilemma that the Indian Army faces is that the budgetary support available for modernisation is grossly inadequate. It can undertake substantive modernisation only by simultaneously effecting large-scale downsizing so as to save on personnel costs--the largest chunk of the Army s annual budget. However it would not be prudent to downsize as the Army s operational commitments on border management and internal security duties require large numbers of manpower-heavy infantry battalions. In his budget speech on February 28 2011 Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee set aside 1 64 425 crore ( 36 billion) for defence during the Financial Year (FY) 2011-12. This is less than two per cent of the country s GDP despite the recommendations of successive Standing Committees on Defence in the Parliament that it should be at least three per cent if the emerging threats and challenges are to be successfully countered. Meanwhile China has increased its official defence expenditure for 2011 by 13 per cent to 91.5 billion ( 4 11 750 crore) while its actual expendi- BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 SP Guide Pubns indian army WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Rebuilding the CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Indian Navy HAL PIB Force levels for the 2020 navy a gap analysis Building the 2020 Navy may require some prompt and focused course corrections and realignment with the forecast operational scenario of 2022 and beyond. No matter what the force levels force structure and force composition the Indian Navy must deliver on the simple objective of defeating the barbaric hybrid or state forces in the area of our maritime interest. n CoMModore (retd) Sujeet SaMaddar only about 40 per cent of the cost of three P17s being built at MDL for 8 800 crore and with equal if not better capability. These three ships Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book T Table 1 A comparison of global standards for shipbuilding Sl No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 6 Type and Nos 9 x Murasame Class Destroyers (4 550 T) 8 x Maestrale Class Frigates (3 500 T) Country of Origin Japan Italy Ordered 1992 1980 2004 2007 2007 2003 Delivery Period March 1996March 2002 February 1981May 1985 October 2006March 2007 105 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he Indian Navy has been very fortunate to have had visionary leaders. From a minor littoral force of hand-me-down frigates sloops and craft at the time of independence the Indian Navy has now emerged as the fifth largest naval power in the world. This journey has been neither smooth nor easy. The tenacity of purpose and the overall corporate conviction that the charted path of force development would be mainly through indigenous capacity has not wavered is a clear testimony to the Navy s sound leadership and rank and file consensus on its identity and self-belief. The Indian Navy has long prided itself to be a builder s Navy. It has been the pioneering service promoting indigenous industry to deliver it the finest ships in the region. Integrating cutting-edge weapons sensors and sophisticated communications with advanced propulsion and power packages from diverse sources to make state-of-the-art ships designed by the Navy is a splendid achievement and the Indian Navy can be justly proud of this heritage. But naval planners are perennially faced with the challenge of marrying the deep desire for remaining a builder s navy with the stark reality of delayed deliveries and cost overruns in all its indigenous programmes (see Table 1). The three Talwar Class frigates under procurement from Yantar shipyard Russia at a total cost of 5 400 crore has been made available at 2 x Luzhou Class China Destroyers (7 100 T) ) 4 x Akixuki Class Destroyers 3 x KDXII Class Destroyers (7 700 T) 3 x P17 Class Frigates Japan South Korea India May 2007March 2011 First in April 2010 second in August 2011 and third due in 2012 TBD-TBD ( ) TBD-TBD ( ) 7 8 3 x P15A Class Destroyers 4 x P28 Corvettes GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE India India 2003 2003 ASIAN WHO S WHO October 2010November 2014 INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 indian navy WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Modernisation of the CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Sukhoi SP Guide Pubns USAF IAF Meeting Future threats and Challenges There is little doubt that the IAF is keen and doing its best to modernise and improve its overall operational capabilities whether in the air space or on the ground not only to meet the challenges of its adversarial neighbours but also for all-inclusive growth to become a modern strategic and continental air force. The big question however is whether it is being done adequately and in the required time frame. n air MarSHal (retd) V.k. bHatia Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book S Background To redux throughout its long and mostly turbulent history the IAF has at times super-cruised and at other times literally stalled in its quest to create operational capabilities to meet the multifarious challenges. This has by and large been due to the knee-jerk policies of the Indian Government which is known to respond only in a reactive mode as far as the country s defence needs are concerned. In the past after each war it was forced to fight with its neighbouring countries India embarked on GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 109 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO ustained and fast-paced economic growth since the dawn of the new millennium has put India in the forefront of the leading nations of the world. Emergence of India as the new economic powerhouse has also put additional responsibilities on the shoulders of its armed forces especially the Indian Air Force (IAF). The IAF has aspired for more than a decade now to transform itself from a mere subcontinental tactical force to an intercontinental strategic aerospace power in conformity with other leading air forces in the world. India s economic rise on the world stage coupled with changing geopolitical-cum-security scenario has transformed the IAF s perceptions of its vastly enhanced roles and responsibilities. But has the IAF been able to equip itself adequately to live up to its aspirations or to match its increasing roles and responsibilities a soul-searching mission to rationalise its defence needs. In the 1960s after two quick wars with China and Pakistan various studies were conducted to strengthen the armed forces. As far as the IAF was concerned a force level of up to 64 squadrons (with 45 combat squadrons) was recommended to effectively fight against its belligerent neighbours. The closest that the IAF has been able to come to this was the officially declared figure of 391 2 combat squadrons achieved during the golden era of the 1970s and 1980s. The late 1970s saw the dawn of the golden decade of the IAF with the induction of the Anglo-French Sepecat Jaguar Deep Penetration Strike Aircraft (DPSA) into operational service. This was quickly followed by the induction of the Soviet MiG-23s (both strike and air defence versions) into the IAF in substantial numbers. MiG-27 a fixed-intake improvement of the MiG-23BN followed in quick succession and this variant was also licenceproduced by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). At about the same time the IAF also received from the Soviet Union the trisonic (Mach 3) strategic reconnaissance version of the formidable MiG-25 and the MiG-29 air superiority fighters. But the icing on the cake was the prized acquisition of the multi-role Mirage 2000 from France which formed two frontline state-of-the-art combat squadrons in the early 1980s. These also provided much greater teeth in terms of enhanced operational capability and were to show their prowess later during the 1999 Kargil War against Pakistan. These were truly happier times for the IAF but unfortunately the golden period did not last long. The beginning of the 1990s witnessed the then unimaginable and sudden disintegration of the Soviet Union as also the dire financial state that India found itself in. While the former had a crip- INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 indian air Force WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Modernising the CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m PIB SP Guide Pubns exercise in bureaucratic generalities The updated version of the DPP was released by the MoD on January 6 2011 and thereafter the much awaited DPrP was unveiled on January 13 2011. While the primary thrust of DPP is to acquire equipment for the armed forces expeditiously DPrP aims at promoting indigenous production to reduce dependence on foreign vendors reiterating that self-reliance in defence is of vital importance for both strategic and economic reasons. n Major general (retd) Mrinal SuMan Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book T 113 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he month of January witnessed the release of two policy documents of great import to the building of indigenous defence industry base and modernisation of the Indian armed forces. First the updated version of the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) was released by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) on January 6 2011 (made applicable with effect from January 1 2011) and thereafter the much awaited Defence Production Policy (DPrP) was unveiled on January 13 2011. While the primary thrust of DPP is to acquire equipment for the armed forces expeditiously DPrP aims at promoting indigenous production to reduce dependence on foreign vendors reiterating that self-reliance in defence is of vital importance for both strategic and economic reasons. DPrP stresses the need to synergise and enhance the national competence in producing state-of the-art defence equipment within the price lines and timelines that are globally competitive . For that the policy claims to strive to achieve maximum synergy among the armed forces public sector ordnance factories Indian industry and research and development (R&D) institutions. Claiming credit for building up capabilities in defence R&D ordnance factories and defence public sector undertakings MoD feels that the time has come to achieve self-reliance by harnessing the emerging dynamism of the Indian industry along with the capabilities available in the academia and the R&D institutions. Within the overall aim of ensuring an edge for the Indian forces over their potential adversaries the following objectives have been spelt out in DPrP nTo achieve substantive self-reliance in the design development and production of equipment weapon systems platforms required for defence in as early a time frame as possible. nTo create conditions conducive for the private industry to take an active role in this endeavour. nTo enhance the potential of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in indigenisation. nTo broaden the defence R&D base of the country. Salient Features of the Policy Although DPrP is a collection of statements of intent and no specifics have been provided it indicates the direction in which MoD intends to move. Salient features of the policy are as follows nPreference will be given to indigenous design development and manufacture of defence equipment. Procurement from foreign sources would be resorted to only if the Indian industry is not in a position to make and deliver the required equipment within the timelines laid down by the services keeping the urgency and criticality of the requirement in mind. nEquipment weapon systems and platforms approved in long-term integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) for acquisition after 10 years will generally be designed and developed integrated produced indigenously. However in case it is not considered economically viable or practical GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 Procedures WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Defence Policies & CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m SP Guide Pubns Rheinmetall USAF applicable to all Procurement Cases While retaining the basic objectives of the procedure DPP 2011 strives to expand India s defence industrial base encourage indigenous defence production and reduce defence imports. n Major general (retd) Mrinal SuMan Planning Process There has been no change in the planning process at all. Based on the Defence Planning Guidelines issued by the MoD a 15-year Defence Capability Plan is evolved by Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS). Thereafter the 15-year long-term integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) is prepared to plan defence procurements over three five-year defence plans. After approval by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) LTIPP acts as the mother document for capital procurements. In tandem with a five-year defence plan HQ IDS formulates the five-year Services Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) in consultation with respective Service Headquarters (SHQ). Subsequently all the three services prepare their respective two-year roll-on annual acquisition plans (AAP). Being a subset of SCAP AAP consists of the schemes included in approved SCAP. However proposals not listed in SCAP may be processed after due approval of DAC. AAP is approved by the Defence Procurement Board (DPB). Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 117 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE F or the sake of accounting convenience expenditure from the defence budget is divided into two heads--revenue and capital. Expenditure incurred on the maintenance and operation of existing equipment and on the procurement of replacement of sanctioned assets falls under the revenue head. On the other hand capital head covers all expenditure incurred to increase assets and potential of the armed forces and for the procurement of new equipment for induction into service. Ideally revenue expenditure should be minimal to spare maximum resources for the modernisation of the forces. As funding of both the heads is done from the defence budget funds can be transferred from one head to another if considered necessary. Defence Procurement Manual 2009 (DPM 2009) contains detailed guidelines for revenue procurements and is applicable to all the three services Ministry of Defence (MoD) and inter-services organisations. DPM 2009 endeavours to ensure greater transparency timely procurement greater competition and optimal utilisation of the defence budget. Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) on the other hand deals exclusively with capital procurements. The stated aim of DPP is to expedite procurements ensure optimal utilisation of allocated budgetary resources demonstrate the highest degree of probity and public accountability transparency in operations free competition and impartiality and achieve self-reliance in defence equipment. The first version of DPP was promulgated in 2002. It has been subjected to periodic reviews and has undergone major revisions in 2003 2005 2006 and 2008. Significant amendments were issued to DPP 2008 in November 2009. The latest version of DPP 2011 was formally made public on January 13 2011 and is applicable to all procurement cases in which the request for proposals (RFP) is issued after January 1 2011. While retaining the basic objectives of the procedure DPP-2011 strives to expand India s defence industrial base encourage indigenous defence production and reduce defence imports. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 Procedure 2011 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Defence Procurement CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Indian Army SP Guide Pubns PIB building india s Military Capability This year s budget allocation represents 11.59 per cent growth over the previous year s budget. This year s defence budget is only 1.83 per cent of the GDP while last year (FY 2010-11) the defence budget was 2.12 per cent of the GDP. The defence budget was accompanied by the usual remarks from the Finance Minister that any additional requirement for the security of the nation will be provided for. n lt general (retd) V.k. kaPoor Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book I Threats and Challenges The security threats and challenges facing India have increased enormously. While the old adversarial threats due to unresolved borders remain new threats and challenges like terrorism and insurgencies have been added to the old inventory. Moreover a simultaneous and collusive threat from China and Pakistan in many situations cannot be ruled out. This has been adequately covered in the Concepts and Perspectives section of this Military YearBook. India needs to prepare itself for the full spectrum of warfare ranging from low intensity con- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 123 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO t is a well-known fact that building military capability is a long-term exercise which depends not only on the level of expenditure but also on a holistic plan which presents stage-wise and priority-wise milestone of capability development. In the Indian context it involves formulation of the 15-year longterm integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) by Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff in consultation with the Service Headquarters (Army Navy and Air Force). The five years capital acquisition plan and the annual acquisition plans are derived from the LTIPP and form the basis of working out the capital budget for all major procurements during a year. The capital budget requirement of each service added to the revenue budget constitutes their overall budget demand during the year. flict involving counter-insurgency and counterterrorist operations to limited conventional conflicts under the nuclear shadow on two widely separated flanks in the West and in the Northeast. The dilemma is only regarding the extent of emphasis that should be laid to acquiring each type of capability. Thus the requirements of the armed forces are vast and wide ranging. Budget Details The defence budget over the last three decades has generally varied between two and three per cent of the GDP which corresponds to 13-17 per cent of the Government expenditure. The Union Budget for the Financial Year (FY) 2011-12 presented to the Parliament on February 28 2011 shows increased defence allocation of 1 64 415.49 crore ( 36 .50 billion). The annual increase in the budgets in the last couple of years has varied from as low as three per cent to as high as 34 per cent as witnessed in FY 2009-10. This was due to the substantial increase in the revenue expenditure to cater to the enhanced pay and allowances sanctioned in the Sixth Pay Commission report. This year s allocation represents 11.59 per cent growth over the previous year s budget. This year s defence budget is only 1.83 per cent of the GDP while last year (FY 2010-11) the defence budget was 2.12 per cent of the GDP. The defence budget was accompanied by the usual remarks from the Finance Minister that any additional requirement for the security of the nation will be provided for. The increase in the defence budget has resulted in an additional allocation of 17 071.49 crore over the previous budget of which INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 budget 2011-12 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Defence CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m PIB SP Guide Pubns GE Aviation india s Security and economic environment A country s defence preparedness is not just the reflection of its real or perceived security threats but is also at times a statement of her economic prowess. It also explicitly expresses that country s drive for power-- essentially a desire for recognition in the comity of nations. The process of military modernisation in India is the outcome of several congruent influences. n Sanjay kuMar Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book I 127 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE n the year 2010 India s international profile went up several notches especially with a record number of important global luminaries including important Heads of State visiting New Delhi. On an average New Delhi welcomed one Head of State every fortnight during the preceding year. More significantly starting from the visit of UK s Prime Minister David Cameron in July 2010 and ending with the visit of Russia s President Dmitry Medvedev in the last week of December India enjoyed an unmatched privilege of receiving the Heads of State from all P-5 countries over a span of six months. Among the galaxy of world leaders who visited India in 2010 the visit by the US President Barack Obama in September 2010 succinctly underscored India s rising international profile not only in terms of geopolitical dynamics but also in terms of her projected ability to influence the global economic order. In recent years despite a global economic downturn India has shown tremendous resilience emerging as a favoured destination for global business leaders especially arms manufacturers such as the United States Russia France and the United Kingdom. Interestingly barring China other four Heads of State from P-5 countries who chose to visit India in 2010 had each an underlying agenda --lobbying for the mother of all defence contracts the 126 fighter jets for the IAF which is valued over 10 billion ( 45 000 crore). With its economy averaging 7.3 per cent growth annually over the past decade India s drive to rapidly modernise her military capabilities are increasingly seen as a ray of hope for arms producing countries that are still trying to find out ways to recuperate from the global resource crunch. During his visit to India the US President struck business deals with India worth 20 billion ( 90 000 crore) with stated potentials for generating 53 000 new jobs for his people back home. The defence agreements between the two countries during Obama s visit included among others 10 C-17 Globemaster III heavy-lift transporters worth 4 billion ( 18 000 crore) for the Indian Air Force four P-8I maritime reconnaissance aircraft worth 1.1 billion ( 4 950 crore) for the Indian Navy and over hundred General Electric GE-414 engines for India s light combat aircraft (LCA) Tejas worth 800 million ( 3 600 crore). More significantly from India s viewpoint Obama announced his plans to remove export controls from Indian entities like the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and the Bharat Dynamics Ltd (India s prime production agency for missile systems) as well as many of their respective laboratories. With the US Ministry of Commerce notifying the above changes later on January 24 2011 these companies can easily access technologies which are required critically for India s military modernisation. Drivers for Modernisation A country s defence preparedness is not just the reflection of its real or perceived security threats but is also at times a statement of her economic prowess. It also explicitly expresses that country s drive for power--essentially a desire for recognition in the comity of nations. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 7 environment WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Strategic & Business CONTENTS Global Contracts Contract Value 164 000 000 Warfighter Information Network (WIN) Tactical Increment 2 (T INC2) Reset Bradley Fighting Vehicle Systems Falcon III handheld systems April 2010 551 April 2010 August 30 2011 April 2010 Multi Year Product Job Task Quantity Date of Contract Date of Delivery Remarks Procurement of equipment for three brigade combat teams one division headquarters four regional hub nodes and one base equipment complement to support the initial operational test and evaluation for WIN-T INC2 for programme manager WIN-T. Involves modifications and resetting of 551 Bradley Fighting Vehicle Systems. 145 170 882 112 million (US) Country Recipient Country Supplier Company US Department of Defense (DOD) General Dynamics C4 Systems US Army TACOM BAE Systems Australian Defence Department Harris Corporation www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m 135 434 738 000 THAAD Field Support April 2010 March 2015 108 490 207 Enhanced AN TPQ-36 (EQ-36) radar 17 April 2010 208 905 836 Senior leadership command control and communications system--airborne communications programme April 2010 Multi Year Tactical radios Falcon III hand-held systems have proved popular with the US military seeing heavy use in Afghanistan and Iraq leading the purchase by Australian Defence Department. Lockheed Martin will provide logistics maintenance software training and engineering services to fielded THAAD fire units. The government intends to procure 17 enhanced AN TPQ-36 (EQ-36) radar systems with the associated sustained operational group and mission essential group (MEG) non-recurring engineering and MEG installation under an undefinitised contractual action with an obligation of 49 per cent of the estimated value. The contractor will provide secure voice data and video systems for the very important person special air mission fleet up to 40 aircraft to include communication system operator work stations passenger stations voice-over Internet protocol phones video teleconferencing systems classified and unclassified local area networks and training maintenance and logistic support. US Army Lockheed Martin Corporation SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue US Army Lockheed Martin Corporation US Air Force Rockwell Collins Inc. REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Country Recipient 142 100 000 Fully integrated persistent threat detection systems 17 April 2010 Multi Year This contract is for procuring 17 fully integrated persistent threat detection systems support equipment and initial spares to provide a responsive dedicated day night netted sensor capability that enables the US and coalition forces to detect locate characterise identify track and target forces in their battle space. This contract provides for one 18-month option and three one-year periods. The date of performance completion is 18 months post first delivery order. Information technology support to USSOCOM headquarters its components theater special operation commands and the military departments Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps that provide direct support to Special Operations forces. This contract provides propulsion gas turbines generators controllable pitch propeller and other components to support construction of DDG 113 and DDG 114. Country Supplier Company Contract Value Product Job Task Quantity Date of Contract Date of Delivery Remarks Business US Navy Lockheed Martin maritime systems & sensors US Defense Logistics Agency 6 469 092 827 Full-line food and beverage support April 2010 18 Months extendable Anham US Special Operations Command L-3 Services 150 000 000 Information technology support April 2010 Multi Year www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m US Navy Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding 114 003 000 Long lead time material in support of the construction of DDG 114 under the DDG 51 class destroyer programme Aegis BMD Baseline April 2010 April 2010 Multi Year 136 151 862 595 250 million Earth Observing System Engineering Naval distillate fuel April 2010 253 790 281 April 2010 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue Five years April 2011 Missile Defense Agency Lockheed Martin Maritime Systems and Sensors The modification will exercise options to provide system engineering programme management and other efforts to complete the development and test of the Aegis BMD Baseline 4.0.1 weapon system and to conduct the installation test and checkout of the Aegis BMD Baseline 4.0.1 weapon system modifications aboard four Aegis cruisers or destroyers. Contract to maintain and manage large volumes of sensing data and imagery from space instruments. Naval fuel contract for the US Navy and associated agencies. NASA Goddard Raytheon global contracts Defense Logistics Agency Refinery Associates of Texas Country Recipient 1 billion Protective barriers April 2010 Two years plus two years extendable To design and produce 250 wheeled vehicles with a variety of capabilities. This contract is part of a major investment by Malaysia in its armed forces. The end result will be an established production capability indigenous to Malaysia. April 2011 To provide for Aviation fuel to US defence agencies. To provide for Aviation fuel to US defence agencies. To provide for protective barriers in the US Forces in the US Central Command s area of responsibility. Country Supplier Company Contract Value Product Job Task Quantity Date of Contract Date of Delivery Remarks Defense Logistics Agency 500 million Armoured vehicle production line For 250 vehicles April 2010 Hesco Bastion Ltd. United Kingdom global contracts Malaysia BAE Systems and Nurol Holding AS Defense Logistics Agency 255 106 530 Aviation fuel April 2010 April 2011 Equilon Enterprises 732 943 752 Aviation fuel April 2010 Defense Logistics Agency 300 000 000 Construction and repair of utilities in naval facilities HF Manpack radio April 2010 10 years sustainment April 2010 Valero Marketing & Supply Co US Navy Baldi Bros and seven other companies 464 million www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m 137 184 million Long lead materials for LPD 26 1 April 2010 102 324 363 Mine resistant ambush protected vehicles May 2010 191 million Enhancements to International MaxPro Dash Mine Resistant Ambush Protected 629 May 2010 For new construction and repair of dry utilities at various locations within the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) Southwest area of responsibility. Procurement and sustainment of improved special operations forces high-frequency manpack radio systems in support of US Special Operations Command. The funds will be used to purchase long lead time materials and major equipment in support of the new ship such as main engines and diesel generators and other equipment including electrical switchboards deck equipment and fire extinguishing systems. Multi Year Modification under a previously awarded firm-fixed-price indefinite-delivery indefinitequantity contract for the procurement of various kits and parts for the mine resistant ambush protected vehicles. Three years The order falls under Navistar s three-year contract awarded in May 2008 to support the Afghan National Police and Afghan National Army. US Special Operations Forces Command Harris Corporation SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue US Navy Northrop Grumman Corporation Marine Corps Systems Command Navistar Defense Business GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS US Army Lockheed Martin REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Contents One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Integrated Defence Staff The Indian Army The Indian Navy The Indian Air Force Indian Coast Guard Who s Who in Indian Defence Indian Defence Industry Defence R&D 153 161 185 211 235 245 265 289 INDIAN DEFENCE REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO Homeland Security One Two Three Four India s Homeland Security India s Internal Security Maoist Insurgency India s Coastal Security 297 307 315 321 BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Indian Defence CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section four 4 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS GD CANADA AD General Dynamics provides innovative C4ISR battle space solutions that help forces around the world get the job done. We deliver integrated and connected mission solutions engineered to keep warfighters more aware effective and Integrated connected missions. safe. With General Dynamics you are never alone and always aware. u Tactical Internet u Rugged C4ISR Displays u Underwater ISR u Airborne ISR 1 613 596-7000 2011 General Dynamics Canada. All rights reserved www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m For Jointness in the armed Forces The time has come to take stock of the defence set up and review what has already been achieved so far and plans be made on how to move further on the path. But empirical evidence suggests that it would not be an easy task given the number of contextual inhibiting factors. n brigadier (retd) Vinod anand of Defence Staff (CDS) and the setting up of Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS). T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Key GoM Recommendations After considering the report of the task force on the management of defence the GoM made the following key recommendations nIntegration of the Armed Forces Headquarters with the Ministry of Defence (MoD). nCreation of the posts of CDS and Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS). nSetting up of IDS to support the CDS. nEstablishing a Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA). nOrganising an Andaman & Nicobar Command (ANC). nCreation of a Strategic Forces Command (SFC). nEstablishing a Defence Procurement Board (DPB). nSetting up of an Indian National Defence University (INDU). nA number of other long-term recommendations on aspects concerning air space and maritime management budgetary reforms including performance budgeting private sector participation in defence production improvement in service conditions media handling and cost-effectiveness. All the recommendations except the one on the appointment of the CDS were accepted by the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) on May 11 2001. The decision about appointing a CDS was kept in abeyance pending consultations with other political parties. The responsibilities of the CDS who would be the permanent Chairman 153 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was established in 1986 under the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) when it became clear that future wars would be fought jointly by the three services and that the time had come for jointmanship . Working under the COSC Chairman and headed by the Director General Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS) the DPS had under it Directorates covering policy and plans international and regional security affairs weapons and equipment and financial planning. It also operated as a think tank for the COSC. The DPS was the forerunner to the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) or what is called in some countries as Joint Staff. The IDS came into being in October 2001 with the merging of the Military Wing which was established at the time of independence and had functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat for a number of years till it came under the COSC with the DPS. After the Kargil War in 1999 the report of the Kargil Review Committee headed by K. Subrahmanyam was examined by a Group of Ministers (GoM). They recommended the formation of the four task forces to review the national security system nManagement of Defence nInternal Security nBorder Management nIntelligence Systems & Apparatus The Task Force on the Management of Defence headed by Arun Singh recommended among other things the appointment of a Chief GET YOUR COPY TO The CDS READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 PIB defence Staff WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Integrated CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m US Army Indian Army SP Guide Pubns in the emerging Security environment The Indian Army remains the repository of the Indian citizens hopes and aspirations. In a milieu of degenerating institutions it remains as is often touted the last bastion that inspires confidence. The Indian Army s role has gone far beyond national defence to also substantially address nation-building. India s National Security Objectives nIndia s national security objectives have evolved against the backdrop of India s core values namely democracy secularism and peaceful coexistence and the national goal of social and economic development. They include defending the country s borders as defined by law and enshrined in the Constitution. nProtecting the lives and property of its citizens against war terrorism nuclear threats and militant activities. nProtecting the country from instability and religious and other forms of radicalism and extremism emanating from neighbouring states. nSecuring the country against the use or the threat of use of weapons of mass destruction. nDevelopment of material equipment and technologies that have a bearing on India s security particularly its defence preparedness through indigenous research development and production interalia to overcome restrictions on the transfer of such items. nPromoting further cooperation and understanding with neighbouring countries and implementing mutually agreed confidencebuilding measures. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 161 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE T he global security architecture is shifting towards multi-polarity in power equations with a discernible shift in the global centre of gravity to Asia. India s security environment is defined by global and regional security concerns together with the growing internal security problems. The conventional threats from traditional adversaries continuing presence of terrorist and fundamentalist forces in its western and eastern neighbourhood has prompted India to maintain high level of defence vigilance and preparedness to face any challenge to its security. The developments across India s western borders are alarming and dangerous as the drift in both Pakistan and Afghanistan shows the lack of state control and breakdown of economy law and order and governance. Both states are staying afloat because of the aid from the United States and the international community. Moreover there is also the ever-present possibility of hostile radical fundamentalist elements gaining access to the weapons of mass destruction in Pakistan. A bigger worry is terrorists launching weapons of mass disturbance--nerve gas radiological attacks and the like. The proxy war conducted by Pakistan against India and terrorist activities unleashed by the various radical jehadi outfits nurtured by them in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) are continuing unabated. In the North-east China s challenge to India s security is looming large on the horizon. Its strategy of encircling India through her neighbours and confining her within the subcontinent is apparent and palpable apart from its outlandish claims on the Indian territory in Arunachal Pradesh. It has vastly improved the infrastructure in the form of roads and airfields opposite the entire Indian border especially opposite Arunachal Pradesh. Internally the country faces a series of low-intensity conflicts characterised by tribal ethnic and left-wing movements and ideologies and these conflicts have the capacity of deflecting the Indian Government from their long-term social and economic development plans. India is also affected by the trafficking in drugs and proliferation of small arms. Thus the security challenges facing India are varied and complex. India s response to these threats and challenges has always been restrained measured and moderate in keeping with its peaceful outlook and reputation as a responsible and peace-loving country. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 indian army WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES The CONTENTS Innovative networked solutions are key to solving today s and tomorrow s challenges. As a trusted partner and integrator of complex technologies ITT has the expertise to create sophisticated systems that work together seamlessly. From air traffic management and electronic warfare to networked tactical communications and night vision systems ITT offers an array of capabilities to answer every need. All this adds up to one result your mission s success. For more information visit Integrated network solutions for India. Electronic Systems Geospatial Systems Information Systems Mission Systems ITT the Engineered Blocks logo and ENGINEERED FOR LIFE are registered trademarks of ITT Manufacturing Enterprises Inc. and are used under license. 2011 ITT Corporation. www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m We are focusing on modernising our army while concurrently seeking to consolidate and address aspects of hollowness and critical deficiencies General V.K. Singh took over as the Chief of Army Staff (COAS) on April 1 2010. In a candid interview with SP s Military Yearbook General Singh shared his thoughts and perceptions on several issues like transformation of the Army status of insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir offensive and defensive capabilities on two widely separated fronts visibility of troops in Jammu and Kashmir procurement system and the state of modernisation of the Army etc. 173 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE SP s Military Yearbook (SP s) After having commanded the Indian Army for over a year what are your feelings regarding the combat capabilities of your fighting force In which areas do we lack the capabilities that we desire Chief of Army Staff (COAS) It is indeed an honour for me to be heading one of the most professional Armies which is well-equipped and trained. The Indian Army is fully poised to meet the varied security challenges confronting our country both internal and external. Due to the rapidly changing nature of conflict ranging from conventional to irregular warfare including its proxy war manifestation and the effects of emerging technologies a constant reappraisal is required with resultant improvements. Having laid down an all-encompassing Vision for the Indian Army we are focusing our efforts on some salient issues namely to modernise our Army while concurrently seeking to consolidate and address aspects of hollowness and critical deficiencies. Modernisation based on technology upgradation and induction is an area that remains high on my agenda. The primary areas that are being addressed are aimed at greater battlefield transparency increasing the lethality and precision of firepower capabilities overcoming night blindness and achieving network-centricity. In addition imparting realistic training towards all existing and emerging contingencies as also to prepare our troops for the future battlefield environment is another area of focus that we are addressing. My main focus is presently on transforming the Army into an agile lethal versatile and networked force. This force will be prepared for the emerging security environment and complex challenges of the 21st century. SP s In your view which are the areas of responsibilities as the COAS which work takes most of your time COAS As COAS my areas of responsibilities are large. When I take an eagle s eye view on the security environment prevalent in our immediate and extended neighbourhood I find a complex set of external and internal security challenges confronting our nation across the spectrum of conflict. The regional and global trends show a strategic shift towards balance of interest rather than balance of power . Our armed forces need to be extremely dynamic in measuring up to these challenges. Therefore I feel the greatest responsibility is to hone the Army into a well motivated operationally prepared well-equipped force capable of meeting the security challenges faced by the nation. I am satisfied with the Army s role both in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and Northeast. We are now helping the misguided elements and youth Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Chief of army Staff SP Guide Pubns WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Interview CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m INDIAN DEFENCE equipment Catalogue indian army MBTs T-90S Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Width over tracks Height over turret roof Engine T-72S Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height Armament 3 46 500 kg 2.228 m Main 1 x 125mm SBG AA 1 x 12.7mm NSVT (300 rounds) Main gun amn Engine Speed Range Armour protection Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2 000 rounds) 45 x APDSFS HEAT HESH (inclusive 6 ATGW) V-12 multi-fuel (V-84) 840 hp at 2 000 rpm 60 km h (max) 550 km 280mm (max) Road range Armament and amn 550 km Main 1 x 125mm SBG which fires an ATGM as well as conventional amn. Has a laser range finder and thermal imaging night sight [43 (22 - in autoloader) rounds] Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm MG (2 000 rounds)AA 1 x 12.7mm MG (300 rounds) 8 rounds min 3 46.5 tonnes 3.37 m 2.23 m V-84MS four-stroke 12-cylinder multi-fuel diesel engine developing 840 hp Main gun rate of fire Cbt Improved T-72M-1 (Ajeya) Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height (turret roof) Engine 3 43.5 tonnes 2.19 m Up rated V46-6 engine a 12 cylinder 4 stroke V 60 turbocharged water-cooled multi-fuel direct injection engine developing 1 000 hp at 2 000 rpm. 22.98 hp t 60 km h 35 to 45 km h 60 850mm Trench crossing Shallow fording Armament 2.6 to 2.8 m 1.2 m Main 1 x 125mm SBG Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm MG AD 1 x 12.7mm MG 16 to -6 360 3 km 8 rounds min Auto 44 projectiles charges Power to Weight ratio Max speed (on road) Max speed (Cross country) Gradient ability Vertical obstacle T-55 (Up Gunned) Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height Armament Elevation depression Traverse Max range Main gun rate of fire Amn loading Amn stowage Note Other improvements include explosive reactive armour integrated fire detection and suppression system and GPS. 3 43 000 kg 2.26 m Main 1 x 105mm rifled bore gun Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2 000 rounds) Main gun amn Engine Speed Range Armour AA 1 x 12.7mm NSV M (2 800 rounds) 43 rounds x APDSFS HEAT HESH V-2-55 V-12 Diesel rated at 600 bhp 50 km h (max) 500 km 140mm Arjun Country of origin India Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Overall length (with gun forward) Overall height (with AD gun mount) Overall width Ground pressure Armament 4 58.5 tonnes 10.638 m 3.03 m 3.864 m 0.85 kg cm2 Main 1 x 120mm Rifled gun AA 1 x 12.7mm MG Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm MG 39 rounds (HESH FSAPDS) 6-8 rounds minute Director type & Electro-hydraulic system & Thermal Imaging Digital MTU 838 Ka 501 10-cylinder liquid cooled Diesel developing 1 400 hp at 2 500 rpm 4 Fwd 2 rev Torque converter Mech. Main gun amn Main gun rate of fire Fire control gun control Night Vision Ballistic computer Engine Transmission 178 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m equIpment catalogue IndIan army INDIAN DEFENCE Max speed Shallow fording Vertical obstacle Trench crossing Gradient Road 70 km h Cross country 40 km h 1.4 m 0.914 m 2.43 m 35 Steering Suspension Fuel Track Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs) Recce Vehs BMP-1 2 2k Characteristics Crew Weight Length Width Height Armament BMP1 3 8 BMP2 3 7 BMP1 12 500 kg BMP2 14 300 kg BMP1 6.74 m BMP2 6.735 m BMP1 2.94 m BMP2 3.15 m BMP1 2.18 m BMP2 2.45 m Main gun BMP1 1 x 73mm SBG (40 rounds) BMP2 1 x 30mm Auto Cannon (500 rounds) Coaxial (Both) 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (1 000 rounds) BMP1 AT-3 BMP2 AT-5 V-16 in line water cooled diesel rated at 300 bhp BMP1 Land 65 km h Water 7 km h BMP2 Land 65 km h Water 7 km h 550-600 km (Both) 20mm Engine Speed BRDM-2 Characteristics Crew Weight Armament Engine 4 7 000 kg 6 x AT-3 [ATGM] 1 x 14.5mm KPVT HMG (500 rounds) 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG Co-axial (2 000 rounds) Speed Range Armour GAZ-41 V-8 water cooled petrol developing 140 hp at 3 400 rpm Land 100 km h Water 10 km h 750 km 14mm Characteristics Crew Calibre Weight (Travelling position) Elevation depression 8 130mm 8 450 kg 45 to-2.5 Traverse Projectile Weight MV Range Rate of fire 50 (total) 33.4 kg 930 m sec 27 km (full charge) 19.1 km (reduced charge) 5-6 rounds min Characteristics Crew Calibre Weight Elevation depression 6 155mm 11 500 kg 50 to -3 Traverse MV Range Rate of fire 60 (total) 935 m sec 24 km (HE 77B) 30 km (HE ER) 6 rounds min Characteristics Crew Calibre Weight MV Range 7 (can be reduced to 5) 39mm 3 175 kg 827 m sec (Charges-super) Rate of fire 130mm M-46 SP Gun (Catapult) 179 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE The Catapult is the 130mm M-46 towed gun mounted on a Vijayanta chassis and uses the same amn as the 130mm M-46. The Catapult can carry 30 rounds of amn. