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39TH YEAR OF ISSUE 2010 Jayant Baranwal 2009 Editor-in-Chief s ty ue ri Iss Secu N ical nd t ITIO Top ela ser ED n m In IS s o Ho ial TH int s ec IN ewpo India e - Sp i n c s V s o ren ert ocu efe Exp al F s R ition vent d E Ad Intelligent Military Aerospace Systems START WITH THALES From ISTAR to combat systems and surveillance to intelligence systems. Be it UAS transport and fighter aircraft or helicopters. Thales is a powerful partner to the global military aerospace sector. In our role as prime contractor we deliver cost effective solutions that draw on our capabilities of systems integration as well as service and support provision. Customers around the world rely on us to turn on the intelligence. Trusted Partner Global solutions tailored to local needs. At Raytheon we re proud of our reputation as the world s leading developer of technologies in defence and security programs. And we re proud that this reputation rests upon a foundation of trust with customers employees suppliers and communities. It s a combination that delivers a distinct operational advantage and information superiority for our customers anywhere in the world. 2010 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved. Customer Success Is Our Mission is a registered trademark of Raytheon Company. KEY FEATURES Low ground pressure Modular 6 10 troops (troop carrier) Self-recovery (Push-pull effect) Stretch potential ( 3 tonnes) High mobility High payload capacity Spacious interior C130 transportable SPECIFICATIONS Vehicle Length Height Width over tracks Performance 8.6m 2.2 m 2.3 m Maximum road speed 60 km h Engine horsepower Transmission Steering system 350 bhp at 2400 rpm Fully automatic Hydraulic articulated Enclosed Unladen weight Combat payload 11200 kg 4800 kg Flatbed 10700kg 5300 kg 16000 kg Weight Gross vehicle weight 16000 kg Kinetics Marketing Group 249 Jalan Boon Lay Singapore 619523 Tel (65) 6660 7631 Fax (65) 6265 8862 kinetics 39th Year of Issue 2009 2010 Global Security begins with ISR. isr 2010 northrop Grumman corporation ISR Northrop Grumman s systems enable warfighters to respond with speed and confidence. Decades of multiple domain ISR leadership have given us the expertise and knowledge to anticipate operational needs. Which is why our ISR systems are the best choice in the quest for ground truth and the ability to read and react quickly and accurately. Minister of Defence inDia Message t is a pleasure to learn that you are publishing the SP s Military Yearbook 20092010. Our armed forces and the defence industry must strive to achieve a mutually healthy synergy. They should work in tandem and consult each other on a regular basis. Both our armed forces and the defence industry must look upon each other as competitive partners than as rivals. Modernisation of our armed forces is a top priority but the modernisation process has to go hand-in-hand with indeginsation and self-reliance. Our objective is to minimise over-dependence on imports to meet the requirements of our armed forces. I hope the publication will be read and liked by experts and the layman alike. I wish you all success in your endeavours. A.K. Antony SP s Military yearbook 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 5 Towards a safer world THREAT SIMULATION. MADE REAL. Widely recognised as a best-in-class reusable threat simulation system the high performance Mirach 100 5 aerial target is in use in all major European Firing Ranges and deployed by six Armed Forces worldwide and employed to qualify over 30 guided weapons in the air naval and land domains. Able to embark a wide range of target mission payloads Mirach replicates the most complex air threats to present weapons and sensors with representative and stressing engagement scenarios. Make sure you know your threats before you meet them. Tomorrow s technology is here today. 6 SP s Military yearbook 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 39th Year of Issue 2009 2010 Jayant baranwal Editor-in-Chief Copyright 2009-2010 by SP Guide Publications All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be incorporated in any commercial activity. Making copies in any form electronic or otherwise of the information in full or any portion thereof for purposes other than own use is a violation of copyright law. For additional information relating to copyright please contact The Editor-in-Chief SP s Military Yearbook A-133 Arjun Nagar New Delhi - 110 003 India. Email editor The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the furnishing or use of the information associated instructions claims of productivity gains. Founded by Shri SUKHDEO PRASAD BARANWAL in 1965 Published by Jayant Baranwal SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD New Delhi India Postal address P O Box 2525 New Delhi 110 005 India Designed by SP Guide Publications Team ISSN 0076-8782 Registered with RNI No. (P.) F.2 (S 11) Press 93 Processed and Printed in India by Pragati Offset Hyderabad Price Inland Rs. 4 975 Foreign (Surface Mail) 395.00 US 700.00 Corporate office A-133 Arjun Nagar Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi 110003 India. Tel 91 (11) 24644693 24644763 24620130 24658322 Fax 91 (11) 24647093 e-Mail info order guidepub Website S U P I ER ORI TY A I R D O M IN M E AN MAR ITI D AI LD RD IE F EFE NCE B AT T L E Proud of strategic partnerships with India Lock on to MBDA solutions EN GA GE MEN T SE CE GROU ND BA SUPREME FIREPOWER IN URBAN TERRAIN In the world of lIght shoulder-launched anti-armour systems Carl-Gustaf and AT4 stands supreme. Carl-Gustaf the true multirole weapon system and the AT4 CS (Confined Space) are continuously under development for higher performance in urban terrain. The newly developed AT4 CS AST (Anti-Structure Tandem) as well as new rounds for Carl-Gustaf offers additional capabilities for urban warfare. They are as powerful in use as they are easy to handle. Both these well-proven and reliable weapons can be integrated into your infantry platoons and increase your fighting capacity and survivability giving man-portable artillery support and a broad anti-armour firepower base. Equipped with the Carl-Gustaf and the AT4 CS systems soldiers are provided with effective power in urban surroundings for decades to come. ffV ordnAnCe 10 SP s Military yearbook 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue WORKS ANYWHERE DEPLOYED EVERYWHERE One button and two minutes is all it takes for the iNetVu antenna systems to deliver highspeed Internet and VoIP communications via satellite from virtually anywhere on the planet. iNetVu is the trusted choice for critical communications of Military Forces and Emergency Response Teams across the globe. Join our global network of iNetVu dealers that offer sales installation and technical support anytime anywhere Contact us at contact or 1-613-745-4110 MADE IN INDIA IN THE NEXT FEW YEARS India will is means that India will be in the front seat making sure that Gripen is tailored to the nations every need and requirement. Equipped with futuristic warfare technologies and a pro table partnership o er Gripen will not only support the development of a self-su cient and independent air force but also the progress of a selfreliant and world leading aircra industry. Gripen for India the independent choice. To learn more visit NAME FUNCTION DOMAIN GRIPEN MULTI-ROLE FIGHTER AIR OPERATIONS become a leading ghter aircra provider. at is if India decides to go with Gripen it will be made in India for the world market. Because as a Gripen customer nation India would not only acquire the next generation of the world s most technologically advanced multi-role ghter aircra but also be part of a unique industrial partnership that o ers access to all levels of aircra technology. nothing comes close singulier - Photo DigitalVision. (07 VA V2) Extreme precision for extreme conditions. Sighting and stabilization on the move are the two decisive factors for successful firing. Sagem sights are capable of locking on a target regardless of vehicle speed and terrain ensuring incomparable firing accuracy both day and night. With a panoramic surveillance screen reconnaissance identification and firing there s no limit to what you can set your sights on. 18 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 20 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 21 22 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 24 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 25 26 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue NEW TOOLS FOR NEW RULES HELICOPTER SOLUTIONS Upgrade Mi17 & Mi24 Cockpits Face the Future. Today DCoMPASSTM Payload Reach new safety and performance peaks with Elbit Systems helicopter upgrades. Equip Western and Eastern transport utility or attack helicopters with sophisticated weapons sensors navigation and targeting capabilities that turn them into multirole platforms for the diverse day and night missions ahead. N E X T I S N O WTM NEW TOOLS FOR NEW RULES UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (UAS) Silver Marlin (USV) DCoMPASSTM 15 Payload Stingray MicroCoMPASSTM 8 Payload Intuitive. Versatile. Effective. IMC - ISTAR Management Center Elbit Systems UAS family comprises new-generation platforms designed for real-time optronic and electronic battlefield intelligence. High operational versatility renders Elbit Systems UAS ideal for numerous missions around the clock. Full family of interoperable UAS MALE Tactical Close-range Mini N E X T I S N O WTM Readers Comments.... The Guide Publications of New Delhi have brought out the Military Yearbook. It is useful to have suitably compiled information in one volume. I commend the efforts of the Publishers. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Former Prime Minister of India It (Military Yearbook) is a valuable book. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Former President of India It was good of you to send me a complimentary copy of Military Yearbook (1970).....I have gone through.....and found its general get up good and contents useful. Field Marshal S.H.F.J. Manekshaw Former Chief of the Army Staff Indian Army considerable assistance to all the Services personnel whose profession is the science of war. Admiral O.S. Dawson Former Chief of the Naval Staff Indian Navy SP s Military Yearbook 2008-09 contains information about the service rendered by SP Guide Publication to the armed forces of our motherland. It will continue to evolve to keep up the aspirations of the people. T. Ramachandru Joint Secretary (Supplies) Ministry of Defence (as on 22.05.09) of Indian Defence Budget and modernisation plan of IAF. The seminal work of the publication deserves sincere appreciations. My compliments for the good work done. Air Vice Marshal G.P. Sharma Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (Meteorology) IAF (as on 25.05.09) It is indeed commendable that the SP Guide Publications has been offering its services to the readers of the armed forces for the last 45 years. The Yearbook is rich in contents and has an impressive lay out. It is indeed very well compiled and presented. The editorial team deserves to be complimented for weaving together such an extensive impressive and informative book. Lt General S.S. Kumar Quartermaster General Indian Army (as on 12.06.09) I take this opportunity to compliment you and your team for bringing out the quality Yearbook which is well documented and creates awareness about current technology and Military Yearbook is indeed a very interesting weaponry used by leading militaries of the would be of world. The book has an excellent compilation and useful document and YOUR FUTURE OUR MISSION. A400M A330 MRTT 28 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue The articles in SP s Military Yearbook reflect the commitment of your publication towards the services. The 2008-2009 is a fitting tribute to the completion of 45 years of the company. I wish you the very best in all future endeavours. Lt General Avadhesh Prakash Military Secretary Indian Army (as on 12.06.09) I extend my heartiest congratulations to you and your team on successful completion of 45 years of service. The current edition of the Yearbook is immensely informative and very well compiled. I wish you success in all your future endeavours. Major General Rameshwar Roy Additional Director General Military Intelligence (A) Indian Army (as on 15.06.09) SP s Military Yearbook is quite informative and interesting. My compliments to the Editor-in-Chief and all personnel involved in the publication of the book. The book is a benchmark for Military Yearbooks. Please keep up the good work. Air Marshal P.P. Rajkumar Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief HQ Central Air Command IAF (as on 18.06.09) The SP s Military Yearbook 2008-09 is comprehensive and a useful compendium for reference. Colonel Asit Mistry Director Perspective Planning (Coordination) Indian Army (as on 23.06.09) We find the SP s Military Yearbook 2008-09 highly informative and useful to all dealing in defence. This will be used in DRDO by many Directorates as it has a variety of data. Efforts put in by the publishers are enormous and an excellent quality handbook of world standard has emerged. Greetings and congratulations. Dr Prahlada Chief Controller R&D (SI) DRDO (as on 31.07.09) Let me congratulate you and SP Guide Publications on completion of 45 years of committed service to the armed forces. A very good effort has been made at providing all the required information about all the armed forces. The section on weapons equipment & vehicles provides a good insight into their capabilities. Air Marshal K.K. Nohwar Senior Air Staff Officer HQ Training Command IAF (as on 26.08.09) CN235 C295 NEW STANDARDS. TOGETHER SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 29 30 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue Major Indian Armed Forces Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Udhampur (HQ Northern Command) Army Shimla (HQ Army Training Command) Chandimandir (HQ Western Command) Army New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Army)) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Navy)) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Air Force)) New Delhi (HQ Western Air Command) Lucknow (HQ Central Command) Army Shillong (HQ Eastern Air Command) Allahabad (HQ Central Air Command) Gandhinagar (HQ South-Western Air Command) Kolkata (HQ Eastern Command) Army 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Nagpur (HQ Maintenance Command) IAF Mumbai (HQ Western Naval Command) Pune (HQ Southern Command) Army Vishakhapatnam (HQ Eastern Naval Command) Bengaluru (HQ Training Command) IAF Kochi (HQ Southern Naval Command) Thiruvananthapuram (HQ Southern Air Command) New Delhi (HQ Strategic Forces Command) Port Blair (HQ Andaman & Nicobar Command) New Delhi (HQ Integrated Defence Staff) Jaipur (HQ South-Western Command) Army SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 31 32 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue uuuuuu uuu u u CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Contents BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS C-130J F-16IN MH-60R Aegis DAGR HELLFIRE II B E T W E E N PA R T N E R S HI P S P R O MI S E D A N D PA R T N E R S HI P S A C HI E V E D T H E R E I S O N E IM P O R TA N T W O R D H O W. In a world that continues to change dramatically governments increasingly seek to accomplish their most vital goals by working with advanced technology companies from around the globe. Building and sustaining partnerships that achieve their objectives is a matter of how. And it is the how that makes all the difference. CON T E N TS C O L O U R PA G ES Readers Comments Map Major Indian Armed Forces Headquarters Editorial 28 31 53 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT & VEHICLES Contributors Profile 158 57-157 To successfully conclude special missions aircrews need to be able to focus on their task. Reliable self-protection systems give them the necessary confidence to do so. RUAG has developed powerful solutions to protect crew aircraft passengers and cargo. We tailor our solutions to meet your needs without compromise and offer comprehensive service packages from requirement analysis integration maintenance repair overhaul (MRO) to phase-out. RUAG is the performing partner when it comes to protecting your aircrews from becoming easy targets while they are on a mission. Protect your mission. Rely on our performance. RUAG Aviation Military Aviation P.O. Box 301 6032 Emmen Switzerland Legal domicile RUAG Switzerland Ltd Seetalstrasse 175 P.O. Box 301 6032 Emmen Switzerland Tel. 41 41 268 20 81 Fax 41 41 268 39 95 military.aviation SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 33 34 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue CON T E N T S 1 CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 2 3 4 Changing World Order Lt General (Retd) V.R. Raghavan Regrouping of International Forces Yang Jiemian Indo-US Relationship K. Subrahmanyam Afghanistan-Pakistan Perspective Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi 1 5 11 17 1 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 35 36 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue CONTENTS 5 People s Liberation Army of China Brig (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal China s Armed Forces Maj General (Retd) Sheru Thapliyal Land Warfare Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Emerging Role of Indian Navy Admiral (Retd) Arun Prakash India s Maritime Challenges Vice Admiral (Retd) J.S. Bedi 21 25 29 35 39 43 47 51 6 7 8 9 10 Aerospace Power Air Marshal (Retd) Vinod Patney 11 Multilateral Nuclear Ties Arundhati Ghose 12 India s Higher Direction of War General (Retd) V.P. Malik VIEWPOINTS 1 2 3 4 China-Pakistan Alliance Dr. Monika Chansoria India-China Relations Ranjit Gupta North Korea Rising Brig (Retd) S.K. Chatterji Combating Internal Security Threats General (Retd) V.P. Malik 55 57 59 61 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 37 CON T E N T S 5. We Need to Spend More Efficiently Air Chief Marshal (Retd) S. Krishnaswamy 63 2 TECHNOLOGY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Revolution in Military Affairs Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch Network Culture Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch Military Communications Lt General (Retd) A.K. Saini Surface Warships Vice Admiral (Retd) B.S. Randhawa Fighter Aircraft Engines Air Marshal (Retd) A.K. Trikha Indian Cyberspace Security Lt General (Retd) S.R.R. Aiyengar Directed Energy Weapons Brig Subodh Kumar Thermal Imaging Ikbal Singh 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 65 3 BUSINESS 1 India s Defence Budget Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor 97 97 38 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue CON T E N T S 2 Defence Procurement Procedure 101 Maj General (Retd) Mrinal Suman Make (High-tech) Procedure Maj General (Retd) Mrinal Suman Indian Army Modernisation Plans Brig (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal Indian Navy Modernisation Commodore (Retd) Rajeev Sawhney Indian Air Force Modernisation Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Declining Defence Budget Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch India s Strategic and Business Environment Sanjay Kumar Global Contracts 107 3 4 111 5 117 6 123 The culture of defence is the culture of our men. Since 1905 Oto Melara has been synonymous with defence throughout the world and in all its aspects be it sea land or air. 100 years of continuous research and technological development have allowed us to achieve results that once seemed possible only in our dreams. An example is the 76 62 cannon sold to 53 countries around the world. Today however we are ready to face an even greater challenge that of remaining leaders in a world market which is constantly evolving. Because our idea of defence has no limits. 