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 24.7 km 30 km (rocket assisted) up to 5 RPM (intense) 2 RPM (sustained) ASIAN WHO S WHO 155mm M777 Ultralightweight Field Howitzer INDIAN DEFENCE 155mm FH-77B How Contractor Bofors AB Sweden BUSINESS Arty 130mm M-46 Med Gun TECHNOLOGY Range Armour CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES ATGW WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Lockup clutch & hydro dynamic retarder Double radii Mech steering with neutral turn Hydrogas Renk transmission DHPP (A) Diehl L - German CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m SP Guide Pubns Wikipedia Safeguarding india s Maritime interests The Indian Navy currently has approximately 56 000 personnel on active duty including 5 000 members of naval aviation branch 2 000 marine commandos and the recently sanctioned 1 000 Sagar Prahari Bal soldiers making it the world s fourth largest Navy Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Background The maritime traditions of the country can be traced as far back as the Mohenjodaro civilisation with many archeologists claiming that a basin dating back to 4000 BC discovered in Lothal was the world s first drydock. Indian trade and culture were carried across the seas during the Chola Satavahana Chalukya Pandyan and Kalinga periods. The story of the Ramayana and Mahabharata spread by Indian seafarers can even today be seen in temple murals and carvings in as distant as Indonesia Kampuchea and Thailand. These seafarers took Indian silks spices and GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 185 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE T he Indian Navy s responsibilities include safeguarding a wide spectrum of the country s maritime interests comprising a coastline of 7 516 kilometres and an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of over two million square kilometres. In its EEZ the country has sovereign rights to explore and exploit economic assets without encroachment or hindrance from others. The country s overseas trade is more than 513.5 million tonnes over 95 per cent of which by volume and 77 per cent by value moves through the medium of the sea to and from 13 major ports and dozens of smaller ones on either coast. India has island territories on both seaboards. To the east more than 950 kilometres from the Indian mainland are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands stretching 720 kilometres from north to south. The southernmost of these islands is only 150 kilometres from the western tip of the Indonesian archipelago while in the north Myanmar (Coco islands) lies only 35 kilometres away. To the west about 250 kilometres from the mainland are the Lakshadweep group of islands occupying a strategic location astride vital international shipping lanes. India s merchant marine is close to nine million tonnes GRT (gross register tonne) comprising over 700 ships. The country shares maritime boundaries with seven Indian Ocean littoral states. Another example of the importance of the sea is India s current oil consumption which was 2.5 million barrels per day (bbl d) in 2005 and is likely to rise to 5.3 million bbl d by 2025. This will mean a drastic increase in oil imports half of which will come from the Middle East. Any stoppages or even interruptions are likely to have a crippling effect on the economy. Thus India is truly a maritime nation and the sea is critical to its survival and prosperity. It is the role of the Indian Navy to ensure that these interests are adequately safeguarded in peace and war. The Navy will hopefully in the very near future provide the third leg of the nuclear triad which India seeks to develop in order to safeguard its interests as a de facto nuclear weapon state. The relief operations carried out after the devastating tsunami in December 2004 have demonstrated the ability of the Indian Navy to respond with alacrity to the humanitarian needs of the neighbouring countries in the region while simultaneously undertaking disaster relief tasks for fellow citizens in our own coastal states and island territories. Thereafter in 2006 we witnessed the swiftly executed refugee evacuation operation from strife-torn Lebanon where again the Navy rendered succour not just to Indian citizens but also to stranded Sri Lankans and Nepalese. These two successful operations were observed by navies worldwide and they highlighted the fact that the Indian Navy was capable of discharging its tasks commensurate with India s regional status and responsibilities. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 indian navy WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES The CONTENTS 192 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m indigenisation has always been the focus of indian navy The Indian Navy is a catalyst for peace security and stability in the Indian Ocean region. In an interview with SP s Military Yearbook Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral Nirmal Verma outlined the Indian Navy s three-pronged approach. 193 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE SP s Military Yearbook (SP s) For prosperity of the nation the Indian Navy has multidimensional responsibilities in the Indian Ocean region assigned to it by the Government of India. How do you visualise capability build-up of Indian Navy to fulfill these responsibilities Admiral Nirmal Verma (CNS) The multidimensional capabilities and professional versatility makes the Indian Navy a catalyst for peace security and stability in the Indian Ocean region (IOR). The Navy has a track record of responding swiftly to regional security requirements by undertaking diverse missions such as humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR) combating piracy and terrorism providing search and rescue facilities to those in distress conducting hydrographic surveys in waters of friendly foreign countries and coordinating navigational warnings over vast oceanic and littoral areas. The opportunities these missions have generated has strengthened bilateral relationships enhanced interoperability and helped in sharing best practices with other navies in the IOR. In discharging its responsibilities to safeguard the national maritime interests the Indian Navy assumes a three-pronged approach. First it maintains constant surveillance in our primary areas of interest in order to enhance its maritime domain awareness. Second it maintains credible all-round capabilities to execute core missions and has a robust plan of force accretion to enhance these in the years to come. Third it pursues an active regional engagement plan to combat common concerns as well as enhance the capacities and capabilities of smaller regional nations in the interest of strengthening regional security. Maintaining constant surveillance in our areas of interest requires significant capabilities and the coordinated application of a number Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book of surface airborne and space-based means. Accordingly induction of capable ships and long-range and medium-range maritime patrol aircraft has been planned with augmentation by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) especially for close-coast surveillance. Our force accretion plans also include the induction of modern surface and sub-surface platforms in significant numbers in order to sustain enlarge and sharpen our ability to undertake principal tasks. Our regional engagement philosophy is broad-based and includes confidence building through multi-level exchanges and operational cooperation. We are exploring a variety of mechanisms for sharing maritime domain awareness with other navies in the IOR. We are also augmenting our amphibious capabilities important as they are for the sustenance and protection of our island territories as also for HADR which is vital to a region that is home to 70 per cent of the world s natural disasters. SP s The Indian Navy s maritime strategy propagates an all-round capability building approach. How in your view is the modernisation plan of the Indian Navy progressing CNS The Indian Navy s force development perspective planning is now driven by a conceptual shift from one that considers numbers of platforms to one that concentrates upon capabilities . In terms of force accretion in the immediate future we are acquiring ships submarines and aircraft in accordance with the Navy s current maritime capabilities perspective plan. There are currently 39 ships and submarines on order with our preferred induction choice being through the indigenous route. At Mumbai the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) is engaged in the construction of three Kolkata class destroyers and two stealth frigates GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Chief of naval Staff SP Guide Pubns WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Interview CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m equIpment catalogue IndIan navy INDIAN DEFENCE Scorpene Class (Project 75) Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) Main machinery (metres) Speed knots Range miles Diving Depth Complement Torpedoes Countermeasures Weapons control Radars 1 668 dived 217.8 x 20.3 x 19 (66.4 x 6.2 x 5.8) Diesel-electric 4 MTU 16 V 396 SE84 diesels 1 Jeumont Scheneider motor 1 shaft 20 dived 12 surfaced 550 at 4 kt dived 6 500 at 8 kt surfaced More than 300 m (984 ft) 31 (6 officers) 6-21 in (533mm) tubes ESM UDS International SUBTICS Navigation Sagem I-band Sonars Hull mounted passive and attack medium frequency Programme Project 75 negotiations for construction of six submarines in India were completed and contract concluded in late 2005. The contract envisages construction at MDL with transfer of technology from DCN France. The first submarine is expected to be delivered by 2012 and thereafter one every year. Details of equipment package are speculative and based on those built for Chilean Navy. Design consideration provides special attention to stealth features with the hull forms the sail and the appendages specifically designed to produce minimum hydrodynamic noise. Armed with Exocet SM 39 antiship missile the Scorpene also offers advanced capabilities for mine warfare intelligence gathering and special operations. Structure Diving depth more than 300 m (984 ft) Arihant Class (SSBN or SSGN) Dimensions Displacement Propulsion Length - 111 m (364 ft) Beam 15 m (49 ft) Draft 11 m (36 ft) 5 000-6 000 tonnes (estimated) PWR using 40 per cent enriched uranium fuel (80 MWe) one turbine (47 000 hp 70 MW) one shaft one 7-bladed high-skew propeller (estimated) Unlimited except by food supplies Test Depth Complement Sensors and Processing Systems Armament Launched Status 300 m (980 ft) (estimated) 95 officers and 100 sailors Bharat Electronics Ltd USHUS 6x533mm torpedoes 12xK-15 Sagarika-- SLBM Shaurya missile (expected) July 26 2009 Sea trials Range Akula (Bars) class (Project 971 971U 09710) (SSN) 7 500 surfaced 9 100 (9 500 Akula II) dived Dimensions feet (metres) 360.1 oa 337.9 wl 45.9 34.1 (110 103 14 10.4) Main machinery Nuclear 1 VM-5 PWR 190 MW 2 GT3A turbines 47 600 hp(m) (35 MW) 2 emergency propulsion motors 750 hp(m) (552 kW) 1 shaft 2 spinners 1 006 hp(m) (740 kW) Speed knots 28 dived 10 surfaced Complement 62 (31 officers) Missiles SLCM SSM Reduga SS-N-21 Sampson (Granat) fired from 21 in (533mm) tubes land-attack inertial terrain-following to 3 000 km (1 620 n miles) at 0.7 Mach warhead nuclear 200 kT. CEP 150 m. Flies at a height of about 200 m. Novator Alfa SS-N-27 subsonic flight with supersonic boost for terminal flight 180 km (97 nm) warhead 200 kg may be fitted in due course. SAM SA-N-5 8 Strela portable launcher. 18 missiles A S Novator SS-N-15 Starfish (Tsakra) fired Aircraft Carriers Hermes Class Class Indian Designation Total No. in service Specifications Displacement (in tonnes) Dimensions metres Width (over all) Hermes class INS Viraat 1 Standard 23 900 28700 (full load) 227 x 48 x 8.7 48.8 m Armament Displacement tonnes from 53 cm tubes inertial flight to 45 km (24.3 n miles) warhead nuclear 200 kT or Type 40 torpedo. Novator SS-N-16 Stallion fired from 650 mm tubes inertial flight to 100 km (54 n miles) payload nuclear 200 kT (Vodopad) or Type 40 torpedo (Veder). Torpedoes 4-21 in (533mm) and 4-25.6 in (650mm) tubes. Combination of 53 and 65 cm torpedoes (see table at front of section). Tube liners can be used to reduce the larger diameter tubes to 533mm. Total of 40 weapons. In addition the Improved Akulas and Akula IIs have six additional 533mm external tubes in the upper bow area. Countermeasures ESM Rim Hat intercept. Radars Surface search Snoop Pair or Snoop Half with back-to-back aerials on same mast as ESM. Sonars Shark Gill (Skat MGK 503) hull-mounted passive active search and attack low medium frequency. Mouse roar hull-mounted active attack high frequency. Skat 3 towed array passive very low frequency. India is likely to lease one in the near future as per media reports Sensors 197 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE EW Main machinery GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Aircraft Sea Harriers Helo Sea Kings Chetak Ka- 25 Missiles SAM 1 x Barak M Guns 2 x 30mm Air Search RAWL - 02 Air Surface Search RAWS C Pearl system Ex Israel Engines 2 Vickers Armstrong Turbine 2 ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS F100 Engine F100 Engine F117 Engine Answering the call with confidence. It s in our power.TM F135 Engine There are powerful reasons why 27 armed services across the globe employ 11 000 of our engines to deliver when it really counts. Learn more at Military Engines www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Indian Air Force SP Guide Pubns DRDO Modernising & improving its operational Capabilities The IAF modernisation process commenced in 1948 with the arrival of the Vampire the first combat jet. Subsequently Ouragan Mystere Canberra Hunter and Gnat entered service during the 1950s. Today the IAF is trying hard to accelerate its modernisation acquisition programmes not only to regain but substantially improve its operational capabilities. Some major programmes have been brought to fruition while others are being pursued vigorously. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Looking Back On October 8 1932 the IAF Bill was passed allowing creation of the Number 1 Squadron of the IAF with only one flight equipped with four obsolescent Westland Wapiti aircraft at Drigh Road Karachi on April 1 1933. The flight was commanded by a RAF officer and had five pilots and the first batch of Hawai Sepoys . The fledgling IAF went into action for the first time in 1937 during air policing operations in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). During World War II the IAF expanded rapidly GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 211 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE T he Indian Air Force (IAF) would have to seek greater governmental indulgence to acquire additional aircraft. In addition the force will have to vigorously pursue development and acquisition of fifth generation fighter aircraft. Manifestations of flight capabilities (the third dimension) in military affairs have witnessed phenomenal changes. The term air power is used to denote the flight potential of military services. Air power is in itself an indicator of its undeniable impact on modern warfare. The role of the Air Force can make or mar the war potential of a modern-day state. Recent international conflicts have proved the overwhelming importance of air power. In the Indian context the contribution of the IAF to the national security effort was emphatically driven home during the Kargil conflict in 1999 when intruding Pakistani soldiers stunned by the strike potential of the IAF and resolute Indian response retreated from their positions inside the line of control (LoC). However its current effectiveness notwithstanding the origin of the IAF was very humble. to about 10 squadrons. For its achievements during the war the service was awarded the prefix Royal in March 1945. The division of assets and manpower of the armed forces at the time of independence in August 1947 reduced the force level to a little more than half its original size. Two months later the RIAF went into action in Kashmir which saw the landing of Dakotas at what was termed the roof of the world . On January 26 1950 India became a Republic and the RIAF dropped the Royal prefix. The 1950s witnessed rapid expansion and modernisation of IAF both in terms of capital assets and infrastructure. The modernisation process was kicked off in 1948 with the arrival of the Vampire--the first combat jet of IAF. Subsequently Ouragan Mystere Canberra Hunter and Gnat entered service during the 1950s. Closer strategic and military cooperation with the USSR resulted in the IAF acquiring the MiG-21 supersonic aircraft in 1963 which then went on to pave the way for subsequent induction of various other combat aircraft and weapon systems of Soviet origin. From this point onwards the IAF inventory acquired a distinct Soviet orientation which is still in evidence 48 years after the first induction of the MiG-21. This also had a great bearing on the evolving shape and structure of the aviation industry in India. The 1965 war saw the IAF aggressively using the famous Gnat demolishing the myth of the F-86 Sabre being the best combat aircraft of that time. The Gnat again played a significant role in the 1971 conflict scoring a number of kills in the air. In the mid-1980s and towards the end of that decade the IAF played a key role during the Sri Lanka and Maldives BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 air Force WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES The Indian CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m IAF SP Guide Pubns People & mission would be my focus Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. Browne took over as the Chief of the Air Staff on retirement of Air Chief Marshal P.V. Naik on July 31 2011. In a candid interview as Chief of Air Staff-designate he spoke to SP s Military Yearbook about the responsibilities that lie ahead in his new assignment. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 217 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE SP s Today the strength of combat squadrons has declined to under 30 and is likely to decrease further in the near future. What is your vision of the shape and size of the IAF in the next 30 years and in what time frame would the plans to restore the force levels be actually translated into reality CAS The IAF currently has 34 combat squadrons comprising a mix of modern and older generation fighter aircraft and possesses the combat capability to face any challenge to our national security. Peaks and troughs are phases that all organisations go through. I would like to believe that we are close to the bottom of the loop in terms of the num- SP s Development of the armed forces in India has been somewhat Pakistan-centric humiliation by China in 1962 notwithstanding. How do you see the equation with China in the event of a full-scale military confrontation with or without collusion with Pakistan CAS While I agree that a Pakistan-centric approach was certainly a factor in the earlier decades the strength and capability of the Indian armed forces allows us the flexibility of developing a capability-based GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO SP s Military Yearbook (SP s) As the Chief of the Air Staff-designate what is your vision of the role and responsibilities of the IAF in the next 30 years to meet the challenges before the nation which is emerging as a regional power CAS The IAF has come a long way from its beginning as a tactical force. We are transforming into a potent strategic force with full spectrum capability in keeping with our national aspirations. The IAF vision addresses not only the physical security of India but also the protection of our core values and enhanced national interests based on the country s growth profile and aspirations. In the coming decade the IAF envisions itself to be a modern force with cutting-edge technologies flexible adaptable and nimble. While I would be articulating my personal vision for the IAF only when I take over I can mention at this stage that people and mission would be the focus. It is only when we align the entire human resource with the mission of the IAF we will be able to meet the challenges of a rapidly changing security environment. bers and the only way forward in the coming years is to go up. Induction of new platforms and sensors over the next five years would ensure that the IAF retains its cutting-edge at all times. On a different note I would like to reiterate that capability building and not number crunching is the way to achieve this. SP s Do you feel that in a unipolar world it would be desirable for India to develop a long-term strategic and military partnership with the USA in order to play a leading role in the region CAS Polarity today is determined not only by military power but is also a function of economic power and the power of human capital. I do not agree that we are today in a truly unipolar world. Try telling that to the Europeans or the Chinese. I think we are headed towards a multipolar world order with India displaying immense potential to contribute to this multipolarity. IAF has very cooperative and symbiotic relationships with most of the air forces in the world today including that of the USA. We similarly have robust strategic relationships with Russia and look to building strong strategic relationships with the EU and countries like Brazil and South Africa. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Chief of the air Staff WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Interview CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m INDIAN DEFENCE equipment Catalogue indian air Force Air Defence and Strike Fighters Mikoyan MiG-21MF Bis NATO reporting names Country of origin Type Number in Service Fishbed and Mongol (trainer version) USSR Single seat multi-role fighter 200 all variants. Performance Max speed Above 10000 m At sea level Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Max rate of climb g Limits Mach 2.23 Mach 1.1 390 km 6 500 m min 7 1.5 Construction Wings Delta planform with a 2 anhedral and 57 sweepback with small boundary layer fences at tips. Large blown plain trailing edge flaps. Fuselage Circular section all metal semi Tail Unit monocoque structure. Ram air intake in nose with floating centre body controlled by air speed and alpha angle. Large dorsal spine for avionics and fuel tanks. Air brakes under the leading edge of wing roots. Second air brake forward of the ventral fin. Tail unit of all moving surface type mass balanced at tips. Conventional fin with large inset rudder. Power Plant One Tumansky R-13 turbojet rated at 9 400 lb dry and 14 000 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity 2 750 litres Provision for drop tanks under fuselage and inboard wing pylons. The MiG-21Bis is powered by a Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet rated at 15 000 lb static thrust with reheat. Cockpit K-13 ejection seat with 0-130 kmph capability. Avionics and Equipment ALMAZ search and track radar with a 30 km lock on range. ARK radio compass IFF and Gyro gun sight Armament One twin-barrel 23mm GSh-23 2 cannon with 250 rounds carried internally and up to 2 500 lb of ordnance on four wing pylons. Typical loads include 2 1000 lb RVV-AE R-73 R-60 AAMs S-24 and UB80 UB 57 rocket pods. Dimensions Wing span Length Height Wing area Weights Take-off (combat) Max take-off Mikoyan MiG-27M NATO reporting name Indian Air Force name Country of origin Type Number in service 7.15 m 16.10 m including pitot boom 4.5 m 23.45 m2 8 750 kg 10 500 kg Note 1 While the FL version of the MiG-21 is being phased out a fleet of 125 MiG-21Bis aircraft with adequate residual airframe life have reportedly undergone an avionics and armament upgrade programme which comprises the following n Fitment of KOPYO multi-mode radar in the nose cone in place of the original ALMAZ radar which in combination with the active homing RVV-AE beyond visual range (BVR) air-to-air missile in place of the R-60 has given the aircraft a fire-and-forget capability. Coupled with a new Russian-made Mission Computer the KOPYO radar has also enhanced the aircraft s over all air-to-surface capability. n aircraft has been fitted with a Thales Monolith Ring Laser GyroThe based INS with integral GPS and GLONASS card. The INS has a drift of 0.5 nm per hour which is automatically updated by the integral GPS giving it a highly reliable navigation system. n aircraft has been given a semi-glass cockpit with the fitment The of a Russian-made liquid crystal multi-function display and a head-up display. n Additional avionics include a HAL made INCOM jam resistant communications equipment and TARANG RWR equipment. n Israeli video recording system has been fitted in the cockpit An which captures HUD as well as visual parameters during air-to-ground strikes for better post-strike debriefs. The upgraded MiG-21Bis aircraft has been renamed the Bison by the Indian Air Force. Note 2 About 90 Non-Bison upgrade aircraft to be phased out in 201213. But the 120 upgraded MiG-21Bis Bison aircraft to remain in service with gradual phase out commencing in 2017. Flogger-J Bahadur Russia Single seat variable geometry strike fighter 145 Construction Wings Shoulder wing mono-plane with variable sweep angles at 16 degree 45 degree and 72 degree. Full span hydraulically actuated trailing edge flaps in three sections. No ailerons. Instead two-section upper surface spoilers lift dumpers operate differentially in conjunction with horizontal tail surfaces to provide aileron functions Fuselage Conventional semi-monocoque structure with lateral air intakes. Four forward hinged air brakes above and below horizontal tail planes. All moving horizontal surfaces of the tail unit act differ- entially and symmetrically to provide aileron and elevator functions. Conventional fin houses a large inset rudder. Cockpit KM-21 0-130 kmph ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Bullet proof wind screen and small rearward looking mirror on top of canopy. Kevlar plating around cockpit to withstand hits up to 23mm-calibre shells. Power plant One Tumansky R-29 17 500 lb st dry25 35lb streheat turbojet with variable geometry nozzle. Six fuel tanks with a total capacity of 6 700 litres. Avionics and Systems KLEN Laser marker and ranger in nose cone VHF UHF IFF equipment. Doppler nav attack system and radar altimeter. Gyro gun sight accurate up to 7.5 g loads. Duck nose houses Laser ranging targeting equipment. Doppler nav attack system with radar altimeter. Some aircraft being retrofitted with new nav attack systems and air data computers. Most aircraft fitted with deception broad 220 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m equIpment catalogue IndIan aIr force INDIAN DEFENCE Clean Max take-off Performance Max level speed At sea level At 30 000 ft Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Turn rate g Limits Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) 15 780 kg 20 250 kg Mikoyan MiG-29A B NATO reporting name Fulcrum Indian Air Force name Baaz Country of origin USSR Type Single seat air superiority fighter Number in Service 62 Construction Wings Low-wing monoplane. Leading edge swept back at 42 degree with large ogival wing roots. Leading and trailing edge flaps without tabs. Fuselage Semi-monocoque all-metal structure sharply tapered and downswept aft of flatsided cockpit area with ogival dielectric nose cone. Tail Unit Twin vertical fins swept back at 40 and canted outward at 7 degree with inset rudders. All moving horizontal tail planes mounted on slim booms along engine nacelles. Rudder & horizontal tail planes honeycomb filled. Vortex generators mounted on either side and below cockpit. Almost 15 per cent of construction is believed to be of Carbon-Boron composite materials. Power Plant Two Tumansky RD-33 turbojets each rated at 11 250 lb dry and 18 500 lb reheat. FOD doors in each air intake duct actuated automatically with raising lowering of nose-wheel on take-off landing run. Total internal fuel capacity of 4 000 litres with a provision for a single 750 litre drop tank to be carried between engines underbelly. Later versions can carry wing drop tanks. Cockpit K-36D zero-zero ejection seat in a pressurised and airconditioned cockpit. Cockpit is high set and features a two piece blister design. Avionics NO-19 Sapfir-29 (NATO Slot Back ) coherent pulse Doppler radar with a 100 km detection and 70 km track range with full look up down shoot down and multi-tracking capability. Limited look up down shoot down IRST on nose on star-board side. Navattack computers Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H Country of origin France Indian Air Force name Vajra Type Single seat multi-role fighter Number in Service 50 Construction Wings Low wing delta monoplane with leading edge sweepback of 58 degree. Full span twin segment leading edge flaps. Two section trailing edge elevons of full length with carbon fibre skin and light alloy honeycomb core. Air brakes above and below each wing. Fuselage Conventional structure waisted Tail Unit according to the area rule. Small fixed strakes over each air intake. Cantilever vertical fin with inset rudder only comprises the tail unit. Rudder actuated by fly-by-wire system. Sweepback on fin leading edge 45 degree. Power Plant One SNECMA M-53 P-2 Turbofan rated at 14 462 lb dry and 21 385 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity of 3 980 litres with provision for drop fuel tanks underbelly and inboard wing pylons. Detachable inflight refuelling probe forward of cockpit on starboard side. Avionics Quadruple redundant fly-by-wire system. Invertors transformers and battery units. Thomson-CSF RDM multi-mode radar. Sager Uliss-52 inertial platform ESD Type 2 984 central digital computer and digibus. Comprehensive ECM active passive suite. VHF UHF communications suite HUD nav attack computer etc. Patric Litening pods. Armament Two underbelly 30mm DEFA cannons with 125 rounds each. Up to 13 890 lb of ordnance on nine external hard points. Options include various AAMs including R-73 Magic II & R-530D. Alternatively various types of ground attack weaponry including laserguided bombs can be carried. HUD helmet mounted sights operable up to 40 degree off the axis. Advanced 360 degree passive RWR of unknown type. Comprehensive VHF UHF communication systems. AoA indicator radar altimeter three-axis autostabilisation system auto pilot deception jammer in wing root. Armament 1 GSh-301 30 mm cannon in port wing root with 150 rounds. Up to six AAMs including R-73 R-27R R-27T Alternate loads of ground attack weapons with a total weight of 3 500 kg on six external hard points. Dimensions Wing span 11.40 m Length overall 17.34 m Height overall 4.75 m Wing area 35.35 m2 Weights Empty 8 340 kg Normal Interceptor role 15 750 kg Max take-off 20 000 kg Performance Max level speed At 30 000 ft Mach 2.35 At sea level Mach 1.06 Max combat radius 650 km g Limits 9.0 -3 Note Mid-life upgrade of 60 MiG-29s has commenced with completion of the project by 2013. The upgraded aircraft are likely to stay in service till 2025. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 221 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES band ECM equipment and Flare chaff dispensers. Armament One GSh-23 6 Gattling type cannon with 350 rounds underbelly. Seven external pylons capable of carrying up to 5 000 kg of ordnance. Options include Durandal Beluga FAB 500 750 FAE weapons and various types of rockets and gunpods. X-29L T ASMs are also available. Dimensions Wing span 16 14.30 m 72 8.21 m Length overall 18.15 m Height overall 5.55 m Wing area 27.45 m2 Weights Empty 8 200 kg Mach 1.3 Mach 1.9 600 km Max 20 deg sec sustained 14 deg sec Normal 7.5 -1.5 Ultimate 10 -3 750 km Note More than 50 MiG-27 aircraft have undergone mid-life upgrade at the HAL Nasik Division. WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS A CENTURY OF SPECIALIZATION With a century of special mission experience Bombardier knows and understands your needs. We recognize the situations and the challenges you face and we understand the solutions you require. Because chances are we ve been there before. We are the third largest civil aircraft manufacturer in the world. That s why you should choose Bombardier because we have a lifetime of knowledge that helps us understand every need and ensures every mission is a success. Bombardier Specialized Aircraft. Experience you can count on. For more information Bombardier and Bombardier aircraft model names are trademarks of Bombardier Inc. or its subsidiaries. 2011 Bombardier Inc. All rights reserved. www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Maritime Security in Peace and War From a meagre force level of seven ships at the time of inception the Indian Coast Guard (ICG) has made rapid progress through its development plans. The Coast Guard fleet today comprises 17 OPVs 28 FPVs 22 interceptor boats six Hovercraft 28 Dornier aircraft 18 Chetak helicopters and four ALH. The manpower sanctioned is 1 693 officers 9 093 enrolled personnel and 1 578 civilians. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 235 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE The Coast Guard Act 1978 specifies the duties and functions of the service mandating adoption of appropriate measures for the following tasks nSafety and protection of artificial islands and offshore terminals installations and devices. nProtection and assistance to fishermen at sea while in distress. nPreservation and protection of marine environment. nPrevention and control of marine pollution. nAssistance to customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations. nEnforcement of maritime laws in force. nSafety of life and property at sea. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO Duties and Functions INDIAN DEFENCE T he Indian Coast Guard (ICG) was constituted as an armed force of the Union by an Act of Parliament on August 18 1978 to undertake the predominantly peace-time tasks of ensuring the security of the maritime zones of India with a view to the protection of maritime and other national interests in such zones and matters connected therewith. The Indian Coast Guard functions under the Ministry of Defence primarily for non-military maritime security functions. It has military functions in a war situation when it conjoins with military forces in national defence under the Indian Navy. The Coast Guard began patrolling in earnest with two old frigates inducted from the Navy and five patrol vessels seconded from the Central Board of Excise and Customs. nCollection of scientific data. nOther duties as and when prescribed by the Government of India. The following additional responsibilities have been entrusted to the Coast Guard nCoordinating authority for taking measures to address oil pollution response in the maritime zones of India. The DGICG is the Chairman of the National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOSDCP) Preparedness Meeting. nThe authority for coordinating maritime search and rescue in the Indian search and rescue region. The DGICG is the Chairman of the National Maritime Search and Rescue Board. nThe Director General Indian Coast Guard is the Chairman of the Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC) and regular meetings are conducted at the national level to identify threats to offshore installations such as internal sabotage terrorist attacks hijacking of platforms drill ships jack-up rig blowouts fire hazards etc. nThe authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters. nNominated as the Lead Intelligence Agency (LIA) for the country s coastal sea borders for the purpose of generating coordinating and sharing the intelligence with the agencies concerned including the Central Government. These duties are carried out by the ICG over an EEZ measuring 2.01 million square kilometres that are home to inter-alia 3 565 square kilometres of mangroves 18 000 square kilometres of coral reefs and a potential 4.72 million tonnes of fisheries resources. It is also entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the safety and security of BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 Goa Shipyard PIB Coast guard WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Indian CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m INDIAN DEFENCE Surface Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels (AOPVs) Samar class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement (in tonnes) Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Armament Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement (in tonnes) Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Armament 6 Indian built Light 1 840 Deep 2 000 101.95x11.5x3.65 m 2x12.7mm HMG CRN 91 2x12.7mm gun Flight Deck Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range Complement (crew) with Electro-Optical Fire Control (EOFCS) Can operate ALH & Chetak 2xDiesels 7710 kw each 23.5 6500 nm at 12 knots 106 2x12.7mm HMG Can operate Chetak 2 diesels 4707kw each 22 4 000 nm at 14 knots 90 Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Vikram class 8 1 Indian built Light 1100 Deep 1220 74.1x11.4x3.2 m 40 60 or 30mm 2A42 Gun Optical sight Flight deck Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range (miles) Complement (crew) Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Vishwast class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement (in tonnes) Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Armament Flight deck 2 Indian built 1840 full load 93.66 x 12.2 x 3.6 m RN 91-30mm Can operate one Light Engine Helicopter (HAL Dhruv) Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range (miles) Complement (crew) 2 MTU 20 V 8000 M90 diesels 24 150 hp(m) (18.0 MW) 2 shafts cp props 26 4 500 nm at 16 knots 118 (16 officers) Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement (in tonnes) Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Armament Flight deck 1 Indian built 3300 full load 94.00 x 15.5 x 4.5 m 1 30mm Platform for 1 medium helicopter Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range (miles) Complement (crew) 2 Bergen B32 40 L6P Diesels 8050 hp (6.0 mw) 2 shafts cp props 1 Ulstein Aquamaster bow thrusters 1185 hp (883 kw) 20 8 000 nm at 14 knots 85 (10 Officers) Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement (in tonnes) Dimensions (LOAxBxD) 8 Indian built Light 164 Deep 215 48x7.5x2.09 m Armament Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range Complement (crew) 40 60 or 30mm 2A42 Gun 2x12.7mm HMG 2xdiesels 1480 kw each 23 2 400 nm at 14 knots 35 Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Sarojini Naidu class Indian built Light 235 Deep 260 48.14x7.5x2 m Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs) Jija Bai class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement (in tonnes) Dimensions (LOAxBxD) 7 Japanese Indian built Light 165 Deep 181 44x7.4x1.5 m Armament Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range (miles) Complement (crew) GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 40 60 2x12.7mm HMG 2xdiesels 1480 kw each 25 2 375 nm at 14 knots 35 243 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement (in tonnes) Dimensions (LOAxBxD) 7 Armament Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range Complement (crew) 30mm 2A42 Gun 2x12.7mm HMG 3xdiesels 2720 kw each 35 1 500 nm at 12 knots 35 INDIAN DEFENCE Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Priyadarshini class BUSINESS Pollution Control Vessels (PCVs) Samudra Prahari class TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES equipment Catalogue indian Coast guard CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Compiled by SP Guide Publications team As on August 31 2011 President & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces ....................................................................................... Pratibha Devisingh Patil Vice President..................................................................................................................................................... M. Hamid Ansari Union Government Prime Minister .................................................................................................................................................... Dr Manmohan Singh Minister of Defence............................................................................................................................................. A.K. Antony Minister of State for Defence............................................................................................................................... M.M. Pallam Raju Ministry of Defence Department Defence Secretary ............................................................................................................................................... Shashi Kant Sharma Secretary (Ex-Servicemen Welfare) ..................................................................................................................... Neelam Nath Joint Secretary (Ordnance Navy) ........................................................................................................................ Binoy Kumar Joint Secretary (Establishment) & Public Grievance ............................................................................................. Arun Kumar Bal Joint Secretary (General Air) ............................................................................................................................... Subhash Chandra Joint Secretary (Ex-Serviceman Welfare) .............................................................................................................. Sanjeeva Kumar Joint Secretary (Training) ..................................................................................................................................... Upamanyu Chatterjee Acquisition Wing Director General (Acquisition) ............................................................................................................................. Vivek Rae Financial Adviser (Acquisition) & Addl. Secretary ................................................................................................ Amit Cowshish Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Land Systems) ........................................................................................ Vacant Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Maritime Systems).................................................................................. Preeti Sudan Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Air) ......................................................................................................... Ranjan Kumar Ghose Technical Manager (Land Systems) ..................................................................................................................... Major General N.S. Vidyarthi Technical Manager (Maritime & Systems) ............................................................................................................ Rear Admiral B.R. Taneja Technical Manager (Air) ...................................................................................................................................... Air Vice Marshal Pradeep Singh Finance Manager (Land System) & Joint Secretary ............................................................................................... Vishvajit Sahay Finance Manager (Maritime & System) & Joint Secretary .................................................................................... Rajnish Kumar Finance Manager (Air) ......................................................................................................................................... Praveen Kumar Department of Defence Production Secretary (Defence Production) ........................................................................................................................... Shekhar Agarwal Special Secretary (Defence Production)............................................................................................................... R.K. Mathur Addl. Secretary (Defence Production) & CVO ....................................................................................................... V. Somasundran Joint Secretary (Electronic Systems) .................................................................................................................... Satyajeet Rajan Joint Secretary (Land Systems) ............................................................................................................................ Rashmi Verma Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 245 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 indian Defence WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Who s Who in CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m IndIan defence Pratibha Devisingh Patil Who s Who in indian defence President of India & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces The 12th President of India Pratibha Devisingh Patil is the first woman to have been elected to this august office. Born on December 19 1934 in Nadgaon in Jalgaon district of Maharashtra she assumed office of the President of India on July 25 2007. Her early education was from R.R. Vidyalaya Jalgaon and her Master s in Political Science and Economics was completed from the Mooljee Jetha College Jalgaon. Having studied law from Government Law College in Mumbai she began her law career in the Jalgaon District Court and simultaneously devoted herself to various social activities especially for the upliftment of women. At the age of 27 she successfully contested her first election to the Maharashtra State Legislature from the constituency of Jalgaon. Subsequently for the next four times she was elected MLA from the Edlabad (Muktai Nagar) constituency till 1985. Thereafter she served as a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha from 1985 to 1990 and was later elected a Member of Parliament to the 10th Lok Sabha in the 1991 General Elections from Amravati. Pratibha Patil enjoys the unique distinction of having won every election that she contested. Having represented India at various international fora she attended the International Council on Social Welfare conference at Nairobi and Puerto Rico. In 1985 she was a member of the AICC(I) delegation to Bulgaria and three years later she attended the Commonwealth Presiding Officers Conference in London. Patil led the Indian delegation to the Conference on the Status of Women in Austria and was a delegate at the World Women s Conference in Beijing in September 1995. Dr Manmohan Singh Prime Minister of India Dr Manmohan Singh the 15th Prime Minister of India is rightly acclaimed as a thinker and a scholar. Born on September 26 1932 in a village in Punjab province of undivided India Dr Singh completed his matriculation from Punjab University in 1948. His academic career took him to the University of Cambridge in the UK where he earned a first class Honours degree in Economics in 1957 followed by a D.Phil in Economics from Nuffield College at Oxford University in 1962. Dr Singh s academic credentials were burnished by the years he spent on the faculty of Punjab University and the Delhi School of Economics. His brief stint at the UNCTAD Secretariat was prior to his appointment as Secretary General of the South Commission in Geneva between 1987 and 1990. In 1971 Dr Singh served as Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Commerce and subsequently took over as the Chief Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Finance in 1972. Among the numerous positions held by Dr Singh are Secretary in the Ministry of Finance Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission Governor of the Reserve Bank of India Advisor to the Prime Minister and Chairman of the University Grants Commission. The turning point in the economic history of independent India was his tenure as the Finance Minister of India from 1991 to 1996. Among the multitude of awards and honours conferred upon Dr Singh in his public career the most prominent are India s second highest civilian honour the Padma Vibhushan (1987) the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award of the Indian Science Congress (1995) the Asia Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993 and 1994) the Euro Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993) the Adam Smith Prize of the University of Cambridge (1956) and the Wright s Prize for Distinguished Performance at St. John s College in Cambridge (1955). Dr Singh has been a member of the Rajya Sabha since 1991 and has served as the Leader of the Opposition from 1998 to 2004. A.K. Antony Defence Minister A.K. Antony took over as the Union Defence Minister on October 24 2006 marking a return to the Indian Cabinet after a long hiatus of 12 years. Born on December 28 1940 in Cherthala of Alappuzha district in Kerala to Aley Kutty and Arakkaparambil Kurian Pillai he is a law graduate from the University of Kerala. He was married on March 17 1985 to Elizabeth Antony and has two sons. His interest in politics and social work dates back to his young days when he headed the students unions. Having been a member of the Congress Party from the beginning he has held several party posts both at the state and national levels. He has also held numerous positions in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1970 onwards and took charge of the portfolio of Union Cabinet Minister of Civil Supplies Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution from 1993 to 1995. Antony who has been the Chief Minister of Kerala thrice is an astute politician with a spotless image. 250 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Who s Who in indian defence IndIan defence M.M. Pallam Raju Minister of State for Defence An alumnus of the Hyderabad Public School Begumpet Mallipudi Mangapati Pallam Raju is an electronics & communications engineering graduate from Andhra University Visakhapatnam and an MBA from Temple University Philadelphia USA. He worked in Philadelphia and Boston in the US and in Oslo Norway in the field of computers and information technology. He has a political lineage with his grandfather the late Mallipudi Pallam Raju being a freedom fighter and his father M.S. Sanjeevi Rao being a Union Minister in the Government of India from 1982 to 1984. He was first elected to Parliament in 1989 and was the youngest MP in the ninth Lok Sabha. He has served as a Director on the boards of Indian Airlines and Air India during 1994-97. He is a successful entrepreneur in the field of information technology and was on the boards of a few very successful public limited companies until his induction into the Union Council of Ministers. He has been a very active member of the Indian National Congress and has held several important positions in the state unit and at the national level. At present he is a Member of Parliament (15th Lok Sabha). Shashi Kant Sharma Defence Secretary Shashi Kant Sharma is a 1976 batch Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of the Bihar cadre. He has had wide and varied experience both in the state and the Centre by virtue of the type of assignments held by him in both places. He is a post-graduate in Political Science and has also obtained a post-graduate degree in Administration from the University of New York. He has also attended a large number of capsules and courses in financial management urban development and administration during the course of his career both at mid and at senior levels. In the state he has handled Land Revenue Management and District Administration Labour Youth Affairs and Sports Urban Development Social Justice and Empowerment and Road Transport. At the Centre starting from December 2 2003 he has been deputed to the Ministry of Defence and has served as Joint Secretary and has also been DG (Acquisition) for three years. He has had shorts stints as Secretary in the Ministry of Information and Technology and in the Ministry of Finance before joining the MoD once again as the Defence Secretary on July 14 2011. Shekhar Agarwal Secretary Defence Production Shekhar Agarwal assumed charge as Secretary Department of Defence Production on Juky 7 2011. He belongs to the 1977 batch of the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) of the UP cadre. He has a vast experience of working in Home Finance and Personnel Administration and has worked in all core areas of the government both at the Centre as well as in some States. He was Special Secretary working in the Ministry of Defence for the last three and half-years before assuming this appointment. He is a post-graduate in Chemistry from Delhi University and a gold medalist from St. Stephen s College Delhi University. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 251 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m IndIan defence Who s Who in indian Defence Public Sector Undertakings Ashok Nayak Chairman Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Ashok Nayak took over as the 15th Chairman of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in April 2009. He is a mechanical engineer from Bangalore University and joined the premier aeronautical agency as a management trainee in 1973. In his career spanning over three decades Nayak has held key positions in the fields of manufacturing quality assurance production planning customer services and export including a stint as general manager of aerospace division in 2004 where he looked after the manufacturing of GSLV Mk. III structural assemblies and tankages. As General Manager of HAL s aircraft division in 2006 Nayak gave a fillip to concurrent engineering and upgrade of Jaguar aircraft. He has led seven vital divisions of the company including fleet serviceability and multiple projects like the Hawk IJT and Light Combat Aircraft (LCA). He brought in attitudinal change by focusing on exports which resulted in several orders from global aircraft manufacturers. Ashwani Kumar Datt Chairman and Managing Director Bharat Electronics Limited Ashwani Kumar Datt (57) took over as the Chairman and Managing Director of Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) on May 1 2009. He was Director (Other Units) of BEL before his elevation as CMD. A graduate in Mechanical Engineering from Delhi University Datt joined BEL in January 1973. In May 1973 he was assigned to the team which set up the second unit of the company at Ghaziabad. Datt has extensive experience in development and engineering production quality assurance and installation commissioning of complex radar and communication systems. He is a qualified Lead Assessor for Quality Systems. During his varied assignments he has received intensive training in India and aborad on project managment technology transfer and quality management systems. V.RS. Natarajan Chairman and Managing Director Bharat Earth Movers Limited V.RS. Natarajan joined Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) on December 1 2002 as Chairman and Managing Director. Prior to joining BEML he was associated with the Lakshmi Group Blue Star Limited Binny Limited Bharat Gold Mines Limited and Electronics Corporation of India Limited. Natarajan is a member of the Executive Committee of SCOPE New Delhi and is the Chairman of Southern Region SCOPE the Chairman Mining and Construction Equipment Division Confederation of Indian Industry Chairman of the Defence Committee FICCI Chairman of the Society of Defence Technologists Chairman Management Council for Combat Engineering Ministry of Defence. He is also the Chairman of the Board of Directors of BEML Midwest Limited and Vignyan Industries Limited. He is a post-graduate in Social Sciences and has been trained in Corporate Management in AOTS Japan. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 262 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Department of Defence Production & Supplies The mandate of the DPSUs and ordnance factories is to provide the armed forces state-of-the-art equipment and achieve high degree of self-reliance in defence production. Over the years their capabilities have been augmented and modernised by the development and induction of new technologies through foreign collaboration. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Participation by the Private Sector 265 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE With the strategic objective of self-reliance in defence the DDP&S has been endeavouring to indigenise defence equipment wherever technologically feasible and economically viable. It has been a part of the indigenisation effort to locate and develop broad-based indigenous supply sources both in the public sector as well as in the civil trade GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE T he Department of Defence Production & Supplies (DDP&S) deals with the indigenisation development and production of defence equipment both in the public and private sectors. Currently there are eight defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs) and 41 ordnance factories including two that are in the process of being established one each at Nalanda in Bihar and at Korwa in Uttar Pradesh. The mandate of the DPSUs and ordnance factories is to provide the armed forces state-of-the-art equipment and achieve high degree of self-reliance in defence production. Today these establishments have a wide range of infrastructure for manufacture and maintenance of aircraft warships submarines heavy vehicles missiles guns ammunition components for defence equipment earthmovers communication and electronic devices alloys and special purpose steel. Over the years their capabilities and capacity have been augmented and modernised by the development and induction of new technologies through foreign collaboration to meet the emerging requirements of the armed forces. In addition the capacities of the civil sector are also utilised for defence production through outsourcing joint ventures and commercialisation of new products developed from time to time by defence research establishments. Defence equipment being highly technology intensive demand high levels of precision and quality control during manufacture. The Directorate Generals of Quality Assurance and Aeronautical Quality Assurance as also the Directorate of Standardisation have been established to ensure the required quality levels. Quality assurance is a high priority area and continual improvements in the standards and testing facilities are required. The Department of Defence Production & Supplies has the following organisations under it n Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) n Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) n Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) n Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) n Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) n Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSEL) n Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) n Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) n Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) n Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) n Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) n Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) n Directorate of Standardisation n Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) The Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) was transferred from the Ministry of Shipping to the Department of Defence Production and Supplies on February 23 2010. HSL can now build warships and submarines for the Indian Navy. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 7 SP Guide Pubns Defence industry WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Indian CONTENTS small web world of SP s s i n c e 1 9 6 4 www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Striving for self-reliance In the pursuit of self-reliance in complex and strategic defence equipment DRDO is committed to enhancement of both infrastructure and capability. It has a vision to be a reservoir of expertise in the most advanced scientific and technological domain. F Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book ormed on January 1 1958 by merging the units of Defence Science Organisation and the Technical Development Establishments of the armed forces the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) of India was a fledgling research establishment with just 10 laboratories. In 1980 the DRDO became a department under the Central Government. Today it is one of the largest science and technology departments of the Indian Government with a network of over 50 laboratories and establishments spread all over the country. Several complex defence-related projects designed to achieve a high degree of self-reliance for the nation are currently being undertaken by the DRDO. The projects cover critical areas of defence such as tanks combat aircraft missiles unmanned aerial systems radars sonar electronic warfare systems and a variety of armament. It is also engaged in R&D in areas such as computational sciences artificial intelligence robotics high-energy physics and systems engineering. Survival and support systems ranging from food and shelter to psychology and health care for the personnel of the Indian armed forces are also being developed. About 70 academic institutions 50 national science and technology centres and more than 800 public and private sector industries have supported the efforts of the DRDO in the development and manufacturing of prototypes components and subsystems strengthening the technological base of the nation. In addition expertise and infrastructure have been built up for basic applied research in areas of relevance to defence science and technology quality assurance safety and technology management. In the pursuit of self-reliance in complex and strategic defence equipment DRDO is committed to enhancement of both infrastructure and capability. It has a vision to be a reservoir of expertise in the most advanced scientific and technological domain. DRDO functions as advisor to the Indian Ministry of Defence assists in the evaluation of equipment for the armed forces and generates technical knowledge for use by the Indian defence industries for the development of new weapon systems. Programme Monitoring and Review DRDO has an institutionalised mechanism to assess trends in science and technology as also to identify futuristic technology requirements of the armed forces. Both production agencies and the users are involved from the inception of the project for better synergy amongst the various agencies involved and to reduce delay. Programme Highlights DRDO has empowered the country with cutting-edge technologies and provided the services with contemporary systems to enhance their combat effectiveness. Status of some of the major programmes and projects during the financial year that ended on March 31 2010 has been elaborated in the following paragraphs. Missile Systems Prithvi A surface-to-surface tactical battlefield missile the Prithvi is produced in three versions categorised by range which is 150 250 and 350 km with payload capability varying from 500 kg to 1 000 kg. All the three versions have been inducted into the armed forces. Also as part of user trials Prithvi salvo launch capability has also been proven. Agni A surface-to-surface missile with a range of 700 km the Agni I can be configured to fire from road-mobile launcher. It has a single-stage solid rocket motor and can carry a one-tonne warhead. The missile system has been inducted into the services. User trials are being conducted by the Indian Army in coordination with the DRDO. The organisation is headed by the Scientific Advisor to the Defence 289 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Organisational Structure GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS Minister who is also the Secretary to the Government of India. The DRDO headquarters has two types of directorates namely corporate and technical. While the former is responsible for matters related to human resource (HR) finance and administration the latter is responsible for all technical and scientific issues. DRDO has two societies under it namely Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) to undertake design and development of advanced technology aircraft and Society for Integrated Technology Application and Research (SITAR) for designing digital components for various projects. DRDO has around 30 000 knowledge workers on its rolls which includes 7 000 scientists 12 000 technical personnel and 11 000 administrative support staff. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 8 r&D WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Defence CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m INDIAN DEFENCE indian Defence r&D establishments ADVANCED NUMERICAL RESEARCH & ANALYSIS GROUP (ANURAG) Director C.V.S. Sastry DRDO Kanchanbagh PO Hyderabad - 500058 Phone 040-24347630 Fax 040-24347679 AERIAL DELIVERY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADRDE) Director S.C. Sati Post Box No. 51 Station Road Agra Cantt. Agra - 282 001 Phone 0562-2260023 2258200 Fax 0562-2251677 AERONAUTICAL DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADE) Director P.S. Krishnan Suranjan Das Road CV Raman Nagar Bangalore - 560093 Phone 080- 25283404 25057001 25057034 Fax 080-25283188 ARMAMENT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ARDE) Director Anil M. Datar Dr Homi Bhabha Road Armament Post Pashan Pune - 411021 Phone 020-25893274 25885007 Fax 020-25893102 CENTRE FOR AIRBORNE SYSTEMS (CABS) Director Dr S. Christopher Ministry of Defence Defence R&D Organisation Belur Yemlur Post Bangalore - 560037 Phone 080-25225121 26572638 Fax 080-25222326 CENTRE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & ROBOTICS (CAIR) CENTRE FOR FIRE EXPLOSIVE & ENVIRONMENT SAFETY (CFEES) Director Sudershan Kumar Ministry of Defence Brigadier S.K. Majumdar Marg Timarpur New Delhi - 110054 Phone 011-23813239 23907102 23919555 Fax 011-2381 9547 CENTRE FOR MILITARY AIRWORTHINESS & CERTIFICATION (CEMILAC) COMBAT VEHICLES RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (CVRDE) Director P. Sivakumar Avadi Chennai - 600054 Phone 044-26364001 26364003 Fax 044-26383661 DEFENCE AVIONICS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (DARE) Director P.M. Soundar Rajan Post Box No. 9366 C. V. Raman Nagar Phase II New Thippasandra Post Bangalore 560093 Phone 080-25347704 25349571 Fax 080- 25347717 DEFENCE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (DARL) Director Dr Z. Ahmad Post Bag No. 6 Pithoragarh Uttarakhand - 262 501 Phone 05964-225564 256434 223386 224601 (R) Fax 05964-225564 DEFENCE BIO-ENGINEERING AND ELECTRO MEDICAL LABORATORY (DEBEL) Director Dr V.C. Padaki Post Box No. 9326 CV Raman Nagar Bangalore 560093 Phone 080-25058325 25280692 23446987 Fax 080-25282011 DEFENCE ELECTRONICS APPLICATION LABORATORY (DEAL) Director R.C. Agarwal Post Box 54 Raipur Road Dehradun-248001 Uttarakhand Phone 0135-2787224 2787012 Fax 0135-2787290 2787265 DEFENCE ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LABORATORY (DLRL) Director G. Boopathy Chandrayanagutta Lines Hyderabad - 500005 Phone 040- 24440061 24530264 Fax 040- 2787161 2787128 GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 293 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS Chief Executive K. Tamilmani Defence R&D Organisation Marthahalli Colony Post Bangalore - 560037 Phone 080-25230680 28517272 Fax 080 - 25230856 25234781 TECHNOLOGY Director V.S. Mahalingam DRDO Complex C.V. Raman Nagar Bangalore-560093 Phone 080-25342646 25244298 Extn 2270 2271 Fax 080-25244298 CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Indian Navy Tata Changing Dimensions Today it is the concern for security of the lowest common denominator of every society namely the human being or civil security as the Americans term it which has resulted in the development of the concept of human security with focus on the individual and the community. Security is now related to the ability of the state to perform the function of protecting the well being of its people. n lt GeNeral (retD) V.k. kaPoor Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book I n the era immediately after independence threats to India were mainly external--from hostile nations. Despite the recommendations of various committees instituted by the government of the day the internal security threats were never so acute as to seriously induce the political leadership to reform the internal security apparatus. However as the challenges and threats to the internal security of India grew the Indian Government felt compelled to focus on this dimension of national security. It is now widely acknowledged that there is more to security than purely military factors. Today s definition of security acknowledges political economic environmental social and human thread among other strands that impact the concept of security. Today it is the concern for security of the lowest common denominator of every society namely the human being or civil security as the Americans term it which has resulted in the development of the concept of human security with focus on the individual and the community. Therefore the definition of security is related to the ability of the state to perform the function of protecting the well being of its people. P. Chidambaram at the Chief Ministers Conference on Internal Security held in New Delhi on August 17 2009 said Let me recall the three challenges to internal security--terrorism insurgency in the North-eastern states and left-wing extremism or Naxalism. Each one of them shares many characteristics with the other two. At the same time each one of them is significantly different from the other two. We have one instrument to confront and defeat the three challenges and that is the police. In the final analysis it is the policemen and the policewomen who can help us win these battles. To that policemen and policewomen this conference must send out a clear message that the government at every level is duty bound to provide them every kind of support--monetary material and moral. The government s resolve to reform the internal security apparatus of the country was apparent in the Minister s statement. Internal Security Management Internal security management has been an important component of India s national security management ever since independence in 1947. The Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of India handles India s internal security management mechanism. In the formative years after independence India focused its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order communal peace and harmony crime control and counter-insurgency which was mainly confined to the Northeast in the early years. But in the past five decades or so besides the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast the focus is also on the extinguished insurgency in Punjab the dissidence and proxy Challenges to Internal Security Consequent to the Mumbai terror attacks on November 26 2008 the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government went into high drive to implement the internal security reforms. The Union Home Minister GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 297 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 Homeland Security WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India s CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m SP Guide Pubns PIB reforms & recommendations The weaknesses lie in the realm of political and administrative accountability transparency superintendence and control over the police proper training and equipping of the police force and people s participation which would also ensure actionable intelligence. The government needs to introspect and rectify the fault lines by evolving pragmatic development plans and operational strategies and vigorous implementation of the same. n lt GeNeral (retD) V.k. kaPoor Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book I 307 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ndia s internal security remains a major concern even years after independence. In the early years after independence the Indian Government focused its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order communal peace and harmony crime control and counter-insurgency mainly confined to the Northeast. However in the past five decades or so the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast the extinguished insurgency in Punjab the dissidence and proxy war in Jammu & Kashmir the burgeoning Naxalite violence which is currently affecting 20 states and Union territories (223 districts) the jehadi terrorism unleashed by our unscrupulous western neighbour poor governance in most states all put together have become a serious threat which can destabilise the Indian state if allowed to grow unchecked. This realisation seemed to have dawned on a sluggish United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government after the November 26 2008 terror attacks in Mumbai. In the days following the attacks people came out on the streets though peacefully to protest the inaction on part of the government in facing growing internal threats and challenges. As the public anger became palpable the government was forced to act speedily. India s Home Minister and the Chief Minister of Maharashtra became the first two political casualties. A spate of reforms which were already in the pipeline were announced by the new Home Minister. Meanwhile the perception was growing stronger that India s external and internal security was getting inextricably linked especially on its western borders. A large number of India s internal security problems are connected to Jehadi groups based in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK). Pakistan s intelligence agencies and the military are funding training and abetting terror in India and these linkages now stand fully exposed. However despite a restrained but tough stance taken initially the national leadership has now decided to get back to the negotiation table with Pakistan both at the official and at the Track 2 levels. The succeeding paragraphs give some relevant details of India s internal security reforms or the lack of it in certain areas. Maritime security has not been included as that forms a major input by itself and has to be dealt with separately. In view of the repeated terror attacks on the Indian soil and the disjointed actions by the state government and the police following the attacks in Mumbai and the public outcry thereafter the government was forced to speedily undertake a number of internal security reviews and adopt measures which could either pre-empt future terror attacks or at least improve the crises management after such attacks occur. Several measures have been taken or are under way since then. These are briefly indicated below Strengthening the Central Police Forces nThe CPFs have been expanded by creation of 40 additional battalions -- 20 each in Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) and Indo-Tibetan GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO Measures to Strengthen the Internal Security Apparatus INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 internal Security WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India s CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m revolutionary Strategy & tactics The Centre and the states need to synergise their approach on vital issues of national security. The security forces must operate in unified fashion remembering that the overall objective is reinstatement of the rule of law and the population must be won over while destroying the Maoist-terrorists simultaneously. lt GeNeral (retD) P.C. katoCH Politics Mamata Banerjee s political rally in Lalgarh in August 2010 urging Maoists to hold talks with the government drew tremendous flak. The opposition cried blue murder labelling her having links with the Maoists. There were voices of dissent within the Congress too. The CPI(M) accused the Trinamool Congress of being hand in glove with Maoists and asked the Centre to explain the presence of extremists in the Lalgarh rally. Why the Maoists let Mamata invade their sanctum sanctorum is anybody s guess but may be they sensed a chance to capitalise on our legacy of criminalisation of politics United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) Bhindranwala Bodos Purulia arms drop and what have you. The political clash in Jhargram in the West Bengal assembly elections between the Trinamool Congress and People s Committee against Police Atrocities (PCPA) candidate surfaced a new poser especially since PCPA fielded none other than jailed Maoist hardliner Chhatradhar Mahato revered by Maoists. Perhaps the Trinamool Congress did not want to leave even a single constituency uncontested as part of their plan to storm West Bengal with an overwhelming majority. However if the overall plan was to draw Maoists into the political mainstream it has not worked. Jhargram is the only assembly seat in West Bengal with a Maoist backed candidate. Besides West Bengal is only one of the 16 states with a raging Maoist insurgency. n Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Ideology 315 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE It would be prudent for those who still take the Maoist problem lightly to read the Maoist document titled Strategy and tactics of the Indian Revolution scripted as late as 2004 that states The central task of the Indian revolution is the seizure of political power. To accomplish this GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE P ost-Dantewada massacre train derailing including the KolkataMumbai train sabotage that caused loss of more than hundred innocent lives a series of effective mine IED attacks on Central Police Organisations (CPOs) chilling killings and abductions of government officials security personnel and perceived informers we witnessed a period of comparative quiet in the Maoist violence albeit still dotted by sporadic violence until a sharp upswing just before the fifth phase of West Bengal assembly elections. Where does the Maoist insurgency stand today Do we posit a change of heart in the insurgents with the Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh announcing large financial outlays for development of the insurgency affected areas Talk to some of the MLAs and MPs of the affected states and they brush it off lightly labeling it as tribal agitation over forest rights If that was the sole problem why then should the Prime Minister describe it as the biggest threat to our security Are we continuing with our ostrich approach hoping that the problem will wish itself away or waiting for more Dantewada kind incidents to happen losing critical time to China and Pakistan to exploit this fault line of ours into full grown fourth generation war Did Mamta Banerjee s last year speech in the Maoist stronghold of Lalgarh draw the Maoists into participative elections While these are issues that need analyses the fact is that while India races against time to manage social change the Maoist insurgency needs to be accorded top priority. More intransigence may be at the cost of national integrity for our adversaries will not lose any opportunity to seek balkanisation of India. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 insurgency WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Maoist CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Indian Coast Guard in a rapidly Changing environment Management of the coastline including the maritime zone is by itself a formidable task and it becomes even more complex and challenging if the template of terrorism and piracy is superimposed upon it n lt GeNeral (retD) NareSH CHaND Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Maritime Trade India has a coastline of 7 516.6 km touching 13 states and union territo- 321 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE India s Maritime Environment There are about 12 major ports through which 71 per cent of the maritime traffic passes. There are also about 199 non-major ports. The total trade handled by the major ports has recorded nearly threefold increase from 179.02 million tonnes in 1993-94 to 530.8 million tonnes in 2008-09. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE M aritime traffic is a key player in world trade due to which maritime environment is exposed to greater risks because of multiple threats. Thus the security of maritime environment including coastal security is of paramount importance for any country which has a long coastline. Emerging new threats like terrorism and piracy apart from the traditional threats like smuggling poaching of marine life and illegal immigration have thrown fresh challenges for coastal security. Multiple threats warrant responses from multiple agencies which complicates the scenario. This necessitates the requirement of having appropriate maritime regulations so that safety and security of inhabitants resources and environment is secured. It is important that the regulations are so made that the multiple agencies involved in the handling of maritime security do so in a coherent and integrated manner while preserving each agency s primary responsibility. The solutions arrived at should be based on the maritime threat economic realities existing assets current organisations and legacy systems. They will involve coastal underwater surface land airborne and space capabilities for optimum domain knowledge rapid situation analysis resulting in faster decision-making. The forces deployed for coastal security must be able to adapt to the rapidly changing security environment from preventive to defensive to reactive. ries. India s total number of islands is 1 197 which accounts to a stretch of 2 094 km additional border or coastline. The land borders have been continuously in focus due to the hostile nature of certain neighbouring countries and disputed borders. However the same is not true of the coastal areas. There are some disputed areas in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) but apart from this there are problems of smuggling terrorism and illegal fishing. The coasts of Maharashtra and Gujarat are strategically located and prosperous which makes them prone to smuggling poaching of seafood and anti-national activities. Smuggling of gold arms and explosives has been quite common in this area. For the serial blasts in Mumbai during 1993 explosives were smuggled through Raigad on the Maharashtra coast. The Government of India and the state governments were aware of the possible problems but were somewhat complacent in their actions which resulted in the terrorist attack in Mumbai on November 26 2008.This resulted in triggering the government agencies to put appropriate mechanisms in place for effective coastal security. There is continuous movement of all types of vessels for trade fishing military policing sports and so on. It is understood that there are about 1 50 000 small fishing boats with no modern navigation means or communications. Management of such a coastline including the maritime zone is by itself a formidable task and it becomes even more complex and challenging if the template of terrorism and piracy is superimposed upon it. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 Coastal Security WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India s CONTENTS Contents Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Cambodia People s Republic of China Egypt Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Libya 325 325 325 325 326 326 326 326 326 327 327 327 327 327 328 328 328 328 328 328 Malaysia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen 329 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 330 331 331 331 331 331 332 332 332 332 332 332 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Asian Who s Who CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section five 5 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Compiled by SP Guide Publications Team As on July 31 2011 AfghAnistAn Head of State and Government President Hamid Karzai First Vice President Mohammad Fahim Khan Second Vice President Abdul Karim Khalili Defence Minister General (Retd) Abdul Rahim Wardak Foreign Minister Dr Zalmai Rassoul Interior Minister General Bismillah Khan Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces Lt General Sher Mohammad Karimi Commander of the Air Force Major General Mohammad Dawran Ministry of Defence Kabul (Afghanistan) Phone 0093 (O) 202300331 Phone 0093 (O) 700275707 National People s Army HQ C 0 Ministry of National Defence Avenue Ali Khoudja Algiers Algeria Phone 2132634176 631765 611515 AustrAliA Head of State Queen Elizabeth II (since January 6 1952) Governor General Quentin Bryce Prime Minister Julia Eileen Gillard Defence Minister Stephen Francis Smith Chief of the Defence Forces General David Hurley Chief of Army Lt General Ken Gillespie Chief of Navy Vice Admiral Ray Griggs Chief of Air Force Air Marshal Geoff Brown Chief Joint Operations Lt General Mark Evans Department of Defence Russel Offices Suite MF149 Parliament House Canberra Act 2600 Phone 02 6277 7800 Phone 6162659111 Fax 02 6273 4118 Defence National Phone 1300 3333623 AlgeriA Head of State President Abdel-aziz Bouteflika Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia Minister of National Defence Abdelaziz Bouteflika Chief of General Staff General Salah Ahmed Gaida Commander of the Land Forces Major General Ahcene Tafer Commander of the Navy Admiral Mohammed Taheryali Commander of the Gendarmerie General Ahmed Boustela Ministry of Defence Avenue des Tagarins Algiers Algeria Phone 2132611515 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book BAhrAin Head of State King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Prime Minister Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa Minister of Interior Rashid bin Abdallah bin Ahmad Al Khalifa Deputy Prime Minister Ali bin Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 325 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES asian Defence Forces WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Who s Who in CONTENTS Contents One Two Three Four Five Six GDP & Military Expenditure Central & South Asia East Asia Pacific Rim & Australia West Asia and North Africa Security in the Asia-Pacific Region Equipment & Hardware Specifications 333 337 365 401 435 441 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Regional Balance CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section six 6 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Years of Excellence Personified 47 6 Aesthetically Noteworthy Publications Million Thought-Provoking Releases 2.2 25 Million Expert Reports Voicing Industry Concerns .... aspiring beyond excellence. www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m GDP Total Per Capita Based on Current Prices Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Sr No. Country GDP Current Prices ( billion) 18.332 192.384 1 448.15 26.484 115.387 1.483 13.001 6 515.86 231.111 1 704.06 822.631 420.894 108.418 234.908 5 821.95 29.964 168.789 1 126.50 172.778 5.086 GDP Based on PPP ( billion) 29.865 263.321 918.529 30.963 277.919 4.176 32.489 11 174.33 508.265 4 447.76 1 105.72 827.344 125.665 230.455 4 417.65 36.04 210.341 1 541.02 145.292 12.755 GDP Current Prices Per Capita ( ) 589.749 5 245.49 64 351.18 23 465.50 691.951 2 041.70 900.841 4 833.29 2 892.41 1 382.40 3 464.81 5 493.23 3 300.71 30 933.68 45 659.37 4 788.27 10 820.36 22 961.25 GDP Based on PPP Per Capita ( ) 960.774 7 179.66 40 816.41 27 433.50 1 666.62 5 747.41 2 251.14 8 288.82 6 361.05 3 608.20 4 657.13 10 797.94 3 825.78 30 347.32 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China Egypt India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Korea South Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 5 759.28 13 484.08 31 410.47 39 497.71 2 363.21 GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 46 969.84 942.379 333 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO 34 645.99 INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 GDP & Military expenditure WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m 337 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Central Asia Central Asia is a region that comprises five states that belonged to the erstwhile Soviet Union--Kazakhstan Kyrgyztan Tajikistan Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It is a region that once used to be called the centre of the world. Given its abundant energy resources and by virtue of its geographical location it has consistently been in the limelight. In the 19th century it was the theatre of the classic great game which was played out between the Russian and the British Empires. Later it became a prized possession of the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the independence of the Central Asian states. The 9 11 events brought further global attention to this region reiterating its geostrategic relevance. Along with this the presence of hydrocarbons has again made this region important. The key players in this region are the US Russia and China. The Fergana Valley is the best-suited land in Central Asia for hosting a large population. However Soviet leader Joseph Stalin split the valley up between the Soviet Republics that would become the countries of Central Asia to ensure the region remained divided. Uzbekistan controls most of the basin itself Tajikistan controls the most accessible entrance to the valley from the west and Kyrgyzstan controls the high ground around the valley. Uzbekistan also controls several exclaves within Kyrgyzstan s portion of the valley affording the Uzbek Government and Uzbek citizens (including militants) access into Kyrgyz territory. These complex geographic and political divisions ensure that no one country can dominate Central Asia s core and hence Central Asia itself. Central Asia is also referred to as the backyard of Russia and China. It has emerged as the focal point of rivalry between the US on one hand and Moscow and Beijing on the other. Post-9 11 Central Asia also emerged as the epicentre of geopolitical changes on a global Pakistan-Afghanistan Region The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9 11. Today international terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Additionally Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) continues to stimulate terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989 and now Pakistan-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India bedevilling relationship between the two countries. The current impasse in their relationship is the result of Mumbai terrorist attacks on November 26 2008 which emanated from Pakistan. The new political dispensation of coalition politics in Pakistan has not stabilised while the resurgence of Taliban in the western provinces of Pakistan opposite Afghanistan namely Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) and Baluchistan has further complicated the governance in Pakistan. The war in Afghanistan commenced on October 7 2001 and marked the beginning of the US led war on international terrorism in the wake of the 9 11 attacks. The purpose of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) was to capture Osama bin Laden destroy the Al-Qaeda and dethrone the Taliban regime. While the operation achieved most of its stated objectives it has failed to establish stability in Afghanistan due to increased warlord activity and the resurgence of the Taliban activity in Afghanistan. The International Security Assistance Force was established by the Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY C entral and South Asia together account for about one-quarter of the world s population. Both the regions have countries that are mostly underdeveloped and poor. Central Asia lies at the crossroad of Europe and Asia and together with South Asia constitutes one of the most unstable regions of the 21st century. It encompasses the world s largest landmass (39 95 800 sq km) and has vast natural resources including significant reserves of oil and gas. Historically it has acted as a crossroad for the movement of people goods and ideas between Europe Western Asia South Asia and East Asia. On the other hand South Asia is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East. Further India s economic growth and dynamism has made South Asia an attractive destination for foreign investment. Despite the global economic meltdown India s gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to grow at the rate of eight per cent during 2010 and more thereafter. scale. The US became the main economic donor and assumed security responsibility enabling it to establish military presence in the region and set up military bases in four out of the five Central Asian states. Due to intensely competitive ties among countries of the region as well as the key players namely the US Russia and China the American presence now has reduced. It is interesting to note that while each major player tries to accomplish its national interests through their grand strategies the countries of Central Asia are using their own strategies to balance the relationships which seem threatening. Three different strategies have been employed to balance out the major players including strategic partnership non-alignment and a multi-vectored approach. The key to what is known as Kazakhstan s multi-vectored approach is to build strategic partnerships with all three powers. Today this policy has eroded somewhat under pressure from Russia s Eurasec Gazprom and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) but it nonetheless remains in place. Kazakhstan s successful campaign to gain the Organisation of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) presidency is evidence of a more recent effort to engage Europeans as a fourth element in the balance. The major attraction for key players as also countries like India Japan and the European Union is the vast energy reserves of the Caspian basin. CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 Central & South asia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance UN Security Council at the end of December 2001 to secure Kabul and the surrounding areas. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) assumed control of the International Security Assistant Force (ISAF) in 2003. The NATO commitment is particularly important to the United States because it appears to give international legitimacy to the war. Since 2006 Afghanistan has experienced increased Taliban-led insurgent activity record-high levels of illegal drug production with participation by Northern Alliance drug lords in the Karzai regime and a corrupt government with limited control outside Kabul. The Taliban can sustain itself indefinitely according to a December 2009 briefing by the top US intelligence officer in Afghanistan. On December 1 2009 US President Barack Obama announced that he would escalate the US military involvement by deploying an additional 30 000 soldiers over a period of six months. He also proposed to begin troop withdrawals within 18 months. On January 26 2010 at the International Conference on Afghanistan in London which brought together some 70 countries and organisations Afghan President Hamid Karzai told world leaders that he intended to reach out to the top echelons of the Taliban within a few weeks with a peace initiative. Karzai set the framework for dialogue with Taliban leaders when he called on the group s leadership to take part in a loya jirga --or large assembly of elders--to initiate peace talks. Doubts on the success of the war in Afghanistan intensified after the United States diplomatic cables leak by WikiLeaks as the European Union President Herman Van Rompuy was quoted saying to the US Ambassador to Belgium Howard W. Gutman that EU no longer believes in the success of the military mission in Afghanistan. He also added Europe is doing it [war in Afghanistan] and will go along out of deference to the United States but not out of deference to Afghanistan. South Asia The South Asian scene has been marred by hostility between nucleararmed India and Pakistan and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is battling terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir in its North-eastern states and intermittently in the rest of the country. Left wing extremism (Naxalite violence) which has affected 20 states and about 220 districts of the Indian Union nearly 40 per cent of India s geographical area is becoming more and more virulent virtually overwhelming state authority in certain places. In neighbouring Nepal the fall of the Maoist-led Government in May 2009 over the sensitive question of the integration of the Maoist cadres into the Nepalese Army and civil-military relations had brought political instability in the country. The deadlock was finally resolved when the Maoists the largest single party decided to withdraw their own candidate and supported Jhalanath Khanal the chairman of the leftist Communist Party of Nepal who became the Prime Minister The political instability resulted in delay in drafting the Constitution of the country and has adversely affected the economy of Nepal. In Sri Lanka with the defeat of LTTE and the demise of Prabhakaran a new chapter has opened. Rehabilitation of the Tamil population will provide long-term peace to this war-torn country. In Bangladesh the massive mandate for change given to the Awami League by the voters presents an opportunity for India and Bangladesh to work towards a better relationship which had stagnated during the BNPled government. New Delhi and Dhaka agreement to sign a 15-year interim accord on sharing the waters of common rivers Teesta and Feni on January 10 2011 is being seen as a major development in India-Bangladesh Central & South aSia relations. The agreement is expected to be signed during Prime Minister Manmohan Singh s visit to Dhaka this year. The discussions include formulation of a working plan on the sharing of the waters of other common rivers--Dharla Dudhkumar Manu Khowai Gumti and Muhuri. Pakistan having earlier encouraged trained and funded terrorist groups including the Taliban is now plagued by terrorism insurgency and sectarian violence within its territory. Pakistan is passing through an unprecedented political economic and social crisis exacerbated by the record floods in July-August 2010. At one point approximately one-fifth of Pakistan s total land area was under water. The floods have lowered agricultural output and contributed to a jump in inflation and reconstruction costs will strain the limited resources of the government. The Islamic radical elements continue to pose a threat to stability in Pakistan. Both India and Pakistan face the challenge of dealing with an increasingly Talibanised Pakistan where the institutions of governance and particularly the army are coming under the sway of Taliban ideology. The United States has been exerting pressure on Pakistan to send its troops into North Waziristan after Pak Army s successful military action in Swat and South Waziristan. Pakistan has ultimately agreed to launch military operations in North Waziristan but has said that it alone will decide its timings. Pakistan also remains ambivalent on dealing with militant groups in PoK and particularly the Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT). It has still not taken any credible action against the terrorists who perpetrated the Mumbai attacks on November 26 2008. Addressing the 16th SAARC Summit at Thimpu on April 28 2010 Prime Minister Manmohan Singh likened the 25-year-old SAARC to a glass half-empty warned that the region faces the risk of marginalisation and stagnation if the member countries fail to build it as a grouping that is better connected and better empowered. He announced the setting up of India Endowment for Climate Change in South Asia to help member countries in meeting urgent adaptation and capacity building needs. He also proposed setting up of Climate Innovation Centres in South Asia to develop sustainable energy technologies based on indigenous resource endowments. Singh said there was a need for the member countries to rediscover our shared heritage and build our common future as he pitched for free movement of goods services and people across South Asia. At the summit India and seven other South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) nations facing threats posed by terrorism and climate change pledged to jointly combat the twin challenges. Details pertaining to the countries of the region have been given in the following sequence Central & South Asia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Pakistan SriLanka 338 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Central & South aSia regional balance Central & South Asia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 339 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance KAZAKHSTAN Central & South aSia KazaKhStan General Information vests and increased foreign investment GDP growth slowed dramatically following the near-collapse of the banking sector in late 2007 and the decline in oil and metal prices associated with the global economic downturn in 2008-09. Kazakhstan has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector as well as expanding export markets away from its historical reliance on Russia. Nevertheless growth is still driven by oil. The government has engaged in several disputes with Western oil companies over the terms of production agreements most recently with regard to the Kashagan project in 2007-08 and the Karachaganak project in 2009. Defence Total Armed Forces Active 49 000 (Army 30 000 Air 12 000 Navy 3 000 MoD 4 000) Terms of Service 24 months Paramilitary Forces Presidential Guard 2 000 Internal Security Troops 20 000 est. State Border Protection Force 9 000 est. Government Guard 500 Security Environment Kazakhstan is not a country that faces significant external threats. Unique in the post-Soviet Central Asian region for its significant and sustained economic growth which has translated into consistent standard of living increases for the population Kazakhstan has also had a measured foreign policy since independence. Although its two economically and militarily sizeable neighbours--Russia and China--are perceived as threatening by some Kazakhs it is not in a military sense. Rather Kazakhs worry about Russian and Chinese investors exerting influence as a result of economic power and they express concern about political bullying. They have managed these problems predominantly by maintaining good relations with these countries as well as building ties with the United States. Kazakhstan has sought not so much to balance any one partner against others as it has to ensure that a network of good relationships prevents conflict. In its own region Kazakhstan has aspired to Central Asian leadership with variable success. Tiny neighbour Kyrgyzstan is generally acquiescent to Kazakh pressures and influence while Uzbekistan has tended to be more hostile with its own goals of local hegemony. Turkmenistan has remained singularly isolationist and Tajikistan primarily focused on its internal problems. None of these countries pose a significant military threat. Although Uzbekistan has mined borders with its Tajik and Kyrgyz neighbours and relations with Kazakhstan have been tense (in part because both countries aspire to lead the region) there is little concern about significant state-to-state military conflict. Kazakhstan is a strategic fulcrum in the vast Central Asian-Caspian Basin zone a region rich in energy resources and a potential gateway for commerce and communications between Europe and Asia. It is also an area that faces a vast number of security challenges. Ensuring a stable and secure Central Asia is important for the world and for Kazakhstan which has a vital stake in the security of this region. The security perspective of this region can be appreciated by considering the following factors n Asian Security Because of its proximity to Russia China Iran and the South Asian subcontinent Kazakhstan s security and stability is an increasingly of vital interest to all major powers. n Afghanistan Central Asia is a key area for the US and NATO military operations in Afghanistan against Taliban insurgents and Al-Qaeda militants. Central Asia is a crucial conduit for the US and NATO troops and supplies into Afghanistan. The US officials recently reached new agreements with Russia Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries to allow Afghan bound non-military supplies through their territories. Area Capital Coastline Population Ethnic Divisions Religions Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions 2 724 900 sq km Astana 0 km (landlocked) 15 522 373 (2011 est.) Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4 per cent Russian 30 per cent Ukrainian 3.7 per cent Uzbek 2.5 per cent German 2.4 per cent Tatar 1.7 per cent Uighur 1.4 per cent others 4.9 per cent (1999 census) Muslim 47 per cent Russian Orthodox 44 per cent Protestant 2 per cent others 7 per cent Kazakh (Qazaq state language) 64.4 per cent Russian (official used in everyday business designated the language of inter-ethnic communication ) 95 per cent (2001 est.) 99.5 per cent Republic authoritarian presidential rule with little power outside the executive branch 18 years of age universal 14 provinces and three cities Overview of the Economy Geographically the largest of the former Soviet Republics excluding Russia possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and ample supply of other minerals and metals such as uranium copper and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. Kazakhstan s industrial sector is primarily focused on the extraction and processing of these natural resources. Kazakhstan enjoyed double-digit growth in 2000-01 and eight per cent or more per year in 2002-07--thanks largely to its booming energy sector and also to economic reform good har- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 340 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 365 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY E ast Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia though not strictly a part of the region has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important powers in the region are--the US China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness is also aware that the latter s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan its historical antagonist. Four major issues continue to impact the security environment in East Asia--ChinaJapan relations North Korea Taiwan and international terrorism. Japan s long chain of invasions and war crimes in China between 1894 and 1945 as well as modern Japan s attitude towards its past are major issues affecting the current and future Sino-Japanese relations. The ice was broken in 2006 when Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited China and the ice began to thaw when Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited Japan in 2007. These two Prime Ministerial visits set the stage for President Hu Jintao s warm-spring visit to Japan between May 6 and 11 2008. The relations have been steadily improving between Japan and China. Japan China and Republic of Korea (South Korea) have been regularly holding talks as a part of Tripartite Cooperation. The tenth anniversary of the trilateral cooperation was held in Beijing on October 10 2009. On May 29 2010 on the occasion of the third trilateral summit meeting they announced the Trilateral Cooperation Vision 2020. The major issues discussed included--Institutionalisation and enhancement of trilateral partnership Sustainable economic cooperation for common prosperity Cooperation in environmental protection Promotion of friendly relations through the expansion of human and cultural exchange and cooperation and joint efforts for regional and international peace and stability. Japan-China Security Dialogue has been held since December 1993 and the 12th round of dialogue took place in Beijing on January 20 2011. These dialogues have served as confidence building measures as both sides exchanged views on each other s security and defence policies and regional issues. The 1st Japan-China counter-terrorism consultations were held in Beijing on January 6 2011. The consultations were held between Takaaki Kojima Ambassador in charge of International CounterTerrorism Cooperation Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and Ambassador Luo Zhaohui Director General of the Department of External Security Affairs Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China. In order to tackle the issue more effectively they reaffirmed to utilise existing international and regional fora such as the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 3 ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) and East Asia Summit (EAS) and to play an active and leading role in cooperation with each other. In this context they expressed their intent to cooperate for the early convening of the Japan-China-Republic of Korea (ROK) Trilateral Counter-Terrorism Consultations which is specified in the Trilateral Cooperation Vision 2020 adopted at the Japan-ChinaROK Trilateral Summit in May 2010. On August 30 2009 after 54 years of one-party rule the Japanese voted overwhelmingly to usher in a completely new government and a new way of thinking. The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) which ruled Japan since 1955 was completely rejected. Obtaining only 119 out of 480 seats of the House of Representatives (the lower Diet) the LDP took a second seat to the younger and fresher Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ). The DPJ won 308 seats in the House ensuring that their leader Yukio Hatoyama would become Prime Minister. The DPJ s victory guarantees that much change will come to Japan. In the first few weeks of tenure Prime Minister Hatoyama called for the complete transformation of the traditional government-bureaucracy relationship the need to rework Japan s economic recovery plan and has called for a review of the US troops stationed in Japan. However only after eight months in office he announced his resignation saying that he would step down over his broken campaign promise to move a US military base off the southern island of Okinawa. He was followed by Prime Minister Naoto Kan who took over even as Japan battles a strong currency a weak economy and a bulging public debt. Kan has vowed to cap spending and debt issuance to rein in a public debt already twice the size of Japan s 5 trillion economy the second largest in the world after the US. The magnitude-9 earthquake that hit Japan s north-east coast on March 11 caused a massive tsunami that devastaed the coastline. The disasters knocked out power and cooling systems at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant about 140 miles (225 km) north-east of Tokyo setting off explosions fires and large radiation leaks at the facility. Official reports released earlier in the week said the damage and leakage was worse than previously thought with nuclear fuel in three reactors like melting through their main cores and larger containtment vessels. the reports also said radiation that leaked into the air amounted to about one-sixth of the Chernobyl nuclear disater in 1986. Hundreds of plant workers are still scrambling to bring the crippled Fukushima reactors to a cold shutdown by early next year and end of the crisis. The accident has forced more than 80 000 residents to evacuate from their homes around the plant. The disaster has renewed a national debate on the use of nuclear power in Japan which has few natural resources and is heavily reliant on atomic energy. CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 east asia Pacific rim & australia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance The US has continued to express concern over the growth of China s influence and military power in the Asia-Pacific region. In its annual report to the Congress in 2010 the US Department of Defence notes The PLA has made modest improvements in the transparency of China s military and security affairs. However many uncertainties remain regarding how China will use its expanding military capabilities. The limited transparency in China s military and security affairs enhances uncertainty and increases the potential for misunderstanding and miscalculation. Tensions between North and South Korea remain very high following the sinking of a South Korean warship the Cheonan that killed 46 sailors and an exchange of artillery fire in November 2010 across the disputed western maritime border that left four South Koreans dead. The latest incident also comes as North Korea begins transferring power from ailing leader Kim Jong-il to his son Kim Jong-un--a process that some analysts believe is behind North Korea s recent actions. On the nuclear issue involving North Korea there has been no substantive movement. International talks involving the two Koreas China Russia Japan and the US aimed at ending North Korea s nuclear ambitions remain permanently stalled despite Chinese calls for them to resume. The revelation in November 2010 that North Korea has a modern uranium enrichment facility with at least 1 000 centrifuges potentially offering Pyongyang another route to a nuclear weapon made further talks even less likely. The US officials said they were stunned at the scale of the facility although not surprised that it existed. Relations between China and Taiwan are improving. A trade pact between China and Taiwan widely seen as the most significant agreement since civil war divided them in 1949 has come into effect. The Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) cuts tariffs on 539 Taiwanese exports to China and 267 Chinese products entering Taiwan. The majority of people in Taiwan expect the deal to bring economic benefits. But opponents fear it will make the island too dependent on China which still considers it a renegade province. The deal is seen as the culmination of efforts by Taiwan s President Ma Ying-jeou who has vowed to reduce tension. It is hoped that the ECFA signed by Chinese and Taiwanese leaders in June will boost bilateral trade that already totals 110 billion ( 4 95 000 crore) a year. Since the Bali bombing in 2002 crackdowns by various governments in the region encouraged and in some cases supported by the US Government and military are believed to have weakened Jemmah Islamiyah (JI) to such an extent that it essentially is no longer a regional organisation but rather is one confined to Indonesia with some individuals still operating in the southern Philippines. The degrading of JI s leadership structure is believed to have altered the group s strategy. More violent anti-Western JI members have formed breakaway cells. In September 2009 Indonesian authorities claimed they had killed Noordin Mohammed Top the leader of one such cell. Noordin is believed to have been responsible for organising the near simultaneous July 17 2009 bombings of the J.W. Marriot and Ritz-Carlton hotels in Jakarta. The bombings were the first successful anti-Western terrorist attack in Indonesia in four years. Their sophistication triggered speculation that Al-Qaeda had renewed ties with top. To combat the threat the US has pressed countries in the region to arrest suspected terrorist individuals and organisations funded and trained Indonesia s elite counter-terrorist unit and deployed troops to the southern Philippines to advise the Philippine military in their fight against the violent Abu Sayyaf Group. It has also launched a Regional Maritime Security Initiative to enhance security in the Straits of Malacca increased intelligence sharing operations restarted military-military relations with Indonesia and provided or requested Congress for substantial aid to Indonesia and the Philippines. Since 2001 Thailand and the United East asia pacific rim & australia States have substantially increased their anti-terrorism cooperation. Nearly two months after the first general elections Myanmar on January 31 2011 convened its two-chambered national Parliament. The first session witnessed the official ending of five decades of military rule but critics claim that top generals continue to hold the real power. The first session also brought into effect a new Constitution. In the Parliament the military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) members contest a vast majority of seats while the remaining quarter is reserved for serving members of the armed forces. Aung San Suu Kyi s opposition party did not win any seat in the Parliament because her party had boycotted the November elections which had been widely described as sham by western governments and democracy activists. Former Culture Minister Khin Aung Myint was appointed as Upper House Speaker shortly after the first Parliamentary session began. The military junta s number three Thura Shwe Mann stepped down from his military ranks to run for election as a civilian was elected as Lower House Speaker. It is believed that either Mann or junta leader Than Shwe will be President in the new government. India s relations with its extended neighbourhood have received a fillip with the formulation of its Look East policy in early 1990s. Forging comprehensive and mutually beneficial bonds with SouthEast Asia has been the cornerstone of this policy. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh speaking at the India-ASEAN Summit at Hanoi on October 30 2010 said that India s economy was expected to witness a sustained growth rate of 9-10 per cent in the coming years which would offer many opportunities for trade and investment. The summit came out with a five-year plan of action outlining the roadmap for enhanced multifaceted cooperation. The plan of action contains 82 points identified for implementation to tap the vast potential in various fields. Describing it as an ambitious roadmap for implementation of partnership of peace progress and shared prosperity between the two sides Singh said that it shows the desire to develop a multifaceted India-ASEAN relationship. Manmohan Singh said that India believed that ASEAN is the core around which the process of economic integration of the Asia-Pacific region should be built. The India-ASEAN Trade in Goods (TIG) Agreement was signed in Bangkok on August 13 2009 after six years of negotiations and it came into force on January 1 2010. Seen as the world s largest FTA covering a market of almost 1.8 billion people with a combined GDP of 2.8 trillion the India-ASEAN pact envisages tariff liberalisation of over 90 per cent of products traded between the two dynamic regions. Tariffs on over 4 000 product lines will be eliminated by 2016 at the earliest. Details pertaining to economic review security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region have been given in the following sequence n Australia n Cambodia n China n Indonesia n Japan n North Korea n South Korea n Laos n Malaysia n Myanmar n The Philippines n Singapore n Taiwan n Thailand n Vietnam 366 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m East asia pacific rim & australia regional balance East Asia Pacific Rim & Australia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 367 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance AUSTRALIA East asia pacific rim & australia australia General Information Area Capital Coastline Maritime claims Territorial sea Contiguous zone Exclusive economic zone Continental shelf Population Ethnic Divisions Religions 7 741 220 sq km Canberra 25 760 km 12 nm 24 nm 200 nm 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin 21 766 711 (2011 est.) White 92 per cent Asian 7 per cent aboriginal and others 1 per cent Catholic 25.8 per cent Anglican 18.7 per cent Uniting Church 5.7 per cent Presbyterian and Reformed 3 per cent Eastern Orthodox 2.7 per cent other Christian 7.9 per cent Buddhist 2.1 per cent Muslim 1.7 per cent others 2.4 per cent unspecified 11.3 per cent none 18.7 per cent (2006 census) English 78.5 per cent Chinese 2.5 per cent Italian 1.6 per cent Greek 1.3 per cent Arabic 1.2 per cent Vietnamese 1 per cent others 8.2 per cent unspecified 5.7 per cent (2006 census) 99 per cent Federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm 18 years of age universal and compulsory Overview of the Economy Australia s abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal iron ore copper gold natural gas uranium and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments such as the 40 billion ( 1 76 700 crore) Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project will significantly expand the resources sector. Australia also has a large services sector and is a significant exporter of natural resources energy and food. Key tenets of Australia s trade policy include support for open trade and the successful culmination of the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations particularly for agriculture and services. The Australian economy grew for 17 consecutive years before the global financial crisis. Subsequently the Kevin Rudd Government introduced a fiscal stimulus package worth over 50 billion ( 2 20 900 crore) to offset the effect of the slowing world economy while the Reserve Bank of Australia cut interest rates to historic lows. These policies--and continued demand for commodities especially from China--helped the Australian economy rebound after just one quarter of negative growth. The economy grew by 1.2 per cent during 2009--the best performance in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Unemployment originally expected to reach 8-10 per cent peaked at 5.7 per cent in late 2009 and fell to 5.1 per cent in 2010. As a result of an improved economy the budget deficit is expected to peak below 4.2 per cent of GDP and the government could return to budget surpluses as early as 2015. Australia was one of the first advanced economies to raise interest rates with seven rate hikes between October 2009 and November 2010. The Julia Gillard Government is focused on raising Australia s economic productivity to ensure the sustainability of growth and continues to manage the symbiotic but sometimes tense economic relationship with China. Australia is engaged in the Trans-Pacific partnership talks and ongoing free trade agreement negotiations with China Japan and Korea. Defence Total Armed Forces Reserve Foreign Forces Active 54 747 (Army 27 461 Navy 13 230 Air 14 056 ) 19 915 (Army 15 315 Navy 2000 Air 2 600) US Army--29 US Navy--21 USAF- 63 USMC25 New Zealand Air Force--9 Singapore Air--230 Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions Six states and two territories Security Environment Australia s Defence White Paper 2009 states that Australia will spend more than 70 billion ( 3 10 100 crore) to boost its defence capability over the next 20 years in response to a regional military build-up and global shifts in power. A long-term strategic blueprint for the future of Australia s armed forces warned that war could be possible in the AsiaPacific region in the next two decades as emerging powers such as China flexed their military might. The United States would continue its military dominance and be an indispensable ally for Australia but as emerging or resurgent powers such as China India and Russia tested US primacy there was a small but still concerning possibility of growing confrontation between some of these powers. The paper said that China would be the strongest Asian military power by a considerable margin and a major power of China s stature can be expected to develop a globally significant military capability befitting its size. But the pace scope and structure of China s military modernisation have the potential to give its neighbours a cause for concern if not carefully explained and if China does not reach out to others to build confidence regarding its military plans. The paper said that greater engagement with Beijing was essential for encouraging transparency about Chinese military capabilities and intentions and securing greater cooperation in areas of shared interest. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 368 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 401 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY T he term West Asia is coterminous with the Middle East which describes the geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than location within Asia. Due to this perceived Eurocentrism international organisations such as the United Nations have replaced Middle East with the term Western Asia. Except for Israel a Jewish country all other states of West Asia and North Africa are Muslim countries. Ethnically most of the Muslim states are Arab and predominantly Sunni. The exceptions are Iraq which is largely dominated by Shias and Iran which has both non-Arab and Shia populace. This region is the birthplace of three of the world s most widespread religions--Judaism Christianity and Islam. West Asia is an area of unique historical importance. Huge oil deposits which were discovered in the early 20th century have further augmented its strategic importance as the economies of a number of developed countries are critically dependent on its oil. Saudi Arabia is geographically the biggest country in West Asia. It is also the richest as it has the largest oil reserve. Iran Iraq and some of the smaller countries like Kuwait and UAE also have huge oil deposits. Politically most of the states are monarchies sheikhdoms or single party dictatorships and enjoy very little democratic freedom. The Israel-Palestine struggle Iraq war and insurgency and fragrance from the Jasmine Revolution which overthrew Tunisia s hated President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali is spreading over the larger West Asia-North Africa region especially to Egypt Yemen and Jordan. The protests in Egypt have already ended Hosni Mubarak s 30-year oppressive rule in February 2011. By all indications Arab citizens were watching Egypt s protests with hope. Most people in the Arab League s 22 countries share the Tunisians and Egyptians dislike with corrupt dictatorial regimes which don t provide basic public services or relieve food shortages and high prices. The Arab states haven t done well by their people. Even the oil-rich ones have not educated them and created social opportunity. Under external pressure and recent effects of the global slowdown many governments have further cut food and fuel subsidies thus increasing people s suffering. Most young Arabs are moderately educated aware of the world and aspire to get jobs in a modern economy. Such jobs are a rarity. The youth have no future. Their frustration is aggravated by denial of liberties. So Egypt s upsurge could well be replicated in other Arab countries. People s bottled-up anger and frustration are the same everywhere as is lack of freedom. The democratic deficit in the Arab world is huge. Elections if and when they take place are typically rigged--as in Egypt recently when the ruling party increased its Parliamentary majority from 75 per cent to 95 per cent. Only three Arab countries can be called some kind of a democracy--Lebanon the Palestinian Territories and Iraq. Lebanon is a plural society with Shias Sunnis Christians and Druze Muslims which holds free elections. But its democracy has a denominational character with the top offices being divided up between religious communities and powerful families. The Palestinian territories had free and fair elections in 2006. But Hamas which won a plurality was excluded from the Palestinian Authority s government. Its state power is confined to Gaza under Israel s occupation. In Iraq the democratic process runs within a constitution and broad-sweep policy framework dictated by the US after the 2003 occupation. Most other Arab states are in paralysis where some form of elected legislatures exist--as in Kuwait--but wield very little power which is subject to the ruling families will. Often elections are held only as safety-valves to vent frustration. Some of the richest Arab states including Saudi Arabia the United Arab Emirates Oman and Qatar are at the bottom of the democracy index. Saudi Arabia is at the bottom of the abyss. The democracy deficit is often blamed on Islam especially salafi desert Islam reinforced by ultra-conservative obscurantism. But other factors are more important. Large-scale social destruction and creation of artificial states by European imperialists tribalism and paternalism oil money which obviates the need to negotiate popular participation the state s failure to tax the rich and break their stranglehold and not the least foreign aid dependence. The Western powers led by the US have sustained Arab autocracies for Cold War-related reasons and now as part of the US s strategic alliance system to which Israel followed by Saudi Arabia and Egypt is pivotal. Washington has bankrolled Egypt with 3.5 billion ( 15 750 crore) annually since Anwar El-Sadat made peace with Israel in 1979 breaking its isolation in the Arab world. Many Arab rulers will probably follow the Egypt model when faced with a popular upsurge. The Egyptian people s anger was rooted in opposition to the Mubarak dynasty police brutality widespread poverty lack of housing high food prices and unemployment. People under 30 make up almost two-thirds of Egypt s population. About 90 per cent of Egypt s jobless are under 30. The collapse of the Mubarak regime will almost certainly ignite protests in other Arab states and prove a transformative moment in West Asia-North Africa radically reshaping it and opening a new democratic epoch. The situation is pregnant with big possibilities. The other major problems of this region are the fundamentalist Islamic militancy sectarian violence and terrorism and Iran s nuclear ambitions and all these pose threats to peace in West Asia. The US is involved in a significant way in clearing up or resolving all of them. CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 West asia and North africa WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance West Asia and North Africa Algeria Egypt Libya Bahrain Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon SultanateofOman Qatar SaudiArabia Syria UnitedArabEmirates(UAE) RepublicofYemen West AsiA And north AfricA 402 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m West AsiA And north AfricA regional balance West Asia & North Africa WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 403 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance ALGERIA West AsiA And north AfricA ALGeriA General Information tries outside of hydrocarbons in part because of high costs and an inert state bureaucracy. The government s efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector have done little to reduce high poverty and youth unemployment rates. In 2010 Algeria began a five-year 2.86 billion ( 12 674 crore) development programme to update the country s infrastructure and provide jobs. The costly programme will boost Algeria s economy in 2011 but worsen the country s budget deficit. Long-term economic challenges include diversification from hydrocarbons relaxing state control of the economy and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians. Defence Total Armed Forces Terms of Service Paramilitary Forces Active 147 000 Reserve 150 000 Conscription 18 months Gendarmerie- 20 000 National Security Forces 16 000 Republican Guard 1 200 Legitimate Defence Groups est 150 000 Area Capital Coastline Population Ethnic Divisions Religions Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions 2 381 741 sq km Algiers 998 km 34 994 937 (2011 est) Arab-Berbers 99 per cent European less than 1 per cent Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99 per cent Christian and Jewish 1 per cent Arabic (official) French Berber dialects 69.9 per cent Republic 18 years of age universal 48 provinces Overview of the Economy Algeria s economy remains dominated by the state a legacy of the country s socialist post-independence development model. Gradual liberalisation since the mid-1990s has opened up more of the economy but in recent years Algeria has imposed new restrictions on foreign involvement in its economy and largely halted the privatisation of state-owned industries. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy accounting for roughly 60 per cent of budget revenues 30 per cent of GDP and over 95 per cent of export earnings. Algeria has the eighthlargest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the fourth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Thanks to strong hydrocarbon revenues Algeria has a cushion of 150 billion ( 6 75 000 crore) in foreign currency reserves and a large hydrocarbon stabilisation fund. In addition Algeria s external debt is extremely low at about one per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). Algeria has struggled to develop indus- Security Environnent Abdelaziz Bouteflika with the backing of the military won the Presidency in 1999 in an election widely viewed as fraudulent. He was re-elected for a second term in 2004 and overwhelmingly won a third term in 2009 after the government amended the constitution in 2008 to remove presidential term limits. Long-standing problems continue to face Bouteflika including large-scale unemployment a shortage of housing unreliable electrical and water supplies government inefficiencies and corruption and the continuing activities of extremist militants. The security situation in Algeria during the period 2009-10 was marked by a decrease in the number of high-profile terrorist attacks throughout the country although low-level terrorist activities continued in non-urban areas. The Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) which formally merged with Al-Qa ida (AQ) in 2006 and now calls itself Al-Qa ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) previously focused on targeting Algerian Government interests and had been more averse to suicide attacks and civilian casualties. Some senior members of AQIM are former GIA insurgents. Although Algerian Government interests remained the primary focus of AQIM the group was forced to resort to kidnappings for ransom and expanded operations against westerners in the Sahel region. Algerian Government s counterterrorism operations which included an increased security presence and the dismantling of support and recruitment networks restrained AQIM s capacity to conduct high-profile attacks particularly in major Algerian cities. There were no suicide bombings after March 2009. The month of Ramadan typically a period of frequent attacks was quiet. Nevertheless AQIM carried out lethal operations using ambushes and roadside bombs against government and civilian targets particularly in the Kabylie region east of Algiers and increased its terrorist activities along the Algerian-Malian border. The counterterrorism successes of the Algerian services combined with the public rejection of terrorism appears to have reduced AQIM s overall effectiveness during the past two years. In August 2009 the Algerian Government hosted a meeting of the military Chiefs of Staff from Mali Libya Mauritania and Niger to develop a regional counterterrorism strategy and establish a regional command centre in the southern city of Tamanrasset. Algeria led efforts in international foray to condemn payment of ransom to terrorists. During 2008 the Government of Algeria instituted a programme to hire 1 00 000 new police and gendarme officers reinforce the borders augment security at airports and increase the overall security presence in major cities. The initiative was GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 404 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m US Navy Indian Navy Shifting Geostrategic Strands Asia-Pacific which is the most fiercely contested region today has witnessed in the recent past a hike in defence capabilities of several regional countries. The militarisation in Asia-Pacific is further evidenced by an increasing trend towards building of new strategic alliances and joint military manoeuvres often with political undertones. n Sanjay kuMar Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 435 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO T The Asia-Pacific region including South East Asia needs much more attention by us and this must seep into our defence and foreign policy planning as never before. There is a palpable desire on the part of the countries of this region to enhance cooperation with us which we must reciprocate. --Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh at the Annual Combined Commanders Conference in New Delhi on September 13 2010 countries that remain wary of China s continued ascent on the scale of global power are also adding further dynamics to the militarisation in the Asia-Pacific. It is not surprising that Asia-Pacific which is the most fiercely contested region today has witnessed in the recent past a hike in defence capabilities of several regional countries. The militarisation in Asia-Pacific is further evidenced by an increasing trend towards building of new strategic alliances and joint military manoeuvres often with political undertones. The present chapter runs through the region s shifting geostrategic strands highlighting in the process major security challenges especially China s coercive diplomacy and its implications for regional security. he Asia-Pacific region including the Indian Ocean has remained the hub of heightened geostrategic activities in recent years not just because it is home to the world s few most populous and dynamic economies or for its abundance of natural reserves of oil gases and minerals but also because of the fact that the region lies at the crossroads of conflicted geoeconomic and geopolitical interests of several surrounding countries. The geostrategic significance of the Asia-Pacific region however has assumed even greater significance even more recently because of China s coercive diplomacy--the buzzword in global strategic circles. The increasing attempts made by China--the second most powerful country after the US--to redraw the maritime map of this region through coercive tactics are leading the Asia-Pacific region to an era of uncertain future underscored by higher degree of militarisation and geopolitical competitions. However counter strategies by Asia-Pacific s Security Challenges Potentially a politically instable region with fractured security environment Asia-Pacific s security challenges are wide and varied. These security challenges emanate from multiple sources which include among others conflicted land borders military intrusion into space and outer space strategic dominance of maritime space by state and non-state actors conflicts over increasingly sparse natural resources proliferation of weapons of mass destruction hegemonic intentions of rising powers involvement of non-state actors in conflicts between states mass terrorism environmental deprivation hunger poverty and epidemics etc. While many of these characteristics are common to a number of countries in the region many individual countries in the Asia-Pacific also have to contend with local insurgencies and secessionist movements. The security jigsaw in Asia-Pacific is marked further INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 asia-Pacific region WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Security in the CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m ARMY EQPT Army equipment is listed below in the following order China Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) Type-98 Type 99 Type-90-II Light Tanks (Lt Tks) Type-62 Type-63 Type 63A Armoured personnel carriers infantry Combat Vehicles (APCs) (ICVs) Type-90 Type-89 (YW 534) Type-85 (531H) Type WZ 501 Type 77 Norinco YW 531 APC Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers Type-83 152mm PLZ45 155mm How (SP Guns and Hows) NORINCO TYPE 85 122mm How Towed Anti-Tank (A Tk) Guns Guns and Howitzer Type-59-1 130mm Fd Gun Type-66 152mm Gun How Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRLs) Type-90 122mm (40 round) MR System SP Anti-Aircraft Guns and SAMs Type-80 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System PL-9C (SP AA Guns and SAMs) Low Altitude (Alt) SAM System Towed AA Guns Chinese Type-56 14.5mm Gun Norinco 37mm Type 74 Czech Slovak Republics APCs ICVs SP Guns and Hows SP AA Guns and SAMs AMX-10P Marines AMX VCI (ICV) Improved VAB 4x4 version (Wheeled) Panhard PVP Panhard M3 GIAT Mk. F3 155mm SP Gun GIAT 155mm GCT SP Gun Panhard M3 VDA Twin 20mm SP AA Gun System Crotale Low Alt SAM System Shahine