7 127 8 129 137 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 39 CON T E N T S 4 INDIAN DEFENCE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Integrated Defence Staff Brig (Retd) Vinod Anand The Indian Army The Indian Navy The Indian Air Force The Indian Coast Guard Who s Who in Indian Defence Defence Industry Defence R&D 161 169 191 215 239 249 267 289 161 HOMELAND SECURITY 1 2 3 4 5 6 India s Homeland Security Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor A Spate of Reforms Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Countering Maoist Insurgency Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch Naxalite Rage Prakash Singh Challenges in the Northeast Lt General (Retd) Arvind Sharma Coastal Management Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand 299 309 315 321 323 327 40 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue CON T E N T S 5 ASIAN WHO S WHO Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Cambodia China Egypt 329 329 329 330 330 330 330 330 Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait 331 331 331 331 331 332 332 332 329 CAESAR CAESAR CAESAR Nexter Systems SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 41 CON T E N T S Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Libya Malaysia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar 332 332 332 333 333 333 333 333 333 334 334 334 Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen 334 335 335 335 335 335 336 336 336 336 336 336 6 REGIONAL BALANCE 1 2 GDP & Military Expenditure Central & South Asia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Afghanistan 3 344 345 347 349 350 352 Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka 353 355 356 359 361 363 365 Indonesia Japan North Korea 376 378 381 337 341 337 East Asia Pacific Rim & Australia Australia Cambodia China 368 370 372 42 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue CON T E N T S South Korea Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines 4 West Asia and North Africa Algeria Egypt Libya Bahrain 404 406 408 410 Iran Iraq Israel Jordan 412 414 416 418 383 385 387 389 391 401 Singapore Taiwan Thailand Vietnam 393 395 397 399 NEW TOOLS FOR NEW RULES STABILIZED PAYLOADS Specially designed for search and rescue (SAR) and armed helicopters CoMPASSTM is a stabilized digital multi-sensor electro-optical observation and targeting payload. Equipped with thermal imager HD color TV laser rangefinder designator with in-flight boresight and target illuminator CoMPASSTM delivers excellent situational awareness long-range targeting capabilities and precise target geo-location data all packed in the lightest EO IR laser payload in its category. CoMPASSTM Brings Threats into Sharper Focus SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 43 CON T E N T S Kuwait Lebanon Oman Qatar 5 Asia-Pacific China Rising Sanjay Kumar Equipment & Hardware Specifications Army Equipment 441 420 422 424 426 Saudi Arabia Syria United Arab Emirates Republic of Yemen 427 429 431 433 435 6 441 44 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue CON T E N T S Naval Equipment Air Equipment 468 498 DIAGRAMS GRAPHS Defence Budget (Comparision) Distribution of Capital Budget Distribution of Revenue Budget Organisation of Integrated Defence Staff Diagrammatic Layout of the Army s Chain of Command Organisation of Indian Army Headquarters Organisation of Indian Navy Headquarters Organisation of Indian Air Force Headquarters Organisation of Indian Coast Guard Headquarters Indian Coast Guard SAR Organisation Summary of the output of the defence industry including ordnance factories and DPSUs during the previous three years (up to 2008-2009) Organisation Chart of the Department of Defence Production & Supplies (DDP&S) Organisation Structure of OFB 99 100 100 162 171 173 193 218 241 246 268 269 270 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 45 . aspiring beyond excellence. CON T E N T S External Functional Linkages (OFB comes under Department of Defence Production) Performance Summary of DPSUs Values of stores assured by DGQA (in Rs crore) DRDO Ministry of Defence Organisational Structure of Defence Research & Development Organisation Proposed Restructuring Plan of DRDO Paramilitary Forces under Ministry of Home Affairs Organisational Command & Control of Central Police Forces 270 273 287 290 291 294 300 308 Always on Line Data Recording & Management Top-Performing Avionics Solutions Airborne Digital Recorders and Servers HUD Cameras and Mission Debriefing Systems Always on Track UAV Avionics System-in-a-Box Core-Avionics Package for small UAVs powerful building blocks for advanced MALE HALE UAVs Always on Target Inertial Navigation Systems MEMS and FOG-based navigation solutions Always Up-Front Avionics Solutions RADA a leading provider of advanced military electronics for aerospace and defense applications successfully empowers armed forces the world over. Mission Computers Display Processors Stores Management Systems and complete upgrade packages SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 47 CON T E N T S ABBREVIATIONS & INDEX ADVERTISER INDEX AIRBUS MILITARY ALLIGATOR DESIGNS ASHOK LEYLAND BEML BHARAT ELECTRONICS BOMBARDIER AEROSPACE C-COM SATELLITE SYSTEMS DASSAULT RAFALE INTERNATIONAL DEFENSE CONSEIL INTERNATIONAL 28 & 29 44 16 45 24 238 11 Back Cover 20 513 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 49 CON T E N T S DRDO DRS TACTICAL SYSTEMS ELBIT SYSTEMS ELBIT SYSTEMS - ELECTO-OPTICS ELOP ELETTRONICA EMBRAER EUROCOPTER EUROFIGHTER EUROJET FFV ORDNANCE (SAAB) FINCANTIERI FINMECCANICA HARRIS HDW HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS HONEYWELL ISRAEL AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE ITT ISRAEL WEAPON INDUSTRIES JCB INDIA LARSEN & TOUBRO LOCKHEED MARTIN MBDA MEPROLIGHT NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS NAVANTIA NEXTER NORTHROP GRUMMAN (AEROSPACE SYSTEMS) NORTHROP GRUMMAN (ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS) ORDNANCE FACTORY BOARD (OFB) OTO MELARA PIPAVAV SHIPYARD PRATT & WHITNEY PUNJ LLOYD RADA elop 7800w aerospace-defense isr mmrca 22 Book Mark 27 43 190 Concepts & Perspective Section Separator Weapons Equipment Vehicles Section Separator 15 Regional Balance Section Separator 10 52 Front Cover Indian Defence Section Separator Book Mark 14 Book Mark 19 Asian Who s Who Section Separator 168 49 26 25 Contents Section Separator 9 51 36 35 41 4 Business Section Separator 38 39 30 214 34 47 50 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue CON T E N T S RAFAEL RAYTHEON RUAG AVIATION RUBIN ADMIRALTY SAAB GRIPEN SAGEM SAMTEL SELEX COMMUNICATIONS SELEX GALILEO ST KINETICS TATA MOTORS TERMA THALES kinetics 23 1 33 12 13 17 18 37 6 2 21 & 32 Technology Section Separator Facing Inside Front Cover These pages are in the Indian Defence Section NOA FAR REACHING CAPABILITIES ARE NOW CLOSER THAN EVER NOA Dual- Field Meprolight s NOA thermal weapon sights. No thermal night sight goes farther. NOA is the world s only dual-field thermal weapon sight that enables pinpoint target acquisition at distances of over 1 000 meters. Equipped with an FCS assuring automatic ballistic compensation lightweight and low power consumption Meprolight s NOA gives you that own the night advantage. NOA X7 NOA X4 E-mail info SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 51 39TH YEAR OF ISSUE 2009 2010 Editorial S SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS inches closer to its golden anniversary it is a changed world that we see from the one which saw the birth of this organisation as Guide Publications (in 1964) and the publication of the Military Yearbook the following year. The novel initiative of Shri Sukhdeo Prasad Baranwal came in for praise from none other than the then Prime Minister of India Lal Bahadur Shastri which also found an echo with the armed forces. The publication was renamed SP s Military Yearbook in 1992 and became the company s flagship product. Information is not always difficult to come by but facts are sacred. And when facts are collated in the form of a YearSP s Military Yearbook 2008-2009 being presented to Defence Minister A.K. Antony book it becomes indispensable as a reference guide. This is what SP s Military Yearbook strived to do year on year as it kept expanding in scope content and physical reach. But facts change as do numbers the latter too frequently for comfort. More so in a world in flux. To make sense of such a world what is needed are not a pair of coloured glasses but a barometer. And that is what SP s Military Yearbook is an annual barometer of military affairs. A SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 53 The cover of Military Yearbook 1965 A new world The new world order is driven by four very visible major movements. The first is that of the much talked about economic downturn and the subsequent recovery in most parts of the world. The second movement is led by international terrorism marked by political and strategic vacuum in Afghanistan and Pakistan denoted by the Af-Pak concept. The third is related to nuclear proliferation and disarmament it being a matter of grave concern. The fourth element is that of equity in the global trade and climate sphere. The content of SP s Military Yearbook this year quite naturally is reflective of the tone the character and the spirit of these movements which have considerable impact upon national and international security issues. Economically the world has been undergoing an unprecedented upheaval for the last couple of years. India to quite an extent has been bucking the drift. The economic growth in India continues to show an upward and stable trend. There is political stability in India and its balance of trade and foreign exchange reserves are also in good shape. Its ability to withstand economic and financial downturns is credible as seen in the last few years when most developed nations have struggled to find a balance. India is as a result considered a safe investment destination. India has a respectable presence in the G-20 and when US President Barack Obama recently met the Indian Prime Minister on the sidelines of the G-20 summit he praised the Prime Minister thus When [Manmohan] Singh speaks people listen. As India seeks to rise in the international power hierarchy the nation finds itself constrained by a strategic (external) and domestic security environment which has deteriorated steadily over the years. The major factors contributing to this situation are the continuing geo-strategic rivalry among major powers for regional supremacy the rising military and economic power of China the enduring war on terrorism in the neighbourhood a Sino-Pak nexus which presents the potential threat of a two-front war the changing nature of war itself and the impact of new technologies and the growing scourge of left-wing extremism and terrorism within the country. All these factors working in tandem have put considerable strain on India s military and internal security forces to expand to their fighting capabilities to provide the country with a peaceful and secure external and domestic environment. The thrust of India s military modernisation is on achieving conventional and nuclear deterrence through acquiring capability-based structures and systems while upgrading its threat-based structures for a possible two-front limited 54 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue y s ue urit Iss Sec N ical nd t ITIO Top ela ser ED on Hom l In IS ia TH ints s ec IN wpo India e - Sp ie c V s on ren erts ocu efe Exp al F R ition vents d E Ad The cover of the current edition of SP s Military Yearbook 2009-2010 6 19 10 5 51 44 PM conventional conflict. Inherent in this is the capability for limited force projection for out of area operations and a focused capability for fighting sustained low intensity conflicts involving counter-insurgency and counter-terrorist operations. Weapon procurements are likely to be directed to fulfill these requirements of the armed forces. What is new this year SP s Military Yearbook this year which has been extensively updated carries a richer content in almost every section. View Points on pertinent strategic security issues have been added to the section on Concepts and Perspectives . The section on Homeland Security reflects the importance that India is laying on internal stability sought to be wrecked by misguided elements within the country some of whom are being supported by inimical neighbours. For the first time we have included a comprehensive article on India s Strategic and Business Environment to give a flavour of it to our business clientele. While there are considerable additions on the content of the Yearbook this time a lot of emphasis has been laid on the form too. Any tome that runs into 700 pages and more stands in the danger of being unwieldy and an annoyance to browse through. Keeping this in mind the layout of the past issues has been tweaked into a more reader-friendly format. A volume that runs into hundreds of pages of text needs to be easier on the eyes for better reading and that is what it has been transformed into this time. A book of reference also needs to be easier to sift through. The navigational structure too therefore has been reworked. Now you can browse through the Yearbook with consummate ease and not feel a strain on the eyes. If SP s Military Yearbook has been established itself as an annual publication that needs to be kept within hand s reach for reference purposes one reason has been the unflinching loyalty of you readers. Our way of thanking our loyal readers this time is an interactive DVD that comes gratis with the Yearbook. Sources for facts & figures CIA Fact Book Military Balance Jane s Weapon Systems Jane s All the World s Aircraft Jane s Fighting Ships Combat Fleets of the World Soviet Military Power US Military Strength Worldwide NATO s 16 Nations Voennyi Vestnik Aerospace Daily War Pac Notes Armies Armour Armed Forced Journal Handbook of US & Soviet Weapons Soviet Top SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 55 Acknowledgements Several distinguished columnists and industry experts on the editorial board worked in unison to make the SP s Military Yearbook 2009-2010 a quality product. It is my pleasure to name SP s team of experts Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Rear Admiral (Retd) S.K. Ramsay Guns Asian Defence Journal Aviation Week and Space Technology Defence & Foreign News Asian Survey Defence News Airforce Flight International Tanks of the World Aircraft of the World World Fact Book Sea Power Soviet Military Review International Defense Review Jane s Soviet Intelligence Review US News & World Report International Herald Tribune Proceedings New York Times Financial Observer Scala New Yorker Omini Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Time Newsweek Pravda World Defence Almanac Military Technology besides several others. Clarifications Most countries are reluctant to part with information relating to the size and strength of their armed forces and equipment specifications. Sincere efforts have been made to garner information from the most authentic sources for the SP s Military Yearbook 2009-2010. Despite this it is quite possible variations may crop up in some cases. Articles in this volume contain the personal opinions of the contributors and do not reflect the views of the publishers or the Indian government including the Ministry of Defence. Suggestions for improvements will be appreciated and carried out to the extent possible and practically viable. Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief 56 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue special colour feature uuuuuu Weapons Equipment & Vehicles Airbus Military Alligator Designs Almaz-Antey Ashok Leyland Bharat Earth MoversDassault Defence Land Systems Bharat Electronics Bombardier Aerospace C-COM Satellite Systems India DRS Technologies Elbit Systems Elettronica Embraer Eurocopter Eurojet FFV Ordnance Fincantieri Gripen In Hindustan Aeronautics Honeywell Israel Aerospace Industries Israel Weapons Industries Issartel Industrie ITT Defense Larsen & Toubro Lockheed Martin MBDA Meprolight National Instruments Navantia Nexter Systems Northrop Grumman Oto Melara Pipavav Shipyard Pratt & Rosboronexport Whitney Punj Lloyd Rada Rafael Raytheon Ruag Aviation Rubin and Admiralty Shipyards Sagem Samtel Display Systems Selex Communications Selex Galileo ST Kinetics Tata Motors Terma Thales Zvyozdochka REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS uuu u Copyright 2009-2010 by SP Guide Publications All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be incorporated in any commercial activity. Making copies in any form electronic or otherwise of the information in full or any portion thereof for purposes other than own use is a violation of copyright law. The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the furnishing or use of the information associated instructions claims of productivity gains. W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T & V E H I C L E S CONTENTS Airbus Military Alligator Designs Almaz-Antey Ashok Leyland BEML Bharat Electronics Bombardier Aerospace C-COM Satellite Systems Dassault Defence Land Systems India DRS Technologies Elbit Systems Elettronica Embraer Eurocopter Eurojet FFV Ordnance Fincantieri Gripen IN Hindustan Aeronautics Honeywell Israel Aerospace Industries Israel Weapon Industries Issartel Industrie ITT Defense Larsen & Toubro 58 61 62 64 65 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 82 84 87 90 92 94 96 98 100 101 103 104 106 108 Lockheed Martin MBDA Meprolight National Instruments Navantia Nexter Systems Northrop Grumman Oto Melara Pipavav Shipyard Pratt & Whitney Punj Lloyd Rada Rafael Raytheon Rosoboronexport Ruag Aviation Rubin and Admiralty Shipyards Sagem Samtel Display Systems Selex Communications Selex Galileo ST Kinetics Tata Motors Terma Thales Zvyozdochka 109 111 112 113 115 117 119 122 123 Concept Jayant Baranwal SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd New Delhi India Credits Publishers extend special thanks to the companies who have provided the contents and respective photographs for this feature. Also gladly acknowledge their extensive support and co-operation in formulating this feature with maximum possible up-to-date and lively contents. Processed and Printed in India by Pragati Offset Hyderabad 126 128 129 131 133 136 139 142 143 SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD Postal Address Post Box No. 2525 New Delhi 110005 India Contact Address Corporate Office A-133 Arjun Nagar Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi 110003 India. Phones 91 11 24644693 24644763 24620130 24658322 Fax 91 11 24647093 E-Mail info spsmilitaryyearbook. com order guidepub Website 146 149 151 152 154 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 57 REGIONAL BALANCE 156 ASIAN WHO S WHO 144 INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS 125 TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS AIRBUS MILITARY 2009 A new era emerged for Airbus Military I t s been a year since Airbus Military integrated onto Airbus and despite the integration has not been easy the benefits are becoming more evident. After this first year of hard work to make people realized a new era has arrived we find that the majority of workers journalists and customers are happy with this union. Airbus benefit from the experience of the former EADS CASA in the military aircraft sector and at the same time Airbus Military take the strong brand of Airbus known all over the world. 2009 has been a difficult year for EADS in general and for Airbus Military specially. Despite having won the contract for the renewal of the obsolete fleet of tankers of the US Air Force with the well-proven and successful platform A330 MRTT the competition was cancelled. On September the bid was reopened again but Northrop Grumman the Airbus Military partner in the com- pletion withdrew from the bidding process asserting that the new criteria were skewed in favor of Boeing s offering. From the other hand the A400M have had to demonstrate the European launching countries that is a solid program that will permit the air forces of the future to have an aircraft adapted to their future needs. A330MRTT hose and drogue pods with F18 GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE New challenges for 2010 Airbus Military decided on April to go on its own to the US tanker bid. This will mean a tremendous effort of the people involved in the program to finally get to win the contract as they have already done with the Air Forces of Arabia Saudi Australia United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates. 58 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue ALLIGATOR DESIGNS A trusted technological partner in providing COTS based rugged solutions at world-class standards SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 61 REGIONAL BALANCE lligator Designs delivers world-class rugged product-solutions and COTS based design solutions for building defence equipment & systems conforming to the stringent environmental specifications EMI EMC stipulations and the strategic operating standards of military deployment necessities and defence equipment exploitation strategies. The product-spectrum comprises of rugged COTS solutions of a wide range and electronic middle ware for defence equipment viz. enclosures housings cabinets integrated electronic signal processing racks ATRs multi-function multi-display consoles display units work-stations portable terminals VME cPCI PCI based workstations rugged computers rugged storage units wrist wearable computers PDAs night vision devices and also the VXS VPX VME 64x cPCI backplanes for typical designs of defence electronic equipment . This company is reckoned as a dependable defence manufacturer of repute in India with testified credentials and acknowledged customer-satisfaction ratings towards a trusted partnership in serving dedicatedly many leading defence companies defence project-builders and major system-integrators for almost a decade by now since inception and successfully delivering them high-end deployable solutions in rugged products of many categories of weapons sensors fire control systems EW systems and electronic systems for combat applications. Alligator Designs has catered to a number of Indian defence and aerospace projects & integrated programmes so far viz. electronic warfare systems fire control systems sonars signal processors radars data acquisition and processing systems missile-launchers combat tactical management & AIO systems multi-barrel rocket-launchers surveillance equipment avionics thermal & and night vision equipment tactical simulators and communication systems. Alligator Designs is currently Command Consoles Single Dual Display consoles with varied table options Backplanes VPX VME cPCI and Costom Chassis Enclosure VME cPCI PCI PC104 Rugged & Commercial Chassis Displays 6.4 to 24 Rugged & Airborne Displays ATRs VME cPCI Convection & Conduction Rugged Racks 28U to 42U Rugged Racks Rugged LAN Communication 8 to 24 port GBit Rugged LAN Switch Portable Terminals 3.5 to 10.4 Rugged Handheld Units Rugged Storage 1TB to 3TB RAID Storage System working to deliver their products for a number of on-going major Indian defence programs such as RSPs for weapon locating radars battery-level radars AIS combat management systems IPMS IBS ECDIS surveillance systems EO based systems new generation ESMs battle management systems sonar data recorders BFSR display processors for battle tanks ALH TMS and other warfare equipment. Alligator Designs has some significant consortium tie-ups with many reputed international defence manufacturers and is now endeavouring towards partnerships abroad for exportoriented supplies. Alligator Designs is duly certified by DGQA Ministry of Defence Govt. of India and is also issued industrial licenses for defence production by Ministry of Commerce DIPP. Contact for further details Tel 91-80-41119358 40878787 Mr. Pawan Seth 91 9845039775 Fax 91-80-41172390 Mr. Nitin Gupta 91 9810234438 email info GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY A CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS ALMAZ-ANTEY Russia s answer for secure skies A lmaz-Antey Air Defense Concern was created in 2002 and has nowadays united over 50 enterprises to become one of the Russia s leading holding defense companies the world s major supplier of the Russia s air defense systems. According to the Top-100 annual rating of the US-based Defense News Weekly the Concern s place is among 30 world s largest defense companies. One of the latest Concern developments is S-400 Triumph long-range new generation ADS which became operational in August 2007. Being upgraded this system will become the major weaponry for the Russia s aerospace defense concept for a number of years. Nowadays Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern is involved in the development of the future common system of anti-aircraft and anti- missile weapons of the 5-th generation and in the implementation of the Concept of the aerial-space defense of the Russian Federation. Concern has a wage export potential with an existing portfolio around USD 6 bln. The AlmazAntey- made ADS have been operated by over 50 nations in SouthEast Asia Middle East Europe Africa and Latin America. The list of arms and military equipment being offered for export Vladislav V. Mentschikov Almaz-Antey Concern General Director GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE by Almaz-Antey includes the following items long-range air defense systems S-300 PMU2 Favorit S-400 Triumph and S-300VM (Antey2500) medium-range air defense systems Buk-M1-2 Buk-M2E Pechora-2A short-range air defense missile systems Tor-M1 Tor-M2E automated control systems Senezh-M1E Rubezh-ME Baikal-1ME PPRU-M air defense radar stations 96L6E 6C19M2 9C15MV3 Gamma-DE Gamma-C1E Kasta-2E2 ground reconnaissance radar stations Zoopark-1 Credo-1 Fara-1 meteorology system Ulybka ship-borne air-defense systems Rif-M Shtil-1 Klinok integrated missile systems 62 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue ASHOK LEYLAND The driving force for the Armed Forces shok Leyland the flagship company of the Hinduja Group and Technology leaders in the Indian Commercial Vehicle industry are pioneers in the design development and manufacture of special vehicles for the Armed Forces for over four decades. Ashok Leyland vehicles have served the Armed Forces in a variety of applications starting with the supply of 1200 Hippos in 1970s in the GS role as dozer carriers torpedo carriers and for mounting sophisticated communication equipments. The Company also pioneered indigenously developed Crash Fire Tenders and Rapid Intervention Vehicles for use at the air force naval air fields. This apart some 13 000 diesel engines deployed in various repowering projects play vital role in naval boats cranes ground starter aggregates compressors and generators. The development of the futuristic Stallion 4x4 has greatly contributed to the modernization of the logistics of the Indian Army. Following this Ashok Leyland s Stallion A 4x4 has grown to a 55 000strong fleet and this has become the veritable backbone of logistics operations making Ashok Leyland the largest supplier of logistics vehicles to the Indian Army. The Company took the onus of providing manufacturing know how by entering into a transfer of technology agreement with the Ordnance Factory Board under Ministry of Defence Government of India and has continuously supported it with product improvements value additions warranty support product upgrades and future interactions tie ups for other range of vehicles. In addition over 1500 Light Recovery Vehicles and 600 Truck Fire Fighting over 250 Field Artillery Tractors and 1200 5KL Water Bowsers chassis for aircraft refuellers mechanical runway sweepers and UAVs have joined the services. Ashok Leyland has been providing robust after market engineering support to the field army by conducting on ground training programmes and service camps for better appreciation of the technology being used. Over time the Company has invested over Rs 25 Mn by establishing 15 state-of-the-art training centres at strategic locations. The Indian sub-continent with its diversity and complexity of terrains and conditions provide the ideal proving ground and Ashok Leyland s special application vehicles have been performing faultlessly in altitudes varying from sea level to over 5 500 meters above sea level and in temperatures ranging from -40 degrees Celsius to 55 degrees Celsius. Recently the Company has heralded its entry into the armoured vehicles space with the unveiling of three new products the Armoured Stallion the Armoured Bus and the Mine Protected Vehicle. This strategic move by the Company is in response to an ever-increasing demand from the Armed Forces for well-engineered high-mobility high-protection tactical vehicles that can be used in counterinsurgency and counter-terrorist operations. These new vehicles give the Company the capability to engage the Armed Forces on more fronts in terms of product opportunities and at the same time look at new geographies. Going forward the Company has on the anvil a family of modern reliable war worthy vehicles with high commonality of parts. For more information visit our website Ashok Leyland s office Chennai No. 1 Sardar Patel Road Guindy Chennai 600 032. Contact person T. MuthuKumar Email muthukumar.t Tel 91 44 22206005 Fax 91 44 22304364 Gurgaon Defence & Special Vehicles Group 5th Floor Plot No. 76 Institutional Area Sector 32 Gurgaon 12001 Haryana. Contact person Atul Andley Email atul.andley Tel 91 124 4264969 Fax 91 124 4264970 GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 64 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue BEML Makes a Giant Leap in Defence Business SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 65 REGIONAL BALANCE EML LIMITED the Mini-Ratna Category-I PSU under the Ministry of Defence is a premier manufacturer of multi-technology high-quality products for diverse sectors of the economy such as Defence Mining and Construction and Rail and Metro. Besides the Company has also forayed into e-Engineering Trading and Aerospace businesses. With its world-class unique facilities for manufacture and testing BEML has supplied over 6 000 Tatra Trucks and its variants to the Indian Army during the past three decades. In addition to this the Company has also undertaken the challenge of indigenizing not only the PMS bridging system but also the Sarvatra bridge system thereby clearly exhibiting its capability of being the Nodal Production Agency of all types of Bridges required by the Indian Army. BEML Ltd has also made giant strides in manufacturing and supplying over 350 Armoured Recovery Vehicles ARV WZT-3 and 380 numbers of HRV AV-15 to Indian Armed forces. Looking forward it is now working on the design and development of Armoured Repair and Recovery vehicles based on MBT Arjun chassis to provide recovery cover to Regiments equipped with Arjun tanks. Having successfully indigenised the BMP-II transmission track adjuster and hydro pneumatic suspension unit for MBT Arjun and creating facilities for production of MBTs which includes the state of the art test track for A vehicles BEML is set itself prepared to take up any tasks relating to equipment in other fields such as Self Propelled Mounted tracked Guns or the Artillery. The stage is also set for BEML for taking on the challenging task of overhaul of Tank T-72 and ICV BMP-II to maintain the Defence preparedness. With the Indian Ministry of Defence now planning to modernise upgrade the Artillery Armoured Corps and Mechanised Infantry in a big way BEML will become beyond doubts a hub for catering to the varied types of equipment needs of Indian Army. The recent inaguration of a production facility at Palakkad in Kerala which will mainly cater to the production of Defence products will provide the platform for BEML to launch its new products. BEML with its added presence Prithvi Missile Launcher is a transporter cum launcher vehicle. The missile is transported on launcher in horizontal mode and articulated to vertical mode using hydraulic control system. Electronic controller provides the desired safety inter locks during articulation. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE in the Aerospace business has been catering with various unique equipment like Aircraft Towing Tractors Slat jigs for SU-30 Tow bar for Aircraft operations Gear components for Cheetah Chetak helicopters Automatic Weapon Loaders and Crash Fire Tender. With the excellent track record and varied experience BEML has set for itself to achieve a turnover of Rs 5 000 crore during 2013-14 to coincide with the Golden Jubilee Year of the Company. With registering a turnover of over Rs 3 500 crore during 2009-10 the Company has set a target of Rs 4 200 crore to attain in 2010-11 having Order Book position of over Rs 5 206 crore. Besides being a premier manufacturer of Defence Equipment BEML also has established its brand world-wide not only as the only Indian Manufacturer of Metro Cars but also has customer base in over 55 countries for its Mining & Construction equipment business. The Company provides round-the-clock services to all its valued customers through its 29 marketing net-work offices in India and four overseas offices at Brazil China Malaysia and Indonesia. ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY B CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS BHARAT ELECTRONICS Empowering the nation s defence forces D omain knowledge capability to design and manufacture products that suit the exacting standards of the Indian defence services and long-term customer support--these form the cornerstone of Navratna Defence PSU Bharat Electronics Limited s (BEL) success. With over 56 years of experience in the field of defence electronics BEL is well-aware of the demands of the armed forces including the operating conditions. Be it Himalayan blizzards Rajasthan s dust storms monsoon downpours of the Northeast or the salt-laden air on the high seas BEL s products have been designed to not only withstand the extreme climatic conditions but also function dependably. BEL is a multi-product multitechnology multi-unit conglomerate boasting of over 350 products and systems in the areas of command control communication & computer intelligence (C4I) systems mili- Product Range Military Communication BEL offers state-of-the-art communication products such as receivers in VLF HF and VHF bands transmitters in HF and VHF bands and transreceivers in HF VHF V UHF UHF and microwave bands. BEL s communication products are available in various configurations-- hand-held manpack vehicular and tank-mounted. BEL also supplies radio relays frequency hopping radios encryption products military switches base stations ruggedised automatic exchanges multiplexes CDMA networks and communication systems. The Digital Mobile Radio Relay of BEL provides an integrated solution on a single vehicle platform using optical fiber connectivity 8 Mbps line of sight orthogonal frequency division multiplexing radio connectivity Star Mesh 2 Mbps Satellite link connectivity. An IP based net- tary communication Radars Naval Systems Telecom & Broadcast Electronic Warfare & Avionics Tank Electronics Electro Optics Weapon Systems Shelters Professional Electronic Components Solar Photovoltaic Systems and Batteries. BEL s customers include the Army Navy Air Force Paramilitary Coast Guard Police Doordarshan All India Radio Department of Telecommunications and consumers of professional electronic components. Starting from a single unit in Bangalore the company now has a pan-India presence with units in Ghaziabad Panchkula Kotdwara Navi Mumbai Pune Hyderabad Machilipatnam and Chennai. It also has a network of offices and service centres across the country. Weapon Locating Radar (WLR) locates the position of hostile guns mortars and rocket launchers. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE STARS V Mk-II - Frequency Hopping VHF Transceiver is a frequency hopping software configurable ECCM radio (5W & 25W) in the VHF band 66 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue BOMBARDIER AEROSPACE Specialized and Amphibious Aircraft SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 69 REGIONAL BALANCE ombardier has the longest track record and the widest range of experience of any special mission aircraft provider. The company s rich heritage of developing aircraft for governments armed forces and specialized commercial operators stretches back more than 40 years and tens of thousands of flight hours. Bombardier has designed built and delivered well over 300 special mission aircraft for customers worldwide since January 1965 when a Learjet 23 was quickly reconfigured from a standard corporate interior and flew a medical evacuation mission. Today the Learjet Challenger and Global business jets the Q-Series turboprop and the Regional Jet airliners provide a full spectrum of special mission capabilities that can meet most current requirements. With the largest fleet of special mission aircraft in corporate aviation most members of Bombardier s comprehensive business jet and commercial aircraft B family are firmly established in-service with special mission operators. Airborne C4ISR Any mission requiring surveillance monitoring intelligence gathering airborne coordination or simply national presence falls under the heading of C4ISR (Command Control Communications Computers Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance). Bombardier aircraft are already well established in these roles particularly in the increasingly sophisticated air to ground surveillance environment including overland and maritime domains. The ASTOR (Airborne Stand-Off Radar) program for Britain s Royal Air Force (RAF) underlines the credentials of the Global Express as a GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE ASTOR (Airborne Stand-Off Radar) program for Britain s Royal Air Force (RAF) underlines the credentials of the Global Express as a superior C4ISR platform superior C4ISR platform. As part of a team led by Raytheon Systems Bombardier won the UK s ASTOR competition in 1999 supplying five Global Express aircraft for the program. Bombardier was responsible for simulation and modeling of the airframe modifications as well as a 300-hour flight test program. The ASTOR platform - known as the Sentinel R.Mk 1 - is equipped with a Raytheon dual-mode SAR MTI radar mission management systems MILSATCOM and the latest in communications and data link equipment. The Sentinel R.Mk 1 is the only dedicated NATO C4ISR aircraft in operation outside the United States. The success of the ASTOR program has led to the Global Express being considered as a candidate plat- BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS C-COM SATELLITE SYSTEMS SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 71 REGIONAL BALANCE Warfighters On-The-Move Providing mobile warfighters with broadband communications over satellite is an uphill battle. Under stressful conditions and across enemy lines military forces have to set up tactical networks connecting hundreds of remote locations. Using satellite links military forces can transfer millions of networked applications and services including video and Voice over IP global positioning systems (GPS) email instant messenger even news feeds from CNN. Effective collaboration and communication across thousands of miles between military and governmental agencies is not an option but a must today. With flexible operational services and compact ground terminals Satellite Communications (SATCOM) services offer attractive solutions for military users in theater and on global links. When deployed in theater SATCOM offers terrain independent communications flexible networking and direct link to the final destinations without reliance on radio relays. Military Satellite Communications (MilSatCom) has been growing in focus in recent years offering flexible access to various levels of command and control for military operations around the world. The well designed iNetVu satellite antenna systems (Communication-On-The-Pause) provide continuous connectivity under adverse conditions in many parts of the world. They are capable of automatically and rapidly GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Fast Reliable and Secure Communications through the iNetVu technology Mobile satellite communication systems are proven to be very reliable for the military where people on the fields cannot use wired services. For such people it is very important to keep their missions and secrets ASIAN WHO S WHO Automatically deployable iNetVu antenna systems by C-COM allow the delivery of broadband services into military vehicles while stationary virtually anywhere one can drive. recovering from signal blockages caused by terrain foliage weather and other atmospheric effects. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS DASSAULT Rafale Global Reach ith its outstanding endurance its in-flight refuelling capability and its very long-range stand-off weapons the Rafale omnirole fighter is extremely well equipped to strike distant well-defended deeply buried hardened targets. The Rafale has been designed as a very compact high-tech fighter capable of carrying a huge external load of fuel tanks and missiles. In fact it can carry more than 33 110 lbs of kerosene and weapons quite an accomplishment for an aircraft weighing less than 22 075 lbs empty. Scalp For long-range attacks of highvalue heavily defended targets the French Armed Forces have selected the Scalp cruise missile of the MBDA Scalp Apache Storm Shadow Black Shaheen family. The Rafale s normal combat load is composed of two Scalps four Mica air-to-air missiles and three 2 000- SIRPA AIR - A. JEULAND SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 73 REGIONAL BALANCE litre drop tanks. The Scalp can be released at very low level with the Rafale flying in terrain-following mode to avoid detection. With its fuel-efficient Microturbo engine this intelligent stealth weapon can navigate autonomously at high subsonic speed towards the target which will be clearly identified by The Scalp can be released at very low level with the Rafale flying in terrainfollowing mode to avoid detection. With its fuel-efficient Microturbo engine this intelligent stealth weapon can navigate autonomously at high subsonic speed and hit the target with very high precision. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Buddy-buddy tankers With their 10 375 lbs of internal fuel single-seat Rafales boast an impressive range which can be massively extended by up to five external drop tanks (three 2 000-litre and two 1 250-litre fuel tanks) under five wet hardpoints four under the wings and one under the fuselage. Range can be further increased thanks to air-to-air refuelling and the Rafale can refuel from a wide range of tankers A330 MRTT Boeing 707 Il-78 Midas KC-135 KC-130 VC-10... ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS W its onboard infrared sensor automatic target recognition algorithms compare the actual scene with the memorised scene identify the designated target and accurately select the impact point in order to hit with very high precision. To maximise its military effect the Scalp is fitted with a remarkably powerful Broach tandem warhead which can defeat heavily protected bunkers. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Defence Land Systems India A Mahindra BAE Systems Company SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 75 REGIONAL BALANCE Mahindra & Mahindra M&M s long association with the Armed Forces and other Security forces stems from supply of light vehicles for past 60 years. Mahindra Defence Systems (MDS) a M&M Division is one of the leaders in armouring of light vehicles in India. MDS has supplied more than 1000 bullet resistant light vehicles to the Army Para Military Forces and Central and State Police Forces. These vehicles have repeatedly proved in combat during anti terrorists anti Naxal operations saving precious loves of our gallant soldiers and policemen. MDS has been awarded the prestigious international Frost & Sullivan Customer Value Enhancement Award 2009 in Land Combat Systems market for India. BAE Systems BAE Systems is a well known global defence security and aerospace company with approximately 107 000 employees worldwide. The Company delivers a full range of products and services for air land and naval forces as well as advanced electronics security DLSI is focused on the manufacture of up-armoured light vehicles specialist military vehicles mine protected vehicles artillery systems combat vehicles and other selected land system weapons and upgrades. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Defence Land Systems India Defence Land Systems India (DLSI) is a 74% - 26% joint venture between Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd India and information technology solutions and customer support services. In 2009 BAE Systems reported sales of 22.4 billion (US 36.2 billion). ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS D efence Land Systems India (DLSI) is a joint venture enterprise between Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd (M&M) and BAE Systems plc. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS DRS TECHNOLOGIES A Finmeccanica Company RVS-330 Rugged Vehicle System DRS Tactical Systems Facility Melbourne Florida SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 77 REGIONAL BALANCE RS Technologies headquartered in Parsippany New Jersey is a leading designer manufacturer and supplier of integrated products services and support to military forces intelligence and homeland security agencies and prime defense contractors worldwide. Focused on defense technology DRS develops manufactures and supports a broad range of systems for mission critical and military sustainment requirements as well as homeland security. Since 1968 DRS has succeeded by having the agility technology and customer focus to respond quickly in a rapidly changing market and has been recognized in recent years as one of the fastest growing and best managed defense technology companies in the world. DRS products and systems are deployed on some of the most technologically advanced platforms in the world. Customers can count on DRS to focus its resources on innovation Scorpiontm Rugged Laptop MRT Military Rugged Tablet Armor X10 Rugged Tablet quality and cost effectiveness providing a superior value. At sea DRS products and services support the U.S. Navy s newest ships including littoral combat ships destroyers cruisers amphibious landing craft and aircraft carriers. On the ground DRS can be found supporting the U.S. Army s and U.S. Marine Corps mine-resistant ambush-protected (MRAP) vehicles Armored Knight Vehicles Abrams Tanks Bradley Fighting Vehicles and High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWV) as well as the U.S. Air Force s special operations aircraft. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO Focused on defense technology DRS develops manufactures and supports a broad range of systems for mission critical and military sustainment requirements as well as homeland security. DRS started out as a supplier to the U.S. Navy with its pioneering work in passive submarine detection. The new technology enabled sailors to detect and identify submarines quietly without the noisy telltale pinging of active sonar. DRS original legacy system the AN SQR-17 is still in use today. Since those early years DRS has grown from a small specialty electronics supplier to the highlydiversified defense technology provider it is today with more than 10 000 employees working in multiple locations throughout the INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS D TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS ELBIT SYSTEMS Elbit Systems Offers a Broad Range of Solutions and Systems for a Variety of Applications and Platforms SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 79 REGIONAL BALANCE lbit Systems Ltd. is a world leading defense electronics company with over three decades of systems expertise in air ground and naval platforms. The company focuses on Western and Eastern platform modernization and weapon system upgrades. A broad innovative product line together with excellent management and system integration expertise has positioned Elbit Systems as prime contractor in numerous large-scale projects. After three generations of helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) designed for fixed and rotary wing aircraft there is little doubt that Elbit Systems is a worldwide industry leader. The HMD business has been one of the Company s key growth engines. Today Elbit Systems and its subsidiary Vision Systems International (VSI) jointly owned with Kaiser Electronics (a Rockwell Collins Company) have more production and operational experience than any other company in the field. In fact there are currently over 5 500 Elbit Systems HMDs deployed on four continents in over 30 countries. The Company has secured a specialized niche in Eastern and Western platform modernizations providing total solutions based on in-house core competencies and technologies. Elbit Systems is unique in its ability to provide complete solutions that go beyond systems and products to long-term GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO Elbit Systems is a worldwide industry leader of helmetmounted displays (HMDs) designed for fixed and rotary wing aircraft. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS E maintenance technical support full integration installation product training often partnering with local industries. An acknowledged leader in Training and Simulation Elbit Systems together with recently acquired BVR Systems builds on over three decades of programs to offer across-the-board systems engineering and integration expertise suitable for a comprehensive range of air ground and naval training and simulation solutions. These solutions range from mission preparation and execution to post-mission debriefing and analysis. Unique to Elbit Systems is the work force behind its solutions a team of active military pilots tank commanders and naval officers whose operational experience is translated into superior training and simulation. Elbit Systems UASs have earned international recognition and are playing increasingly vital TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS ELETTRONICA LETTRONICA founded in 1951 is Europe s leading manufacturer of Electronic Defence equipment. It is also for the second year the fourth in the world according to the top magazine of the EW community the Journal of Electronic Defence (JED). The company designs produces and fields a range of products that covers all aspects of Electronic Warfare naval land and air environments ESM ECM ELINT RWR SOJ class of equipments passive and active functions. The Company mission is concentrated on EW with no other diversion. Each and every aspect of defense electronics state-of-the-art is addressed from passive monitoring of enemy neutral and even friendly electromagnetic emissions both in asymmetric and symmetric combat conditions in peace tension and wartime to self mutual and stand-off protection of own combat E and support platforms to the analysis of complex battlefield scenarios in real-time and non real-time for tactical (the former) and intelligence (the latter) purposes. The paramount assumption of Elettronica s professional thinking is that the mastership of the modern battlefield becomes the sole asset of the first fighter who achieves control of the electronic battlefield as soon as he manages to do so. As our president and CEO Mr Enzo Benigni has stated ...due to the fact that EW must always anticipate and defeat the technological competition of its threats newest and traditional requirements represent the driving force towards a continuous and complete innovation which is always the raison d tre of EW. In our field excellence is an absolute must not a nice to have to be traded off with other performances and budgets. If you are Nr.One you Elettronica designs produces and fields a range of products that covers all aspects of Electronic Warfare naval land and air environments ESM ECM ELINT RWR SOJ class of equipments passive and active functions. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE survive and win. Otherwise you are a loser in battle and in business . With this mandatory thrust to excellence fixed in its DNA Elettronica product line covers all kinds of electronic warfare products from single stand-alone equipment to complete integrated systems all for naval airborne and ground applications. These equipments are among the most advanced worldwide capitalizing on the adoption of the most up-to-date technology in this area i.e. solid-state transmitters and digital memory & receivers. More than simple technology supremacy Elettronica has the complete mastership and control of techniques and tools to compile and validate the threat libraries associated with the EW equipment. These resources are deliverable by the Company to its Customers without constraints limiting their ability to acquire and manage a fundamental 82 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue EMBRAER E MBRAER (Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A.) is one of the largest aerospace companies in the world and leader in the category of commercial jets with up to 120 seats. The Company designs produces and sells aircraft and systems for the commercial executive and defense market developing successful integrated systems and aircraft platforms introducing new technology whenever it creates value lowering acquisition price reducing direct operating costs or delivering higher reliability comfort and safety. As a result Embraer products provide excellent performance while being economical to acquire and cost-effective to operate and maintain. Equally important the Company provides after-market support and services to customers around the world. Built based upon a strong tradition of technical excellence and the highest level of engineering skills and customer support Embraer has produced more than five thousand aircraft currently operating in more than 90 countries during its 40 years of existence. Headquartered in Brazil and with offices subsidiaries and customer service bases in Singapore Portugal France China and the United States Embraer is a customer-oriented company with a global customer base and worldwide respected partners. Embraer is one of top 5 Brazil s largest exporters and one of its three largest overall exporters approximately 96% of its revenues came from overseas markets in 2008 representing 2.9% of Brazil s total exports. Asia and Pacific accounted for 18% of Embraer total revenues in 2008 reinforcing the increasing investments of Embraer in the region. EMB 145 AEW&C is a derivative of the successful ERJ 145 regional jet platform modified with the integration of an active phased array radar multimode radar system and sensors that qualifies the aircraft for true multi-mission capability By the end of 2009 the Company backlog was about US 16.6 billion in firm orders and its workforce was around 16.800 people. Defense and Government Market Products Embraer is recognized by the superiority of its military aircraft. Approximately 30 foreign Armed Forces and Governments also rely on Embraer products to accomplish their missions. A full line of Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance products based on the ERJ 145 platform for Airborne Early Warning and Control Multi Intel and Maritime Patrol has shown excellent sales and operational success in the highly competitive international defense market. The EMB 145 AEW&C (Airborne GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 84 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue EUROCOPTER Strengthening India s Reconnaissance and Surveillance SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 87 REGIONAL BALANCE he advent of airpower in the 21st century has revolutionised warfare by adding new dimensions to the battlefield. But the most important function remains reconnaissance and surveillance. It is natural that India is on the look out for the best in class aircraft to form the mainstay of India s defense forces. Reconnaissance and observation helicopter need to be capable of fulfilling various roles personnel transport escort and attack missions casualty evacuation and observation. The three key expectations from a successful helicopter in this segment therefore are maneouverability versatility and agility. This is what makes Eurocopter s AS550 Fennec one of the most succesful helicopters in the world for this kind of requirement. Eurocopter Fennec is a light and agile machine which can be fitted with a variety of systems and weapons as required. This is what makes the FENNEC a reference helicopter for Extremely Hot Desertic operations and since 2005 it holds the world record for landing on the Top of the World Mount Everest. It has shown that it is the only helicopter that can match these 2 extreme conditions required by Indian military. The AS550 FENNEC is also the only military certified helicopter in GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO The AS550 Fennec is the combat version of the Ecureuil family and is renowned the world over for its lethality. It can be fitted for anti-tank air-to-air combat ground support and training missions and it is also used in the utility transportation role. the world corresponding to India s requirement. The Fennec AS 550 C3 is the lightest aircraft being able to fight throughout the whole tactical spectrum. The Fennec skills go from Observation Detection and Identification (Night & Day) with its Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR) to troops transportation INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS T TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS EUROJET Turbo GmbH UROJET Turbo GmbH is the leading military aerospace engine consortium in Europe responsible for the management of development production maintenance support and export of the new generation EJ200 engine. The shareholding industries of EUROJET are Avio (Italy) ITP (Spain) MTU Aero Engines (Germany) and Rolls-Royce (UK). The company s headquarters are located in Hallbergmoos Germany (near Munich airport). EUROJET Turbo GmbH is responsible for the EJ200 engine system and is the central point of contact for all EJ200 project activities. The EJ200 engine is designed under the lead of EUROJET Turbo GmbH and manufactured by four aerospace companies from four nations. EUROJET Turbo GmbH and Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH (the latter is responsible for managing the development E and production of the complete Eurofighter Typhoon weapon system) are each contractual partners with NETMA (NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency). NETMA is a single interface for all four-nation Customers in the programme. The EJ200 programme together with Eurofighter represents some GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE EJ200 is the power behind Eurofighter Typhoon and is designed for performance maintainability and low life cycle costs 100 000 direct and indirect jobs across Europe and 400 companies are involved. It is Europe s largest industrial programme representing a direct commitment by partner nations and companies for investment in sustainable technology and the industrial potential of European aerospace industry. 90 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue FFV ORDNANCE FV Ordnance is and has been for a number of years one of the world s leading suppliers of manportable support weapons. To reach and maintain this position requires continuous and result-focused engineering and product development. A broad development of technology as far to the forefront as possible both technically and in time that can be implemented into products when the situation changes and military tactical requirements arise provides the perfect relationship. FFV Ordnance has for many years developed technology within the areas of internal ballistics external ballistics ignition systems and warhead effect. This is and has been FFV Ordnance s model for success. New times result in new requirements. Within the area of weapons and ammunition and not the least for man-portable weapon systems users place demands for improved or different effect increased product F safety as well as that the weapon shall be lighter and easier to carry. In recent years requirements on the environmental impact of the weapon systems have been highlighted. FFV Ordnance is continuously working on fulfilling these new requirements. The war on terrorism has been partly moved into built-up areas which requires weapon systems that are light and easy to carry and that have good effect in various types of targets and not just in armoured vehicles. But combat is also conducted outside built-up areas and in terrain that is inaccessible for vehicles so the requirement for weapons with a long combat range and various warheads remains or is even increased. Carl-Gustaf M3 is a robust light weapon easy to use in both in day and night operations. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Combat in built-up areas FFV Ordnance now has more than 20 years of experience with man-portable weapons intended for use by units engaged in urban warfare. LAW AT4 CS HEAT is a further development of the LAW AT4 HEAT or the M136 as it is known in the United States. LAW AT4 CS HEAT has a warhead with increased behind armour effect that is sought after primarily for engagement of light-armoured vehicles. The enemy not only operates from armoured vehicles but also takes cover and operates in buildings. It is therefore a light man-portable weapon with good effect behind walls is needed or simply to create a new entrance into a building without jeopardizing the safety of friendly forces. AT4CS AST where AST stands for Anti-Structure Tandem is a new weapon in the AT4 series. The weapon like the rest of the AT4CS series has a liquid countermass and can be fired from rooms smaller than 25 m3. 92 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue FINCANTIERI Cantieri Navali Italiani incantieri ( is one of the world s most prominent and diversified shipbuilding groups world leader in the construction of cruise ships and reference operator for the large ferry sector in addition to important activities in the naval field. To encourage the Group s growth Fincantieri developed a series of initiatives and promoted the in sectors close to its core business ship repairs and conversions marine systems and components and megayachts. Headquartered in Trieste the company has a staff of approximately 9 000 employed at its Italian eight shipyards and two design centres in Trieste (the largest in Europe) and Genoa. Fincantieri is present in the USA as Fincantieri Marine Group (approximately 1 600 employees). Fincantieri Activities in the Naval Field In the naval field Fincantieri is proud of its comprehensive know-how. It F designs and realises any kind of conventional military ship (aircraft carriers frigates corvettes patrol ships auxiliary ships and submarines) according to the highest technological standards. The company proposes both well proven projects already used by the Italian Navy and new-conception projects. At national level it is the reference partner of the Italian Navy and the Coast Guard in the construction and logistic support of the combating surface fleet the major auxiliary units and submarines. At European level Fincantieri par- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Aircraftcarrier Cavour The aircraft carrier in the middle of a battle group is the symbol par excellence of power projection. This is exercised through its board aircraft capable of conducting offensive operations within several hundred miles from the naval group. Cavour embark on a total of 20-24 aircrafts. ticipated in important cross-border programmes together with major stakeholders. One its latest cooperation projects is that for the upcoming realisation of the new multimission frigates (FREMM). In the US is participating to some of the most important programs in the naval field both with the US Navy and with the US Coastguard with important partners such as Loockheed Martin Boeing and Oceaneering. Notably Fincantieri is member of one of the two consortiums that is participating at the tender for the construction of the Littoral Combat Ships 94 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue GRIPEN IN The Independent Choice New frontiers in Technology Passing the hundred sorties mark wasn t a goal in itself but it proves the programme s success. Gripen IN Demo Programme Manager Mattias Bergstr m controls all schedules development and integration challenges as well as all key program partners GE Selex-Galileo Rockwell Collins Honeywell APPH Terma Martin-Baker and Meggitt. Mattias Bergstr m Programme Manager Gripen IN Demo My altitude was 28 000 feet and the speed I achieved was above Mach 1.2. Today s supercruise flight is part of the ongoing high speed supersonic testing that will include supersonic flights with different load alternatives. Saab test pilot Magnus Ljungdahl flew the Gripen Demonstrator aircraft in supercruise. Magnus Ljungdahl Test Pilot Mr. Bergstr m how much new ground is the Gripen IN Demo breaking Gripen IN Demo is creating new frontiers of technology. The programme is indeed demanding but at the same time extremely interesting. The flight was conducted over the Baltic Sea my altitude was 28 000 feet and the speed achieved was above Mach 1.2. Without using afterburner I maintained the same speed until I ran out of test area and had to head back to the Saab Test Flight Centre in Link ping. How far has the programme progressed We have flown over 135 sorties. Passing the hundred sorties mark wasn t a goal itself but it proved the programme s success. After completing phase 1 last year focusing on engine aerodynamics and performance we are now working with sensor and communication packages. What kind of sensor and communication packages are we talking about Right now the tests are focusing on the new AESA radar Missile Approach Warners Satellite Communication and new digital fast data links. What is the next step in the test programme After the MMRCA programme in India we will continue the test programme with the focus on avionics. Why was this achievement important To show potential customers that Gripen can supercruise is an important milestone said Gripen India Director Eddy de la Motte and to perform this activity only nine months after the Gripen Demonstrator was first shown in public is something that few if any aircraft can beat. Richard Ljungberg Test Pilot Gripen IN Demo How does the Gripen IN Demo take forward the Gripen lineage The Gripen IN Demo has inherited the superb handling qualities from the smaller Gripen. During the take-off you can feel the extra thrust given by the new engine. The feeling of increased performance stays throughout the whole mission. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 96 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS Current indigenous aircraft Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) HAL s new introduction Indigenously developed and built by HAL in a record time of forty months the Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) is a derivative of the Advanced Light Helicopter (Dhruv). This is an attack helicopter one of the first of its kind in Asia. History The technologies acquired and developed for HAL s Dhruv platform have been translated into developing a dedicated Light combat helicopter appended with latest features like low visibility features Nuclear Biological and Chemical warfare protection integration of the latest weapon systems and electronic warfare suite. Technical Features The advanced technical features of the Dhruv have been retained. The features that are unique to LCH are Sleek & narrow fuselage tri-cycle crashworthy landing gear tandem cockpits aero foil shaped stub wings for weapons armour protection NBC protection and low visibility which make the LCH lethal agile and survivable. Capability and Performance LCH will be fitted with a 20 mm Turret gun and can carry 70mm Rockets Air-to Air Air-to-Ground missiles on the weapon stations. The helicopter would have day night targeting systems for the crew including the Helmet pointed sight and Electro-optical pod consisting of CCD camera FLIR Laser Range Finder Laser Designator. A Digital Video Recorder would The features that are unique to LCH are Sleek & narrow fuselage tri-cycle crashworthy landing gear tandem cockpits aero foil shaped stub wings for weapons armour protection NBC protection and low visibility which make the LCH lethal agile and survivable. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE enable recording of the vital mission for debriefing purposes. The turret gun skewing is controlled by the Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS). The LCH is also fitted with a Self Protection Suite consisting of Radar Laser Missile warning systems and Countermeasures dispensing system. IR Laser missile jammer would also be integrated to the helicopter. The helicopter would be fitted with a Data Link for Network-centric operations facilitating transfer of the mission data to other airborne platforms and ground stations operating in the Network thus facilitating force multiplication. 98 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue HONEYWELL IN INDIA Creating a positive impact through solutions developed in for and with India F or more than 40 years Honeywell has invested in building a dynamic and vibrant presence in India. Today 10 000 Honeywell employees work in more than 50 cities throughout the country. Our work spans multiple industries with focus on developing technologies products and services that make people safer and more secure more comfortable and energy efficient and more innovative and productive both in India and across the world. Each year India exports more than Rs.1400 Crore of our diverse products and services. These products range from collision avoidance systems for aircraft to security systems for homes buildings and critical infrastructure. We also manufacture products including safety equipment for commercial enterprises and automotive turbochargers for both the local and global marketplace. Our engineering manufacturing research and technology capabilities in India continue to expand as we support the growing demands of the global aviation aerospace and defence industries. Most commercial and business aircraft in service around the world use our aviation products many of which were developed through partnership with Indian industry and institutes. In the defence sector we actively support India s internal security and military readiness. From the Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv and Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas to the Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) our technologies are found in a majority of Indian indigenous military platforms. Honeywell has also developed key safety and mechanical systems for military plat- Honeywell will make the Jaguar roar GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE forms like the maritime reconnaissance P8i the troop transport C-130J program and the Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA). We are committed to providing solutions for the evolving needs and requirements of militaries and operators. These include the F125IN engine for the IAF Jaguar our TALIN inertial navigation product line T-HawkTM aerial intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance system and avionics solutions for the Mi-17 helicopter upgrade. We are proud of our rich history as a member of India s industrial base and are excited about the future as a continued partner operating in and for India. 