Low Alt SAM System AMX-30 twin 30mm SP AA Gun System APCs ICVs Leopard 2A6 Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2 MBT Condor Fuchs Rheinmetall Landsystem Marder 1A3 ICV Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Israel MBTs OT-64 C (SKOT-2A) BMP-1 & OT90 APC Reconnaissance Vehicles (Recce Vehs) SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows SP AA Guns and SAMs Merkava Mk3 Merkava 4 Sabra MBT RAM family of light AFVs Soltam L-33 155mm Soltam M-71 155mm Gun How ADAMS Vertical Launch Low Alt SAM System 441 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE France MBTs Lt Tks APCs ICVs Leclerc AMX-30 AMX -13 Giat AMX-10P Nexter Systems ASIAN WHO S WHO India MBTs Towed ATk Guns Guns and Hows MRLs Arjun IFG Mk.2 105mm Pinaka MR System INDIAN DEFENCE Germany MBTs BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY T his chapter contains specifications of all important military hardware being employed by the countries mentioned below. Equipment having greater commonality within the region and those of comparatively recent origin have been chosen and presented under separate headings for the Army Navy and Air Force. We have listed each type of hardware under the headings of its country of origin like Russia UK and the US. The development of weapon systems is a long-term process. Over the years a composite unit like a tank ship or an aircraft passes through various phases of development and appears in different versions with varied fitments and operational parameters. We have listed these variants but greater details of each version with specific parameters are given in the dedicated publications. We have also relied on such publications in compiling our data. In this volume specifications have been listed in general terms and common features spelt out. Details of sensors and weapon control systems have been omitted as they may vary from craft to craft even within the same class. CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 equipment & Hardware Specifications WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance ARMY EQUIPMENT (Contd.) Italy SP Guns and Howitzer Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Howitzer equipment & hardware specifications army South Korea MBTs Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Howitzer Oto Palmaria 155mm Oto Melara Model 56 105mm Pack How Oto Melara 155mm M109L [SP] Howitzer Spain APCs ICVs Sweden Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Howitzer Towed AA Guns K1 155mm KH179 How BMR-600 Japan MBTs Recce Vehs APCs ICVs SP Guns and Hows MRLs Type-74 Type-90 Type-87 Type-73 Type-89 Mitsubishi Type SU 60 Type-75 155mm Type 99 155mm Type-75 130mm (30 round) MR System Bofors FH-77 B 155mm Bofors L-40 -70 40mm Auto AA Gun Switzerland APCs ICVs Towed AA Guns Pakistan MBTs APC SAM Russia MBTs Type MBT 2000 (Al Khalid) Type Al Zarrar Type Saad Type Talha Type M113A2 Crotale Stinger & Anza Mowag Piranha Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 and 005 Twin 35mm Auto AA Guns Oerlikon Contraves 20mm GAI-B01 Auto AA Guns United Kingdom MBTs T-54 T-55 T-55 (Upgraded) T-62 T-64B T-72 T-80U T-90S Lt Tks PT-76B Recce Vehs BRDM-2 PRP-4 APCs ICVs BMP-1 BMP-2 BMP-3 BMD-1 ACV BTR-50 BTR-80 MT-LB BTR-152VI SP Guns and Hows M 1973 (2S3) 152mm M 1974 (2S1) 122mm (MSTA-S) 152mm Self-Propelled Artillery System 2S19 Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows D-30 122mm Fd Gun M-46 130mm Fd Gun 155mm Gun How D-20 MRLs Splav 300mm BM 9A52 (12 round) Smerch MR System BM-21 122mm (40 round) MR System SP AA Guns and SAMs ZSU-23-4 Quad 23mm SP AA Gun System ZSU-57-2 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System 2K22M Tunguska System SA-6 Gainful Low-to-Med alt SAM System SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System SA- 8B SAM System SA- 9 Gaskin SAM SA-13 Gopher SAM System Towed AA Guns ZU-23-2 Twin 23mm Automatic (Auto) AA Gun S-60 57mm Auto AA Gun Singapore SP Guns and Hows South Africa APCs ICVs Lt Tks Recce Vehs APCs ICVs SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows Chieftain Mk. 5 Centurion Mk 13 Challenger 2 Khalid Vickers MBT Mk3 Alvis Scorpion Alvis Saladin Daimler Ferret Mk 2 3 Stormer GKN Def Desert Warrior FV432 AS90 (Braveheart) 155mm SP Gun 105mm Lt Gun (L 118) 155mm Lightweight How (M 777) United States of America MBTs Lt Tks APCs ICVs SP Guns and Hows M-1 Abrams M-48 series M 60 A3 M-41 Sting Ray M-113 A3 M-107 175mm SP Gun M-109 Series of 155mm SP How M-110 Series of 203mm SP How (8 inch) M-198 155mm How M-42 Twin 40mm SP AA Gun System M-163 Vulcan 20mm SP AA Gun System M-48 A1 m Patriot Msl (PAC series) single stage low to high altitude SAM system Stinger M-167 Vulcan 20mm AA Gun Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows SP AA Guns and SAMs Towed AA Guns CHINA SSPH-1 Primus Casspir Mk. III Ratel 90 Main Battle Tanks (MBT) 1. Type-98 Specifications Crew GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 3 442 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m equipment & hardware specifications navy regional balance ISRAEL Submarines Corvettes Patrol forces Dolphin Class Eilat (SAAR 5) Class Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class Reshef Class Super Dvora Class NAVAL EQUIPMENT Naval equipment is presented in the order as shown below. CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines Patrol forces RUSSIA Patrol Submarines Destroyers Frigates Corvettes Kilo Class Lada Class Kashin Class Sovremenny Class Krivak Class Nanuchka Class Taran Tul Class SOUTH KOREA Submarines Destroyers Frigates Corvettes Chang Bogo Class KDX-2 Class Ulsan Class P O Hang Class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section) THAILAND Air Craft Carriers Frigates Corvettes Chakri Naruebet Class Naresuan Class Khamronsin Class Air Craft Carrier Destroyers Frigates 463 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Shishumar Class Kilo Class Foxtrot Class Scorpene Class Hermes Class Delhi Class Kashin Class Godavari Class Bharamputra Class Talwar Class Leander Class UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section) Guided Missile Destroyers Gearing Class Frigates Adelaide Class Amphibious forces Austin Class ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIA Submarines UNITED KINGDOM (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section) Frigates Leander Class Salisbury Class Alvand (Vosper Mk. 5) Class Lekiu class Missile Craft Dhofar (Province) Class Corvettes Qahir Class INDIAN DEFENCE Fast attack missile craft BUSINESS Aircraft Carriers Frigates TECHNOLOGY Destroyers CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Patrol Submarines Jin Class XIA Class Han Class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section) Shang Class - do Song Class Yuan Class Kilo Class Ming Class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section) Romeo Class - doModified Romeo Class - do Luzhou Class Sovremenny Class Luyang Class Luyang II Class Luda Class Luhai Class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section) Luhu Class - do Kuznetsov (OREL) Jiangkai Class Jiangkai II Class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section) Jiangwei Class Jiangwei II Class Jianghu I II V Class Houku (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section) Houxin Class -doHuangfen Hola Class - do Huchuan - do - NORTH KOREA Submarines Frigates Romeo Class Sang-O Class Najin Class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section) Soho Class TRAL Class SO1 Class (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section) Soju Class - do Hainan Class - do - WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance NAVAL EQUIPMENT (Contd.) WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES (For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section) Submarines Agosta Class (France Spain) Daphne Class (France) Sishumar Class (Germany) Frigates Al Riyadh Class (France) Madina Class (France) La Fayettes Class (France) Descubierta Class (Spain) Fast Attack Missile Craft Combattante Class (France) Ratcharit Class (Italy) Aircraft carriers Principe De Asturias Class (Spain) CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines Jin Class (Type 094) (SSBN) Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) equipment & hardware specifications navy Sonars Trout Cheek hull-mounted active passive search and attack medium frequency. Structure Diving depth 300 m (985 ft). Patrol Submarines Song Class (Type 039 039G) (SSG) Displacement tonnes 1 700 surfaced 2 250 dived Dimensions feet (metres) 246 24.6 17.5 (74.9 7.5 5.3) Main machinery Diesel-electric 4 MTU 16V 396 SE 6 092 hp(m) (4.48 MW) diesels 4 alternators 1 motor 1 shaft Speed knots 15 surfaced 22 dived Complement 60 (10 officers) Missiles SSM C-801A radar active homing to 40 km (22 n miles) at 0.9 Mach warhead 165 kg Torpedoes 6-21 in (533mm) tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET-50) passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 30 kt warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET-65E) active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wake-homing torpedoes may also be fitted Mines In lieu of torpedoes Countermeasures ESM Type 921-A radar warning Radars Surface search I-band Sonars Bow-mounted passive active search and attack medium frequency. Flank array passive search low frequency Operational Basing North (315 316 327 328) East (314 321 322 323 324 325) South (320 326 329) 4 4 Yuan Class (Type 041) (SSG) Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) Main machinery 8 000 449.5 38.7 7.5 (137.0 11.8 2.3) Main machinery Nuclear 2 PWR 150 MW 2 turbines 1 shaft Speed knots To be announced Complement 140 Missiles SLBM 12 JL-2 (CSS-NX-5) 3-stage solid-fuel rocket stellar inertial guidance to over 8 000 km (4 320 n miles) single nuclear warhead of 1 MT or 3-8 MIRV of smaller yield. CEP 300 m approximate Torpedoes 6-21 in (533mm tubes). Countermeasures Decoys ESM. Radars Surface search navigation Type 359 I-band Sonars Hull mounted passive active flank and towed arrays. Structure Likely to be based on the Type 093 SSN design which in turn is believed to be derived from the Russian Victor III design. XIA Class (Type 092) (SSBN) Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) Main machinery Speed knots Complement Missiles Torpedoes Countermeasures Radars 6 500 dived 393.6 33 26.2 (120 10 8) Nuclear turbo-electric 1 PWR 90 MW 1 shaft 22 dived 140 SLBM 12 JL-1 (CSS-N-3) inertial guidance to 2 150 km (1 160 n miles) warhead single nuclear 250 kT. 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Yu-3 (SET-65E) active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt warhead 205 kg. ESM Type 921-A radar warning. Surface search Snoop Tray I-band. Missiles Torpedoes Sonars GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE To be announced 236.2 27.5 m (72.0 8.4 m) Diesel-electric 4 diesels 1 motor 2 Stirling AIP (to be confirmed) 1 shaft SSM C-801A inertial cruise active radar homing to 40 km (22 n miles) at 0.9 Mach warhead 165 kg. 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET50) active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 30 kt warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET65E) active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wakehoming torpedoes may also be fitted. Bow-mounted active passive search and attack medium medium frequency. Flank array passive search low frequency. 464 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m equipment & hardware specifications air force regional balance Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules C-130J C-130J-30 Embraer Legacy (VIP) air eQUipment Air equipment is given as under in the following order Combat airCraft China Hong - 6 Jian - 7 Jian - 8 Jian Hong - 7 Jianjiao - 7 Qiang 5 FC-1 J-10 J-11 (locally produced Su-27) Eurofighter Typhoon Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H Dassault Aviation Mirage III. Dassault Aviation Mirage F-1C. Dassault Aviation Mirage 5. Dassault Aviation Rafale Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) IAI Kfir Mikoyan MiG-21 Mikoyan MiG-23 Mikoyan MiG-25 Mikoyan MiG-27M Mikoyan MiG-29 Mikoyan MiG-31 Sukhoi Su-24 Sukhoi Su-25 Sukhoi Su-27 Sukhoi Su-30MK Sukhoi Su-30MKI MiG - 35 JAS-39 Gripen BAE Systems Hawk 200 Series BAE Systems Sea Harrier Boeing F-15A B C D Eagle Boeing F A-18A B C D Hornet Lockheed Martin F-16A B C D Fighting Falcon Northrop F-5E Tiger F-22 Raptor Joint Strike Fighter F-35 Brazil HeliCopters France Europe France Germany India Russia United Kingdom United States of America Sweden United Kingdom United States of America Brazil India United Kingdom China Pakistan Embraer EMB-312 Tucano HAL HJT-16 Kiran.HAL HJT-36 Sitara BAE Systems Hawk 100 (Two-seat version) K-8 Karakoram maritime reConnaissanCe transport airCraft Germany Russia Dornier Do-228 Ilyushin IL-18 Ilyushin IL-76 Tupolev Tu-134 Tupolev Tu-154 Yakovlev Yak-40 EADS CASA C-212 EADS CASA CN-235M Antonov An-12 Antonov An-24 Antonov An-26 Antonov An-32 BAE Systems HS-748 Boeing 737-100 200 (VIP) Boeing 737-300 BBJ airborne early Warning & Control Brazil Sweden United States of America Russia Israel Combat airCraft CHina Hong 6 Westernised designation B-6 Users China. Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section. Embraer AEW Saab 2000 Boeing E-3 Sentry Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye IL-76 with Phalcon System Spain Ukraine United Kingdom United States of America 479 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE Russia United States of America Ilyushin IL-38.Tupolev Tu-142 Lockheed Martin P-3C Orion. MMA P-8 Poseidon BUSINESS trainer airCraft TECHNOLOGY India Israel Russia Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma AS 532 Cougar Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil AS 550 AS 555.Fennec Eurocopter SA 360 AS 365 Dauphin SA 365 366 Dauphin II AS 565 Panther Eurocopter SA 316 319 Alouette III Eurocopter SA 330 Puma Eurocopter SA 341 342 Gazelle Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 Advance Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv Kamov Ka-25.Kamov Ka-25 B SH. Kamov Ka-31. Mil Mi-6. Mil Mi-8. Mil Mi-17. Mil Mi-24. Mil Mi-25 -35. Mil Mi-26 Westland Sea King Bell 407 Bell AH-1 Cobra Super Cobra. Boeing AH-64 Apache. Boeing CH-47 Chinook. Blackhawk S-92 CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m regional balance air eQUipment (Contd.) Jian-7 Westernised designation Type equipment & hardware specifications air force Design based on other versions (i) J-7 I (ii) F-7A (export version of J-7I exported to Albania Egypt Iraq and Tanzania) (iii) J-7 II (modified and improved version of J-7I also known as J-7B) (iv) F-7 B (upgraded export version based on J-7II with ability to carry air-to-air missiles exported to Bangladesh Iran Jordan Pakistan Zimbabwe) F-7BS (Sri Lanka) (v J-7 IIA (improved version of J-7 II) (vi) J-7 H (improved version of J-7 II with improved ground attack capability) (vii) F-7 M Airguard (export version of J-7 IIA) (viii) J-7 II M (Chinese version of F-7M) (ix) F-7 P Airbolt (variant of F-7M to meet specific requirements of Pakistan Air Force including ability to carry 4 X air-to-air missiles F-7 MP Airbolt (modified version of F-7 P) (x) J-7C (J-7 III) (design based on MiG-21 MF) (xi) J-7 D (J-7IIIA Improved J-7C version) (xii) J-7E (third generation J-7 version based on J-7II airframe) (xiii) F-7 MG (export variant of J-7E) (xiv) F-7 PG (variant of F-7 MG modified for Pakistan Air Force) (xv) J 7 FT 7 Tandem two-seat operational trainer based on J-7 II Users China (J-7 II IIA H IIM III IIIA E) Bangladesh (F-7M) Egypt (F-7A B) Iran (F-7M) Myanmar (F-7M) North Korea (F-7) Pakistan (F-7P PG) and Sri Lanka (F-7BS) Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section. Jian-8 NATO reporting name Finback Westernised designation F-8 Users China Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section. Jian Hong-7 Westernised designation B-7 Users PLA Navy Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section. Jianjiao-7 Westernised designation Users F-7 Single-seat fighter and close support aircraft MiG-21 F (Soviet) Myanmar (A-5-C -M) and Pakistan (A-5III). Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section. fC-1 Export designation Super-7 Users China Pakistan Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section. Jianji-10 Westernised designation Type Versions Design F-10 Multi-role fighter Tail-less delta wing and close-coupled fore planes single sweptback vertical tail outward-canted ventral fins single ventral engine air intake. Accommodation Pilot only on zero zero ejection seat. Range 1 000 nm Armament 11 external stores points including one on centerline tandem pairs on fuselage sides and three under each wing the outboard wing stations each carrying PL-8 or later AAMs. Other potential weapons could include Vympel R-73 and R-77 AAMs C-801 or C-802 ASMs and laser guided or free fall bombs. Combat radius 250-300 nm Users China J-11 (su-27sK) For details see Su-27 under Russia User China eUrope eurofighter typhoon Crew Length Wingspan Height Wing area Empty weight Loaded weight Max takeoff weight Powerplant Dry thrust Thrust with afterburner Maximum speed At altitude At sea level Supercruise Range Ferry Range Service ceiling Rate of climb Wing loading Thrust weight Armament Gun Air-to-Air missiles 1 or 2 15.96 m (52 ft 5 in) 10.95 m (35 ft 11 in) 5.28 m (17 ft 4 in) 50 m (163 ft) 11 000 kg (24 250 lb) 15 550 kg (34 280 lb) 23 000 kg (51 809 lb) 2 Eurojet EJ200 afterburning turbofans 60 kN (13 500 lbf) each 90 kN (20 250 lbf) each Mach 2 Mach 1.2 (1 470 km h 915 mph) Mach 1.2 (1 470 km h 915 mph) 1 390 km (864 mi) 3 790 km (2 300 mi) 19 812 m (65 000 ft) 315 m s (62 007 ft min) 311 kg m_ (63.7 lb ft) 1.18 FT-7 Bangladesh (FT-7B) China (JJ-7) Iran (FT-7) Myanmar (FT-7) Pakistan (FT- 7P PG) and Sri Lanka (FT-7). Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section. Qiang-5 NATO reporting name Westernised designation Users Fantan A-5 Bangladesh (A-5C) China (Q-5) GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 1x 27mm Mauser BK-27 cannon AIM-9 Sidewinder AIM-132 ASRAAM AIM-120 AMRAAM IRIS-T and in the 480 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions A Ammunition and Explosives Andaman & Nicobar Anti-Submarine Mortars Anti Submarine Air Attach Anti-Aircraft Anti-Aircraft Artillery Advanced Aircraft Defence anti-arcraft defence Army Air Defence AAM Air-to-Air Missile AAP Annual Acquisition Plan AAPCC Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee AAPCHC Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee AAR Air-to-Air Refuellers AAW Anti-Air Warfare AB Airborne Air Base ABL Airborne Laser ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile Ac ac aircraft ACAS Assistant Chief of the Air Staff ACCCS Artillery Combat Command and Control System ACCP Assistant Controller of Carrier Project ACEMUs Alternating Current Electrical Multiple Units ACIDS Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff ACIDS(PP & FS) Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff (Policy Planning & Force Structures) ACM Advanced Cruise Missile Air Chief Marshal ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Submarines) ACOL Assistant Controller of Logistics ACOP(CP) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Career Planning) ACOP(HRD) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Human Resource Development) ACOP(P&C) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Personnel & Conditions) ACOP Assistant Chief of Personnel Acqn Acquisition ACV Air Cushion Vehicle Armoured Combat Vehicle ACWP&A Assistant Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition AD Air Defence ADA Aeronautical Development Agency Air Defence Artillery A&E A&N A S Mortars A S AA AA AAA AAD ADAMS ADC&RS Air Defence Advanced Mobile System Air defence control and reporting system ADC Aide-de-Camp ADDC Air Defence Direction Centre Addl FA Additional Financial Advisor Addl Additional ADE Aeronautical Development Establishment ADF Australian Defence Force ADG Avn Additional Director General Army Aviation ADG DV Additional Directorate General Discipline and Vigilance ADG EM Additional Directorate General Equipment Management ADG Mov Additional Director General Movements ADG Additional Directorate General Procurement Procurement ADG PS Additional Directorate General Personnel Services ADG Quartering Additional Director General Quartering ADG TA Additional Directorate General Territorial Army ADGES Air Defence Ground Environment System ADGIS Additional Directorate General Information Systems ADGIW Additional Director General Information Warfare ADGMI Assistant Director General Military Intelligence ADGMO Additional Director General Military Operations ADGOL Additional Director General Operational Logistics ADGPI Additional Director General Public Information ADGSI Additional Director General Signal Intelligence Adj Adjusted adjutant ADC&R Air Defence Control and Reporting System ADMM ASEAN Defence Ministers Meet ADRDE Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment AEA Airborne Electronic Attack AEC Army Education Corps AESA Active Electronically Scanned Array AEW Airborne Early Warning AEW&C Airborne Early Warning & Control AF Air Force Auxiliary Fleet AFA Air Force Academy AFB Air Force Base Af-Pak AFSPA AFTA AFV AG AGM AGPL AH AIFV AIP AIP AIS AIT AJT ALCM AlGaAs ALGs ALH ALTB AM AMAS AMD Amn amph AMRAAM AMRs AMTIR ANA ANC ANP ANURAG ANZAC ANZUS AOA AOC AOC-in-C AOM AON AOP AOPVs APAR APC APCs(T) APCs(W) APEC APFSDS Appx Afghanistan-Pakistan Armed Forces Special Powers Act ASEAN Free Trade Area Armoured Fighting Vehicle Adjutant General Air-to-Ground Missile Actual Ground Position Line Attack Helicopter Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle Air Independent Propulsion Approval In Principle Automatic identification system Automatic identification technologies Advanced Jet Trainer Air Launched Cruise Missile Aluminium gallium arsenide Advanced Landing Grounds Advanced Light Helicopter Airborne Laser Test Bed Acquisition Manager Australian Minesweeping System Anti-missile defence Ammunition Amphibious amphibian Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile Anti-material rifles Amorphous Material Transmitting Infrared Radiation Afghan National Army Andaman & Nicobar Command Afghan National Party Advanced Numerical Research and Analysis Group Australian and New Zealand Army Corps Australia-New Zealand-United States Air Officer-in-Charge Administration Angle of Attack Army Ordnance Corps Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Air Officer-in-Charge Maintenance Acceptance of Necessity Air Officer-in-Charge Personnel Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels Active Phased Array Radar Armoured Personnel Carrier Armoured Personnel Carriers (Tracked) Armoured Personnel Carriers (Wheeled) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Armour-piercing fin stabilised discarding sabot Approximately 490 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions Advanced panoramic sonar hull Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb Armament Research and Development Establishment ARC Aviation Research Centre AREN Army Radio Engineering Network ARF ASEAN Regional Forum ARIS Anti-resonance isolation system ARM Anti-Radiation Radar Missile Armd Armoured ARMREB Armament Research Board ARTRAC Army Training Command Arty Artillery ARV Armoured Recovery Vehicle AS Additional Secretary ASAT Anti-Satellite ASC Army Supply Corps Army Service Corps ASCON Army Static Communication Network ASD Admiral Superintendent Dockyards ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations ASEM Asia-Europe Meeting ASG Abu Sayyaf Group ASL Advanced Systems Laboratory ASLAV Australian Light Armoured Vehicle ASM Air-to-Surface Missile Anti-Ship Missile ASO Air Staff Office ASPL Akash Self-Propelled Launcher ASR Air Staff Requirements ASTE Aircraft and Systems Testing Establishment ASuW Anti-Surface Warfare ASV Anti-Surface Vessel armoured security vehicles ASW Anti-Submarine Warfare ATACMS Army Tactical Missile System ATC Air Traffic Control ATE Advanced Technologies and Engineering ATEP Advanced technical exploitation programme ATGM Anti-Tank Guided Missile ATGW Anti-Tank Guided Weapon Atk Anti-tank ATL Advanced Tactical Laser ATP Acceptance Test Procedure ATTF All Tripura Tigers Force ATTS Air-Transportable Towed System ATV Advanced Technology Vessel Auto Automatic AUV Autonomous Underwater Vehicles AUW All Up Weight AV Armoured Vehicles AVIC Aviation Industries Corporation Avn Aviation AVS Committee Ajai Vikram Singh Committee AVSM Ati Vishist Seva Medal AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System APSOH AQIM AR&DE B BACN BADZ BARC Bbr Bde BDL BE BECA BEL BEML BFSR BFSR-SR BHEL Bhp BIMSTEC BIS BM BMC2 BMCS BMD BMS Bn (bn) BNP BOPs BRIC M BRIC BRO BSF BSNL BSS Bty BVR BVRAAM BW Battlefield air-borne communication node Base Air Defence Zone Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Bomber Brigade Bharat Dynamics Limited Budget Estimate Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement Bharat Electronics Limited Bharat Earth Movers Limited Battlefield Surveillance Radar Battlefield Surveillance Radar-Short Range Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Brake horsepower Bangladesh India Myanmar Sri Lanka Thailand Economic Cooperation Bureau of Indian Standard Border Management Battle Management Command and Control Bi-Modular Charge System Ballistic Missile Defence Battlefield Management System Battalion Bangladesh National Party Border Out Posts Brazil Russia India China and Mexico Brazil Russia India China Border Roads Organisation Border Security Force Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Battlefield Surveillance System Battery Beyond Visual Range Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile Biological Warfare C4ISR C4ISTAR CA CAB CABS CAE CAGR CAIR Cal CAM Capt CAR CARAT CAS Casevac Cat Cav CAW CBG CBMs Cbt CC CC(R&D) CCA CCC CCD CCS CCT CCTNS CCTV CDA CDEC CDF CDISS CDM CDO CDP Cdr CDS CE CEC CEMILAC CENTO CEP CEPA CEPTAM CERT C C&R C2 C2RP C2W C3 C3CM C3I C4I C4I2 C4I2SR Control and Reporting Command and Control Command and Control Reconnaissance Post Command and Control Warfare Command Control & Communications Command Control & Communications Countermeasures Command Control Communications and Intelligence Command Control Communications Computers and Intelligence Command Control Communications Computers Information and Intelligence Command Control Communications Computers Information management Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Command Control Communications Computers and Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Command Control Communications Computers and (military) Intelligence surveillance target acquisition and reconnaissance Combat Aircraft Complaint Advisory Board Centre for Airborne Systems Computer Aided Engineering Compound Annual Growth Rate Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Calibration Computer Aided Machining Captain Central Asian Republics Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training Chief of the Air Staff Close Air Support Casualty evacuation Category Cavalry College of Air Warfare Carrier Battle Group Confidence Building Measures Combat Central Committee Chief Controller (Research & Development) Central Coordinating Authority Committee on Climate Change Charge Coupled Device Cabinet Committee on Security Combat Capable Trainer Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System Closed Circuit Television Controller of Defence Accounts Custom Duty Exemption Certificate Chief of Defence Force Centre for Defence and International Security Studies College of Defence Management Command Diving Officer Committee for Defence Planning Commander Chief of Defence Staff Corps of Engineers Chief Engineer Central Military Commission Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification Central Treaty Organisation Circular error probable Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement Centre for Personal Talent Management Computer Emergency Response Team-India 491 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions CFA CFC CFD CFEES CG CGAIS CGAS CGDA CGE CGHQ CGRPT CGS CHRI CI CIA CIAT CICP CIDS CIDSS CIFs CIG CII CIJWS C-in-C CINCAN CIP CIR CIS CISC CISF CISMOA CISO CIWS CJCS CKD CLAWS CLGP CLO CLS cm CM CMC CMCs CMD CMDS CMM CMOS Competent Financial Authority Combined Forces Commander Computational Fluid Dynamics Centre for Fire Explosive & Environment Safety Commanding General Combined Group Coast Guard Coast Guard Air Inspection Superintendent Coast Guard Air Station Controller General Defence Accounts Central Government Expenditure Coast Guard Headquarters Coast Guard Refit Production Team Chief of the General Staff Coast Guard Ship Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative Counter-insurgency Central Intelligence Agency Counter-insurgency and Anti-Terrorism Computerised Inventory Control Procedure Chief of Integrated Defence Staff Command Information Decision Support System Counter Insurgency Forces Counter Insurgency Grid Confederation of Indian Industry Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare Commander-in-Chief Commander-in-Chief of the Andaman and Nicobar Command Carriage and Insurance Paid Cargo Integration Review Commonwealth of Independent States Chief of Integrated Defence Staff to Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee Central Industrial Security Force Communication Interoperability and Security Memorandum Agreement Chief Information and Security Officer Close-in Weapon System Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Complete Knocked Down Centre for Land Warfare Studies Cannon-Launched Guided Projectile Chief Law Officer Capsule launch system Centimetre Cruise Missile Central Military Commission Ceramic matrix composites Chairman & Managing Director Counter Measure Dispensing Systems Common Modular Missile Complimentary metal-oxide semi-conductor CMS CMT CMTV CNC CNC CNN CNO CNO CNP CNPC CNS CO CGS Delhi COAS COD CODOG COIN COL COM comb comd COMINT comns Comp COMSAT CONOPS COP COP COS COSC COTS Coy CP CPB CPF CPMF CPI(M) CPI(ML) CPI CP-NPA-NDF Combat management system Carrier Mortar Tracked Continuous Moldline Technology Carrier mortar tracked vehicle Commercial Negotiation Committee Computer Numerical Control Cost Negotiations Committee Cable News Network Chief of Naval Operations Computer networks operation Comprehensive national power China National Petroleum Corporation Chief of the Naval Staff Commanding Officer Coast Guard Ship Delhi Chief of the Army Staff Central Ordinance Depot Combined diesel or gas turbine Counter Insurgency Controller of Logistics Chief of Materials Combined combination Command Communications Intelligence Communications Composite Communication satellite Concept of Operations Chief of Personnel Common operational picture Chief of Staff Chiefs of Staff Committee Commercial off the shelf Company Central Purchase Charged Particle Beams Central Police Forces Central Paramilitary Forces Communist Party of India (Marxist) Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Consumer Price Index Communist Party of Philippines-New People s Army-National Democratic Front Central Police Organisations Carriage Paid To Central Public Works Department Control and Reporting Centre Central research laboratories Common remotely operated weapon station Criminal Procedure Code Central Reserve Police Force Cathode-Ray Tube Compact Revolutionary Zone Centre-State Combat Search and Rescue Core System Evaluation Counter Surface Force Operations CSIR CSM CSSC CST CSTO CT CTBT CTBTO CTK FLT CTM CTOT CTPTs CUNPK CVC CVRDE CW CWIN CWP&A CYBERINT Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Communications Support Measures China State Shipbuilding Corporation Comparative Statement of Tenders Collective Security Treaty Organisation Counter-terrorist Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation Chetak Flight Communist Terrorist Movement Complete Transfer of Technology Counter Terrorism Pursuit Teams Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping Central Vigilance Commission Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment Continuous Wave Cyber Warning and Information Network Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition Cyber Intelligence D D (Admin) D (AV) D (FE) D (FM) D (INT) D (Log) D (MAT) D (Med) D (MPRT) D (Ops) D (Pers) DA DAC DADCs DAF DAI DARE DAS DASE DASI DASR DCAS DCF DCMG DCN DCNS DCOAS DCP DD DDG MF Director (Administration) Director (Aviation) Director (Fisheries and Environment) Director (Fleet Maintenance) Director (Intelligence) Director (Logistics) Director (Materials) Director (Medical) Director (Manpower Planning Recruitment & Training) Director (Operations) Director (Personnel) Defence Attach Defence Acquisition Council Division Air Defence Centres Delivered At Frontier Director of Administration Inspection Defence Avionics Research Establishment Director of Air Staff Director of Armament System Equipment Directorate of Air Staff Inspection Directorate of Air Staff Requirements Deputy Chief of Air Staff Discounted Cash Flow Defence Crisis Management Group Defence Communications Network Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Deputy Chief of the Army Staff Directorate of Civilian Personnel Demand Draft Deputy Director General Military Farms CPOs CPT CPWD CRC CRL CROWS CrPC CRPF CRT CRZ CS CSAR CSE CSFO 492 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions DDG DDGMS DDH DDOs DDP DDP DDP&S DDU DE DEAL DEBEL DECS DEE DEO Dept DEQ DES DES DESA DESIDOC Det DEW DF DFM DFPR DFRL DFS DG DG(I&S) DG AAD DG CW DG DCW DGFP DG Inf DGMF DGPP DG WE DG OS DG SP DGAFMS DGAQA DGAR DGCA DGDIA Deputy Director General Deputy Directorate General Management Studies Destroyer Helicopter Direct Demanding Officers Department of Defence Production Directorate of Data Processing Department of Defence Production & Supplies Delivered Duty Unpaid Directorate of Education Defence Electronics Application Laboratory Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory Director Electronics and Computer Sciences Directorate of Electrical Engineering Defence Exhibition Organisation Department Delivered Ex Quay Delivered Ex-Ship Directorate of Engineering Support Director Ex-Serviceman s Affairs Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre Detachment Directorate of Electronic Warfare Directed Energy Weapons Deuterium Floride Directorate of Fleet Maintenance Delegation of Financial Power Regulations Defence Food Research Laboratory Directorate of Flight Safety Director General Diesel Generator Director General (Inspection and Safety) Directorate General Army Air Defence Directorate General Ceremonials and Welfare Directorate General Discipline Ceremonials and Welfare Directorate General Financial Planning Directorate General Infantry Directorate General of Mechanised Forces Directorate General Perspective Planning Directorate General Weapons and Equipment Director General Ordnance Services Director General Seabird Project Directorate General Armed Forces Medical Services Director General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance Director General Assam Rifles Directorate General of Civil Aviation Director General Defence Intelligence Agency DGDPS DGFI DGFT DGI DGICG DGIS DGMI DGMO DGMP DGMS DGMT DGNAI DGNCC DGND DGOF DGOL&SM DGQA DGR DGS&D DGSD DHD DHQ DIA DIAT DIBER DIHAR DIME DIPAS DIPP DIPR Dir DIR(MM) Div DL DLRL DLS DLS DM DMA DMI DMPR DMRC DMRL Director General Defence Planning Staff Director General of Forces Intelligence Directorate General of Foreign Trade Directorate General of Infantry Director General Indian Coast Guard Directorate General Information Systems Director General Military Intelligence Director General Military Operations Directorate General Manpower Planning Director General Medical Services Directorate General Military Training Director General Naval Armament Inspection Director General National Cadets Corps Director General of Naval Design Director General Ordnance Factories Director General Operational Logistics & Strategic Moves Director General of Quality Assurance Director General Resettlement Director General Supplies & Disposal Directorate General Staff Duties Dimasa Halam Dogah District Headquarters Defence Headquarters Defence Intelligence Agency Defence Institute of Advanced Technology Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research Defence Institute of High Altitude Research Dense Inertial Metal Explosive Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion Defence Institute of Psychological Research Director Director (Material Management) Division Defence Laboratory Defence Electronics Research Laboratory Director Life Sciences Director Logistic Support Director Missiles Director of Maintenance Administration Director of Maintenance Inspection Directorate of Manpower Planning & Recruitment Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory DMS DMSP DMSRDE DMZ DNA DNAI DNAS DNE DNI DNO DNP DNPF DNRD DNS DNT DOA DOC DOD DODY DOE DOFA DOP DOT DP DP DPA DPB DPC DPJ DPM DPP DPrP DPR DPRK DPS DPS DPSA DPSU DQMG DRDE DRDL DRDO DSA DSCA DSCS DSE DSEI Disaster Management Support Defence Meteorological Satellite Programme Defence Material & Store Research and Development Establishment Demilitarised Zone Directorate of Naval Architecture Directorate of Naval Armament Inspection Directorate of Naval Air Staff Director of Naval Education Directorate of Naval Intelligence Director of Naval Operations Director Naval Plans Director Non Public Funds Director Naval Research and Development Director Naval Signals Directorate of Naval Training Director of Administration Director of Contracts Department of Defence Director of Diving Directorate of Dockyards Director of Education Defence Offset Facilitation Agency Directorate of Personnel Directorate of Tactics Doctrine Organisation and Training Delhi Police Delivery Period Directorate of Pay and Allowances Defence Procurement Board Digital Pulse Compression Departmental Promotion Committee Democratic Party of Japan Defence Procurement Manual Defence Procurement Procedure Defence Production Policy Detailed project report Democratic People s Republic of Korea Defence Planning Staff Director of Personnel Services Deep penetration strike aircraft Defence Public Sector Undertaking Deputy Quarter Master General Defence Research & Development Establishment Defence Research & Development Laboratory Defence Research and Development Organisation Director of Systems Application Draft Supplementary Agreement Defence Security Cooperation Agency Defence Satellite Communications Systems Defence and Security Exhibitions Defence Systems and Equipment International 493 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions Dse DSIR DSP DSR DSSC DTI DTRL DVE DVE DVI DW DWE Director of system evaluation Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Directorate of Ship Production Directorate Staff Requirement Defence Services Staff College Department of Trade and Industry Defence Terrain Research Laboratory Directorate of Value Engineering Driver s vision enhancers Digital video interface Directorate of Works Directorate of Weapons Equipment ERV ESM ESP Est Estt ET EU EUMA EurASEC EW EWS Excl Exchange Rate Variation Electronic Support Measures Engineering Support Package Estimate Establishment Electro Thermal European Union End Use Monitoring Arrangement Eurasian Economic Community Electronic Warfare Electronic Warfare Support Excludes excluding FMS FMTC FMUs FOB FOC-in-C FOGA FOL FOMAG FONA FOSM FOST FP FPA FPDA FPGA FPQ FPU FPVs FR FRA FRP FRP FSA FSU Ft FTA FTC Ftr ftrs FY FYDP Flight Management System Foreign Military Sales Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty Fleet Maintenance Units Free On Board Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief Flag Officer Goa Area Fuel Oil Lubricants Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra & Gujarat Area Flag Officer Naval Aviation Flag Officer Submarines Flag Officer Sea Training Financial Planning Focal plane array Five Power Defence Arrangement Field Programmable Gate Array Fixed Price Quotation Formed Police Unit Fast Patrol Vessels Financial Regulation Flight Refuelling Aircraft Fibre Reinforced Polymer Full Rate Production Fluid Supply Assembly Former Soviet Union Feet Free Trade Agreement Fast Torpedo Craft Fighter fighters Financial year Five Year Defence Plan F FA FA(DS) FAA FAC FAS FAS FAST FATA FB FBM FBW FCA FCS FCU Fd FDI FE FEALAC FEBA FEDEP FF FFG FGA FGFA FIC FICV FIDs Fin F-INSAS FIPB FIS Flg Offr FLIR Flt FM FMBT FMC FMCW FMECA Financial Advisor Financial Advisor (Defence Services) Federal Aviation Administration Fast Attack Craft Forward Air Controller Favourable Air Situation Free Alongside Ship Fleet assistance and shipboard training Federally Administrated Tribal Areas Fast Boat Fleet ballistic missile Fly-by-wire Free Carrier Fire Control System Fire Control Unit Field Foreign Direct Investment Forecast estimates Foreign Exchange Forum for East Asia-Latin America Forward Edge of the Battle Area Federation Development Frigate Frigate Guided Missile Fighter Ground-Attack Fifth Generation Fighter aircraft Future Generation Fighter Aircraft Fast Interception Crafts Flight information centres Future infantry combat vehicle Future Indian Destroyers Finance Future Infantry Soldier as a System Foreign Investment Promotion Board Flying Instructors School Flying Officer Forward Looking Infra red Flight fleet Financial Manager Future main battle tank Financial Management Cell Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Failure Mode Effect and Criticality Analysis E EA EAC EADS EAM EASA EBO ECCM ECM ECO ECS EEZ EFC EFP EGNOS EHS EIC E-in-C ELINT El-Op EM EMC EMCON EMD EMI EMP EMS ENC Engr EO EOCM EOFCS EoI EP EPABX EPR Eqpt ER ERA ERFB ERP Electronic Attack Eastern Air Command Expenditure Angle Clearance European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company External Affairs Minister European Aviation Safety Agreement Effects-based operations Electronic Counter Counter Measures Electronic Counter Measures Economic Cooperation Organisation Electronics & Computer Sciences Exclusive Economic Zone Expenditure Finance Committee Explosively Forged Projectiles European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service Early Harvest Scheme Equipment Induction Cell Engineer-in-Chief Electronic Intelligence Electro-optic Industries Ltd Earnest money Electro Magnetic Compatibility Emissions Control Earnest Money Deposit Electro Magnetic Interference Electro Magnetic Pulse Electromagnetic spectrum Eastern Naval Command Engineer Electro Optical Electro-optical countermeasures Electro-optic Fire Control System Expression of Interest Electronic Protection Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange Evolutionary Pressurised Reactor Equipment Extended range Explosive Reactive Armour Extended Range Full Bore Enterprise Resource Planning G GA GaAs GAETEC GAGAN GCC GCI GDP GE GED Gen GFR GGA GHG GHQ GIS GITS II GLONASS GMDSS GMS GOC-in-C GOI GoM GOST Group Army Ground Attack Gallium arsenide Gallium Arsenide Enabling Technology Centre GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation Gulf Cooperation Council Ground Controlled Interception Gross Domestic Product General Electric General Engineering Department General General Financial Regulations Gain Generator Assembly Greenhouse gas General Headquarters Geographical Information System Gunner s integrated TOW system Global Navigation Satellite System Global Maritime Distress and Safety System Greater Mekong Sub General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Government of India Group of Ministers Gost Specifications (Russian) 494 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions Gp GPS GRP GRS GRSE GSB GSD GSL GSLV GSO GSQR GSR GTD GUIDEx Goup Global Positioning System Glass Reinforced Plastic Gross tonnage Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited General Staff Branch General Staff Department Goa Shipyard Limited Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Ground Staff Office General Staff Qualitative Requirements General Service Regulations General Trade Department Guide for Understanding and Implementing Defence Experimentation Global War on Terror HUMINT HUMSA (NG) HuT HVAC HVF Hy Human Intelligence Hull Mounted Sonar Advanced (Next Generation) Hizb-ut-Tahrir Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning System Heavy Vehicles Factory Heavy IITF IJT ILMS ILT IM IMA IMD IMDP IMF IMI IMINT IMO IMOLS IMMOLS IMU IN INCOTERM INDSAR INDU Inf INMAS INS INSAS INSAT InSb Int INTW IOC IOR IORARC IORB IP IP IP IPBG IPC IPC IPKF IPMT IPR IPS IPVs IR IRBM IRBs IRDE IRGC India International Trade Fair Intermediate Jet Trainer Integrated Logistics Management System Instructor Led Training Indigenously Manufactured Indian Military Academy India Meteorological Department Integrated Missile Development Programme International Monetary Fund Israel Military Industries Imagery Intelligence International Maritime Organisation Integrated Maintenance and Logistics System Integrated Material Management Online System Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Indian Navy International Commercial Terms Indian (Maritime) Search and Rescue Indian National Defence University Infantry Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences Inertial Navigation System Indian Naval Ship Indian Small Arms System Indian National Satellites Indium antimonide Intelligence Indian Naval Work Up Team Initial Operational Capability Clearance Indian Ocean Region Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation Indian Ocean Rim Block Industrial Policy integrity pact Intellectual Property Integrity Pact Bank Guarantee Indian Penal Code Inshore Patrol Craft Indian Peace Keeping Force Integrated project management teams Intellectual Property Right Integrated Power Systems Inshore Patrol Vessels Infrared Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile India Reserve Battalions Instruments Research & Development Establishment Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force I IA IACCS IAEA IAF IAI IAPTC IB IBR IBs IBSA ICBM ICG ICV ID IQ IDF IDPs IDS IDSA IDSN IEA IED IEDs IEEE IEP IFA IFCs IFDSS IFF IFG IFS IFV IGA IGMDP IHPTET IIGs IIR IISc IISS IIT Indian Army Integrated Air Command & Control Systems International Atomic Energy Agency Indian Air Force Israeli Air Force Israel Aircraft Industries International Association of Peacekeeping Training Centres Intelligence Bureau Integrally bladed rotor Interceptor Boats India-Brazil-South Africa Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile Indian Coast Guard Infantry Combat Vehicle Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity Indigenous Design Fighter Israel Defence Forces Internally Displaced Persons Integrated Defence Staff Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses Integrated Service Digital Network International Energy Agency Indigenous Explosive Devices Improvised Explosive Devices Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer Integrated Electric Propulsion Integrated Financial Advisor Integrated Functional Commands Integrated Fire Detection & Suppression System Identification Friend or Foe Indian field gun Indian Foreign Service Infantry Fighting Vehicle Inter Governmental Agreement Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology Indian Insurgent Groups Imaging Infrared Indian Institute of Science International Institute for Strategic Studies Image Intensifier Tubes Indian Institute of Technology GWOT H HAA HAF HAL HALE HARM HATSOFF HDW HE HEAT HEL HELLADS Helo hel HEMRL HEO HEU HFSWR HHTIs HINDRAF HITPRO HM HMMWV HOBOS Hp Hp ton HPSI HQ HQ IDS HR HRD Hrs HS HUD HuJI High Altitude Airship Hellenic Air Force Hindustan Aeronautics Limited High Altitude Long Endurance High-speed Anti Radiation Missile Helicopter Academy to Train by Simulation of Flying Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG High Explosive High Explosive Anti-tank High Energy Laser High energy liquid laser area defence system Helicopter High Energy Materials Research Laboratory High Earth Orbit Highly Enriched Uranium High Frequency Surface Wave Radar Hand-held thermal imaging devices Hindu Rights Action Force Hit Probability Home Minister High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle Homing and Bombing System Horsepower Horse Power per ton High Power System Integration Headquarters Head quarters Integrated Defence Staff Human resources Human Resource Department Hours Home Secretary Head-Up Display Harkat-ul-Jihad-i-Islam IRIAF 495 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions IRS IRSS IS ISACs ISAF ISAP ISC ISFC ISGA ISI ISLEREP ISPS ISR ISRO ISRR ISRT ISSA IST IT ITA 2008 ITBP ITCs ITEC ITM ITU IW Indian Remote Sensing infrared suppression system Information System Information Sharing and Analysis Centres International Security Assistance Force Information Security Assurance Program Integrated Space Cell Integrated Special Forces Command Interim Self-Governing Authority Inter-Services Intelligence Island M-SAAR Ship Reporting System international ship and port facility security Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Search and Rescue Region Infra Red Search & Tracking System Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis Indian Standard Time Information Technology Information Technology Act 2008 Indo-Tibetan Border Police Integrated Theatre Commands Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Institute of Technology Management International Telecommunication Union Information Warfare JSSC JSTARS JTAGS JTC JTFI J-UCAS JV JVC Joint Services Staff College Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System Joint Tactical Ground Station Joint Training Committee Joint Task Force on Intelligence Joint Unmanned Combat Air System Joint Venture Joint Venture Company LFDS LFG LGB LIA LICO LICs LLADS LLTR LMG LND LNG LOA LoC Log LOI LORADS LORROS LOS LP LPA LPAF LPC LPD LPH LPIR LPP LRC LRDE LRF LRIP LRLAP LRMP LRMRASW LRSAM LRTR LRU LS&HR LSA LSD LSL LSM LSP LSRB LSRVs LSS LST(L M) LSV Lt BPVs Lt LTAP LTE LTH LTIPP LTPP LTPPFC Ltr ltrs Low Frequency Dunking Sonar Light field gun Laser Guided Bomb Lead intelligence agency Low Intensity Conflict Operations Low Intensity Conflicts Liquid Laser Area Defence System Low Level Tactical Radar Light machine gun Local Naval Defence Liquefied Natural Gas Laser Optics Assembly Line of Control Logistics Letter of Intent Long Range Radar & Display System Long-range reconnaissance and observation system Line of Sight Local Purchase Lao People s Army Lao People s Armed Forces Large Patrol Craft Landing Platform Dock Landing Platform Helicopter Low Probability of Intercept Radar Last Purchase Price Line-replaceable components Electronics and Radar Development Establishment Laser Range Finder Low Rate Initial Production Long-range land attack projectile Long-range maritime patrol Long Range (armed) Maritime Patrol Anti Submarine warfare Long Range Surface-to-Air-to-Air Missile long-range tracking radar Line Replaceable Unit Life Sciences & Human Resources Logistics Support Agreement Landing Ship Dock Landing Ship Logistics Landing Ship Medium Limited Series Production Life Sciences Research Board Light Surveillance & Reconnaissance Vehicles Logistic Support Ships Landing Ship Tank (Large Medium) Landing Ship Vehicles Light Bullet Proof Vehicles Light Long-term Action Plan Limited Tender Enquiry Light-weight towed howitzer Long Term Integrated Perspective Plan Long Term Perspective Plan Long Term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee Litre litres K KALI KCP KE Kg KGF KIFV KLO Km Km ph KORCOM KRC Kt Kw KYKL Kilo Ampere Linear Injector Kangleipak Communist Party Kinetic Energy Kilogramme Kolar Gold Fields Korean Infantry Fighting Vehicle Kamtapur Liberation Organisation Kilometre kilometres per hour Korea Command Kargil Review Committee Kilo tonne Kilowatt Kanglei Yowal Kunna Lup L L&D L&T LAAD LAC LACM LADAR LAF LASTEC LAV LAW LBL LC LCA LCAC LCD LCH LCM LCP LCPA LCS LCT LCU LCVP LD LDP LED LEL LEO LeT LFA Learning & Development Larsen & Toubro Latin America Aero and Defence Line of actual control Land attack cruise missile Laser Detection and Ranging Lebanese Armed Force Laser Science & Technology Laboratory Light Armoured Vehicle Light Anti-tank Weapon Long Baseline Landing Craft Letter of Credit Landing Craft Assault Light Combat Aircraft Landing Craft Air Cushion Liquid Crystal Display Light Combat Helicopter Landing Craft Mechanised Landing Craft Personnel Landing Craft Personnel Aircushion littoral combat ship Landing Craft Tank Landing Craft Utility Landing Craft Vehicles and Personnel Liquidated Damages Liberal Democratic Party Light-emitting diodes Low Energy Laser Low Earth Orbit Lashkar-e-Toiba Low frequency active J J&K JADC JAG JCG JSDF JASSM JCOs JDAM JeM JI JIC JIEDDO JNPP JOCAP JOCOM JOCs JPC JRI JS JSA JSF JSIC JSOW JSQR Jammu & Kashmir Joint Air Defence Centre Judge Advocate General Japanese Coast Guard Japan Air Self-Defence Force Joint Air to Surface Stand off Missile Joint Combat Operations Joint direct attack munition Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Joint Intelligence Committee Joint Improvised Explosive Devices Defeat Organisation Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project Joint Capsule Joint Operations Committee Joint Operation Centres Joint Planning Committee Joint Receipt Inspection Joint Secretary Joint Systems Analysis Joint Strike Fighter Joint Service Intelligence Committee Joint Stand Off Weapon Joint Service Qualitative Requirements 496 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions LTTE LUH LUTs LWE LWT Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Light Utility Helicopter Local User Terminals Left Wing Extremists Light Weight Torpedo MIDHANI Mil mily MILF MILSPECS MINDER MIRACL MIS MLRS mm MMG MMRCA MNCs MND MNLF Mob MoD MoD D(MC) MODA MODte MOFTU MOPs MOQ Mor MoS Mot M0U MP MPA MPAT MPVs MR Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited Military Moro Islamic Liberation Front Military specifications Miniature Detection Radar Mid Infra-Red Advanced Chemical Laser Management Information System Multiple Launch Rocket System millimetre Medium Machine Gun Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft Multinational Corporations Ministry of National Defence Moro National Liberation Front Mobilisation mobile Ministry of Defence Ministry of Defence D (Monitoring of Contracts) Ministry of Defence & Aviation Military Operations Directorate MiG Operational Flying Training Unit Mobile Observation Posts Massive Ordnance Penetrator Minimum Order Quantity Mortar Minister of State Motorised motor Memorandum of Understanding Military Police Member of Parliament Maritime Patrol Aircraft Multi-purpose Anti Tank Mine-Protected Vehicles Maritime Reconnaissance Motor-Rifle Multiple Rocket Military Region Medium Range Ballistic Missile Multi-role Combat Aircraft Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre Motorised Rifle Division Multi Role Helicopters Multiple Rocket Launcher Manufacturer Recommended List of Spares Multiple Rocket Launcher System Medium-Range Maritime Reconnaissance Medium-range surface-to-air missile Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre Military Secretary Mild steel Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System Mine Sweeper Auxiliary Maritime Search and Rescue Mine Sweeper Coastal Maritime Self Defence Forces Mine Sweeper inshore Missile Mine Sweeper Ocean Missile System Quality Assurance Missiles & Material Sciences MT Mt mts MTA MTBF MTBO MTBUR MTCR MTHEL MTI mtn MTOE MTOW MTTR MULTA MW MWR MZI Metric tonne Minute minutes Multi-role Transport Aircraft Meantime between failures Minimum Time Before Overhaul Mean Time Between Unit Replacement Missile Technology Control Regime Mobile Tactical High-Energy Laser Moving Target Indicator mountain Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent Maximum Take off Weight Mean Time To Repair Muslim United Liebration Tigers of Assam Megawatt Millimetre Wave Radar Maritime Zones of India M M&C M&S M sec MA MA MAC MAC Maint MALE MANPADS MARS MARCOS M-ATV Max MBA MBAT MBFSR MBRLS MBT MC MCA MCM MCMV MCSS MCT MDA MDL MDSR MEA MEADS MEM MEO MES MET Mev MF MFCR MFO MFOs MFR MG MGCI MGO MGSIS MHA MHC MHI MHPV MHR Materials and Components Modelling & Simulation Metres per second Military Assistant Military Attach Metal Augmented Charge Multi-Agency Centre Maintenance Medium Altitude and Long Endurance man-portable air-defence systems Marine Acoustic Research Ship Marine Commandos MRAP all-terrain vehicles Maximum Master of Business Administration Multi-beam array tracking Mobile Battle Field Surveillance Radar Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher System Main Battle Tank Maintenance Command Medium Combat Aircraft Mine Counter Measures Mine Counter Measures Vessel Mobile Cellular Communications System Mercury Cadmium Telluride Maritime Domain Awareness Mazagon Dock Limited Movement Detection and Security Radar Ministry of External Affairs Medium Extended Air Defence System Micro-Electro Mechanical Medium Earth Orbit Military Engineering Service Maintainability Evaluation Trial Million Electron-Volts Main File multi-function control radar Multinational Force and Observers Muslim Fundamentalist Organisations Multi Function Radars Machine Gun Mekong-Ganga Cooperation Initiative Master General of Ordnance Military Geo-Spatial Information System Ministry of Home Affairs Mine Hunter Coastal Mine Hunter Inshore Mine-Hardened Patrol Vehicle Man Hour Rate N N miles NA NA NADP NAM NATGRID NATO NAY NBC NCC NCOs NCW NDA NDFB NDPG NDRF NDU NE NEC NEO NETD NFU NG NGCI NGN NGO NHQ NHRC NIA NIMA NLC NLFT NM Nautical miles Naval Attach Not-available Numerical Aperture National Academy of Defence Production Non-Aligned Movement National Database Grid North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Naval Aircraft Yard Nuclear biological and chemical National Counterterrorism Centre National Combat Operations Network-centric warfare National Democratic Alliance National Democratic Front of Bodoland National Defence Programme Guidelines National Disaster Response Force National Defence University North East Network-enabled capability Network-enabled operations Noise equivalent temparature difference No first use Next Generation Northrop Grumman and Cobham joint venture Next generation network Non-governmental organisation Naval Headquarters National Human Rights Commission National Investigation Agency National Imagery and Mapping Agency Naval Logistics Committee National Liberation Force of Tripura Nao Sena Medal Naxalite Management MRBM MRCA MRCC MRD MRH MRL MRLS MRLS MRMR MRSAM MRSC MS MSAS MSA M-SAR MSC MSDFs MSI Msl MSO MSQA MSS 497 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions NMRL NMS NMSARCA NOE NOSDCP NPC NPCIL NPOL NPT NPV NREGA NRO NS&ACE NSA NSC NSCN(IM) NSCN(K) NSCS NSCT NSG NSRY NSS NSTL NTRO Naval Materials Research Laboratory National Military Strategy New Management Strategy National Maritime SAR Coordinating Authority Nap of the Earth National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan National Police Commission Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Net Present Value National Rural Employment Guarantee Act National Reconnaissance Office Naval Systems & Armament & Combat Engineering National Security Adviser National Security Council National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Issac-Muviah) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) National Security Council Secretariat Naval Special Clearance Team National Security Guard Nuclear Suppliers Group Naval Ship Repair Yards National Security Strategy National Security System Naval Science & Technological Laboratory National Talent Research Organisation National Technical Research Organisation North West Frontier Province OFILDD OFILIS OFILKH OFILKN OFILMK OFT OIC OIF OM ONGC OODA Op OPCON OPEC OPLAN Ops Opsec OPV Org ORP ORSA ORV OSCC OSCE OSD OSS OTE OTH-B Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Dehradun Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ishapore Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Khamaria Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Kanpur Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Medak Operational Flight Trainer Organisation of Islamic Conference Operation Iraqi Freedom Office Memorandum Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited Observe orient decide act Operational Operational control Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Operational plan Operations Operations Security Offshore Patrol Vessel Organised organisation Operational Readiness Platform Operational Research and Systems Analysis Oceanographic Research Vessel Offshore Security Coordination Committee Organisation and Security Cooperation in Europe Officer on Special Duty Office of Strategic Services Open Tender Enquiry Over the Horizon-Backscatter PCO PCPA Patrol Craft Ocean People s Committee against Police Atrocities PCR Patrol Craft Riverine PD Principal Director (Policy (Policy & Plans) and Plans) PD(AV) Principal Director (Aviation) PD(FM) Principal Director (Fleet Maintenance) PD(HRD) Principal Director (Human Resource Development) PD(MAT) Principal Director (Materials) PD(Ops) Principal Director (Operations) PDD Project definition document PDI Pre Dispatch Delivery Inspection PDMS Point Defence Missile Systems Pdr Pounder Pers Personnel PGMs Precision Guided Munitions PHM Patrol Hydrofoil (with SSM) PHT Patrol Hydrofoil (with torpedo) PHWR Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors PIB Public Investment Board PIVADS Product Improved Vulcan Air Defence System Pl Platoon PLA People s Liberation Army PLAAF People s Liberation Army Air Force PLANAF People s Liberation Army Navy Air Force PM Prime Minister Provost Marshal PMF Paramilitary Forces PMO Prime Minister s Office PMOC Principal Maintenance Officers Committee PNC Price Negotiation Committee PNVS Pilot Night Vision Systems PoK Pakistan Occupied Kashmir POL Petrol Oil and Lubricants POV Professional Officers Valuation PPBP Planning and Participatory Budget Programme PPOC Principal Personal Officers Committee PPP Public-private partnership PPS Principal Private Secretary PQ Procurement Quantity PRA Pressure Recovery Assembly PRC People s Republic of China PREPAK People s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak Proc Procurement PROM Programmable Read Only Memory PRT Pollution Response Team PS Private Secretary PSEs Public Sector Enterprises PSI Proliferation Security Initiative PSLV Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSO Principal Staff Officer PSO Project sanction order PSOC Principal Supply Officers Committee PSQR Preliminary services qualitative requirements NWFP O O&S O I D LEVEL OASIIS Obs OCU ODAs ODF OEF OEF Operating and Support Operator Intermediate Depot Level On aircraft scheduled inspections industrial service Observation Operational Conversion Unit Operation Detachments Alpha Operational Deployment Force Operation Enduring Freedom Ordnance Equipment Group of Factories Original Equipment Manufacturer Ordnance Factory Ordnance Factory Board Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ambajhari Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ambernath Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Avadi P P&C P&MM P&W PA PAC Personnel and Conditions Planning & Material Management Pratt and Whitney Price Agreement Production Agency Project Appraisal Committee Proprietary Article Certificate Patriot advanced capability Pakistan Air Force People s Armed Police Parachute paratroop Perform Achieve and Trade Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Performance Based Logistics Patrol Boats Personal Computer Printed Circuit Board Patrol Craft Coastal Principal Controller Defence Accounts Patrol Craft Inshore OEM OF OFB OFILAJ OFILAM OFILAV PAF PAP Para PAT PAVE PBL PBs PC PCB PCC PCDA PCI 498 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions PSR PSU Psyops PTA PTS PTTs PV PVSM PWG PXE Preliminary Staff Requirements Public Sector Undertaking Psychological Operations Pilotless Target Aircraft Point Tracker Subsystem Post Task Trainers Prototype Vehicle Param Vishist Seva Medal People s War Group Proof and Experimental Establishment RM RMA RMN RNA ROC ROE ROI ROIC ROK ROP Ro-ro ROV RPFC RPG Rpm RPV RR RR RSTA RUF RUR RWR RWS Resources & Management Raksha Mantri (Minister of Defence) Revolution in Military Affairs Royal Malaysian Navy Royal Nepal Army Republic of China Rosoboronexport Rules of Engagement Region of interest Readout integrated circuit Republic of Korea Road Opening Party Roll-on roll-off Remotely Operated Vehicle Railway Protection Force Commandos Rifle Propelled Grenade RocketPropelled Grenade Revolutions per minute Remotely Piloted Vehicle Rashtriya Rifles Rolls-Royce Reconnaissance surveillance and target acquisition Revolutionary United Front Raksha Udyog Ratna Radar Warning Receiver Remote weapon stations SBM SCAP SCAPCC SCAPHCC SCD SCO SCOC SD SDB SDBs SDC SDF SDLF SDR SDS SEAD Secy SES SEZ SF SFC SFC SFF SFTS SFW SG SHBO SHQ SI SIDs SIGINT Sigs SIM SIPRI SITAR SKD SLAM SL-AMRAAM SLBD SLBM Single buoy moorings Services Capital Acquisition Plan Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee Services Capital Acquisition Plan Higher Categorisation Committee Standing Committee on Defence Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Standard Conditions of Contract Security Deposit Small Diameter Bomb Seaward Defence Boats Supreme Defence Council Self Defence Forces Shaft Driven Lift Fan Software Defined Radio software driven Strategic Defence Review Satellite Data System Suppression of Enemy Air Defence Secretary Surface Effects Ship Special economic zone Special Forces Specific fuel consumption Strategic Forces Command Special Frontier Force Special Forces Training School Sensor Fused Weapon Speical Group Special Helicopter Borne Operations Service Headquarters Services Interaction Signal Intelligence Directorates Signals Intelligence Signals Shura Ittehadul Mujahideen Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research Semi Knocked Down Stand-Off Land Attack Missile Surface launched advanced medium-range air-to-air missile Sea Lite Beam Director Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile Surface Launcher Ballistic Missile Submarine Launcher Cruise Missile Sea Lines of Communication Sena Medal Submarine Storage Module Device Small and Medium Enterprises Standard Manhour Senior Maintenance Staff Officer Special Maintenance Tools Supply Order Special operations forces Status of Forces Agreement Special Operations Group Standard Operating Procedures Q QA QFI QMG QRM QRs QR SAM QSR Quality Assurance Qualified Flying Instructor Quarter Master General Quick Reaction Missile Quantitative Requirements Quick reaction surface-to-air missile Qualitative Staff Requirements R R&D ENGRS R&D RAAF RAF RAF RAM RAMICS RAS RAW RBG RC RCC RCI RCIED RCL RCS RCWS RDS RE REAs ReCAAP Recce Regt Retd RF RFI RFID RFP RHQ RIC RL Research & Development Establishment (Engineers) Research and Development Royal Australian Air Force Rapid Action Force Royal Air Force Radar Absorbing Material Rolling Airframe Missile Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System Replenishment at Sea Research and Analysis Wing Royal Bhutan Guards Rate Contract Regional Command Revolutionary Command Council Regional Communication Centres Research Centre Imarat Remotely Controlled Improvised Explosive Devices Recoilless Launcher Radar Cross Section Remote Control Weapon System Remotely Deployed Sensors Revised Estimate Rapid Environmental Assessments Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery Reconnaissance Regiment Retired Radio Frequency Request for Information Radio-frequency identification Request for Proposal Regimental Regional Headquarters Russia-India-China Rocket Launcher S SA TO RM SA SAAM SAARC SAC SACLOS SAG SAGs SAGE SAM Bdes SAM SAPTA SAR SARDP SARS SASE SASO SATCOM SBAS SBG SBI SBIRS SBL Scientific Advisor To Raksha Mantri Scientific Advisor South Africa Supplementary Agreement Surface-to-Air Anti-Missile South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Southern Area Command Semi-automatic command-to-light-ofsight Special Action Group Scientific Analysis Group Special Action Groups Semi-Automatic Ground Environment Surface-to-Air Missile Brigades Surface-to-Air Missile South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement Search and Rescue Synthetic Aperture Radar Special Area Road Development Programme Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment Senior Air Staff Officer Satellite Communications Satellite Based Augmentation System Smooth Bore Gun State Bank of India Space-Based Infrared System Space Based Laser SLCM SLOCs SM SMD SMEs SMH SMSO SMT SO SOF SOFA SOG SOP 499 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions SOS SP SP Arty Sp Hels SPA SPAAG SPC SPG SPS SPSG Sqn SQR SR SRAM SRBM SRE SRG SRR SRU SS SSB SSBN SSC SSG SSHC SSI SSK SSM SSN STAP STARS STE STEA STF Stk STO STOBAR STOL STOVL STP STRI STSS Surv SWAC Sys SYSM Systems of Systems Self-Propelled Self Propelled Artillery Support Helicopters Supreme People s Assembly Self-Propelled Anti Aircraft Gun Stores Procurement Committee Self-Propelled Gun Stratospheric Platform System Southern Philippines Secessionist Groups Squadron Services Qualitative Requirements Short Refit Sideways Random Access Memory Short Range Ballistic Missile Security related expenditure scheme Special Ranger Groups Search and Rescue Region Shop Replaceable Unit Special Secretary Sashastra Seema Bal Special Service Bureau Ship sub-mercible ballistic nuclear Diesel submarine coastal Special Service Group Solid State Heat Capacity Small Scale Industries Diesel submarine ASW Surface-to-Surface Missile Nuclear-Fuelled Submarine Short-term Action Plan Surveillance Target Attack Radar System Single Tender Enquiry Special Test Equipment Strategic & Technical Environment Assessment Special Task Forces Strike Stock Short Take-Off Short take-off but arrested recovery Short Take-off and Landing Short take-off verticle landing Specialized technical panels Simulation Training and Instrumentation Space Tracking and Surveillance System Surveillance South Western Air Command System Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal TACDAR TACDE TAPI TAR TBA TBMD TBRL TC TCA TCDL TCS TD TE TEC Temp TEPCO TES THEL TI TIALD TIFA TIFCS TISAS TIZ Tk Tkr TLPS TM TMC TNC TOC TOOC ToT TOTE TOW missile TPC Tps Tpt tptn TR Bdes TRV TS TST TT TTCP TTL TTLS TTP TU TUAV TVC Tactical Detection and Reporting System Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-PakistanIndia Tibet Autonomous Region Tactical Battle Area Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence Terminal Ballistic Research Laboratory Technical Committee Technical Collaboration Agreement Tactical Common Datalink Tactical communications system Technology Demonstrator Tender Enquiry Technical Evaluation Committee Temporary Tokyo Electric Power Company Theatre Event System Tactical High Energy Laser Thermal Imager Thermal Imaging Airborne Laser Designator Trade and Investment Framework Agreement Tank Integrated Fire Control System Thermal Imaging Stand Alone Sights Territorial Interest Zone Tank Tanker Thunderbolt Lifecycle Programme Support Technical Manager Trinamool Congress Technical Negotiations Committee Tender Negotiation Committee Technical Oversight Committee Technical Offer Opening Committee Transfer of Technology Table of Tools and Equipment Tube-launched Optically-tracked Wire-guided missile Tender Purchase Committee Troops Transport transportation Tank Brigades Torpedo recovery vehicle Training Ship Thermal sight Time Sensitive Targets Target towing The Technical Cooperation Programme Total Technical Life Torpedo tube launch system Taliban s Tehrik-e-Pakistan Transport Unit Tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle Thrust Vector Control TVM TVN Track-via-missile Thrust-vectoring nozzles U UAC UAE UAS UAV UBGLs UCAR UCAS UCAV UCPDC UDD UFH UGC UGS UGV UHQ UK ULFA UMV UN UNDOF UNIFIL UNIKOM UNLF UNMEE UNMOGIP UNMONUC UNPAs UNPKF UNPROFOR UNRWA UNSC UNSCR UNTSO UPA URV USAF USBL USD USMC USN USSR UTD Utl UUVs UW UWB UYSM United Aircraft Corporation United Arab Emirates Unmanned Aerial Systems Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Unmanned Air Vehicle Under-barrel grenade launchers Unmanned Combat Armed Rotorcraft Unmanned Combat Aerial Systems Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle Uniform Customs & Practices for Documentary Credits United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship Ultra-lightweight field howitzer University Grants Commission Unattended Ground Sensors Unmanned Ground Vehicle Unified Headquarters United Kingdom United Liberation Front of Asom Unit Maintenance Vehicle United Nations United Nations Disengagement Observer Force United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission United National Liberation Front UN Mission in Ethiopia-Eritrea United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan UN Mission in Congo United Nations Protection Areas United Nations Peace Keeping Force United Nations Protection Force United Nations Relief and Works Agency United Nations Security Council United Nations Security Council Resolution United Nations Truce Supervision Organisation United Progressive Alliance Unit Repair Vehicle United States Air Force Ultra Short Baseline US Dollar United States Marine Corps United States Navy Union of Soviet Socialist Republic Unit Training Device Utility Unarmed Underwater Vehicles Underwater Ultra wideband Uttam Yudh Seva Medal T T TA Tac TacC3I Tonne Territorial Army Transport Aircraft Tactical Tactical Command Control Communications and Information 500 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m AbbreviAtions V V STOL VAs VBSS VCAS VCDS VCNS VCOAS Veh VHF VIS-X VLCC VLS VM VOIP VOx VPs VR VRCs Vertical Short Take Off and Landing Vital areas Visit Board Search and Seizure Vice Chief of the Air Staff Vice Chief of Defence Staff Vice Chief of the Naval Staff Vice Chief of theArmy Staff Vehicle Very High Frequency Vehicular intercom systems Very large crude carrier Vertical launch system Vayusena Medal Voice over Internet Protocol Vanadium Oxide Vital points Virtual Reality Village Resource Centres VRDE VSM VSSC VTO VTUAV Vehicles Research and Development Establishment Vishist Seva Medal Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre Vertical Take-Off Vertical Take-off UAV WMD WPI Wpn WSOI WTO WTT WV&V WWR WZC Weapons of Mass Destruction Wholesale Price Index weapon Weapons Systems ORSA & Infrastructure World Trade Organisation Weapons and Tactics Trainer Weapons Vehicles and Equipment War Wastage Reserves War Zone Campaign W WAC WASS WCMD WE Wg WiMAX WLR Western Air Command Western Area Command Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser War Establishment Weapons and Equipment Wing Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access Weapon Locating Radar Y YSM Yudh Seva Medal Z ZnS ZnSe Zinc blende structure Zinc Selenide 501 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index 3G spectrum 5 AGM 26 11 2008 Mumbai terrorists attacks 104 375 7 19 61 89 106 129 159 170 194 313 322 436 180 7 45 62 322 337 428 aerospace systems capabilities --India Pakistan and China 75 24 Pack How E-2 9 11 2001 Aerospatiale AEW 44 Afghanistan 43 6 99 109 110 119 20 130 133 158 216 218 206 284 74 128 325 349 369 436 437 438 --drug mafia poppy cultivation 17 341 --economy 344 349 --India relations development aid 101 161 356 438 --National Army (ANA) 17 18 19 20 137 149 349 --security environment 349 --Soviet intervention Russia relations 10 11 18 19 --terrorism 341 436 --UN peacekeeping mission 71 --US and NATO forces military intervention 1 4 7 17 20 60 91 92 99 102 337 8 340 342 347 348 432 433 436 --development aid 344 --withdrawal of forces 62 344 350 Afghanistan-Pakistan (Af-Pak) region 7 11 46 61 74 104 111 216 436 Africa 1 15 21 22 24 61 99 107 167 279 383 406 408 409 437 Agarwal R.C. 293 Agarwal Shekhar 245 248 251 AGM-114 Hellfire 417 433 AGM-114K Hellfire 421 AGM-119 407 AGM-130 384 AGM-142 Popeye 384 AGM-142E Raptor 370 AGM-158 JASSM 370 AGM-45 Shrike 394 417 AGM-62B Walleye 417 AGM-65 Maverick 362 388 407 417 425 429 483 AGM-65A Maverick 384 396 407 414 AGM-65B G Maverick 394 407 AGM-65D Maverick 407 411 419 AGM-65G Maverick 378 407 411 421 AGM-78D Standard 417 AGM-84 Harpoon 384 396 398 407 481 483 AGM-84A Harpoon 231 370 384 421 AGM-84D Harpoon 384 425 AGM-84E SLAM 483 AGM-84-H SLAMER AAM 384 AGM-88 HARM (ARM) 384 481 483 Agni (surface-to-surface missile) 170 284 289 356 357 Agni II 170 182 290 357 Agni III 25 30 290 357 Agni IV 25 30 Agni V 290 AGOR 204 357 375 377 384 396 398 430 Agusta A 109E Agusta 109K2 AgustaWestland AW-101 AH-64 Apache Ahluwalia Lt General V.K. Ahmad A.E. Ahmad Z. Ahmadi-Moghaddam General Ismail Ahmadi-Nezad Mahmud Aich Gautam AIM-120B C5 AMRAAM AIM-7 Sparrow AIM-9 Sidewinder 370 433 112 148 479 487 247 257 14 298 300 293 327 327 412 432 (spl variation) 295 384 380 384 388 414 417 419 429 483 362 370 378 380 384 388 392 394 396 407 411 414 417 419 421 425 429 434 480 244 27 9 37 8 44 6 57 89 93 102 3 104 106 108 109 112 129 162 163 170 171 175 176 189 212 213 216 218 231 3 290 439 220 1 104 170 232 233 231 2 213 213 213 213 213 213 471 104 112 153 236 323 99 213 45 46 94 112 189 232 3 291 479 488 9 96 6 27 44 46 87 112 212 213 216 224 232 233 380 213 24 106 129 186 189 197 8 411 438 463 4 465 159 92 A A-50 T-50 AA-10 Alamo AA-11 Archer AAAV ZTD-05 AAV-7A1 Abbas Mahmoud Abbottabad Pakistan Abdullah II King of Jordan Abhay class Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) Abu Zaby ACAS (Intelligence) acceptance of necessity (AON) acoustic telemetry systems active electronically scanned array (AESA) Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) acupuncture warfare Adams SAM Adelaide (Oliver Hazard Perry) class frigate Aditya class Advanced jet trainer (AJT) 384 230 348 358 382 388 400 431 230 348 358 382 388 374 375 384 396 416 7 36 43 327 418 191 201 357 15 366 391 431 252 102 157 83 45 224 273 291 164 27 441 air cushion vehicles air defence (AD) 369 463 208 357 112 143 219 273 488 advanced landing grounds (ALGs) 38 218 advanced light helicopter (ALH) 46 104 112 126 206 189 198 199 200 202 206 208 212 228 235 236 243 244 272 274 308 318 357 359 486 --Civil Variant 272 Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group (Anurag) 293 Advani L.K. 322 Aegis weapon system 93 94 Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE) 293 Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) 46 272 289 290 Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) 291 293 Aeronautical Research & Development Board (AR&DB) 292 aeronautical systems 290 1 aerospace capabilities --China 34 44 --India 45 6 97 100 --Pakistan 44 45 --and Strike Fighters air defence control and reporting system (ADC&RS) Air Defence Direction Centres (ADDCs) Air Defence Ground Environment (ADGES) Air Force Academy (AFA) Air Force Academy Hyderabad Air Force Administrative College (AFAC) Coimbatore Air Force Station Bidar Air Force Station Hakimpet Air Force Technical College (AFTC) Jallahali air independent propulsion (AIP) air space management air squadrons air traffic control (ATC) Air Traffic Controllers Training Establishment Hyderabad Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) airborne laser test bed (ALTB) Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) Aircraft and System Testing Establishment (ASTE) aircraft carriers air-land battle doctrine air-launched missile defence system 502 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Airports Authority of India (AAI) air-to-air missile 99 277 27 205 220 223 229 272 290 480 482 484 488 29 102 482 222 230 171 102 169 178 267 431 432 107 227 38 103 112 170 216 284 290 454 342 327 37 44 197 197 431 428 464 222 482 205 51 196 325 333 335 402 404 5 405 474 475 481 484 485 486 426 220 329 204 206 227 357 358 362 384 388 390 409 432 479 488 398 407 427 3 7 15 18 19 36 43 59 60 61 316 337 340 360 361 366 391 428 433 4 436 404 279 330 426 328 413 463 442 459 442 459 10 327 411 432 434 418 266 23 24 27 28 35 85 106 107 108 129 30 191 193 194 203 390 428 463 35 85 346 377 426 441 446 445 378 394 426 428 432 441 445 441 445 446 AMX-10PAC 90 AMX-10RAV AMX-10RC AMX-10SAO AMX-10TM AMX-13 AMX-13SMI AMX-30 SP AA AMX-30 twin AMX-30 AMX-VCI (ICV) AMX-VCI AN FPS-132 An-12 An-12 Cub An-12 PP Cub An-2 Colt An-2 Y-5 An-24 Coke An-24 An-26 An-26 Curl An-26 RKR Curl An-32 An-32 B An-32 Clive An-32 Club An-74 Coaler An-74 TK 200A An-124 Analysis and Experimentation Centre Bangalore Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Islands 378 394 445 445 426 445 445 445 377 445 394 429 441 447 426 428 432 441 445 447 441 446 377 426 94 111 434 479 484 343 348 390 348 386 400 382 348 371 386 382 431 479 484 350 375 409 431 434 479 484 343 346 348 362 386 400 348 11 212 223 260 479 484 350 358 364 352 386 407 409 432 72 22 23 24 37 185 186 208 212 236 282 322 390 56 7 153 154 155 159 177 186 246 254 258 261 22 23 169 310 32 60 309 316 215 117 123 131 245 346 87 29 60 451 455 456 469 470 477 27 284 106 290 61 102 183 231 228 94 95 96 189 85 189 90 207 189 93 80 82 103 178 179 284 81 479 484 479 484 479 484 Antonov AN-32 Antony A.K. 223 479 484 46 101 102 103 245 248 250 322 323 102 369 221 82 83 21 37 436 22 360 401 415 326 85 65 102 169 178 254 286 87 291 357 441 448 293 292 190 102 102 441 449 102 341 345 46 350 352 357 359 361 364 369 371 374 5 377 378 380 382 384 388 390 392 394 396 398 405 407 409 413 415 419 421 423 425 426 428 430 432 434 441 43 445 448 450 453 456 457 459 461 266 171 56 77 164 171 176 163 169 171 176 189 104 170 55 391 75 7 289 102 3 104 170 277 291 164 212 303 305 306 311 312 36 37 38 43 44 59 62 161 354 388 479 485 442 460 230 341 348 375 378 384 394 398 419 421 428 432 230 341 348 358 409 431 15 16 14 23 365 393 14 431 365 365 13 air-to-ground strikes air-to-surface missiles (ASMS) air-to-surface weapons Ajai Vikram Singh (AVS) Committee Ajeya Ajman AK 630 AK-47 Akash (surface-to-air) missile system Akashdeep Aerostat 291 Akatsiya (SP Gun-How) Akayev Askar Akihito Aksai Chin occupied by China Akula (Bars) class Akula II Al Fujayrah Al Riyadh (Modified La Fayette) class Frigate AL-31FP Alcock Ashdown Gujarat Ltd Algeria --equipment and hardware Al-Jazeera ALMAZ Al-Muktafi Billah Shah Alouette III SA 315B Lama AN-TPQ ANZUS Treaty AoA indicator application software Applied Physics Laboratory Arabian Sea Arabs al-Araidh Jawad bin Salim Archerfish Areva Arjun main battle tank (MBT) Armament Research & Development Establishment (AR&DE) Armament Research Board (ARMREB) Armaris armour capabilities --China --Pakistan armoured fighting vehicles (AFVs) armoured personnel carriers (APCs) Alpha Jet Al-Qaeda Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC) armoured vehicles (AV) Army Education Corps (AEC) Army Intranet Army Ordnance Corps (AOC) Army Service Corps (ASC) Army Static Switched Communication Network (ASCON) Army War College Arroyo Gloria Macapagal artificial intelligence artillery and air defence artillery combat command and control system (ACCCS) Arunachal Pradesh --Chinese claim AS 555 Fennec AS 90 (Braveheart) AS-10 Karen AS-332 Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) Alternating Current Electrical Multiple Units (ACEMUs) Al-Thani Amir Hamad Bin Khalifa Altynbayev General Mukhtar Alvand (Vosper Mk 5) class frigate Alvis Saladin Alvis Scorpion American National Military Strategy 2011 Amin Major General Anwar Hamad AML-90 Recce Amman hotel bombings (2005) ammunition and explosives (A&E) amphibious forces capability Andaman Sea Andhra Pradesh --Maoists insurgency Aneja Air Vice Marshal A. annual acquisition plan (AAP) Ansari M. Hamid anti radiation missiles (ARMs) anti-aircraft gun systems anti-aircraft missiles anti-ballistic missile (ABM) programme Anti-Guerrilla Force anti-material rifles (AMRs) anti-radar missiles anti-resonance isolation system (ARIS) anti-Satellite (ASAT) anti-shipping strike anti-submarine operations anti-submarine warfare (ASW) Anti-submarine Warfare School Anti-tactical ballistic missile (ATBMs) anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) anti-tank sub-munitions Antonov AN-12 Antonov AN-24 Antonov AN-26 AS-7 Kerry ASEAN Defence Ministers Meet Plus Eight (ADMM-Plus Eight) ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Cooperation Ash Shariqah Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Asian Tigers amphibious operations amphibious warfare Amu Darya AMX VCI (ICV) AMX-10HOT AMX-10P 25MICV 445 AMX-10P AMX-10P Marines 503 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Asia-Pacific 13 15 21 23 24 25 48 49 85 98 128 366 368 369 373 393 435 40 32 38 212 302 305 6 308 312 353 103 301 305 6 313 317 318 319 355 13 16 21 23 30 356 365 6 373 376 7 385 391 393 399 290 104 97 427 428 73 4 77 247 261 196 470 475 478 23 473 22 366 389 Bali ballistic missiles ballistic missile defence (BMD) 22 9 10 23 30 35 37 45 92 93 6 106 170 284 290 412 13 438 439 462 413 3 60 98 257 302 326 351 2 356 370 393 26 29 30 37 51 316 16 26 3 9 159 252 351 480 481 484 486 32 397 22 30 56 101 164 212 338 22 328 351 Bhalla Lt General Pradeep Bhamathi B. Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) 247 298 6 127 264 265 267 270 284 292 Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) 232 262 265 267 270 279 81 Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) 102 107 170 232 262 265 267 270 277 Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) 107 Bhutan 14 60 98 255 256 306 316 338 353 4 --Royal Bhutan Guards (RBG) 353 --Royal Bhutanese Army 60 353 Biden Joe 11 Biden Joseph R. (Jr.) 11 Bihar 32 169 265 302 306 308 309 316 Binoy Kumar 245 248 Bisht Rear Admiral H.C.S. 247 Blackwill Robert D. 19 20 BLG-66 Beluga 231 Blue-Water status 27 29 186 437 BM-21 169 341 343 345 346 348 350 357 371 382 390 400 405 407 409 413 417 423 430 434 442 455 BM-21 MR system 169 180 341 343 345 346 348 350 357 371 382 390 400 405 407 409 413 417 423 430 434 442 455 BM-21 RL 180 BMP-1 2 3 103 169 179 183 284 341 343 345 346 348 350 357 364 371 377 384 400 405 407 409 413 419 421 428 430 432 434 441 442 445 453 BMP-1 APC 284 BMP-1 2 ICV 103 169 179 341 343 345 346 348 350 357 364 371 377 400 405 409 413 419 421 430 434 442 453 BMP-3 ICV 384 405 421 430 432 442 445 453 BMR-600 442 457 Boeing 91 380 384 429 479 483 489 Boeing 6 111 Boeing Business Jet 225 Boeing F-15 E Strike Eagle 91 Boeing P-81 6 107 Boeing-737 207 212 479 484 485 Boeing-737 ELINT 212 Bofors 102 158 179 201 202 203 204 442 Bonus PGM 102 Boopathy G. 293 border fencing 303 border guarding force (BGF) 305 6 border management (BM) 29 60 101 103 153 299 355. See also Border Security Force Assam Assam Rifles Bandar Abbas Bangladesh Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) --China relations --Chittagong --emergence of (1971 crisis) --equipment and hardware --illegal migration insurgents from --India relations --Myanmar maritime boundary dispute --National Party (BNP) Bangladesh India Myanmar Sri Lanka Thailand Economic (BIMSTEC) Banh General Tea Bansal U.K. BAP-100 BARAK BARAK I BARAK NG BARAK SAM Barak Ehud BARAK-M Barua Paresh Barua Raju Base Air Defence Zone (BADZ) Basic-Exchange and Cooperation Agreement for Geo-Spatial Cooperation (BECA) Batalik battle tank redesigned battlefield management system (BMS) battlefield surveillance radars (BFSRs) battlefield surveillance system (BSS) Bawa A.S. Bay of Bengal --strategic significance Beech 200T Beechcraft 1900 C Maritime Surv Belarus Belgium Bell Bell AH-1 Cobra Super Cobra Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. BEL-Multitonnee Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) Berdimuhamedow Gurbanguly Beri Sudhir Kumar beyond visual range (BVR) beyond visual range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) BG Bhadauria Air Vice Marshal R.K.S. Bhalla Lt General P.S. Astra ASTROIDS astronomical satellites ASTROS II asymmetric wars Athawale Air Marshal P.V. Atlas Elektronik attack submarines Attlee Clement Aung San Suu Kyi Aura unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) Austal Austin class Australia 46 148 434 203 463 5 6 14 15 51 68 85 135 325 365 70 371 377 389 393 437 439 --Defence Department 135 automated command and control 104 automated decision support system (DSS) 317 319 automated information systems (AIS) 107 108 automatic flight control systems 107 automatic grenade launcher (AGS-30) 169 184 automatic identification system (AIS) 322 323 autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) 83 4 Aviation Research Centre (ARC) 317 Avinash Chander Dr 246 291 Awami League 338 351 Az Zubayr 86 Azerbaijan 341 346 Azhar Masood 62 14 326 298 300 306 231 108 198 198 108 198 199 327 190 197 351 351 232 6 212 79 82 80 82 104 170 175 318 319 103 169 319 104 169 170 319 294 16 21 23 24 29 37 99 390 22 362 388 398 405 407 417 112 407 292 338 407 479 487 479 487 104 140 274 279 B B-737 (VIP) Badhani Lt General M.C. BAE 748 (VIP) BAE systems 274 358 370 378 384 388 396 398 407 421 429 246 358 359 384 398 85 112 135 137 143 145 147 149 150 213 219 273 452 479 482 483 484 488 274 214 410 11 325 402 410 420 426 411 483 484 486 342 263 245 248 BAeHAL Software Ltd Bahadur Air Vice Marshal M. Baharain Bahrain --equipment and hardware Bakiyev Kurmanbek Bakkhshi Rear Admiral (Retd) Vineet Bal Arun Kumar 14 332 345 6 268 220 27 52 214 246 504 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Border Out Posts (BOPs) Border Roads Organisation (BRO) Border Security Force (BSF) 303 303 356 225 272 301 303 03 306 308 312 313 318 351 355 Bosnia 303 Bouteflika Abdel-aziz 325 404 Brahmaputra class 186 199 357 BrahMos I 11 102 108 170 190 196 198 216 285 BrahMos II 290 Brazil 46 217 225 279 287 291 359 436 --equipment and hardware 479 485 487 488 9 Brazil Russia India China (BRIC) 377 437 BRDM-2 179 341 343 346 348 350 357 371 378 400 405 407 409 430 434 442 453 Bremer Vulcan 208 Brodie Bernard 39 Browne Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. 