100 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue ISRAEL AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES Financial Figures IAI s 2009 sales totaled 2.9 billion 2.2 billion (77%) of these sales are for export. IAI s backlog as of December 2009 reached 7.9 billion. IAI s 2009 net profit totaled 61 million. Core Areas of Activity Space From its own launchers and satellites to ground services IAI offers customers affordable solutions and partnerships with industry leaders in space exploration. IAI develops and produces satellites for various purposes such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) observation satellites (Ofeq Eros) Synthetic Aperture Radar (TECSAR) and communication satellites such as the SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 101 REGIONAL BALANCE Amos series (GEO). Theater Defense IAI s Arrow Weapon System Against Tactical Ballistic Missiles (ATBMs) leads the market. This multi-layer system representing outstanding visionary and technological achievements such as the Green Pine missile detection and fire and control radar as well as other interoperable solutions is the cornerstone of Israel s defense system. Commercial Aircraft IAI s design engineering and manufacturing capabilities are demonstrated in a highly cost-effective intercontinental range super-midsize business jet. IAI also develops and produces for major international OEM s pri- Naval Systems for Superior Defense & Strike Capabilities GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS I srael Aerospace Industries Ltd. (IAI) is a globally recognized leader in the defense and commercial markets. mary aerostructure assemblies as well as landing gear servo-control and actuator systems. MRO & Civil Aircraft Conversion IAI is an expert one-stop-shop for commercial aircraft conversion maintenance repair and overhaul with the engineering equipment and facilities to deliver rapid turn-around at competitive prices. Naval Systems IAI develops and produces naval maritime radars and EO payloads for various platforms such as helicopters UAS and other aircraft. The company s range of naval missiles includes the proven Barak naval point-defense missile for both sea-to-sea and sea-to-air targets and naval platforms include advanced patrol boats. IAI also modernizes and upgrades vessels weapon systems defense systems and conducts system integration for customers worldwide. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) IAI is a world leader in totally inte- TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS ISRAEL WEAPON INDUSTRIES Beyond Innovation srael Weapon Industries (IWI) is a worldwide leading small arms company. Its acclaimed products are globally operated by armies special units police and law enforcement entities. IWI s products include the family of Tavor Assault Rifles X95 (Assault Carbine & SMG) and Negev LMG. These weapons are in service in the Israel Defense Forces and the world over. The Tavor is one of the most technologically advanced assault rifles in its category. Its many advantages include the fact that it is a compact rifle with a long barrel attributable to a bullpup configuration. The weapon has an integral reflex sight to enhance its precision. Night or day a telescope can be easily fitted with no need of zeroing. The X95 is a lighter shorter innovative and highly technologically advanced weapon. A variant of the Tavor it offers a complete platform comprising optics and other accessories. The ACE Assault Rifle (5.56 x 45mm 7.62 x 51mm & 7.62 x 39mm) is based on the reliable mechanism of the Galil Assault Rifle. It is highly suitable for the modern battlefield SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 103 REGIONAL BALANCE and serves as a platform for optical devices and accessories. The Negev LMG 5.56mm is a lightweight configuration weapon comprising semi automatic or automatic mode capabilities and enabling maximum firepower for infantry combat platoon. IWI s products are developed in close collaboration with Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and the IDF uses intensively IWI s products. The continued use of IWI s weapons enables the company to design its products accordingly optimizing innovating modifying and improv- (top) X95 Carabine 5.56mm Submachine Gun 9mm (above) ACE Assault Rifle (5.56 x 45mm 7.62 x 51mm & 7.62 x 39mm) GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ing its weapons features using modern technology in response to ever changing needs of the modern battlespace. ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY I CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE A subsidiary of the MINERVA GROUP one of France s leading players in mechanical equipment for very high technology sectors is now making a foray into India About ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE For more than half a century ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE s core business of applied mechanics to high technology has provided various high level safety equipments to numerous French companies in shipbuilding and defence systems. Since the early 60s ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE has been closely involved in the construction of French submarines whether nuclear or conventionally powered and the manufacture of Charles De Gaulle aircraft carriers and French type Frigates FREMM. Today Given ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE s tremendous growth in the last decade it is now poised for its international expansion. Today ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE also has the backing and technical support of the MINERVA group which it joined in 2006. In addition to its own first class machining techniques other technologies are now available such as vacuum brazing of copper and aluminum alloys mastery of cold technology Cooling systems applied to cooling of embedded electronic power components. Their Design and R&D departments whose expertise in product architecture design and electromechanical integration strengthen GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Since the early 60s Issartel Industrie has been closely involved in the construction of French submarines whether nuclear or conventionally powered their capabilities and enable a better coordination of all the activities of the various industrial sites of the group in Mechanical Engineering Electronic and Thermal. Owing to the Group s synergies Issartel is able to enter into a project right from the concept phase. 104 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue ITT DEFENSE Integrated Solutions for the Complex Networked Battlefield s the character of warfare continues to transform and global threats are becoming more sophisticated the needs of governments are rapidly changing. Forces must hone their strategies to a style of warfare that is reliant on sophisticated networks to be competitive. Over the last couple of years ITT Defense and Information Solutions one of the ten largest defense contractors in the United States has responded to the dynamic needs of armed forces by extending beyond its sophisticated defense technologies like tactical radios night vision goggles and counter-IED jammers and focusing more on integrated networked solutions that address a broad range of challenges. ITT s Night Vision solutions are proven and battlefield tested and as the company continues to make progress on the technology ITT will evolve to become a Total Night Vision Systems Solutions A Provider. This means the company will provide night vision goggles and tubes image intensification and infrared weapon sights a Performance Based Logistics program for spares and all associated operator and maintenance training. When combined with ITT s dynamic networking technology ITT s night vision goggles will allow tomorrow s GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ITT Defense and Information Solutions offers sophisticated defense technologies like tactical radios night vision goggles and counter-IED jammers and focuses more on integrated networked solutions that address a broad range of challenges. war fighter to send and receive imagery which will greatly enhance situational awareness and create a digital battlefield for those on and off the front lines. Recently ITT expanded its manufacturing capacity to meet the needs of the international community and reduce delivery times to get night vision goggles into the hands of soldiers swiftly. 106 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue LARSEN & TOUBRO Capabilities in warship and submarine construction ngineering powerhouse Larsen & Toubro has capabilities in naval defence equipment and systems that are being increasingly recognized by industry. This USD 9.8 billion company has proven its expertise in design engineering manufacture and supply of custom-built vessels equipment and systems for marine applications. Also widely acknowledged are the sophistication of the state-of-the-art facilities it has set up for critical fabrication precision machining system integration and testing. L&T has worked closely with India s defence research agencies to apply highend technologies for India s self-reliance in naval systems. Many developmental projects have been executed involving equipment systems and platforms including some on no-cost-no-commitment basis. L&T has a large team specialized in naval design technology development engineering and construction of naval vessels and equipment. The design centers and construction facilities are equipped with top-end software related to ERP product life management digital 3D modeling design and analysis virtual reality and project management. The Company shares a technology-intensive professional relationship with the Indian Navy culminating in several successful ventures. It contributed to India s first indigenous nuclear-powered submarine INS Arihant. With the basic design being provided by DRDO Indian Navy L&T s role included engineering hull construction equipment installation E Firing from BrahMos Missile Launcher developed and supplied by L&T outfitting system integration and trials. L&T is at the forefront of indigenizing key equipment and systems for India s defence forces. L&T chose the know-why rather than know-how route to develop weapons systems and marine equipment through inhouse design and in partnership with DRDO. Critical naval equipment and systems include Steering Gear and Fin Stabilizer Systems for P15A Destroyers Steering Gear System for First Indigenous Aircraft Carrier Fin Stabilizer Systems for Naval Offshore Patrol Vessels & Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvettes Systems for Shafting Bridge Control Power Generation & Distribution for Frontline Warships of the Indian Navy. Other naval systems developed by L&T include Sonar Domes specialised Self-propelled Trolleys Heat Exchangers Landing Grids and Traversing Systems for Helicopters Blast-proof Hanger Shutters Shiplift (23000T capacity for L&T s mega shipyard at Kattupalli). The weapons and sensors segment of the Indian Navy has seen key contribution from L&T. The Company indigenously developed launcher systems for Dhanush triple-tube and twin-tube torpedoes WM-18 rockets BrahMos missile and launch canisters for BrahMos. L&T s RADAR and SONAR GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE systems include winch and handling systems for SONARS (NAGAN and MAREECH) Revathi ship-mounted radar system. Shipbuilding orders include eight RoRoLoLo (specialised semi-submersible) ships for Rolldock Netherlands and two heavy lift ships for Big Lift. An order for 36 Interceptor Boats has been received from the Indian Coast Guard. L&T has submitted bids for several platforms for IN and Coast Guard including cadet training ships offshore patrol vessels fast patrol vessels and midget submarines. L&T can build ships with up to 4-meter draft at Hazira Shipyard. Besides these submarines can be built launched and tried out at this Shipyard. For construction of bigger warships L&T is shortly operationalising a mega shipyard at Kattupalli near Chennai to serve domestic and global requirements. The product range would include all types of Warships LPDs and Aircraft Carriers for Defence Vessels for Coast Guard Technology-intensive specialized commercial vessels such as LPG LNG Carriers PCTCs Chemical Tankers Survey Vessels high-capacity specialized handling vessels etc. Repair & refits of vessels for defence & commercial applications would be undertaken. With its expertise and experience L&T provides total solutions for the Indian Navy and the Coast Guard - from digital design modular construction procurement to L&Tbuilt equipment system integration trials commissioning and maintenance support. 108 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue LOCKHEED MARTIN SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 109 REGIONAL BALANCE Lockheed Martin is led by Robert J. Stevens Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. The Corporation reported 2009 sales of 45.2 billion. Governments worldwide are involved in meeting vital strategic goals to defend the peace make their borders and homeland secure or manage large Information Technology infrastructure projects. Lockheed Martin has more than 300 alliances joint ventures and other partnerships in 75 countries. Lockheed Martin s operating units are organized into four broad business areas with diverse lines of business. F-16 with Sniper pod. With a robust upgrade capacity and the continuous insertion of technology the F-16IN can be readily equipped with emerging capabilities throughout its lifecycle. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS L ockheed Martin is a global security company and premier systems integrator principally engaged in the research design development manufacture integration and sustainment of advanced technology systems products and services. With growth markets in Defense Homeland Security and Systems Government Information Technology Lockheed Martin delivers innovative technologies that help customers address complex challenges of strategic and national importance. Headquartered in Bethesda Maryland Lockheed Martin employs 136 000 people worldwide. Distinguished by whole-system thinking and action a passion for invention and disciplined performance Lockheed Martin strives to earn a reputation as the partner of choice supplier of choice and employer of choice in the global marketplace. Electronic Systems missiles and fire control maritime systems sensors platform integration simulation training and energy programs Aeronautics combat aircraft air mobility special mission and reconnaissance aircraft advanced development programs and sustainment operations services Space Systems launch services satellites and strategic defensive missile systems. Information Systems & Global Solutions information and systems integration solutions for civil defense and intelligence applications international and next-generation products supporting transportation census and aviation customers readiness and stability operations. As a systems integrator in Defense Aerospace and Information Technology Lockheed Martin is TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Arming the three Armed Forces I SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 111 REGIONAL BALANCE n the highly competitive guided missiles sector MBDA is unique. Not only is the company associated with unmatched technologies it is the only company capable of providing missile systems to each of the armed forces to the army air force and navy. Defence planning has to take note of the wide range of potential airborne threats that the 21st century might present. These threats include not only the latest generation of supersonic combat jets but also the proliferation of low cost cruise missiles and precision guided bombs developing UAV and UCAV technology not to mention the steady increase in the number of countries fielding short- and medium range ballistic missiles. To meet these threats MBDA has developed and has subsequently become associated with the world s leading ground and naval based air defence solutions. These solutions feature systems based on missiles such as Mistral VL Mica and Aster. MBDA s air defence expertise is also being called upon as a major partner in the transatlantic MEADS programme. Major developments are being planned to make the IAF one of the world s leading air forces. In this respect MBDA is able to offer options ranging from short range combat though to unbeatable beyond visual range and stand-off precision ground strike with a range of weapon systems including ASRAAM MICA Meteor Taurus KEPD 350 and Storm Shadow SCALP. India has ordered the submarine-launched Exocet SM39 for its soon to be delivered Scorpene. The Exocet family is growing and its latest addition the 180km range Exocet MM40 Block 3 further adds to the anti-ship capability within MBDA s product range. Similarly the Marte family comprising as does Exocet air ship and land options has seen the recent addition of Marte ER offering an important stand-off capability. meteor which will arm Eurofighter Gripen and Rafale GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE MBDA is also active in providing winning solutions for the modern battlefield. The company s PARS 3 LR anti-armour system is capable of significantly enhancing the battle effectiveness of an army s helicopters. Dual Mode Brimstone with its selectable SAL RF seeker modes provides modern fast combat jets with a lethal and unique anti-battlefield capability already proven in combat. Of course Milan is the infantry s eponymous combat support weapon. Milan 2T recently ordered by the Indian Army is being produced by BDL in India continuing an industrial partnership with MBDA that goes back over 30 years. It is in the area of deep industrial partnership that MBDA is planning for the future in India. Ten years after its formation the company s leading edge systems are in service around the world. A number of next-generation programmes are also currently in development which will firmly establish MBDA as a leading technology innovator and defence partner. ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES MBDA CONTENTS MEPROLIGHT One Stop Shop for Sophisticated Weapon Sights eprolight ( designs and manufactures a wide array of electro-optical and optical sights and devices night vision devices uncooled thermal sights and a wide variety of night sights and other tritium- and LEDilluminated products and accessories for safety and security applications for the military law enforcement and civilian communities. NOA uncooled thermal sights Meprolight s NOA uncooled thermal weapon sights (4X 7X and dual field magnification) contain an advanced electronic level indicator a critical component in balancing the sight for effective long-range shooting. The sight enables bidirectional communications with devices such as range finders and wireless recording systems. The innovative dual field magnification includes wide and narrow fields of view (FOV) in the same sight. The thermal sight is designed for snipers who operate under harsh environmental conditions M and who need to engage targets at long ranges in very limited light availability or total darkness. MEPRO MOR reflex sight with laser pointers MEPRO MOR is the only sight that actually includes three possibilities in one sight passive sight (operated without batteries) an active reflex sight for low light conditions and two laser pointers (visible and or infrared). The user can adjust the passive sight s illumination intensity according to the external illumination level using a special switch. The user can set only one aiming point and the other sights are zeroed accordingly. Mepro 21 dual illuminated red dot reflex sight Mepro 21 maintenance free dual illuminated red dot reflex sight is specially designed for quick and instinctive accurate shooting. It allows the user to select various optional reticles dot triangle an (above) Mepro Mor All-in-One sight Multi-Purpose reflex sight with two laser pointers (right) Mepro Noa High-performance observation under harsh environmental conditions open x shape and bullseye. The sight allows targeting quicker and shooting faster with both eyes open. It has a large 30mm diameter lens assuring an unlimited field of view rapid target acquisition and effective use of the weapon in extreme conditions or under pressure. Mepro GLS optical sight for 40mm grenade launcher Mepro GLS is a self-illuminated optical sight for 40mm grenade launcher installed on assault rifles. Its enhanced version enables effective fire against light armor and infantry targets up to a range of 400 meters. Mepro GLS dual illuminated optical sight operates under all lighting and weather conditions for 5-8 years without the use of batteries or any other external source of power. The sight provides a 24 hour a day solution for the fighter. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 112 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS Embedded COTS Solutions for Military Aerospace & Defense SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 113 REGIONAL BALANCE The modern day battle space is a demanding environment characterized by high-speed networks of sensor data video signal processing displays and graphical interfaces. Today s battlefield systems must be designed to help battlefield commanders to continuously maintain real-time situational awareness. National Instruments is at the very forefront of embedded technology for military applications. We supply sophisticated COTS boards and systems technical support life-cycle Software Defined Radio communication platform. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Electronic Warfare Simulators Our Electronic Warfare Simulators generates real-time dynamic radio RF Transmitter Identification System RF Transmitter Identification System is a portable RF search system with state-of-the-art PXI technology. It is basically an RF transmitter detection system to easily locate RF emissions which can be used for multiple purposes general purpose spectrum monitoring securing of classified meeting areas (detection of threat transmitters) TEMPEST eavesdropping mobile TEMPEST testing etc. With its portable antenna set supplied together this system delivers the speed and sensitivity for security personnel for detection of covert radio surveillance threats ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS F or more than 30 years National Instruments has helped military aerospace and defence companies around the world build more effective automated test measurement and control systems. User-defined systems based on NI technology have been deployed to a wide variety of high-performance flexible applications including characterising the noise footprint of commercial airliners production testing of avionics and structural testing of airframes. While continuing to provide long-term stable instrumentation platforms such as PXI and VXI NI drives innovation in test system design by harnessing the power of virtual instrumentation also known as synthetic instrumentation. This approach combines the advantages of open systems such as PXI modular instrumentation and instrument control with one of the industry s most popular and comprehensive test software platforms. and program management capabilities to the world s leading defense agencies and contractors. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS NAVANTIA SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 115 REGIONAL BALANCE of a series of 5) for the Norwegian Navy 1 LHD for the Spanish Navy and 2 for the Australian Navy and 4 submarines for the Spanish Navy and 6 for the Indian Navy. As this orderbook proves Navantia has a wide range of suitable products for the Indian Navy and is very well positioned for participating in their programs. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE F-100 FRIGATES Equipped with the AEGIS system they are state-of-the-art ships and one of the most technologically advanced in service. Unique capability able to detect and handle up to 90 targets simultaneously up to a distance of 600 km. ASIAN WHO S WHO Navantia represents advancement naval activity and modernity but also inherits more than 250 years experience in construction maintenance and conversion of the Spanish Navy s ships. STAR PRODUCTS INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS N avantia the Spanish naval shipbuilder is a very consolidated company in the naval world and one of the few companies in the world with a complete capacity in the fields of design development production and integration of naval ships. An integral service that covers from design to the life cycle offering to the Indian Navy the best solutions for the best products in an all levels collaboration frame. Navantia represents advancement naval activity and modernity but also inherits more than 250 years experience in construction maintenance and conversion of the Spanish Navy s ships. Navantia has enough experience in building the most technologically advanced ships. Currently is building 8 OPV s for the Venezuelan Navy and 4 for the Spanish Navy 3 frigates for the Australian Navy 1 (last of a series of 5) for the Spanish Navy and 1 (last TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS NEXTER SYSTEMS Setting the trend on 21st century artillery systems uring EuroSatory 2010 Nexter Systems and Larsen & Toubro signed a consortium agreement in the field of artillery systems ensuring that both companies will join forces to support the major effort of artillery modernization initiated by the Indian MoD. This agreement targets in particular the MGS (Mounted Gun System) RFP that should be issued in the second half of 2010 for which the two partners plan to organize extensive technology transfer in India early in the program. This cooperation capitalizes on the reknown know-how of Larsen &Toubro in the field of engineering manufacturing and system integration and the exceptional operational capabilities and cost-effectiveness of CAESAR system from Nexter. Nexter Systems a major player in the field of land armament Nexter Group (previously known as GIAT industries ) is one of the SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 117 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Modernization of the Indian artillery a major challenge India has initiated a huge modernization program that will eventually field close to 3000 new artillery ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS D world s leading land defence systems companies with a variety of products and services ranging from system design to operational maintenance. Main products are MBT (LECLERC tanks) IFV (VBCI Aravis) medium-caliber weapon systems for ground and airborne platforms and artillery systems. Artillery systems designed by Nexter are NATO-compliant and cover the whole operational range of indirect fire requirements CAESAR 155mm and LG1 105mm artillery systems are the lightest guns of their kind on the market and are known for their exceptional firepower and mobility. As system supplier Nexter also manufactures munitions that are designed and qualified together with the systems firing them. The LU211 155mm family and BONUS smart ammunition are a perfect match for CAESAR artillery system and can also provide the most effective solution for other NATO-standard 155 mm artillery. CAESAR in action CAESAR can fire six rounds in one minute and will have left its position 1 min. 40 sec. after having fired the 1st round which makes it immune to counter-battery strikes Providing state-of the art weapon systems to the French army artillery since 1764 Nexter is heir to over 2 centuries of expertise in artillery design and has provided all the artillery guns in service in the French army whether towed tracked selfpropelled or truck-mounted. Currently the French army uses TR-F1 155mm towed howitzer AU-F1 self-propelled tracked howitzer and CAESAR truck-moiunted system. Based on operational evaluation and user feedback the versatility of CAESAR system convinced the French army to eventually phase out all its fleet of towed and tracked howitzer to be replaced by CAESAR systems only. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS NORTHROP GRUMMAN Ready and Well-Positioned to Support India s Present and Evolving Defence Requirements with Industry-Leading Capabilities SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 119 REGIONAL BALANCE radars. The company also provides unmanned ground vehicles for the Indian Army and marine navigation systems for the Navy. Northrop Grumman brings significant relevant capabilities for homeland defence modernization and command & control intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (C2ISR) for the Integrated Defence Staff by designing and developing advanced defence electronic systems and military and civilian air traffic control. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO With its network-centric capability the E-2D Hawkeye will help nations with maritime surveillance homeland security and associated crises as well as combat operations. These include the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye airborne early warning surveillance aircraft the MQ-8B Fire Scout vertical takeoff unmanned vehicle the APG80 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar for the F-16IN Scalable C4ISR provisions for fast interceptor craft & offshore patrol vessels Harbor and Coastal Security system (HCS) Airborne Laser Mine Detection System and the Multi-role Electronically Scanned Array (MESA) INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS W ith proven industryleading capabilities in intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) Northrop Grumman is wellpositioned to meet the Indian Armed Forces current and future defence and civil requirements. The company offers a portfolio of innovative capabilities across each of its five business sectors including airborne early warning and control systems for maritime reconnaissance fire control radars coastal surveillance and marine navigation unmanned aircraft systems airborne mine countermeasures and ships. For more than 25 years Northrop Grumman has been providing the Indian Armed Forces with support for a variety of defense and civil programs across all three armed services. The company first provided target drones (KD2R5) for the Indian Army Air Force and Navy and has installed numerous air traffic control communications systems and TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS OTO MELARA he execution of the Italian FREMM frigates contract has been the green light for the production of the OTO Melara 127 64 LW. Fitted with the kit for the new Vulcano family of ammunition with range beyond 100 km the 127 64 LW is the most powerful multi role system available on the naval market. Its outstanding performances recently played a key role in the selection by German Federal Office of Defence Technology and Procurement (BWB) of this system for German Navy s new F125 frigate project. With its 5-inch lightweight gun mount the system is intended for installation on large and medium size ships whilst the rapid-fire 35 rounds per minute with both standard and extended range ammunition (Vulcano Ammunition) grants effectiveness in surface firing naval gun fire support (main roles) as well as anti-aircraft firing (secondary role). T The compact feeding system configuration makes feasible the installation on arrowsection craft and the modularity of the magazines with the reversibility of the loading system able to automatically unload the ammunition from the gun allows the selection of at least four different types of ammunition on the fly . The Gun Control Consol (GCC) offers a complete large variety of embedded functionalities (e.g. ballistic computation mission planning patterns execution CBT Black Box etc.) and the modern digital interface allow the system to be easily integrated with any type of CMS FCS. Thanks to a new digital modular interface which is available for this Fitted with the kit for the new Vulcano family of ammunition with range beyond 100 km the 127 64 LW is the most powerful multi role system available on the naval market. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE system customers can benefit from integration risk reduction and simplification of guns retrofit maintenance installation and upgrading during in service life. Beside the standard ammunition 127 64 LW system includes the capability to fire Vulcano ammunition a family of subcalibred Extended Range (ER) and Long Range (LR) guided ammunition. The unguided version developed in collaboration with Italian and Dutch Navy has proved to successfully reach 70km range. Vulcano is a technology based on a fin stabilized airframe with canard control for terminal guidance and can therefore take advantage from OTO Melara equivalent experience matured on the 76mm DART guided ammunition. 122 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue PIPAVAV SHIPYARD India s first World Class Modular ship Construction and Engg. Company SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 123 REGIONAL BALANCE uring ancient time the traditional boat building in India was undertaken using locally available raw materials at various locations along the vast Indian Coast line. Ships constructed at Bombay in its heyday were said to be vastly superior to anything built anywhere else in the world . Despite good shipbuilding expertise in India ship building in India declined due to rapid changes in technology and advancement in mechanized systems as Indian shipbuilders could not update with time. Though after independence in 1947 Govt. of India had set up strengthened various shipyards India but Indian participation in the world shipbuilding remained minimal due to lack of modern shipbuilding facilities and very low production capacity in Indian shipyards. India has to get ships from foreign countries to meet its requirement of naval and commercial ship. Security environment in Asia particularly in India and its neighbourhood has also increased the work load of Indian Navy and Coast Guard. To meet the requirements of the expanding Indian Navy and replacements for aging fleet Indian Navy needs to acquire ships and submarines at a faster rate. The PSU shipyards will be unable to meet this challenge due to limited available production capacities and their existing order books. This gap has to be filled by private sector shipyards like PSL which have state of the art world class shipbuilding facilities with large production capacities. Pipavav Shipyard Ltd. promoted by SKIL Infrastructure Group is (top) N. Gandhi Group Chairman (above) bhavesh gandhi Executive Vice-Chairman GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS D developed as a modern shipyard of international standards at Pipavav in Gujarat India. PSL has an excellent infrastructure to meet the global shipbuilding standards for Naval ships submarines commercial ships and Offshore works. The Yard spread over an area of 782 acres consisting of 210 acres of fully developed waterfront area 250 acres of Block Making Site and 322 acres of land earmarked for future expansion. Total covered area for fabrication activities is 169 090 Sqm. PSL is the largest Private Shipyard in India and is having steel fabrication capacity of approx. 