214 217 19 246 252 Brunei 15 Bryce Quentin 325 BTR-3U 432 BTR-40 350 377 382 386 400 417 434 BTR-50P 377 378 382 400 407 409 413 430 442 452 BTR-60 345 346 348 350 371 382 386 400 405 407 413 430 434 454 BTR-70 341 343 345 346 348 350 361 430 BTR-80A 341 343 345 346 348 350 352 361 364 382 384 405 415 442 454 BTR-152 382 386 400 417 430 434 442 454 BTR-D 348 Burma Air Marshal J.N. 214 215 247 Bush George W. 1 5 8 61 379 396 --doctrine of pre-emptive use of force 1 buy and make Indian 118 122 133 Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) 53 56 8 60 62 77 153 155 158 177 219 139 150 14 15 26 168 257 303 326 333 335 366 370 371 385 390 393 397 399 481 484 485 486 407 127 68 83 119 201 389 36 193 217 218 67 123 175 177 51 2 53 73 77 106 174 195 238 311 317 319 338 123 125 175 102 117 125 130 1 216 106 291 103 341 346 356 442 456 107 318 179 357 212 259 3 7 9 11 19 36 49 51 337 64 373 438 346 30 36 Cessna 401 Aircraft Cessna 402 Aircraft Cessna 402B Aircraft Cessna 421 Aircraft Cessna 421C Golden Eagle Cessna Caravan Cessna O-IE Bird Dog Cessna U 206 Aircraft CH-47 Chinook 378 378 388 362 371 364 423 362 417 369 380 384 394 396 398 407 409 413 414 432 479 487 CACI International Inc. Cambodia Camcopter 5.1 Cameron David Canada capability building capability development capacity building Chairman Chief of Staff Committee (CISC) capital budget capital expenditure carrier battle group (CBG) Carrier Command Post Tracked (CCPT) Carrier Mortar Tracked Vehicle (CMTV) Caspian Sea Casspir Mk casualty evacuation Catapult Central Air Command Central Asia Central Asia Gas Pipeline Central Asian Republics Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Central Paramilitary Forces (CPF) C C-130 Hercules Transport Aircraft 6 46 111 216 218 225 344 352 362 364 370 378 380 388 479 485 6 46 111 216 218 225 370 426 479 485 244 244 6 46 102 111 126 127 130 131 140 148 152 6 46 102 111 126 127 130 216 218 370 377 378 479 484 244 419 C-130J Super Hercules C-130J C-130J-30 C-131 class C-141 class C-17 Globemaster C-17 Globemaster III C-212 C-63 class 301 304 308 355 7 62 307 08 312 13 316 18 central police forces 174 299 301 6 307 --budget allocations 313 --modernization 308 310 313 316 --reforms 311 Central Police Organisation (CPO) 61 315 317 318 319 320 Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) 301 302 303 306 308 310 312 313 317 355 Centre for Airborne Systems (CABS) 293 Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics (CAIR) 77 293 Centre for Fire Explosive & Environment Safety (CFEES) 293 Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) 35 Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification (CEMILAC) 293 Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping (CUNPK) 168 Centurion Mk13 442 458 Centurions 394 417 419 449 Cessna 150L Aircraft 364 Cessna 152 352 Cessna 170 Aircraft 392 Cessna 172 Aircraft 378 392 429 Cessna 177 Aircraft 392 Cessna 180 Skywagon Aircraft 390 Cessna 185 Aircraft 413 Cessna 207 Aircraft 378 Cessna 210 Aircraft 392 Cessna 310 Aircraft 429 57 154 155 157 246 Chakraborty Air Vice Marshal A. 215 Chakri Narubet class Aircraft Carrier 398 463 477 Challenger 1 419 Challenger 2 425 442 458 Chandra Air Marshal J. 215 Chandramouli C. 298 Chandrayaan-2 11 Chang Bogo class Submarine 384 463 475 Chasma nuclear facility 37 Chatterjee Upamanyu 245 Chaudhary D.R.S. 298 300 Chaudhary H.S. 268 Chauhan Lt General D.S. 154 246 Cheema Vice Admiral S.P.S. 246 Cheetah 104 191 203 212 227 274 357 359 374 Chengdu J-10 44 Chengdu J-20 44 Chernobyl nuclear disaster 64 Chetak 104 107 189 197 199 200 201 202 204 205 206 208 212 227 235 236 243 244 274 357 486 Chhattisgarh 32 60 169 308 309 310 316 Chidambaram P. 297 298 299 306 324 Chief of Air Staff (CAS) 214 217 Chief of Army Staff (COAS) 35 56 57 102 164 165 168 173 7 246 252 253 Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) 53 56 57 58 60 62 77 153 155 158 177 219 Chief of Naval Staff (CNS) 61 154 187 188 193 5 246 252 Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) 56 57 58 60 153 155 157 159 162 177 186 219 246 252 253 258 Chieftain Mk3 413 Chieftain Mk5 413 442 458 China 1 3 7 10 11 14 15 16 22 4 47 48 65 77 8 93 94 5 102 127 8 138 195 208 279 326 333 335 337 340 1 365 370 372 5 381 385 393 395 399 400 435 40 --aerospace capabilities 43 6 --Armed Forces modernisation 102 --Australia relations 368 9 --capability build up 110 505 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index --Central Military Commission (CMC) --Chinese Communist Party (CCP) --coersive diplomacy --equipment and hardware 26 326 379 435 438 441 442 3 463 464 465 474 479 488 7 8 10 15 16 22 24 35 36 8 40 1 49 50 1 104 110 123 128 129 161 164 217 315 356 440 3 101 128 354 356 359 14 37 43 60 61 62 89 303 316 351 354 436 37 38 41 101 109 231 305 376 377 27 413 365 379 439 385 390 110 coastal surveillance Cobra Cobra Dane Cochin Shipyard ltd Cochin Shipyard Cold War Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) College of Air Warfare (CAW) College of Defence Management (CDM) 107 8 205 236 61 94 6 190 194 198 6 1 7 21 26 39 42 87 190 373 401 347 213 254 Communications School Communist Party of Bhutan Communist Party of China (CPC) Communist Party of India (Marxist) [CPI-M] Communist Party of India (Maoist) [CPI (Maoist)] Communist Party of Nepal Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) comprehensive national power (CNP) computer numerically controlled (CNC) computerised fire control systems concept of operations (CONPOS) development Condor Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) confidence-building measures (CBMs) Consortium approach Constitution of India Control and Reporting Centres (CRCs) Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) Copenhagen Climate Summit Corps of Engineers (CE) Corps of Signals corvettes Agreement (CISMOA) communication networks communication resources communication satellite (COMSAT) communication systems technologies 6 38 76 77 98 104 170 213 104 95 97 98 99 100 112 232 74 6 103 104 129 170 175 186 213 221 290 189 353 4 326 315 316 32 309 338 359 15 25 6 279 80 69 70 388 398 419 448 130 161 393 51 299 232 393 49 171 170 171 106 8 129 190 191 194 201 202 281 357 377 382 384 388 390 394 398 400 405 409 411 413 417 425 425 428 432 463 470 475 477 201 157 102 170 310 3 34 36 59 101 103 110 120 123 159 162 163 169 170 176 297 302 303 305 307 308 313 314 316 317 318 319 361 318 316 319 --India relations conflict --border dispute --Free Trade Agreement (FTA) --intrusion in Indian territory --war (1962) --Indonesia relations --information warfare systems --Iran relations --Japan relation --Laos relations --Myanmar relations --military modernisation --National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) 50 --Pakistan alliance nexus relations 7 10 29 36 7 43 59 128 361 --Philippines relations 391 --power in international system 10 11 13 16 21 23 24 25 366 435 --Russia relations 9 11 12 29 44 --strategic challenge in Asia-Pacific 365 435 40 --Tajikistan relations 344 --Taiwan relations 366 396 --Tibet issue 359 --Turkmenistan relations 345 346 --United States relations 16 49 438 439. See also Arunachal Pradesh China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) 477 Chinese Hegu class 407 Chinese Romeo 407 Chinese Type-56 Towed AA 441 445 Chopra Air Marshal Anil 247 Chopra Vice Admiral Anil 237 246 249 261 323 Christopher Dr S. 293 Chun Jee AORH 384 circular error probability (CEP) 80 180 Civil Aviation Ministry of 98 civil military integration (CMI) 11 Civil Trade and Exports 268 CIWS (close-in weapon system) 107 198 466 471 472 477 Clark Laws of Predictions 81 class Delhi (Project 15) 198 9 Clausewitz 27 41 climate change 47 49 52 338 376 Clinton Hillary Rodham 361 438 439 close air support (CAS) 44 CN-235M 384 425 432 coastal defence 25 322 382 398 407 409 427 436 coastal security 106 7 194 235 238 313 321 4 55 56 77 156 159 168 261 combat aircraft 6 38 44 6 102 111 129 31 211 216 229 273 289 329 341 417 428 479 combat data systems 200 204 465 467 468 469 471 472 476 477 478 Combat Improved Ajeya (CIA) Tank 178 267 combat management system (CMS) 188 190 194 200 Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment (CVRDE) 291 293 Combattante II G class Fast Track Craft-Missile 405 409 413 COMCOS (East) 189 COMCOS (West) 189 command and control (C2) systems 27 9 45 54 58 61 62 66 7 73 5 92 100 104 107 108 130 159 168 170 175 232 233 301 310 316 317 318 command control and communication (C3) 104 command control communication and information (C3I) systems 27 command control communications computers information and intelligence (C4I2) 73 74 104 command control communications computers information and intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (C4I2SR) 73 8 104 command control communications computers intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) 29 72 command control communications computers intelligence surveillance target acquisition and reconnaissance (C4ISTR) 130 command information and decision support system (CIDSS) 104 157 170 command integrated network (CIN) 170 commercial negotiation committee (CNC) 219 279 Committee on Climate Change (CCC) 64 Common Display System (CDS) 226 Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) 311 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 60 342 Communication Interoperability and Security Memorandum COTS Council of Agencies Serving South Asians (CASSA) counter-bombardment capability counter-guerrilla warfare counter-insurgency (CI) Counter-Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School (CIJWS) counter-insurgency grid (CIG) Counter Measure Dispensing Counter Measure Dispensing Systems (CMDS) Counter Surface Force Operations (CSFO) counter-terrorism Counter-Terrorism Pursuit Teams (CTPTs) Cowshish Amit Crestitalia 284 212 14 15 20 61 176 216 314 365 393 61 245 248 407 506 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index crime and criminal tracking network system (CCTNS) Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) Crisis Management Centre cross budgeting team Crotale Low Alt SAM System (DCN) 313 310 155 157 362 408 409 411 428 429 433 441 442 447 468 469 38 60 76 7 104 355 4 35 38 62 73 104 373 76 10 292 441 445 292 defence communications equipment Defence Crisis Management Group (DCMG) Defence Electronics Application Laboratory (DEAL) Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DERL) Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) defence expenditure --China --India --Qatar --United States defence experimentation Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL) defence industry --private sector participation Defence Institute of Psychological Research (DIPR) Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT) Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS) Defence Institute of Quality Assurance Bangalore Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) Defence Laboratory (DL) defence management Defence Material & Store Research & Development Establishment (DMSRDE) Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) defence modernisarion Defence Modernisation Fund Defence Offset Facilitation Agency (DOFA) defence offset policy Defence Planning Council defence planning process --jointmanship Defence Planning Staff (DPS) defence policies and procedures Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) --2002 (DPP-2002) --2008 (DPP-2008) --(DPP-2011) Defence Procurement Board (DPB) 38 56 76 104 106 170 277 155 293 293 265 287 28 9 101 426 102 67 72 294 104 265 87 265 6 294 294 294 294 286 153 155 177 294 55 Defence Research and Development Board (DRDB) Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) Defence Research & Development Establishment (DRDE) Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) undertakings (DPSUs) 77 113 130 131 157 213 262 4 265 6 268 270 1 287 157 294 294 cyber command cyber security cyber warfare (CW) --China s capability --US strategy Czech Republic --equipment and hardware --India cooperation D D-30 Gun How 180 224 341 343 345 346 348 350 352 357 362 371 374 382 386 400 405 407 409 413 417 423 425 430 434 442 455 da Gama Vasco 22 Daewoo 476 Daimler Ferret MK 2 3 442 459 Daksh 292 Dalai Lama 305 Dandakaranya 60 Dantewada 315 Daphne class submarine 464 DARIN 222 DARIN-III 273 Das Dr J. Narayana 246 264 291 Das N.R. 304 Dash Sakti Pada 295 Dassault Aviation 90 218 221 Dassault Falcon 45 data management technology 130 Datar Anil M. 293 DAtong 29 Datt Ashwani Kumar 262 Datta I.N. 268 Davis Raymond 7 Dawran Major General Mohammad 325 De Gaulle Charles 58 Debroy Bibek 311 decision making process 56 65 67 74 122 133 158 170 176 379 decision-support system 76 deep penetration strike aircraft (DPSA) 109 Deepak class 208 357 358 Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) 117 118 120 133 155 157 158 170 287 defence acquisition process 292 Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory (DARL) 293 Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE) 293 Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory (DEBEL) 293 defence budget --China 29 --India 28 9 72 102 112 117 123 6 131 defence capability 27 29 67 110 117 216 368 defence communication network 294 294 102 104 127 8 130 134 102 104 134 133 134 287 133 4 157 56 72 117 156 55 56 153 60 60 153 177 113 16 113 130 119 158--2011 133 117 22 133 117 118 119 153 155 157 287 Defence Procurement Manual 2009 (DPM 2009) 117 defence production 11 114 15 117 19 122 131 2 133 134 153 265 286 Defence Production & Supplies Department of (DDP&S) 157 265 8 290 --allied organisations 286 7 Defence Production Board (Def Prod Board) 118 19 157 287 Defence Production Department of (DDP) 115 157 245 265 8 285 286 Defence Production Policy (DPrP) 113 16 132 defence public sector 6 46 86 90 102 04 106 08 114 16 118 122 125 27 133 157 58 169 70 190 211 213 232 248 266 272 284 286 287 289 91 292 96 Defence Research Laboratory (DRL) 294 Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) 294 Defence Services Staff College Wellington 41 55 56 77 Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) 294 Defence Ministry of (MoD) 38 56 58 60 102 113 117 126 153 174 190 219 266 272 281 290 308 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 92 Delhi class 190 463 Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) 304 Delhi Police (DP) 313 Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu 130 Denel NTW-20 14.5 183 Denel NTW-20 14.5mm 183 Deng Xiaoping 26 438 Deputy Chief of Army Staff (DCOAS) 164 165 166 168 Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (DCIDS) 157 Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (DCNS) 186 187 188 destroyers 105 106 108 186 190 191 193 194 198 281 357 375 384 396 439 463 465 474 475 Dewan Vice Admiral D.K. 187 247 253 DF-2 3 4 5 29 Dhafra Air Base 432 Dhanoa Air Vice Marshal B.S. 214 Dhanush 290 Dharam Vira 311 Dhawan Sunil Kumar 300 Dhillon Air Vice Marshal N.J.S. 215 Dhillon Lt General G.S. 247 Dhofar (Province) class 425 463 Dhowan Vice Admiral R.K. 187 247 253 255 Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) 20 46 104 112 206 212 228 243 272 308 357 359 479 486 Digital Navigation System 207 Dimri Sashi Dhar 268 Diptivilasa D. 298 301 Director General Coast Guard 238 323 Director General Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS) 153 Director General Ordnance Factories (DGOF) 266 507 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Directorate for Interaction with Services for Business (DISB) Directorate General of Information Systems (DGIS) Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) Directorate of Planning and Coordination Directorate of Standardisation disaster relief and rescue Diving School diving support ship Diving Tenders (YDT) Djebel Chenona FS D 228-212 aircraft 292 164 165 265 267 286 272 265 267 286 287 267 286 265 267 286 15 57 185 6 193 238 383 49 189 208 209 405 212 274 357 358 398 413 425 479 484 368 384 417 463 470 220 221 225 226 227 232 274 479 484 189 205 224 235 236 244 323 85 18 7 17 23 34 60 107 161 195 316 338 341 355 371 397 436 85 37 431 60 332 343 344 328 --Indonesia --Iran --Iraq --Israel --Japan --Jordan --Kazakhastan --Kuwait --Kyrgystan --Laos --Lebanon --Libya --Malaysia --Myanmar (Bhutan) --Nepal --North Korea --Oman --Pakistan --Philippines --Qatar --Russia --Saudi Arabia --Singapore --South Korea --Syria --Taiwan --Tajikistan --Thailand --Turkmenistan --United Arab Emirates (UAE) --Uzbekistan --Vietnam --Yemen effect-based operations (EBOs) Egypt --France --Germany --India 58 64 12 13 21 33 37 47 50 55 65 99 104 106 127 129 185 195 279 304 355 6 376 412 414 15 416 21 63 365 369 379 418 340 420 342 385 422 408 387 389 90 338 358 9 381 424 36 41 62 161 360 1 391 2 426 9 10 12 340 427 393 4 383 429 30 395 343 344 397 345 6 431 347 399 400 433 55 21 326 361 376 401 402 405 406 7 408 410 416 417 418 424 417 463 471 472 233 246 291 103 223 274 470 471 472 6 189 277 45 76 7 81 45 Evans Lt General Mark Evidence Act (1871) Evologics Bionik Manta evolutionary pressurized reactor (EPR) Ewart Terry exclusive economic zones (EEZs) ELOP Israel EMB-120 EMB-135 EMB-145 EMB-312 Tucano Embraer Legacy Emerson Electric Enan Lt General Sami Hafez end-use monitoring agreement (EUMA) Energy Conservation Act (2001) energy security policy --India --Japan --Kazakhastan --Russia --United States --China enhanced interoperability ENI environmental data gathering and rapid environmental assessment environmental degradation equipment and hardware India --Air Force --Army --Naval ERA ERJ-145 ESPO II Eurasia Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC) Eurocopter Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil Eurocopter AS 365 Dauphin Eurocopter AS 532 Cougar Eurocopter AS 550 Eurocopter AS 555-Fennec Eurocopter AS 565 Panther Eurocopter AS 565SA Panther Eurocopter SA 360 Eurocopter SA 365 Eurocopter SA 366 Dauphin II Eurocopter SA-316 Eurocopter SA-319 Alouette III Eurocopter SA-330 Puma Eurocopter SA-341 342 Gazelle Eurofighter Typhoon Euromissile European Union (EU) 284 225 225 238 358 479 487 225 479 485 476 326 6 52 47 52 346 47 48 341 48 49 47 48 49 22 23 36 47 48 49 50 1 193 52 Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations Dolphin class Submarine Doppler nay attack system Dornier DO-228 Dornier-228 Double Eagle (ROV) Dragon Strike Operation Drone attacks drug trafficking and smuggling 84 302 372 389 435 357 8 481 486 479 89 441 62 463 77 81 46 9 10 11 347 104 274 479 486 479 485 479 485 479 485 479 485 479 485 479 485 479 485 417 479 485 479 485 479 485 479 485 479 485 479 486 479 486 111 216 218 479 480 284 12 64 99 337 338 347 389 393 436 437 325 310 83 DSO National Laboratories dual-use technology Dubayy Durand line Dushanbe Dzhaksybekov Adilbek E E-2 Hawkeye E-3 Sentry EADS (extended air defence system) EADS CASA early warning systems earth observation (EO) satellites East Africa East Asia East Asia Summit (EAS) East China Sea East Coast of Africa East Timor Eastern Air Command Eastern Naval Command economy economic growth 396 479 489 93 479 484 16 46 94 100 107 112 176 317 95 186 5 13 15 16 128 337 365 6 14 15 439 107 369 393 212 23 11 21 25 32 38 44 51 109 134 322 337 365 401 436 437 349 404 368 410 351 353 370 1 10 22 26 372 3 406 Eilat (SAAR 5) class (FSGHM) EL M-2083 Tethered Aerostat Radar System Elangovan G. Elbit Systems Limited electoral politics Electrical Engineering School electromagnetic compatibility testing facility electromagnetic intelligence (ELINT) electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) electromagnetic weapons electronic counter measures (ECM) electronic intelligence system (ELINT) --Afghanistan --Algeria --Australia --Baharain --Bangladesh --Bhutan --Cambodia --China --Egypt 27 45 212 225 233 362 electronic support measure (ESM) 27 213 electronic warfare (EW) 27 37 103 104 107 159 162 186 189 190 194 212 272 277 289 291 485 Electronics and Radar Development Establishments (ERDE) 294 electro-optical (EO) 88 89 Elizabeth II Queen 325 65 83 16 37 108 185 202 205 235 321 323 371 Explorer 1 97 explosive reactive armour (ERA) 169 183 explosively forged projectiles (EPF) 82 Ex-Servicemen s Contributory Health Scheme 126 extended range (ER) 102 169 External Affairs Ministry (MEA) 14 52 58 60 195 299 303 508 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index F F A-18 Super Hornet F-15 E F-15 K F-15 S F-15A B C D Eagle F-16 111 218 388 479 483 91 380 479 483 384 483 429 479 483 6 45 88 110 111 362 378 384 394 396 398 407 411 417 419 425 432 479 483 6 128 139 143 148 479 483 362 378 390 392 398 405 413 414 369 479 483 484 483 384 407 380 375 398 414 429 434 384 396 411 414 419 429 434 388 398 479 484 29 211 479 483 231 388 405 427 431 189 190 191 194 281 189 190 191 194 281 282 463 464 471 472 106 323 10 37 110 362 479 480 (FOC-in-C) Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST) flight management system (FMS) flight refuelling aircraft (FRAs) Flying Instructor s School (FIS) Tambaram force planning foreign aid and capacity building foreign direct investment (FDI) foreign military sales (FMS) foreign policy --India 186 189 225 26 46 112 213 69 51 12 116 119 120 132 134 102 149 169 471 4 6 21 47 52 60 128 133 134 195 435 353 4 340 9 10 431 10 411 433 304 44 273 129 189 409 463 1 58 64 66 80 81 106 109 119 127 131 183 190 197 221 222 227 229 230 231 232 284 292 344 389 420 426 430 432 441 445 464 479 481 485 441 479 481 485 6 292 83 385 6 105 06 108 128 9 184 189 90 191 193 194 199 235 281 352 463 4 468 470 473 474 476 477 407 417 421 441 448 44 432 63 64 65 66 106 103 104 175 102 169 257 292 102 291 Gautam R.D. Gay Marine Italy Gaza Strip GCT SP Gun Gearing (Fram I) class Guided Missile Destroyer General Dynamics 300 85 416 430 441 446 463 135 138 140 142 149 204 448 472 483 6 127 204 223 472 483 485 487 102 103 94 95 97 80 77 80 81 5 9 11 26 50 67 109 127 128 164 175 337 359 435 437 439 214 1 130 98 272 (variation Geostationary) 10 64 112 119 131 189 196 224 244 258 304 441 447 448 464 479 484 486 441 447 8 479 484 486 157 170 318 319 22 245 248 247 256 441 445 441 446 7 330 356 361 (spl variation) 325 442 127 344 347 351 355 363 368 369 370 372 376 387 393 397 399 406 410 416 418 426 74 76 77 General Electric General Staff Qualitative Requirement (GSQR) geocentric orbit (GEO) geocentric orbits geographic information system (GIS) geographical information system (GIS) geopolitical balance issues F-18 Super Hornets F-22 F-22 Raptor fighters F-27 F-35 F-35A B C F-4E F-4EJ Phantoms F-5B F-5E F-5E Tiger F-7 fighter aircraft F-86 Sabre F-A -18A B C D Hornet F-AB Laser Bomb Units Falcon 900 fast attack craft (FACs) fast attack crafts fast attack missile craft Fast interceptor crafts (FICs) FC-1 FC-1 JF-17. See JF-17 Thunder Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) Federation Development (FEDEP) Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) Fengyum-16 Satellite Fertilisers and Chemicals Travancore Limited Festo s AquaJelly FH-77 towed AA gun FH-77B FH-77B fifth generation combat aircraft (FGCA) fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) fighter jets Fincantieri fire control system (FCS) --Bhutan --Kazakhastan --Russia --UAE --United States formed police unit (FPU) fourth generation aircrafts Foxtrot class France George Air Vice Marshal M. Georgia geospatial technology Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Germany --equipment and hardware --India cooperation Francois Bob Franco-Siamese Treaty (1907) frigates --equipment and hardware GFAST Ghatak Platoons Ghazi Pak submarine Ghose Ranjan Kumar Ghosh Lt General S.R. GIAT AMX-10P GIAT Mk (SP Gun and How) Gilani Syed Yousuf Raza Gillespie Lt General Ken GKN Def Desert Warrior global financial crisis 17 337 360 68 292 94 304 83 102 179 357 442 457 179 357 442 457 179 11 110 211 216 218 273 11 110 111 211 216 218 273 10 74 110 127 369 198 80 102 106 108 169 181 198 199 200 201 202 203 277 291 472 470 FSU Komar Fuchs fuel oil lubricants (FOL) Fujairah Fukushima Daiichi future Indian destroyers (FIDs) future infantry soldier as system (F-INSAS) futuristic infantry combat vehicle (FICV) futuristic main battle tank (FMBT) G al-Gaddafi Colonel Muammar Abu Minyar (Qadhafi Moammar on 328) GAGAN Gaid General Salah Ahmed Gandhi M.K. Gangadharan Neela Ganga-Mekong group Ganguly Air Marshal D. Ganju Ashwagosha Gantz Major General Anwar Hamad Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited (GRSE) 1 328 409 98 9 104 325 6 300 16 215 296 327 131 190 194 263 265 267 270 281 2 61 294 fire-control radars firefinder weapon locating radars (WLRs) 102 103 170 Firouzabadi Major General Hassan 327 Fishbed 220 343 371 382 386 390 400 481 Five Power Defence Agreement 369 393 Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief Garud Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) Global Hawk Global Information Grid Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) 11 220 global positioning system (GPS) 44 81 2 84 97 98 99 100 103 220 222 223 225 226 273 467 470 globalisation 1 7 304 359 Gnat 211 Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) 131 194 202 203 205 209 263 265 267 270 282 3 Godavari class 199 463 Goel Rashmi 298 301 Gogoi Air Marshal A.K. 247 259 Golan Heights 168 430 Golden Triangle 34 186 Goldwater Nichols Act 57 Golmud 44 Gorshkov Admiral 189 198 205 Goyal Kamesh 295 509 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Greater Mekong Sub Region (GMS) Grey Hounds Gromov Flight Research Institute Moscow Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 14 61 291 9 14 20 26 101 2 112 123 126 129 131 133 4 322 333 6 87 404 53 56 60 153 157 159 60 177 219 306 322 74 98 216 304 220 221 223 221 222 482 346 374 396 Harpy Harpy 2 Harris Corporation Hastak R.S. Hatoyama Yukio Hawai Sepoys Hawk Hawk AJT Hawk MK67 Hawk-132 Hawker 800RA Hawker 800XP Hawker Beechcraft T-6C HDW 1500 Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS) 87 9 375 417 90 135 137 138 295 365 379 211 132 112 143 213 216 219 262 273 286 384 358 384 384 112 189 196 470 55 56 7 58 60 61 114 116 117 118 122 123 155 157 158 219 103 220 178 182 183 454 29 102 18 19 213 18 19 197 206 394 417 463 87 88 90 104 112 303 417 463 471 18 412 413 417 422 430 327 92 107 97 96 294 96 96 484 5 73 37 307 14 315 20 321 4 7 361 432 479 63 6 157 22 60 424 432 375 390 463 235 6 244 282 323 212 274 357 358 479 484 112 326 365 373 382 434 463 352 463 107 477 29 60 62 314 70 72 76 132 174 186 217 19 289 77 70 70 1 107 195 15 71 168 193 381 211 384 388 394 417 423 3 420 236 189 --and military expenditure ground controlled interception (GCI) communications Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) Group of Ministers (GoM) --United States Hong 6 Honshu Island Japan Horizon Core Technology group Hormuz Straits Houku class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) (PTG) Hovercraft HS-748 ELINT HTT-40 Hu Jintao Huangfen (fast attack craft-missile) Huchuan class (fast attack craft-missile) hull mounted panoramic sonar (HUMSA) hull mounted sonar (new Generation) HUMSA (NG) human intelligence (HUMINT) human resource (HR) human resource development (HRD) human resource modeling human resource planning training and education human trafficking humanitarian assistance and disaster relief Hunter Hussein Saddam Hutbay Hydrographic School Grumman Northrop GSAT-7A satellite GSG-9 GSh-23 6 GSh-301 Guangzhou Guide for Understanding and Implementing Defence Experimentation (GUIDEx) Guided Missile Destroyers Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Gulf of Aden Gulf of Mexico Gulf War (1991) Gulfstream III IV & V Guo Boxiong General Gupta Ashok Kumar Gupta D.M. Gupta Dheeraj Gupta Dr Vijaya Lakshmi K. Gupta Sekhar Guruprasad Dr S. Gvozdika (M 1974- SP Gun-How) Gwadar Port Gyan Bhushan Lt General Gyanesh Kumar 67 8 463 426 194 5 436 7 22 26 310 426 405 407 411 417 419 326 248 268 248 248 36 295 454 16 22 26 37 362 437 8 247 246 249 267 head-up display (HUD) HEAT heavy artillery guns Heavy Factory Vehicle (HVF) Avadi Hekmatyar Gulbuddin Helicopter Training School Hakimpet Helmand battle Hermes class Heron 1 UAVs Heron 2 Heron TP Eitan Herons Herzegovina Hetz (SAAR 4.5) class Hezb-e-Islami Shoora Hezbollah Hibako General Yoshifumi high altitude long endurance (HALE) high earth orbit (HEO) high energy laser (HEL) High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) high power microwave (HPM) Systems high power system integration (HPSI) programme high speed anti-radiation missiles (HARM) high technology weapon systems highly enriched uranium (HEU) Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) I IAI Kfir IAR-316 (SA-316) Alouette III IFG Mk.2 Igla SHORAD Ilyushin IL-103 Ilyushin IL-14 Ilyushin IL-18 Ilyushin IL-38 Ilyushin IL-62M Ilyushin IL-76 479 481 384 180 448 103 384 434 382 479 484 189 90 206 357 479 488 382 44 111 212 213 224 233 260 409 414 431 432 434 479 484 489 358 224 358 224 405 224 405 44 45 212 405 80 395 19 60 170 292 303 305 344 349 205 220 162 312 7 38 44 45 6 127 129 131 151 158 159 211 16 H H-181 class 244 Hafez Mohamed Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud 326 Hainan class (large patrol craft) 375 382 387 390 407 463 Hainan Island 23 400 437 Hainggyi 390 Haitian 3 HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd 274 HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd 274 Hamas 401 416 430 Hambantota Sri Lanka 16 37 Hamel General 95 Han class (Strategic missile submarine) 27 463 Handa Lt General S.N. 247 hand-held thermal imaging devices (HHTIs) 103 Haqqani Group 19 Harikumar Air Vice Marshal C. 214 Hariri Rafiq 422 Hariri Saad 328 417 Harkat-ul-Jihad-i-Islam (HuJI) 316 Harpoon 231 370 384 388 394 396 398 407 421 425 470 471 472 475 476 477 481 483 46 109 206 219 262 265 267 270 272 4 Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) 202 203 263 265 267 270 283 4 Hippalus 21 hit probability (HITPRO) 80 82 Hitler Adolf 93 Hizb-ut-Tahrir (HuT) 342 HJT-16 Kiran 112 357 358 479 487 8 HJT-36 Sitara 112 479 Hokazono General Ken ichiro 327 Home Affairs Ministry (MHA) 58 60 61 62 159 175 282 297 299 301 305 307 309 311 313 317 318 322 323 homeland security --India 77 129 297 306 Ilyushin IL-76 Candid Ilyushin IL-76M (Tanker version) Ilyushin IL-76MD Ilyushin IL-76TD (AWACS) Ilyushin IL-78 image processing systems import substitution improvised explosive device (IEDs) Indian Naval Air Squadron (INAS)-303 INCOM independent parachute brigade group India Reserve Battalions (IRBs) Indian Air Force (IAF) 510 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index 236 238 254 259 260 272 273 286 290 344 394 216 220 33 109 12 211 212 213 216 125 87 92 29 72 89 101 113 114 122 126 128 158 160 186 217 272 273 289 313 29 35 38 90 111 112 123 125 126 128 129 158 159 161 71 173 7 254 255 7 264 266 272 277 286 289 92 301 304 305 316 178 84 441 448 101 4 107 186 194 235 42 272 281 282 287 322 3 355 360 379 391 392 243 4 168 170 318 55 153 155 159 190 189 16 23 36 39 53 59 97 100 112 125 126 127 129 158 190 1 193 209 235 236 238 252 253 255 258 261 263 265 272 273 281 3 286 290 297 322 323 435 188 9 105 8 186 8 185 186 16 21 22 24 27 36 37 38 59 60 98 128 129 185 193 195 355 376 435 38 24 195 37 59 98 128 193 195 355 437 51 59 253 302. See 310 53 277 6 97 100 127 236 272 190 194 198 14 15 22 63 185 186 194 279 318 326 366 8 376 --India relations --equipment and hardware --piracy --terrorism --United States relations Indo-Russian Aviation Limited Indo-Russian Inter Governmental Commission for Military Technical Cooperation Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force (ITBP) Indra-I II Industrial Policy & Promotion Department (DIPP) infantry battalions 16 234 437 377 394 366 369 366 274 Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis (ISSA) Institute of Technology Management (ITM) Instruments Research & Development Establishment (IRDE) insurgency in Kashmir North-east and Punjab 295 295 295 3 31 2 34 36 54 59 60 73 101 164 173 4 176 254 297 299 302 307 310 315 20 338 349 356 358 9 361 397 401 412 432. See also Afghanistan Bangladesh Pakistan Taliban. terrorism 56 57 232 77 57 55 60 153 60 168 170 177 246 287 57 213 156 59 62 170 295 53 8 155 10 34 155 238 308 153 37 8 84 93 94 216 262 272 3 275 30 93 1 3 31 4 302 17 20 337 8 348 349 274 274 --budget allocation --equipment catalogue --modernisation --revenue expenditure --unmanned aerial vehicles in Indian Armed Forces 11 301 303 306 308 312 313 231 232 Indian Army --equipment catalogue --equipment and hardware specification --modernisation plans Indian Coast Guard (ICG) --equipment catalogue Indian Military Academy (IMA) Indian National Defence University (INDU) Indian Naval Academy Ezhimala Indian Naval Work up Team (INWT) Indian Navy --maintenance and logistic support --modernisation --organisation --personnel Indian Ocean --shipping traffic Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) Indian Ocean Region (IOR) Indian Oil Limited (IOL) Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) also Sri Lanka Indian Penal Code (IPC) Indian Police Service (IPS) Indian Railways Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) indigenous aircraft carrier (IAC) Indonesia 132 266 101 103 163 169 170 infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) 179 infantry modernisation 103 infantry soldier as system (INSAS) 103 175 information age concepts and technologies 74 information and communication technology (ICT) 76 129 132 information dominance 54 76 information security assurance programme (ISAP) 77 information security 77 78 information sharing 75 76 119 133 195 238 information systems (IS) 70 74 77 107 164 170 Information Technology (IT) 14 26 59 73 78 79 103 134 213 355 393 information warfare (IW) 27 28 29 35 74 103 155 257 INFOTECH HAL Ltd 274 infrared (IR) sensors 88 infrastructure development 38 51 2 176 189 218 344 361 390 INS Airavat 189 INS Amba 189 INS Arihant 11 23 24 190 194 197 INS Bangaram 189 INS Bitra 189 INS Chapal Chatak and Chamak 189 INS Chilka 189 INS Hamla 189 INS Himgiri 189 INS Kadamba 190 INS Kalveri 189 INS Kuthar 258 261 INS Makar Meen and Mithun 189 INS Nistar 189 INS Rajput 261 INS Satavahana 189 INS Satpura 190 191 200 INS Shalki 258 INS Shivalik class 186 189 190 194 200 357 INS Subhadra 191 202 INS Suvarna 191 202 INS Udaygiri 189 252 INS Vikramaditya 190 198 205 INS Vikrant 22 253 263 INS Viraat 186 197 252 253 258 261 263 INS Zamorin 190 INSAT 97 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 68 Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS) 295 Integrated Aerospace Command Integrated Air Command & Control Systems (IACCS) integrated communication network Integrated Cyber Defence Command Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) integrated functional commands (IFCs) integrated material management online system (IMMOLS) network integrated perspective planning Integrated Special Forces Command integrated surveillance system Integrated Test Range (ITR) Integrated Theatre Commands (ITCs) Integrated Tri-Service Perspective Planning intellectual property rights (IPR) Intelligence Bureau (IB) intelligence systems & apparatus intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) intercontinental-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) intermediate jet trainer (IJT) intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) internal conflicts Internal Security Academy Internal Security Assistance Force (ISAF) international aerospace community International Aerospace Manufacturing Pvt Ltd International Association of Peacekeeping Training Centres (IAPTC) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) international border international coercive diplomacy international community international competitive nuclear industry international conflicts international cooperation --in defence production 186 37 47 64 65 412 413 38 299 302 3 306 435 438 9 25 43 161 168 344 50 433 11 211 341 379 420 52 238 286 7 286 7 511 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index International Court of Justice international donors international exhibitions international financial institutions international human rights groups international humanitarian assistance International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS) international integration international interventions international laws and conventions international maritime boundaries international market trade 397 422 385 422 287 342 387 381 385 Islam --extremism 37 342 344 348 377 401 424 13 15 36 338 347 8 369 377 391 394 401 406 418 2 402 424 344 348 327 412 413 205 6 1 93 168 220 222 224 228 233 252 272 74 284 292 318 327 333 335 361 376 401 402 406 416 17 418 441 448 49 452 455 457 460 462 470 471 472 481 82 483 489 412 413 417 422 430 46 87 89 90 103 04 112 131 170 189 190 213 232 292 401 422 416 430 290 85 198 203 208 445 464 --civil military integration --Coast Guard --Democratic Party of Japan (DJP) --equipment and hardware --India relations --Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) --National Defence Programme Guidelines (NDPG) --Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency --nuclear disaster --Russia relations --Singapore relations --South Korea relations --Taiwan relations --United States relations JAS-39 Jaswal Lt General B.S. Java Javed Air Vice Marshal A. Jawad Rear Admiral Muhammad Jebel Ali Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) jet-fuel assisted take off (JATO) JF-17 fighter JF-17 Thunder JF-17 Thunder FC-1 JH-7 JH-7 7A Jha Lokesh Jharkhand Jian 7 Jian 8 Jian Hong 6 Jianghu I class frigate Jianghu II class frigate Jianghu III Jianghu IV Jianghu V Jiangkai Jiangkai I class frigate Jiangkai II class frigate Jiangwei-class frigates Jianji - 10 Jianjiao-7 Jin class (strategic missile submarine) Jindalee Operational Radar Network Jinnah Mohammad Ali joint air to surface stand-off missile (JASSM) joint capsule (JOCAP) joint intelligence committee (JIC) joint military strategy joint operation centres (JOCs) joint operations committee (JOCOM) Joint Planning Committee (JPC) joint service intelligence committee (JSIC) joint services cyber command joint services enterprise information architecture joint tactical ground station (JTAGS) Joint Task Force on Intelligence (JTFI) joint training committee (JTC) joint training system Jordan 11 15 438 9 365 442 450 13 14 15 16 238 365 439 64 63 6 10 393 383 4 395 376 383 439 111 479 37 22 215 326 432 377 (spelling variation) 284 37 44 128 37 45 110 10 37 45 110 44 375 110 375 301 32 169 308 310 316 479 480 479 480 479 480 352 375 407 463 470 375 463 470 375 398 375 398 375 463 470 375 463 468 375 463 375 469 470 480 479 480 23 438 463 464 370 22 484 55 317 156 158 322 155 155 155 38 76 94 308 155 58 327 401 402 418 19 44 399 67 366 436 6 16 236 440 194 52 60 274 345 376 414 431 436 8 440 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 347 360 363 371 399 406 414 433 international norms system 3 6 13 25 40 international organisations 401 406 408 international peace efforts 168 365 383 international politics 190 international power equations 2 international relations (IR) 1 4 8 9 27 32 37 96 186 international sanctions 412 413 international security 1 4 153 304 337 8 341 410 International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 17 337 349 international shipping lanes 185 195 international shipping traffic 23 International Social Security Association (ISSA) 157 International Space Station (ISS) 97 International Strategic Security Cooperation and Dialogue 155 international terrorism. See terrorism International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea 22 international war crimes 409 inter-service technical intelligence 155 Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) Pakistan 7 17 18 36 60 62 218 316 356 436 intra-state conflicts 3 Iqbal Major 7 Iran 11 20 26 49 61 168 196 327 333 335 340 345 6 401 402 412 14 420 422 424 431 432 438 458 461 474 480 481 482 484 485 8 --nuclear programme 412 Iraq 1 4 17 18 51 61 62 74 91 99 102 104 110 135 145 6 150 168 327 333 335 350 369 383 401 2 411 412 414 5 418 420 428 430 432 437 461 480. See also Taliban. Al-Qaeda --UN peacekeeping mission 71 --United States War (2003) 1 3 4 62 86 92 93 99 102 104 110 432 IRS 97 ISDN 104 --fundamentalists Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Islander Israel --equipment and hardware --Hezbollah --India cooperation --Palestine conflict --Palestinian Islamic Jihad Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) Italy --army equipment and hardware J J-10 J-11 (Su27SK) J-115 Jafari Major General Mohammad Ali Jaguars 44 45 110 375 479 44 110 375 479 44 327 46 109 111 189 212 213 218 222 231 252 260 273 4 358 425 459 298 301 268 62 65 66 119 203 357 463 351 5 15 32 34 36 8 43 60 101 162 4 173 6 212 299 302 3 305 307 8 312 322 337 8 356. See also Kargil Pakistan 1 5 10 15 26 36 85 94 99 305 335 337 356 365 376 378 379 80 437 8 380 439 22 383 368 439 15 27 365 373 439 Jain K.C. Jain Rajesh K. Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project (JNPP) Jalashwa (Austin) class (Amphibious Transport Dock) Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) Kashmir issue Japan --Air Self Defence Force --attack on Pearl Harbour --armed forces --Australia relations --China relations conflict 512 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index --equipment and hardware --Israel relations Joshi Shobhana Joshi Vice Admiral D.K. Julong-2 missiles just in time paradigm Jyoti class 419 485 417 248 247 258 23 71 208 357 362 419 442 451 458 325 332 325 325 326 326 326 325 325 463 477 329 329 215 215 431 264 397 201 255 357 128 198 19 189 196 405 413 463 465 473 329 366 439 329 366 381 329 80 82 20 112 205 216 273 357 358 479 487 132 327 383 439 45 196 200 465 26 247 259 23 189 202 205 236 322 323 279 268 190 193 27 208 183 284 220 202 103 183 405 71 303 441 447 22 14 16 293 189 200 463 474 5 350 374 382 405 408 430 456 112 27 247 260 303 215 247 260 11 14 22 29 390 429 430 168 328 401 402 411 420 426 428 437 421 Kvadrat Kyrgyzstan 103 292 328 333 335 337 338 340 341 342 43 344 347 356 481 484 486 --army equipment and hardware 343 K K-13 AA-2 Atoll K-8 Karakoram Ka 31 AEW helicopter Ka Po Ng KA-31 KA-32 Kakria Lt General H.L. Kalsi N.S. Kamov Ka-25 Kamov Ka-25 B SH Kamov Ka-25 Harmone Kamov Ka-27 Kamov Ka-28 Kamov Ka-28ASW Kamov Ka-28 Helix Kamov Ka-31 Kamov Ka-31 AEW Kamov Ka-31 Helix Kamov Ka-32 Kamov Ka-32 T Helix C Kampuchea Kamtapur Liberation Organisation (KLO) Kan Naoto Kao Hua-chu Kaplan Robert Kapoor Deepak Karakoram Range Kargil conflict (war) 1999 229 364 479 488 190 26 107 198 200 206 357 479 486 384 386 400 486 246 298 301 189 197 206 479 486 479 486 357 400 486 189 206 357 400 496 198 375 430 466 67 107 189 206 479 486 198 200 357 384 386 386 400 486 22 185 Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa Khalifa bin Zayid Al Nuhayyan al-Khalifa Ali bin Khalifa bin Salman al-Khalifa Hamad bin isa al-Khalifa Khalid bin Abdallah al-Khalifa Muhammad bin Abdallah al-Khalifa Muhammad bin Mubarak al-Khalifa Rashid bin Abdallah bin Ahmad Khalili Abdul Karim Khamronsin class Corvette Khan General Bismillah Khan Mohammad Fahim Khandekar Air Vice Marshal P.P. Khanna Air Vice Marshal V.M. al-Khaymah Khetrapal General (Retd) Ravi Khmer Rouge Khukri class (Project 25) Khushab Kiev class Kilcullen David Kilo class Kim Jong II Kim Jong-un Kim Yong Chun Vice Marshal kinetic energy (KE) projectile Kiran MK 1&2 L L-100-30 L-40 70 388 442 457 La Fayette class Frigate Lada class (Project 677) Submarine Ladakh Laden Osama bin Lakshadweep Lakshya Lalit Kumar Dr Lamba Lt General A.S. land attack cruise missile (LACMs) land systems land warfare landing craft air cushion (LCAC) landing platform decks (LPDs) Landing Ships Tank (LSTs) Lanzhou-Chengdu region Lao People s Democratic Republic (Laos) --Armed Forces (LPAF) --Army (LPA) Larsen & Toubro (L&T) Laser Science & Technology Laboratory (LASTEC) laser-guided weapon system LaserMotive Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) Latin America --Aero and Defence (LAAD) law enforcement lead intelligence agency (LIA) League of Arab States Leander class frigate (Krishna) leapfrog development strategy Learjet series Lebanon --equipment and hardware Lebanon 362 392 405 409 421 429 432 103 181 357 364 464 463 474 37 164 212 303 305 7 8 36 43 337 361 428 37 185 212 236 104 295 165 246 253 374 291 2 26 204 380 108 190 203 29 14 328 366 385 386 386 102 132 169 295 103 222 92 18 59 60 62 338 436 51 272 279 287 16 23 38 311 344 369 371 412 235 306 406 189 194 201 204 252 357 463 27 398 429 432 422 3 423 168 185 328 401 402 412 416 417 422 3 430 81 432 441 445 331 381 129 308 10 313 338 388 463 391 441 447 44 326 13 21 130 304 355 366 372 385 399 404 59 186 232 316 338 363 4 1 49 409 409 292 353 327 331 24 437 35 128 44 303 29 37 53 87 89 91 102 109 10 153 157 159 211 12 219 322 Kargil Review Committee (KRC) 153 157 159 177 219. See also Pakistan United States Karimov 332 347 8 Karnik Air Marshal A.S. 214 215 247 Karshi-Khanbad airbase 347 Karwar 23 189 190 203 357 438 Karzai Hamid 7 19 325 338 350 Kashagan 340 Kashin class 198 252 463 474 Kataria P.K. 248 Katoch Lt General (Retd) Prakash C. 53 59 73 104 315 Kaura B.B. 246 267 Kaushal M.B. 300 Kaveri engine 273 291 Kayani Ashfaq Parvez 7 18 330 364 Kazakhstan 10 328 333 335 337 8 340 341 343 346 356 481 481 484 486 KDX-2 class Destroyer 463 475 Kelkar Committee 2004 115 133 Kenya 61 Kevlar 220 228 KF-16C D 384 KH179 How 442 457 Khalid (MBT 2000) 29 37 102 361 Kirloskar Brothers Ltd Kitazawa Toshimi KJ-200 Klub missiles knowledge-based warfare Kochar Air Marshal G.S. Kochi Kolar Gold Fields (KGF) Kolay Sukumar Kolkata class Kondapalli Srikanth Kongsberg ADP 503 Konkurs KOPYO Kora class Kornet E missile Kosovo Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) Krishna Godavari Basin Krishna S.M. Krishnan P.S. Krivak class frigate KS-19 KT-1 Ku Guisheng Kukreja Air Marshall Dhiraj Kumaon Mandal Vikas Nigam Kumar Air Vice Marshal S. Kumaria Air Marshal D.C. Kundakulam nuclear reactors Kunming Kurds Kuwait Leclerc Lee Myung Bak left-wing extremism (LWE) Lekiu class frigate Leopard 2A6EX Lhasa Prefecture Liang Guanglie General liberalisation of economy Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Libya --equipment and hardware Life Science Research Board (LSRB) --equipment and hardware 513 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index light combat aircraft (LCA) 6 111 127 213 219 223 255 262 272 3 275 290 291 479 46 107 290 1 46 111 127 190 213 216 219 223 272 290 1 46 272 103 185 316 104 108 112 273 487 170 275 26 29 36 37 38 59 129 164 211 12 301 02 40 103 164 176 88 220 273 106 6 45 85 93 94 111 135 7 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 148 149 151 152 216 225 479 483 485 488 189 6 83 4 M-46 SP Gun (Catapult) M-47 M-48 A1 Chaparral Low Alt SP SAM M-48 series M-60 A3 MBT 179 357 384 413 419 395 408 442 460 396 398 407 411 417 419 425 428 460 461 398 407 413 417 419 425 434 461 466 384 400 413 417 442 461 442 461 362 380 384 396 411 413 417 419 442 442 461 180 371 374 407 409 430 398 417 419 429 434 442 462 442 462 180 382 390 405 407 430 442 462 --equipment and hardware --India cooperation relations --Internal Security Act Maldives 388 14 16 387 3 26 37 98 110 189 195 211 238 Malhi Vie Admiral (Retd) H.S. 263 Malhotra Air Marshal L.K. 154 246 Malik G.S. 294 Malik General (Retd) V.P. 56 Maliki-al Nuri 327 415 MALSINDO 195 Malyutka 182 454 Manaung 390 Mandal Dr M.K. 294 Manipur insurgency 32 302 305 308 311 312 manned space flight programme 11 ManTech International Corporation 150 Mao Zedong (Mao Tse Tung) 26 Maoist Communist Centre (MCC) 309 Maoist insurgency 29 31 32 60 64 101 299 309 10 315 20 Marine Acoustic Research Ship (MARS) 204 Marine Commandos (MARCOS) 61 Marine Engineering Training and Naval College of Engineering 189 marine police 194 238 283 322 3 376 426 7 maritime --boundary 14 16 22 --disputes 21 --domain awareness (MDA) 105 108 193 195 322 --history India 21 2 --management 153 --joint operations centres 322 --reconnaissance (MR) 6 189 207 479 --routes 10 --search and rescue (M-SAR) 189 235 236 --security power 15 16 21 3 25 60 130 190 194 235 42 307 321 3 355 366 371 395 436 --strategy 193 4 438 --trade 15 Maritime Helicopter Support Co. 148 Maritime Warfare Training School Kochi 189 Maritime Zones of India (MZI) 16 235 Marjah operations 19 Mark III 170 Marom Aluf Eli 327 Marwah Lt General N.C. 154 246 261 Masimov Karim 328 Masson Air Vice Marshal A. 215 materials and components (M&C) 132 266 277 Mathews Air Marshal K .J. 154 246 Mathur Major General P. 295 Mathur R.K. 245 248 Matra Durandal Bomb 231 Mau-Mau insurgents 61 Mauritius 195 274 Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) 6 105 189 190 193 194 197 199 200 209 263 265 267 270 281 Mazdock Modernisation Project 281 MBDA (Matra Defense) 93 108 183 229 230 231 481 484 McChrystal General Stanley Allen 18 19 McKiernan General 18 McMahon Line 305 --HAL Tejas MKI --Navy --Tejas M-60A1 M-107 SP Gun M-107 SPAA and How M-109 series M-110 SPAA and How light combat helicopter (LCH) light machine gun (LMG) light utility helicopter (LUH) limited series production (LSP) limited war Line of Actual Control (LAC) M-113 A3 APC M-160 M-163 Vulcan SP AA M-167 Vulcan AA Gun M-1943 M-198 Towed A Tk M777 Ultralightweight Field Howitzer Ma Ying-Jeou Maareech MacArthur General Mach 3 Mach 3 Mackinder Halford Madhya Pradesh Madina class frigate Magic II magnaetic compass Mahadevan Vice Admiral G. Mahalingam V.S. Mahindra Satyam Maikeyev Lt General Murat main battle tank (MBTs) line of control (LoC) line-of-sight (LOS) liquid crystal multi-function display local naval defence (LND) Lockheed Martin Logistics & Management School logistics support agreement (LSA) long baseline (LBL) long range (armed) maritime patrol anti-submarine warfare (LRMRASW) Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LRSAM ) long wavelength IR (LWIR) long-term integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) long-term perspective plan (LTPP) Look East policy Low Altitude (Alt) SAM system low earth orbit (LEO) low energy laser (LEL) systems low intensity conflicts (LIC) low-level transportable radars (LLTR) LST (large) LTPP Formulation Committee (LTPPFC) Luda class Luhai class destroyer Luthra Rear Admiral Girish Luyang I class destroyer Luyang II class destroyer LVTP-7 Lynx Mk-99 107 103 290 94 113 117 123 157 158 177 292 131 157 218 13 16 21 24 128 356 366 376 441 95 97 96 56 108 123 161 176 112 231 2 203 157 375 463 467 468 463 247 375 463 466 463 467 384 392 396 398 384 425 476 M M-1 Abrams MBT M-9 M-11 missiles M-31M M-37M M-41 Lt Tks M-42 Twin SPAA and How M-46 Fd Gun M-46 Med Gun 369 407 428 442 460 461 29 29 37 362 374 352 350 371 382 405 396 398 442 442 462 455 179 102 169 179 460 331 366 395 292 3 109 229 230 10 302 311 316 428 464 221 222 229 21 187 188 247 293 132 328 29 37 80 102 169 178 9 287 291 341 343 345 346 348 350 352 357 361 364 369 70 371 374 380 382 384 386 390 394 396 400 405 407 409 411 413 415 417 419 421 423 425 426 428 430 432 434 441 442 445 447 448 449 450 451 452 457 458 460 Maini Anil Kumar 295 Majid Lt General Ali Ghaidan 327 Major Air Chief Marshal (Retd) F.H. 46 110 Makaran Coast 22 make (high tech) 115 122 al-Maktum Muhammad Bin Rashid 332 Malabar Coast 22 Malacca Straits 10 15 16 22 23 24 60 186 194 366 376 394 437 Malakondaiah Dr G. 294 Malaysia 14 15 16 22 23 26 137 194 279 329 334 335 366 369 376 387 88 389 393 399 410 438 481 8 514 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index medium altitude and long endurance (MALE) medium combat aircraft (MCA) medium earth orbit (MEO) medium extended air defence system (MEADS) medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA) 90 107 108 170 228 291 46 97 93 6 46 111 126 130 216 218 481 82 107 108 103 93 89 46 103 112 290 10 11 12 94 127 212 305 311 312 MiG-29A B MiG-29C UB MIG-29K LCA (Navy) MiG-29N MiG-29NUB MiG-29SMT MiG-29UB Fulcrum MiG-29UBT MiG-31 Foxhound MiG-31 MiG-35 Mil Mi-6 Mil Mi-8 Mil Mi-17 Mil Mi-24 Mil Mi-25 -35 Mil Mi-26 MILAN MiG-23U MiG-23UB Flogger C MiG-25 MiG-25 Foxbat MiG-25R MiG-25U MiG-27 M MiG-27 MiG-27ML Flogger MiG-29 409 364 382 45 109 112 405 409 431 471 481 341 405 409 431 409 212 220 229 479 481 46 109 111 212 216 254 259 358 364 10 46 109 111 212 216 229 30 479 481 221 414 431 405 107 8 189 90 198 205 357 465 388 388 434 341 346 348 352 358 382 390 405 434 341 479 481 111 479 481 479 486 479 486 212 216 486 479 486 479 486 479 486 23 24 103 183 284 350 394 405 407 409 423 425 427 430 432 460 103 26 8 37 366 4 11 29 36 38 43 123 127 368 395 1 26 58 69 75 95 10 333 5 405 434 29 99 155 433 25 36 102 110 127 30 158 175 368 156 67 9 71 73 5 162 164 176 353 26 37 338 3 7 18 100 340 342 426 11 28 35 36 373 20 462 391 84 85 197 203 362 369 384 398 409 186 203 352 382 384 396 411 430 434 473 Ming class patrol submarine Minicoy Mirage 2000 463 236 109 110 111 212 216 229 396 407 427 432 221 226 7 479 481 481 479 481 479 481 131 264 265 267 270 285 246 249 267 263 298 189 286 6 127 8 170 183 190 216 284 289 90 452 195 106 380 442 450 451 Mirage 2000H Mirage 5 Mirage F-1C Mirage III Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) Mishra P.K. Mishra Rear Admiral (Retd) N.K. Mishra Sanjeev Missile & Gunnery School missile system quality assurance (MSQA) missile technology control regime (MTCR) missile(s) missile systems medium range maritime reconnaissance (MRMR) medium range surface-to-air missile (MRSAM) medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) medium-range missiles medium-range surface-to-air missile (MR-SAM) Medvedev Dmitry Meghalaya Mekong-Ganga Cooperation Initiative (MGCI) Meredith Merkava Merkava Mk3 Merkel Angela Metcalfe Meteorological Department MFI fighter 14 390 85 441 449 441 448 9 64 75 98 277 362 414 425 429 431 Mi-17 IV 216 341 359 Mi-17 44 46 212 216 226 345 350 352 362 364 371 377 378 386 390 400 405 415 479 486 Mi-17S (Mi-17S) 46 226 Mi-17V-5 112 Mi-25 35 212 226 409 431 479 486 Mi-26 212 227 348 371 374 386 479 486 Mi-8 212 MICA 433 Microwave Tube R&D Centre (MTRDC) 295 Middle East 1 21 24 48 51 99 185 341 376 390 395 401 406 418 422 428 mid-life upgrades (MLUs) 190 205 216 226 MiG-17F 382 MiG-17U 362 MiG-19UTI 352 362 MiG-21 45 46 110 111 211 212 229 252 254 260 61 343 407 409 431 434 479 481 MiG-21 Bis (Bison) 111 212 220 358 371 MiG-21 FL Fishbed 358 MiG-21 MF Bis 220 480 MiG-21Bis Fishbed L&N 386 400 MiG-21F 480 MiG-21M 212 358 MiG-21R 407 MiG-21U 431 434 MiG-21UM Mongol B 371 400 MiG-23 45 109 110 259 409 431 479 481 MiG-23BN 109 405 409 431 MiG-23MF 229 405 MIST Mistral class Mitsubishi Type SU 60 Mizan Zainal Abidin ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah Sultan Mizoram insurgency MILAN shoulder-fired ATGMs military capabilities --China --India --Australia --Taiwan United Kingdom military communications military doctrine Russia military expenditure --Algeria --Yemen Republic military intelligence military modernisation Military Operations Directorate military operations --Bhutan --China --Pakistan --United States military technology Miller Paul D. MIM-23 B Mindanao mine counter-measures (MCM) missions mine warfare Minesweepers (266 ME) MK 5 MMA P8 Poseidon mobile cellular communication system (MCCS) mobile observation posts (MOPs) modeling & simulation Modified Romeo class patrol submarine Mohab Mameesh Vice Admiral Mohapatra Lt General P. Mohenjodaro Mongolia MONUC (Congo) Moorthy Dr A.L. Motorised Rifle Division (MRD) Mountbatten Lord Mourad Rais FSU Koni Mousavi Lt Commander General Seyed Abdolrahim Mowag Piranha Mowag Piranha II Mowag Piranha III Mozambique MQ-9 Reaper MSTA-S self-propelled artillery system (2S19) MT-LB multipurpose tracked vehicle Mubarak Mohamed Hosni 329 32 212 305 311 312. See also Northeast 442 458 479 488 104 232 67 72 463 326 246 185 393 168 303 294 344 22 405 327 425 442 426 428 457 168 303 91 92 442 454 454 401 406 416 326 332 351 101 7 308 317 Mubeen General Md Abdul Mujawwar Ali Muhammad Mujibur Rahman Sheikh Mukherjee Pranab Mullen Mike Multi-Agency Centre (MAC) multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRL) 102 169 multinational corporations (MNCs) 33 multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRV) 290 515 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index multiple rocket launchers (MRLs) 341 343 6 348 350 357 362 364 371 374 375 378 380 382 384 388 390 396 398 409 411 417 421 423 427 428 430 441 442 444 448 451 455 281 11 111 279 212 296 300 187 188 247 83 328 110 406 61 16 23 30 36 56 185 329 356 365 366 369 385 389 90 393 397 437 22 10 26 29 37 51 390 14 15 22 101 164 212 305 316 351 211 (NCRB) National Cyber Command National Defence Academy (NDA) National Defence College National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) National Information Grid National Institute of Communicable Disease (NICD) National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) National Investigation Agency (NIA) national military strategy (NMS) National Police Commission (NPC) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) National Security Commission (NSC) National Security Council (NSC) National Security Guard (NSG) 317 38 55 156 159 168 170 213 318 56 156 159 168 353 61 302 311 56 76 77 303 308 317 308 317 158 311 309 311 56 7 58 60 155 6 61 62 302 304 308 313 318 56 56 57 60 158 153 306 322 Nazarbayev Nursultan A. Negi Air Vice Marshal Y. Nehoshtan Major General Ido Nehru Jawaharlal Neo Kian Hong Nepal 328 215 327 283 331 14 29 30 51 61 98 101 272 334 335 338 358 9 --China relations 29 30 --India relations 51 --Maoist power insurgency 60 316 --regional balance 358 9 Neri Air Marshal Joseph 214 215 247 Netanyahu Binyamin 327 416 417 430 network centric network-centricity 38 70 74 75 84 89 128 170 173 175 176 --communications 85 --topology 75 --warfare (NCW) 35 38 70 74 75 76 77 103 104 110 233 network-enabled operations (NEO) 110 Neuron 91 New Zealand 14 15 368 369 393 Nexter Systems AMX-10P Marines 441 446 Nguyen Sinh Hung 332 Nguyen Tan Dung 332 Nguyen Van Hien Admiral 332 NH 90 369 70 Niger 404 Nigeria 51 168 night fighting night capability 29 38 102 103 120 169 176 318 319 Night Intruder 384 night vision devices 80 NIRDESH 267 Nishant 90 104 170 291 357 Nisr 407 no first-use (NFU) 41 106 194 Nohwar Air Marshal K.K. 214 247 254 Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) 6 408 Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) Academy 318 319 non-governmental organisations (NGOs) 99 311 317 Noordin Mohammed Top 366 Norinco Type 74 445 Norinco Type 85 444 Norinco YW 531 APC 444 North Korea (DPRK) 26 37 45 93 329 365 366 369 381 3 396 --brinkmanship 439 40 --China relations 373 --equipment and hardware 382 463 473 --military action against South Korea 1 366 383 384 --nuclear weapon programme 366 382 383 439 North West Frontier Province (NWFP) 17 211 361 Northeastern states insurgency 161 2 164 167 186 218 231 297 305 312 338 353 365 Northern Alliance 17 338 Northern Army Command 163 Northrop Grumman Skyguard 74 136 137 138 139 140 148 152 225 479 489 North-South transport corridor 11 Novator SS-N-15 Starfish 197 200 465 multi-purpose support vessel multi-role transport aircraft (MTA) Multitonnee UK Muntho Dhalo Muralidharan Dr. R. Muralidharan M. Muralidharan Vice Admiral M.P. Murphy Stan Murr Elias Musharraf Pervez Muslim Brotherhood Movement Mussolini Benito Myanmar (formerly Burma) --and Bangladesh boundary dispute --China relations --equipment and hardware --India relations Mystere N Nag anti-tank missile system Nagaland insurgency Nagraj Smita Naik Air Chief Marshal P.V. Nair Air Vice Marshal S.R.K. Nair Lt General G.M. Najibullah Najin class frigate Nakshatra Namibia Nanjing nanotechnology Nanuchka III class (Project 1234.1) Corvette Narang Air Vice Marshal V.K. Narayana Das J. Narayanan S. Anantha Narendra Kumar Dr Naresuan class frigates Narora reactor Nasser Gamal Abdel Natarajan V.R.S. Nath Lt General K.Surendra Nath Neelam Nath Ray Pratap National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) National Cadet Corps (NCC) National Centre for Training in Search Rescue & Disaster Response National Command Post national command control communication and intelligence network National Counter-terrorism Centre (NCTC) National Crime Record Bureau 103 284 290 32 305 306 308 311 312 248 111 217 215 165 166 246 19 463 291 168 274 303 396 11 81 475 215 246 291 295 294 463 477 65 406 262 247 257 245 298 301 273 126 303 155 322 317 319 365 National Security Objective National Security Strategy (NSS) National Security System National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isaac-Muviah) (NSCN-IM) 32 National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) 317 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) 7 9 11 17 20 91 104 206 07 220 21 223 24 226 27 230 338 340 344 349 379 411 436 37 480 82 484 486 488 NATO-Russia Council 10 11 Naval Academy 189 190 195 Naval Air Technical School 189 Naval Aircraft Yard (NAY) 189 Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL) 295 Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) 107 202 295 Naval Research Board (NRB) 292 Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL) 107 295 Naval Ship Repair Yard (NSRY) 189 190 naval systems 292 Naval Warfare College Karanja Mumbai 189 navigation 83-4 86 88 97 100 103 112 176 193 194 220 222 226 273 321 322 436 Navigation & Direction School 189 Navigation Training School Begumpet 213 Navistar Defense LLC 137 147 148 Naxalism Naxalite(s) insurgency 31 32 3 129 169 297 299 306 08 310 11 338 356. See also insurgency. Northeast. terrorism Nayak Ashok 262 Nayak Dr K.D. 246 Nayanar Lt General Vinod 247 516 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index NTW-20 14.5 nuclear deterrence nuclear disaster in Japan nuclear first use (NFU) nuclear industry --China --India --United Kingdom --United States Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) nuclear power issues --India --Japan nuclear proliferation nuclear submarines Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) nuclear biological and chemical (NBC) nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles Nuri al-Maliki Nyyazow 183 23 30 38 9 41 2 45 106 194 63 6 40 42 65 65 6 64 5 65 412 65 6 11 39 42 128 365 366 128 11 6 59 76 170 409 30 327 415 345 operational effectiveness operational efficiency operational formations operational logistics operational planning operational preparedness ordnance equipment group of factories (OEF) ordnance factories --modernisation Ordnance Factories Organisation Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) original equipment manufacturers (OEM) Orissa OSA-AK Oshkosh Corporation Oshkosh Defense OT-64 C (SKOT-2A) Oto Melara 5 8 10 18 19 43 61 65 95 127 8 338 349 50 356 360 1 410 430 96 74 61 201 204 357 394 411 414 421 429 442 450 457 458 472 110 14 133 119 122 130 133 4 218 Oto Melara Palmaria Otteinger Guenther Ouragan Ouyahia Ahmed over the horizon-backscatter (OTH-B) radars 19 73 159 162 3 155 162 164 56 174 177 175 194 266 266 269 70 268 266 107 133 170 265 266 267 268 287 337 48 427 65 133 175 213 32 60 169 189 273 308 310 316 103 112 170 230 138 139 141 145 147 357 371 405 441 445 107 199 200 442 450 471 476 442 449 64 211 325 94 218 338 369 373 436 --four Wars (1948 1965 1971 1999) 22 37 101 109 211 303. See also Kargil 36 36 59 62 7 18 45 40 1 360 2 61 2 3 7 8 13 36 43 60 110. See also Afghanistan China United States 9 37 59 62 102 128 161 307 338 361 436 245 248 251 268 7 441 447 441 446 447 441 446 22 393 15 399 61 27 77 169 291 299 304 309 247 255 7 19 20 22 245 250 268 294 6 442 462 375 377 386 388 392 405 191 202 384 463 470 471 201 104 299 112 205 384 394 27 315 22 26 9 44 77 354 366 373 374 395 27 29 43 44 110 218 373 374 28 29 27 8 22 23 27 29 26 316 26 28 309 327 52 --inflation --jehadi strategy --Military Academy --military offensives in Swat and South Waziristan --Navy --nuclear first use --regional balance --Special Services Group --United States strategy aid Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) O Obama Barack Obeng Lt General Henry observe orient decide act (OODA) Octopus Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 P P-12 15 P-15A P-16A P-18 P-19 P-3C Orion 231 190 189 232 232 362 370 380 384 479 488 P75 106 P-8I 6 107 127 130 190 P-8I Poseidon 190 207 479 488 PAC-3 93 380 396 420 439 462 PAC-3 MSE 93 Pacific Ocean 95 Padaki Dr V.C. 293 Padmanabhaiah Committee (2000) 311 Padmanabhan General (Retd) S. 57 PAK-FA. See Af-Pak region Pakistan 14 16 17 19 20 26 43 238 302 307 315 330 334 335 337 355 360 1 364 393 436 437 --Afghanistan relations 17 161 --Air Force (PAF) 43 44 45 110 480 --Army 3 18 29 36 45 77 102 360 452 --China relations 7 10 29 36 7 59 128 361 --defence expenditure 102 --equipment and hardware 442 451 488 --India relations insurgency 3 7 10 11 18 22 23 32 35 6 40 45 56 60 62 101 103 104 110 123 128 9 161 211 Palestinian conflict. See Israel Pallam Raju M.M. Panda K.P. Panetta Leon E. Panhard M3 VDA Twin (SP AA Gun) Panhard M3 Panhard PVP Pannikar K.M. Papua New Guinea Paracel Parachute Special Forces units (PARA-SF) paramilitary forces (PMF) Parnaik Lt General K.T. Pasha Ahmad Shuja Pashtun Patil Pratibha Devisingh Patil S.N. Patnaik Lalit Mohan Patriot missiles Patriot Msl (PAC-1) Single Stage Low to High Alt SAM system Patrol and coastal combatants Patrol Forces PAUK II class Pawan peasant uprisings Pechora Pegasus People s Armed Police (PAP) People s Committee against Police Atrocities (PCPA) People s Liberation Army (PLA) China offensive capability Official Development Assistance (ODA) offset banking offset policy Oil & Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) Oil India Limited (OIL) Okinawa military base Olmert Uhud Oman Sultanate of 51 188 238 272 51 28 365 439 416 283 329 30 401 402 424 5 426 --equipment and hardware 425 483 6 488 Omar Mullah Mohammed 18 19 Operation Brasstacks 41 Operation Desert Storm 54 Operation Detachments Alpha 62 Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) 17 146 337 349 373 411 426 Operation Green Hunt 129 317 Operation Hamkari 19 Operation Iraqi Freedom 86 93 146 373 411 414 415 426 Operation Moshtarek 18 Operation Parakram 40 253 254 Operation Pawan 253 Operation Peace for Galilee 87 Operation Sukoon 258 operational capability 32 35 43 46 57 75 103 109 10 112 130 164 176 7 190 operational command 38 186 operational control (OPCON) 164 186 189 --Air Force (PLAAF) --Army --military build-up --Navy (PLA-Navy PLAN) --new doctrine of active defence People s Liberation Army of Manipur (PLAM) people s war strategy People s War Group (PWG) Peres Shimon Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) 517 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index performance budgeting perimeter acquisition vehicle entry phased array system (PAVE-PAWS) Persian Gulf Perspective Planning Directorate perspective planning process Petraeus David Phalcon 153 Prithvi Prithvi II privatisation proliferation security initiative (PSI) Proof and Experimental Establishment (PXE) proxy war 170 182 202 284 289 290 356 357 357 345 355 404 408 420 422 424 369 393 295 32 34 36 43 101 161 163 173 174 175 305 307 361. See also China. Pakistan Jammu and Kashmir Northeast 442 453 59 442 453 12 52 114 15 132 3 11 Rangarajan S.V. Ranvir (a Kashin class destroyer) Rao D.V.K. Rao Dr A. Subhananda Rao Dr K. Sekhar Rao Dr R. Sreehari Rao Dr V. Bhujanga Rao H.V. Srinivasa Rao M. Narayana Rao P.V. Narasimha Rao R. Sreehari Rapid Action Force (RAF) rapid environmental assessment (REA) rapid reaction rapid response mechanism Rashtriya Rifles (RR) 295 252 258 268 246 294 246 246 246 291 295 264 21 246 291 302 85 29 194 103 126 163 166 176 313 318 319 355 325 398 464 442 456 203 236 215 295 92 99 102 136 138 140 141 144 146 148 149 151 170 204 452 472 476 477 92 329 387 3 179 441 442 445 449 450 453 454 459 32 45 62 85 87 90 97 99 104 109 112 127 130 169 170 212--and attrition 103--and support battalions 103 22 295 14 238 440 303 101 153 161 193 369 373 376 420 432 435 83 85 83 85 291 2 87 107 133 169 190 102 103 106 112 117 120 121 133 170 213 218 292 29 77 113 115 116 120 132 133 134 157 158 175 186 268 272 277 285 287 289 92 295 155 317 295 417 463 472 74 Phazotron NO10 Philippines --China relations --equipment and hardware --New People s Army-National Democratic Front (NPA-NDF) Pike Jaw Sonar Pilatus PC-7 MkII Pillai Dr A.S. Pillai Rear Admiral S. Pinaka MBRL weapon system piracy 94 21 22 24 36 71 410 420 432 156 156 7 4 18 19 20 350 (spl variation) 112 216 224 5 232 3 417 479 489 222 15 16 36 64 330 366 369 391 2 399 437 438 15 16 392 391 473 112 246 291 247 102 169 180 1 3 15 16 107 186 193 194 5 238 304 321 371 436 7 439 444 156 250 309 10 117 155 156 157 186 421 441 444 384 107 321. See also piracy 10 39 41 10 112 189 196 208 155 157 400 407 430 203 203 22 14 327 24 338 363 483 245 249 29 110 112 26 29 46 80 81 99 102 112 129 130 169 170 223 390 433 61 90 91 104 65 6 155 155 155 464 PRP-4 psychological warfare PT-76B Lt Tks public-private partnership (PPP) Putin Vladimir Q Qaboos Bin Said al Said Sultan of Oman Qahir class Qatar --equipment and hardware Qiang-5 Quality Assurance of Imported Equipment Quality Management Systems Quetta Shoora quick reaction surface-to-air-missile (QRSAM) 329 424 425 463 401 402 426 7 428 426 479 480 286 286 18 103 Rassoul Dr Zalmai Ratcharit class Fast Track Craft-Missile Ratel 90 Ratnagiri Rattan Air Vice Marshal N. Ray S.K. Raytheon Company --at sea PL-9C Low Alt SAM System Planning and Participatory Budget Programme (PPBP) Planning Commission planning process PLZ45 Po Hang class Corvette poaching Pogosyan Mikhail Pokhran II (Shakti tests) (1998) Poland Policy Planning and Force Development (PP&FD) Polnochny A&B class LSM Polnochny C&D class LSM Pondicherry class Portuguese adventurers Post-Ministerial Conferences (PMCs) Pourdastan Brig General Ahmad Reza power projection capability Prabhakaran V. Pradeep Kumar Pratt & Whitney Praveen Kumar precision attack capability precision-guided missiles munitions (PGMs) Raytheon MTS-B Razak Mohamed Najib bin Tun Abdul Reagan Ronald Recce Vehs reconnaissance R R-23-R AA-7 Apex R-530 D R-550 Magic I R-60 229 368 221 407 409 419 229 357 358 396 409 419 433 220 229 345 348 371 405 407 434 442 454 457 482 220 229 220 221 222 480 482 330 197 198 199 200 201 202 204 233 465 467 468 469 470 471 474 476 477 245 248 103 471 472 111 216 218 479 61 405 245 249 267 245 249 198 300 133 331 298 300 324 404 407 296 449 25 Research & Development (R&D) R-60 AA-8 Aphid R-73 Rabena Lt General Oscar H Radars (air search) regional boundary disputes Regional Centre for Military Airworthiness (RCMA) regional cooperation Regional Response Centres regional security concerns Predator (UAVs) pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) Principal Maintenance Officers Committee (PMOC) Principal Personal Officers Committee (PPOC) Principal Supply Officers Committee (PSOC) Princpe De Asturias class Rae Vivek Rafael Rafale Railway Protection Force Commandos (RPFC) Rais Hamidou (FSU Nanuchka II) FSG Rajan Satyajeet Rajnish Kumar Rajput class Raju A.R. Raksha Udyog Ratnas Rama Nathan Sellapan Ramachandran Mullapally Ramadan class Ramanarayanan C.P. RAM-V-1 (Open) RAND remote human operator remotely deployed sensors (RDS) remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) request for information (RFI) request for proposals (RFP) Research & Development Establishment (R&DE) Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) Research Centre Imarat (RCI) Reshef (Saar 4) class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) retrofitting interoperability 518 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) RF-4C RF-5A RFP Rheinmetall Landsystem Marder 1A3 ICV Rhino Project Ribeiro Committee Rifai Samir risk bearing approach Ritz Carlton Hotels Jakarta robotics Rockwell Collins 27 53 4 57 58 102 384 384 103 405 407 9 430 434 442 456 181 384 479 341 182 346 350 357 419 430 434 442 456 182 357 58 362 384 390 400 419 182 357 358 362 384 390 400 419 407 479 486 112 230 358 Satish Kumar Dr Sattaf Abu Saudi Arabia 296 15 10 48 330 1 401 402 420 424 426 427 9 428 9. See also Saddam Hussein United States 246 249 267 296 327 15 103 170 181 290 455 3 143 144 78 296 130 190 197 106 189 190 194 197 281 463 377 388 392 398 413 419 425 432 459 346 350 382 400 407 413 430 432 434 202 202 189 189 205 206 222 357 358 429 483 189 190 197 205 253 357 477 189 197 198 199 200 201 203 204 206 208 357 362 369 407 413 479 486 15 22 37 60 195 376 393 436 370 380 398 477 107 89 90 98 107 193 235 236 104 87 88 104 189 191 202 349 436 437 438 404 5 435 40 368 371 410 11 351 353 128 366 373 5 379 385 393 395 435 40 365 6 406 7 1 4 12 27 75 101 103 128 129 161 71 173 195 217 321 355 6 440 366 8 412 13 414 15 437 416 17 379 80 418 19 441 169 311 418 51 366 377 80 86 128 135 377 392 413 489 Rohini MPR (Medium Power Radar) 112 231 232 Rolls-Royce AE3007AIP 225 Rolls-Royce Pegasus 205 Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour Mk-811 222 Romeo (Project 033) class Submarine 473 Romeo class patrol submarine 463 Rosoboronexport 102 148 169 273 Roy Air Marshal P.K. 246 RSTA 104 Rudd Kevin 368 Rumaithi-al Hamad Mohammed Thani 332 Rumsfeld Donald H. 29 Rushdie Salman 43 Russia (former USSR Soviet Union) 1 2 3 7 8 13 15 16 19 21 23 27 28 29 36 44 47 48 49 61 93 105 106 109 12 127 130 131 132 169 189 190 195 272 282 284 291 292 337 340 341 342 343 345 345 346 366 368 373 393 395 400 432 434 436 439 --involvement in Afghanistan 2 --China relations 9 10 11 12 29 44 --containment policies 9 --disintegration of Soviet Union 9 10 109 --equipment 183 198 199 205 441 442 452 463 473 6 --gross domestic product (GDP) 9 --India cooperation 8 9 12 45 46 97 102 109 10 170 196 216 217 218 273 274 292 --India-China (RIC) trilateral framework 11 --United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) 111 273 --United States relations 97 Rustamji K.F. 302 Rustom 90 104 107 291 S6M Tangushka System S-92A (VIP) SA-10 Grumble Low-to-High Alt SAM SA-13 --equipment and hardware SA-16 SA-16 Gimlet SA-342 Gazelle SA-3B Pechora SA-6 Gainful (Low-to Mediumalt SAM) Saunik Manoj Saxena Dr P.K. Sayyari Rear Admiral Habibollah Scarborough Shoals Schilka Schultz George P. Science Applications International Corporation Scientific analysis Group (SAG) Scorpene class (Project 75) Scorpene class Scorpion S S-300 PMU-1 S-300 PMU-2 (SA 10E Favorit ) S-300 PMU-3 S-300PMU2 surface-to-air missile S-400 Triumf (SA-2 Growler ) S-60 93 93 93 28 93 343 346 350 352 362 371 377 378 382 386 398 181 341 357 400 405 408 9 431 434 442 455 SA-7 Grail 181 343 345 6 350 357 382 386 400 405 407 409 413 414 419 423 425 427 430 1 434 SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM 346 405 409 419 430 442 455 SA-8B Osa-AK 103 230 SA-8B SAM 181 230 357 358 442 455 456 SA-8B 181 357 8 SA-9 Gaskin SAM 456 Saab 2000 Erieye aircraft 45 85 111 272 452 479 489 Sabah Oliver Hazard Perry class 411 Sabharwal Lt General Mukesh 165 166 246 Sabra MBT 441 449 Sadat Anwar El 401 406 Saddam Hussein 3 420 Sagar Prahari Bal 106 185 186 323 Sagardhwani class 191 204 357 Sagarika 24 197 Sahay Vishvajit 245 249 Sahgal Brigadier Arun 26 Sahyadri 190 191 200 Saignason Lt General Choummaly 328 sail training ships (AXS) Varuna and Tarangini 194 205 258 Saito Admiral Takashi 327 Sajjil 413 Saleh Ali Abdullah 433 Salehi General Ataollah 327 Salisbury class Frigate 463 SAM-6 (Kvadrat) 103 SAM-8 OSA-AK 103 Samsung 476 SAMTEL HAL Display System Ltd 274 Samvahak Project 104 Sana a Water Basin Project 434 Sandhayak class 204 357 Sang-O class Submarine 382 463 473 Sanjay (BSS Project) 104 Sanjeeva Kumar 245 248 Sarabhai Dr Vikram 98 Saran Lt General Chea 212 326 SARAS 273 Saraswat Dr V.K. 246 248 291 Sarath ICV 103 169 267 Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) 301 305 6 307 353 Sastry C.V.S. 293 satellite communication systems 100 186 Satellite Datalink Integration 229 satellite reconnaissance systems 104 Sati S.C. 293 Scud missiles SDB MK-3 class SDB MK5 SDB T54 Sea Eagle missile Sea Harrier Sea King sea lines of communication (SLOCs) Seahawk Seaking search and rescue (SAR) Searcher-I Searcher II Seaward defence forces security environment --Afghanistan --Algeria --Asia-Pacific --Australia --Baharain --Bangladesh --Bhutan --China --East Asia --Egypt --India --Indonesia --Iran --Iraq --Israel --Japan --Jordan 519 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index --Kuwait --Kyrgyzstan --Lebanon --Libya --Malaysia --Myanmar --Nepal --North Korea --Oman --Pakistan --Philippines --Qatar --Saudi Arabia --Singapore --South Korea --Sri Lanka --Syria --Taiwan --Tajikistan --Thailand --Turkmenistan --United Arab Emirates (UAE) --Uzbekistan --Vietnam --Yemen Republic security threats and challenges 420 1 342 422 3 409 387 8 389 90 358 9 381 2 439 40 424 5 355 360 1 436 437 391 2 426 7 428 9 393 4 383 4 439 40 363 4 430 1 395 6 344 397 8 345 431 3 347 389 400 433 4 26 38 43 123 127 9 131 169 194 297 351 355 424 432 436. See also insurgency terrorism Pakistan Northeast 263 102 169 279 441 454 61 246 291 183 326 15 78 74 76 94 109 222 273 91 114 117 118 121 117 131 157 --equipment and hardware --India cooperation Singapore Technologies Singh Air Marshal Daljit Singh Air Marshal S.P. Singh Air Vice Marshal A.K. Singh Air Vice Marshal Pradeep Singh Air Vice Marshal S. Singh Arun Singh Dr Lokendra Singh Dr Shashi Bala Singh General V.K. Singh I.G. Rajindra Singh Lt General A.K. Singh Lt General Bikram Singh Lt General Chetinder Singh Lt General I.J. Singh Lt General J.P. Singh Lt General Kuldip Singh Lt General N.K. Singh Lt General Rajinder Sharma Air Vice Marshal G.P. Sharma Air Vice Marshal S. Sharma Air Vice Marshal S.K. Sharma Arun Sharma Dharmendra Sharma Shashi Kant 214 214 215 300 298 301 245 248 251 (variation Shashikant as one word) 52 94 23 84 105 121 122 190 194 195 281 282 283 208 196 258 196 258 357 463 83 4 205 483 198 94 26 29 93 59 164 272 22 299 247 155 88 90 108 384 326 44 129 164 167 306 312 305 457 487 32 354 195 196 196 196 196 196 248 5 23 85 194 281 292 322 331 366 369 390 393 4 395 445 456 292 394 456 214 247 260 215 245 249 215 153 157 294 294 35 36 102 246 252 249 247 256 247 257 246 247 165 166 246 254 247 154 246 246 Singh Lt General Sri Krishna Singh Lt General Sumer Singh Manmohan 247 256 247 5 11 16 21 53 104 128 171 190 245 250 310 315 338 351 356 366 435 311 311 324 35 102 165 173 246 252 247 258 246 267 215 292 154 246 253 44 50 16 293 298 301 37 101 11 103 93 95 439 29 29 102 160 180 357 405 421 432 442 448 455 466 27 445 446 447 448 450 451 453 457 458 459 460 461 15 16 23 235 303 306 321 322 341. See also piracy 221 274 296 382 400 289 75 77 277 463 130 296 369 441 449 441 449 3 168 195 434-- sea pirates 60 1 436 7 245 248 (variation Soma Sundaran two words) 196 83 6 107 190 196 201 203 204 206 277 289 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 247 28 463 464 311 183 217 442 456 472 13 15 20 36 7 128 157 337 64 Shell Shenzhou-7 mission Ship Submersible Ballistic Nuclear (SSBN) ship submersible nuclear (SSN) shipbuilding Singh N.K. Singh Prakash Singh R. K. Singh V.K. Singh Vice Admiral Anup Singhal A.K. Singhal Air Vice Marshal A. single window system Sinha Vice Admiral Shekhar Sinkiang Sino. See China Sinopec Sittwe Sivakumar P. Skandan K. Skardu Skolkovo Skylark SM-3 Smerch Smerch MRL Sekhar Rear Admiral (Retd) K.C. self-propelled artillery system Selous Scouts Selvamurthy Dr W. semi-automatic command to-line-of-sight (SACLOS) Sen Samdech Hun Senkaku Island sensor exploitation Sensor Grid sensor technology Sepecat Jaguar Serbian Air Defence Service Headquarters (SHQ) Services Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee (SCAPCC) Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee (SCAPCHC) services qualitative requirements (SQR) Seychelles Shahine Low Alt SAM System Shah-Safi Brig General Hassan Shaksgam Valley Shakti (ACCCS system) Shakti tests (Pokhran II) Shambaugh David Shang class (nuclear attack submarines) (SSN) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Shankush Shannan Shark Gill (Skat MGK 503) Sharma Air Cmde N.K. Sharma Air Marshal R.K. Shipping Corporation of India Shishumar Shishumar class submarine short baseline (SBL) short take off vertical landing (STOVL) short take-off but arrested recovery (STOBAR) short-and medium-wave infrared (SWIR and MWIR) short-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs) Shukrijumah Adnan Siachen Glacier Siam Siddique M.A. Sidhu Lt General D.S. Signal Intelligence directorates (SIDs) Signals Intelligence (SIGNIT) Sihamoni Norodom Sikkim --merger with India Sikorsky UH-60 SH-60 S-70 Blackhawk Siliguri Corridor Sindhughosh (kilo) class Sindhukesari Sindhuraj Sindhuratna Sindhuvir Singal Anil Kumar Singapore Smith General Rupert Smoke Grenade Discharger smuggling Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) So 1 class (Large Patrol Craft) Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research (SITAR) Software Defined Radios (SDRs) Soju class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) soldier modernisation equipment Solid State Physics Laboratory (SSPL) Solomon Islands Soltam L-33 Soltam M-71 Somalia 157 114 115 122 286 292 98 189 195 429 441 447 327 37 104 1998 39 26 23 463 11 337 196 258 44 197 215 214 247 255 Somasundran V. Sonar USHUS Sonars Soneja Lt General A.C. Song class patrol submarine Sorabjee Soli South Africa --equipment and hardware South Asia 520 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index 390 420 424 431 433 436 440 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) South China Sea 14 15 16 22 23 107 128 186 387 391 395 399 437 438 --Indian military operations relations --Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Srinivasan N. Srivastava R.B. Srivastava R.K. Srivastava Raman SS-11 B1 ATGM system SS11B1 SSPH-1 Primus ST-68 ST-68U UM standardisation committee Standing Committee on Defence (SCD) Starish State Counter Terrorism Centre (SCTC) state police forces --modernisation --politicisation stealth technology Sting Ray Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) Straco strategic and business environment Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment (STEA) Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) Strategic Defence Review (SDR) Strategic Forces Command (SFC) Su-24E Su-24M Mk Su-27 (J-11) 3 59 164 252 302 363 338 363 299 294 298 301 303 103 284 394 442 231 232 287 157 8 85 317 33 303 304 309 313 311 12 308 111 130 442 130 61 49 50 127 34 155 10 28 155 56 7 62 153 155 159 177 405 348 405 409 414 27 44 110 327 348 378 400 479 480 10 110 252 482 405 38 46 110 212 479 482 27 44 245 248 24 197 375 464 --space-based --and target acquisition surveillance reconnaissance communication signal intelligence (COMINT SIGINT) Survey Ships (AGSH) survival and support systems Sushil Vice Admiral K.N. Suvarnabhumi Swaine Michael D. Sweden Sukanya class Sukarno Sukhoi Sukhoi Su-24 Sukumar Air Vice Marshal S. Sulayman Michel Suleman Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar Sumatra Sun Tzu Sundaram S.S. Sundaresh S. Sundarji doctrine Sundarji General Krishnaswamy Sunit Kumar Lt. General Sunjin AG Super 530 D Super DVORA MK II classes (Fast Attack Craft-Gun) Super Sea Sprite support tankers suppression of enemy defence (SEAD) campaign Suresh Kumar S. Suresh Air Vice Marshal B. surface-to-air missile (SAM) system 191 202 357 22 10 38 44 46 479 481 215 328 330 22 27 295 246 40 41 2 39 40 41 2 247 384 229 358 362 203 364 417 463 472 407 209 89 298 301 214 28 9 46 87 103 108 110 170 212 216 230 290 452 170 190 108 289 23 62 76 82 89 90 94 97 100 106 110 112 120 129 169 175 6 212 232 3 238 279 281 308 312 13 318 19 322 377 103 4 107 107 8 193 236 323 88 212 27 88 170 61 88 205 437 27 29 38 73 74 84 5 87 90 92 170 186 225 112 103 159 170 South East and East Asia and India defence and security cooperation South East Asia South Korea --equipment and hardware --China relations --India relations --Japan relations --North Korea military conflict --US relations South Pacific Island South. FOST South-east Asia Southern Air Command South-Western Command Soviet Union Soviet Union. See Russia Sovremenny Y class SP AA Guns and SAMs SP Guns and Hows Space Pearl Harbour space stations space technology space tracking and surveillance system (STSS) space-based infrared system satellites (SBIRS) space-based intelligence Japan space-based laser power stations space-based surveillance & reconnaissance space-based systems space-enabled force capability Spain equipment and hardware Special Action Group (SAG) Special Forces in India Special Forces Training School (SFTS) Special Frontier Force (SFF) special operations capabilities Special Operations Group (SOGs) Special Protection Group (SPG) Special Ranger Group (SRG) Special Service Group (SSG) Special Task Forces (STF) specialist technical panels (STP) Splav Spratly Islands Sputnik 1 Sputnik 2 Spyder SAM systems Sri Lanka 15 23 24 51 14 15 26 61 81 85 189 202 244 331 347 356 365 383 4 395 437 8 439 40 384 442 457 463 475 6 483 484 26 438 13 14 384 1 366 373 381 2 439 40 376 383 369 189 22 24 51 99 128 194 195 272 212 38 7 21 463 466 441 442 444 447 455 462 441 442 444 446 450 456 461 96 97 11 94 94 95 94 99 92 112 27 35 94 95 99 176 193 110 442 457 61 304 61 2 318 61 62 318 29 61 61 61 304 60 61 62 61 286 442 455 15 373 395 399 97 97 46 112 216 14 16 98 101 185 186 211 331 363 4 393 16 22 29 37 363 364 472 473 481 484 486 surface-to-surface ballistic missiles surface-to-surface cruise missiles surface-to-surface missiles surveillance SU-27SK Su-30K Su-30MKA Su-30MKI Su-30MKK Subhash Chandra submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) submarine launched cruise missile (SLCM) Submarine Training School submarines --capability --coastal and offshore --electronic --ground-based --maritime --naval --and reconnaissance (SR) --China s perceptions relations --equipment and hardware 196 197 465 189 11 23 24 38 84 106 107 108 121 129 130 186 188 90 193 5 196 7 265 281 3 357 362 369 375 377 380 382 384 394 396 400 405 407 409 413 417 438 463 4 465 470 473 475 Subrahmanyam K. 36 156 158 160 Subramanian Air Vice Marshal A. 214 Subramanian Air Vice Marshal C. V. 215 Subsidiary-Multi-Agency Centre (SMAC) 308 Sudan Preeti 245 249 Sufaat Air Marshal Imam 327 Suharto 377 Suhartono Admiral Agus 327 --equipment and hardware Swiftships Switzerland --army equipment and hardware Syed Hafiz synthetic aperture radar (SAR) synthetic aperture satellite (SAS) Syria 88 90 204 289 247 258 22 25 18 19 102 130 144 179 183 442 457 479 482 489 442 457 479 482 489 407 64 442 457 62 88 95 331 521 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index --equipment and hardware --GDP and military expenditure --security environment Syrian Air Force Syrian Bekaa 430 1 334 336 422 429 30 87 87 Tarmugli Taseer Salmaan Tata Group TATAR technical evaluation process technical obsolescence Technical Type Training (TETTRA) Schools technological revolution Technology Demonstrator (TD-1) Technology Perspective and Capability Roadmap (TPCR) Tehran Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) Tejas 189 59 102 132 169 218 340 347 119 121 2 156 213 80 90 1 272 158 412 432 360 6 46 111 127 190 216 219 223 272 273 290 291 481 231 407 461 32 25 296 Torpedo recovery vessel (YPT) TOW-2 2A ATGW 189 209 384 396 398 407 413 419 421 423 425 428 432 434 441 442 444 450 455 457 460 462 441 442 445 456 457 462 112 129 219 273 479 116 133 134 158 194 197 203 14 16 371 208 14 62 177 315 202 295 305 308 311. See also Bangladesh China Northeast 155 38 76 62 103 103 170 191 200 284 298 300 3 189 16 65 189 207 357 479 488 357 442 455 382 479 484 345 345 189 207 357 479 488 382 479 484 341 382 409 222 227 228 485 272 376 418 10 11 332 337 340 341 345 346 11 35 8 43 46 111 128 9 131 34 436 374 374 382 464 374 464 374 375 375 464 467 468 466 467 469 470 477 468 374 375 464 375 Towed A Tk Guns and Hows Towed AA Guns trainer aircraft transfer of technology (ToT) transnational crimes transport ships Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in South East Asia (TAC) Tri Services Strategic Forces Command Trinamool Congress (TMC) Trinkat class Tripathi R.P. Tripura T T-38 Talon T-50 T-55 384 384 116 178 202 350 357 364 409 415 430 442 452 T-59 T-69 T-85 tanks (or separately) 29 T-62 MBT 345 348 350 357 382 400 405 407 409 413 430 434 442 452 T-64B MBT 442 452 3 T-72 81 102 116 169 178 341 343 345 346 348 357 390 405 409 413 415 430 434 442 453 T-72 M1 (Ajeya) 102 169 178 267 T-72S 178 T-80 U 102 361 384 442 453 T-90 (Bhishma) 11 116 169 286 287 405 409 448 T-90S 102 169 178 346 357 442 453 Tactical Air Combat Development Establishment (TACDE) 213 252 tactical ballistic missiles (TBM) 93 Tactical Battle Area (TBA) 305 tactical communications system (TCS) 77 104 470 tactical detection and reporting system (TACDAR) 94 Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment (TACDE) Gwalior 213 Taepo Dong-and No Dong ballistic missiles 37 Tafer General Ahcene 325 Taiwan 1 15 28 9 36 365 395 --China relations 366 373 --equipment and hardware 396 --India trade relations 15 --United States relations 376 Tajikistan 10 91 332 334 336 337 8 340 343 4 354 356 --army equipment and hardware 345 Talabani Jala 327 Taliban 3 7 17 18 19 20 36 60 61 128 337 38 340 41 344 347 49 356 360 61 436. See also Afghanistan United States Talisman L 85 Talisman M 85 Talwar class 105 106 108 189 200 Tamilmani K. 293 Taneja Rear Admiral B.R. 245 249 Tanguska 170 TARANG 191 205 220 223 Tarantul class 201 400 434 475 Tarapur Nuclear Plant 65 Teledyne technologies Telangana Tellis Ashley J. Terminal Ballistic Research Laboratory (TBRL) territorial and boundary dispute terrorism insurgency and guerrilla warfare Test Pilots School Bangalore Tezpur Thailand --equipment and hardware --India defence and security coop --Royal Thai Navy Thakur Lt General D.S. Thales Raytheon theatre ballistic missile defence (TBMD) theatre ballistic missiles theatre event system (TES) theatre high altitude area defence (THAAD) thermal imaging (TI) Thermal Imaging Standalone Sights (TISAS) Thomson-CSF Thrust-vectoring nozzles (TVNs) Tibet Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) 3 16 34 43 59 61 73 101 123 128 9 161 176 186 193 195 297 303 307 311 313 337 341 365 371 373 393 213 38 14 22 23 26 64 185 194 255 334 336 356 366 369 371 385 389 390 393 397 399 463 477 8 483 4 485 487 8 16 477 246 199 200 232 93 92 94 94 103 169 70 178 169 196 221 232 468 472 222 1 29 36 37 38 41 44 59 62 89 212 305 359 373 438. See also China Dalai Lama 369 388 394 398 407 414 468 479 484 189 407 204 93 63 64 165 246 254 292 Tri-Service Disaster Management Response Committee Tri-Service Special Force Command tri-service strategic communication network Tri-Service Strategic Forces Command Trishul (SAM) Trishul Trivedi Vishwapati Truman Harry S. TRV 71 tsunami Tu-142 Transport Aircraft Tunguska Tupolev Tu-134 Tupolev Tu-134 A Crusty Tupolev Tu-134 Crusty Tupolev Tu-142 Tupolev Tu-154 Tupolev Tu-154 Careless Tupolev Tu-204-300 Tupolev Tu-22 Turbomeca Artouste IIIB Turkey Turkmenistan --equipment and hardware Turkmenistan-AfghanistanPakistan-India (TAPI) two-front war Type-02 Type-03 Type-031 Type-039 Type-04 Type-041 Type-05 Type-051 Type-052 Type-053 Type-054 Type-07 Type-091 Type-092 Type-093 Tiger Tillangchang Timsah TIR class TMD systems Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Tonk Lt General V.S. Torpedo Defence System Maareech 522 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index Type-094 Type-1500 Type-170 Type-209 Type-212 Type-25 Type-25T Type-375 Type-40 Type-51 Type-52 Type-53 Type-54 Type-55 Type-56 (ZPU-4) Type-56 Type-59 464 195 201 475 417 398 477 375 197 390 396 400 362 196 198 199 352 374 382 390 196 198 199 352 362 400 413 443 196 198 199 362 374 359 196 199 362 364 374 400 441 445 196 199 352 361 362 371 374 382 398 400 413 425 432 441 444 400 196 199 352 371 374 400 441 443 196 199 371 374 375 382 390 400 409 413 430 441 443 396 196 199 352 362 374 400 364 374 441 444 352 361 390 398 374 374 362 374 380 442 450 374 380 390 398 441 442 445 450 374 380 442 450 201 374 375 441 444 374 374 380 374 390 441 444 374 470 374 380 374 380 362 374 375 407 441 444 361 364 374 390 398 441 443 444 375 374 374 380 442 450 380 413 374 374 380 441 442 443 450 374 380 390 432 441 442 443 444 450 201 374 374 380 374 441 442 374 380 441 443 451 470 417 471 201 201 Type-MBT 2000 Type-PB 90 Type-SU 60 Type-W87 Type-WZ 501 IFC 442 451 390 442 450 374 441 443 143 144 145 146 147 149 150 151 28 106 U UH-60 L (VIP) 407 UH-60 369 380 384 411 UH-60 SH-60 S-70 Blackhawk 487 Ukraine 64 341 --equipment and hardware 484 5 Ulsan class Frigate 352 384 463 476 ultra short baseline (USBL) 83 4 Umm al Qaywayn 431 underwater acoustic positioning system 83 Union of Soviet Socialist Republic. See Russia United Arab Emirates (UAE) 151 332 401 402 426 431 --equipment and hardware 432 3 --and United States Trade and Investment Framework Agreement 431 United Kingdom (UK) 1 22 57 62 68 127 131 189 195 201 205 213 219 304 379 --Defence Industrial Strategy 70 --equipment and hardware 442 458 463 479 482 484 486 --Special Air Service (SAS) 61 304 360 --Special Forces Support Group 62 --and West Asia and North America 415 420 426 432 United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) 60 62 315 316 351 353 356 United Nations (UN) 1 2 6 64 69 79 83 167 302 401 406 --Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) 303 --Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 129 250 --Congo Mission 303 --Convention of the Law of the Sea 83 --Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) 390 --Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) 397 --Environment Programme (2009) 434 --General Assembly Resolution (2001) 96 --Peace keeping missions 168 --Security Council (UNSC) 6 36 338 409 412 436 United Progressive Alliance (UPA) 297 307 United States of America (USA) 1 13 15 16 23 28 36 59 68 75 93 6 102 130 131 --Afghanistan-Pakistan strategy 1 4 7 17 20 60 91 92 99 102 104 337 8 340 342 347 348 432 433 436 --withdrawal of forces from Afghanistan 62 344 350 --Air Force (USAF) 99 135 138 139 140 141 144 145 151 152 432 438 --Army 28 135 137 138 139 140 141 142 Type-60 Type-62 Type-63 63A 63C Type-64 Type-65 Type-66 Type-69 Type-70 Type-71 Type-72 Type-73 Type-74 Type-75 Type-76 Type-77 Type-78 Type-79 Type-80 SP AA Type-80 ZU Type-800 Type-81 Type-82 Type-83 Type-85 Type-86 Type-86A Type-87 Type-88 Type-88A Type-89 Type-90 Type-94 Type-95 Type-96 Type-98 98A Type-99 99 A 2 Type 212 Type-DR77 Type-M521 370 426 16 49 438 439 130 76 27 68 135 141 142 145 148 150 --defence expenditure 102 --Defense Logistics Agency 136 137 141 145 --and East Asia and Pacific Rim 5 365 6 368 70 --equipment and hardware 45 463 479 483 484 5 486 488 489 --Global war on terror (GWOT) 7 10 45 61 110 --Goldwater-Nicholas Act 57 --India relations 1 5 8 12 49 50 127 128 218 292 --Israel relations 87 --Marine Corps Systems Command 147 148 --Middle East Force 410 --role in Middle East 428 431 432 --Missile Defense Agency 136 137 138 140 144 146 151 --Navy 43 84 85 86 136 137 138 140 141 142 144 146 148 150 151 190 323 400 432 --Naval Special Clearance Team (NSCT) 86 --North Korea relations 381 --Nuclear Regulatory Commission 65 --Pakistan relations defence aid 3 7 8 13 36 43 60 110 --Russia relations 10 12 --Space and Missile System Center 95 --Special Force 62 --Special Operations Command 62 136 137 139 141 142 --and West Asia and North America relations 401 406 408 410 11 412 413 415 416 418 420 424 426 428 430 431 432 433 434 University Grants Commission (UGC) 250 unmanned aerial systems (UAS) 107 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 29 38 44 6 61 74 75 81 2 87 92 103 4 106 7 108 112 129 138 170 189 90 193 228 9 286 291 318 357 8 362 364 369 374 5 382 384 388 392 394 396 398 407 413 417 462 unmanned combat aerial systems (UCAS) 38 unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) 44 46 88 90 91 102 104 --Carrier Battle Group --Cambodia Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) -- Central Coomand (CENTCOM) --China relations --Council on Competitiveness --cyber warfare strategy --Department of Defense 523 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue www. sp sm i l i t a r yye a r b o o k. co m Index unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) USS Kitty Hawk Uzbekistan 83 6 28 332 337 338 340 341 342 344 346 8 Vision 2100 visit board search and seizure (VBSS) Volachit Boun-Gnang Vulture 41 107 328 92 X XIA class (Strategic missile submarine) Xigatze Xinjiang Xu Caihou General Xu Qiliang General 463 464 44 22 36 346 373 374 326 326 V VAB 4x4 (Wheeled) Vahidi Ahmad Vampire Varadarajan S. Varthaman Air Marshal S. Varunastra Varyag Vashist Air Marshal R.K. Ved Prakash Veer class Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (VRDE) Vela Venezuela Vengeance Weapon 2 (V-2) Venugopalan P. Verma Admiral Nirmal K. 441 446 327 211 294 247 259 108 284 292 23 215 300 201 W Wajed Sheikh Haseena Wangchuk Penden war games for experimentation war paradigm Wardak General Abdul Rahim Warrior ICV (Tracked) warship building capacity Wassenaar Arrangment weapon locating radars (WLRs) weapon systems ORSA & infrastructure (WSOI) weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) 326 354 68 73 4 325 459 194 6 102 170 157 161 383 396 408 411 12 435 Y Yadav A.K. Yadav Lt General Rameshwar Yadav Ram Baran Yakovlev Yak-40 Yang Tien-Hsiao Yangon Yantar Shipyard Kaliningard Yemen Republic of --equipment and hardware Yom Kippur War Yongbyon YouthSat Yudhoyono Susilo Bambang Yugoslavia --NATO bombing Yuh Shi-kun Yunnan Yurka MSC Yusgiantoro Purnomo 299 247 329 479 331 390 105 106 189 168 332 336 401 402 433 434 87 439 11 326 376 377 3 168 91 15 14 400 407 327 296 258 49 93 294 154 187 193 5 246 252 Verma Air Marshal N. 215 Verma Lt General A.M. 246 Verma Rashmi 245 249 267 Verma Rear Admiral B. K. 247 vertical take off and landing (VTOL) 107 Vessel and Air Traffic Management Systems 323 VHF UHF communication systems 206 207 220 221 222 227 233 322 Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS) 153 155 Vickers MBT Mk3 442 458 Vidyarthi Major General N.S. 245 249 Vietnam 14 23 36 332 366 370 371 385 386 399 400 438--China relations 15 16--India relations 15 16 26 36--United States war 3 18 87 Vietnam 399 400 Vijayaraghavan Dr R 294 Visakhapatnam 22 23 24 189 190 196 202 203 204 283 284 322 weapons vehicles and equipment (WV&E) 266 Wen Jiabao 326 365 369 West Asia and North Africa 16 36 337 401 34 West Bank 416 West Bengal 32 169 299 304 306 308 310 315 316 Western Air Command 212 Westland Sea King MK47 198 199 206 407 479 Whittaker 80 1 wide area network (WAN) 112 wireless energy transfer or power beaming 92 wireless networks and mobile communication systems 74 Wolfowitz Paul 95 World Bank 344 347 371 385 406 414 434 World Food Programme 381 408 World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2010 11 65 World Trade Organisation (WTO) 342 370 399 408 427 --Agreement on Textiles and Clothing 370 World War II 22 61 79 81 82 93 211 305 378 379 383 Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) 104 Z Zaben-al Major General Dari Rajeb Nofal Zadetkyi Zahir Uddin Ahmed Vice Admiral Zardari Asif Ali ZDK-03 Zhanzakov Captain Zhandarbek Zhinjiang Zhuk Zillur Rahman ZSU-23-4 (SP) AD Schilka 328 390 326 330 361 45 328 1 222 341 400 430 326 103 170 181 343 346 350 357 400 405 407 408 409 413 417 419 430 434 455 442 455 413 ZSU-23-4 Quad SP AA Zulfiqar 524 SP s Military yearbook 2011-2012 40th Issue D a s s a u l t A v i a t i o n S n e c m a T h a l e s What will protect India in the 21st century In matter of national defence there can be no substitute for complete trust in the source no compromise on the reliability and the availability of the aircraft and its technologies. For over half a century we have proudly been supporting India s air defence mission. Today we look forward to keeping the privilege of serving India for the next 50 years with the world s most advanced latest generation aircraft Rafale. The OMNIROLE fighter PEMA 2M - Cr dit photos K. Tokunaga - Dassault Aviation - Getty images