1 44 000 tons per annum. To achieve such high volumes of production the yard has been equipped with state of the art CNC machines for cutting welding bending and other shipbuilding related activities. The shipyard has the largest dry dock (662m long and 65m wide) in India. Dry dock is serviced by two large Goliath cranes TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS PRATT & WHITNEY Proven Performance - Yesterday Today and Into the Future T SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 125 REGIONAL BALANCE his marks the 85th year since the founding of Pratt & Whitney and we are proud to continue delivering an ever-expanding collection of propulsion systems to customers around the world. Since our formation unmatched safety dependable reliability and maturity with proven performance have been a hallmark of the Pratt & Whitney name. Accelerates to supersonic speeds in seconds. Operation at metal-searing temperatures with uncompromising reliability. These are some of the performance demands placed on Pratt & Whitney engines that power the world s most technologically sophisticated weapon systems--the F119 powers the F-22 Raptor and the F135 powers the F-35 Lightning II--today and into the future. The F135 is the world s most powerful fighter engine and has successfully powered more than 216 test flights and 272 flight hours to date. It promises unparalleled single engine safety derived from a proven fifth generation fighter engine the F119 that continues to successfully power the F-22. The F135 delivers more than forty thousand pounds of thrust and incorporates stealth technology supersonic speeds and vertical lift capabilities. The F135 brings cutting-edge technology to address the complex and diverse needs of today s military forces and its roots in the rock-solid F119 give customers even greater confidence in its ability to deliver results and reduce risk. Pratt & Whitney s F117 provides exclusive power for the C-17 Globemaster III the world s premier heavy airlifter. Four F117 engines each rated at 40 440 pounds of thrust enable the C-17 transport to (top) Four powerful F117 engines enable the C-17 Globemaster III to fly 2 400 nautical miles without refueling (above) Pratt & Whitney engines power the world s most technologically sophisticated weapon systems such as the F135 powering the F-35 Lightning II. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE carry a payload of 160 600 pounds take off from a 7 600-foot airfield and fly 2 400 nautical miles without refueling which enables the C-17 to answer the call for humanitarian aid around the globe. With more than seven million hours of proven military service and more than 40 million hours in commercial use the F117 PW2037 reinforces Pratt & Whitney s promise to deliver Dependable Engines. Pratt & Whitney s F100-series engines are the workhorse for the U.S. Air Force s (USAF) F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon and air forces in 22 nations. More than 6 700 engines have been built since entering into service in 1972. The latest evolution the F100-PW-229 Enhanced Engine Package (EEP) is now in production. Our military products and customers worldwide benefit from a proven and comprehensive range of services to meet all maintenance readiness and product support requirements. ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS PUNJ LLOYD Establishing Dedicated Infrastructure for Indian Defence P unj Lloyd Group with revenues of over USD 2.4 billion (2009-10) is one of the largest EPC groups in India providing integrated design engineering procurement construction and project management services for clients in sectors such as oil and gas petrochemicals civil infrastructure high rise buildings transportation utilities and renewable energy in the over 17 international offices. The Group has strategically diversified into the Defence Industry under the Government of India s public-private partnership initiative. Punj Lloyd is establishing itself as a credible original equipment manufacturer with focus on state of the art technology. The objective is to indigenously develop genuine force multipliers that will contribute to providing a decisive edge to the Indian Armed Forces and to develop capability and infrastructure which can be effectively leveraged for defence programs. The Group has a multi pronged defence strategy with an objective to Become a supplier of choice to the Indian armed forces Be a preferred partner for transfer of technology from Global primes by setting up manufacturing facilities in India Be a part of the global defence equipment supply chain Undertake maintenance repair and overhaul of defence equipment Work in partnership with Global Primes to meet offset require- Integrator for Missile Systems ments as per the Indian Defence Procurement Procedure Land Systems Punj Lloyd Group is amongst the select few private companies that were granted licenses for Manufacture of guns rockets artillery and missile systems Manufacture of Electro optical systems Fire control systems C3I systems & Power packs associated with armoured fighting vehicles (Tanks & ICVs) Assembly & manufacture of small arms GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 126 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue RADA Introduces State of the Art Avionics srael s defense electronics specialist RADA Electronic Industries Ltd. is offering a broad range of avionic systems designed for new and upgraded aircraft helicopters and unmanned vehicles (UAV). Based on its expertise and reputation RADA has recently expanded its portfolio to Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). The R100F is a high precision tacticalgrade Embedded GPS-INS (EGI) solution applicable for new and upgraded aircraft and helicopters. The EGI replaces obsolete mechanical gyro-based units with modern highly efficient and reliable FiberOptical Gyro (FOG) sensors. In recent years the company has expanded its offering in the field of unmanned systems introducing a wide range of UAV avionic systems. A unique system in this field is the MAVINS - a compact all-inone Modular Avionics module comprising INS air data sensors and processors uniquely designed for small UAVs. Systems designed and produced by RADA are currently integrated in leading UAVs including the latest Heron-TP Medium Altitude Long Endurance system from IAI. RADA s brand is associated I with state-of-the-art Digital Video and Data Recorders. For many years RADA has provided recording equipment for various fighters and trainers. This equipment is augmented by the company s Ground Debriefings Systems (GDS) processing the information recorded in-flight into a 3-dimentional flight reconstruction display used for mission debriefing and training. RADA established its position among the world s market leaders in airborne data recording and management systems providing digital video & data recording systems GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE (top) MAVINS The Ultimate All-In-One Core Avionics System for UAV (above) F100R High-End Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) for Manned & Unmanned Platforms (Solid-State Digital Video Recording Systems SSDVRS) associated Ground Debriefing Systems (GDS) and Cockpit Head-Up Display Video Cameras (CHVC) integrated in a wide range of western and eastern made aircraft. The company s avionics systems are currently operational on a wide range of manned and unmanned aircraft including the F-16 F-15 T-45 A-4 Jaguar MiG27 Su-30 MiG-29 A C the Indian Dhruv Helicopter Heron Heron-TP and Searcher UAVs and the Litening and RecceLite airborne pods. 128 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue RAFAEL The Perfect Partner for India s Defense Needs SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 129 REGIONAL BALANCE Rafael The Company Rafael was established as part of Israel s Ministry of Defense more than 50 years ago and was incorporated in 2002. Currently 7% of its sales are invested in R&D. Rafael s know-how is embedded in almost all Israel Defense Forces (IDF) systems in operation today. The company has a special relationship with the IDF developing products according to the soldiers specific requirements in Iron Dome Defense Against Short Range Artillery Rockets GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE the field. Rafael has also formed partnerships with civilian counterparts to develop commercial applications based on its proprietary technology. ASIAN WHO S WHO Expertise in a Wide Range of Defense Solutions Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd designs develops manufactures and supplies a wide range of high-tech defense systems for air land sea and space applications. Tailored to its customer s specific needs Rafael provides stateof-the-art yet cost-effective systems and weapons in the fields of Missiles air defense naval systems target acquisition EW C4ISR communication networks data links electro-optic payloads add-on armor combat vehicle upgrading mine field breaching border and coastal protection systems breaching munitions and much more. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS RAYTHEON A trusted innovator. A proven partner. t Raytheon proven processes and a constant focus on customer success helps turn innovative thinking into robust reliable and costeffective solutions. Raytheon delivers integrated solutions across air land sea space and cyberspace that are united by a common resolve to defend against diverse and evolving threats to safeguard lives nations and infrastructures and to help customers succeed in their varied missions across the globe. Missile Systems Raytheon is the world leader in the design development and production of missile systems for multiple nations around the world. Raytheon innovation continuously sets the standard for accuracy lethality reliability and cost-effectiveness of precision weapon systems and solutions. For proven performance when it matters most trust Raytheon to deliver precision effects that yield superior results mission after mission. Integrated Air and Missile Defense Solutions Raytheon solutions maintain constant vigilance against the most pressing diverse and dangerous threats facing nations around the world. Raytheon Integrated Air and Missile Defense Solutions combine four essential elements to consis- Raytheon is the world leader in the design development and production of missile systems. Raytheon innovation continuously sets the standard for accuracy lethality reliability and cost-effectiveness of precision weapon systems and solutions. SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 131 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE tently deliver affordable reliable and flexible missile defense Detailed understanding of the technical requirements for effective missile defense systems Proven innovative technologies across the entire missile defense spectrum Full system lifecycle support and sustainment capabilities Enduring commitment to partnerships with our global customers ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS A TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS ROSOBORONEXPORT Russia and India setting new goals of military technical cooperation still Russia s major strategic partner making headways into new areas of military technical cooperation. The aircraft that will dominate the sky After successful completion of the first test flights of the Russian 5th generation T-50 PAK FA fighter (PAK FA stands for Prospective Air Complex of Front Aviation ) international analysts renewed discussions about the Russian-Indian version of this aircraft. It will take 8-10 years at most SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 133 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO MiG-35 fighter The Russian aircraft is one of the leaders in the competition outperforming other contenders as regards operational capabilities and especially costeffectiveness for India and Russia to jointly develop and produce first series samples of the 5th generation fighter. At present 5th generation combat aircraft are in service only with the US Air Force. This Russian-Indian joint project is going to break up the United States monopoly on the development of cutting edge technology aircraft. The PAK FA fighter is equipped with a totally new avionic suite performing integrated electronic pilot functions and an advanced electronically scanned phased array INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS I ndia is Russia s long-standing and dependable strategic partner. Our coun-tries started military technical cooperation in November 1964 when the first agreement was signed on the delivery to India of a batch of the MiG-21 aircraft later followed by light tanks and helicopters. For a long period of time India has been receiving nearly one third of the total amount of arms and military equipment exported from Russia. Owing to this the Indian armed forces were equipped by 70 percent with Soviet Russian-made weapons - while the Russia s cumulative arms exports value for the entire period of the cooperation amounted to 50 billion US dollars. Since then our countries have been constantly strengthening their strategic partnership developing new forms and directions of mutually advantageous cooperation. Even now when India is actively diversifying its arms acquisitions it is TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS RUAG AVIATION Innovative solutions for military aviation Swiss Made UAG Aviation offers unique lifecycle management services for military aviation. These include an innovative self-protection solution for helicopters a POD (plugon device) version of the ISSYS integrated self-protection system. Deployable on many helicopter platforms the new solution is the latest addition to the company s comprehensive portfolio of value propositions. RUAG Aviation offers an end-toend lifecycle management service for operators of military helicopters. It starts with requirements analysis for both new helicopters and aircraft already in service and extends through system simulations performance testing user training maintenance repair overhaul (MRO) upgrades and their integration and finally the phase-out of self-protection systems. Each customer benefits from their own tailor-made solution. R ISSYS (Integrated Self-Protection System) In order to complete their missions successfully aircraft crews need to be able to concentrate fully on their tasks. In conflict zones this calls for a reliable self-protection system. ISSYS (Integrated Self Protection System) RUAG s high-performance solution is a development designed to protect the crew the aircraft the passengers and the payload. The standard ISSYS solution is permanently integrated in the helicopter. Operators can use one and the same ISSYS POD on different helicopter platforms removing and installing it as required to provide protection for the duration of specific missions. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ISSYS POD (plug-on device) Now this self-protection system is also available as a plug-on device (POD) allowing deployment of the system on a per mission basis. Operators can use one and the same ISSYS POD on different helicopter platforms removing and installing it as required to provide protection for the duration of specific missions. This solution thus offers considerable benefits to customers in terms of cost-effectiveness. Because it only takes approximately 15 minutes to remove the POD 136 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue D evelopment of Project 613 diesel-electric submarine in the early 1950s may be considered the first step of entering the world export market of submarines. These submarines were built at shipyards of Nikolayev Gorky and Leningrad. They were reliable and easy in design and control a legitimate pride of submariners. And for good reason Project 613 (Whiskey class) submarines were considered to be the best ones of their time. By the decision of the Soviet Government the technical documentation for Project 613 (Foxtrot class) submarine was transferred to the People s Republic of China and as Pr. 636 Submarine remains one of the most successful examples of cooperation between Rubin and Admiralty Shipyards early as 1959 the fifteen units of the Project were built in the country. It was CDB ME Rubin s first experience in foreign economic activity. The second stage of military and technical cooperation coincided with the construction of new Project 641 submarines for the USSR Navy. These submarines manifested SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 139 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Export of Russian Diesel-Electric Submarines CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES RUBIN AND ADMIRALTY SHIPYARDS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS SAGEM Key solutions to efficiency of armed forces urveillance warning sighting navigation information... All of these military actions depend on one critic characteristic namely precision. For combat platforms the challenge lies in the integration of high-performance navigation systems with information and optronic solutions. Sagem a high-tech company of the Safran Group is a pivotal player in this fundamental trend. Air-to-ground operations Very early Sagem understood the importance of integrating navigation optronic and information technologies to develop new weapon systems in particular integrated land combat systems UAV navigation and pointing systems (laser gyro INS Sigma family) and precision air-to-ground modular weapons (AASM). Sagem also offers a critical advantage in the design of new systems since it masters high-precision mechanics as well a key to these systems high performance and reliability. This expertise is reinforced by the lessons of combat situations where Sagem S systems are daily involved notably its Sigma 30 navigation and pointing system on artillery systems or the AASM from Rafale combat aircraft. Soldier modernisation solutions Sagem considers that on the ground troops become high value sources of intelligence. One striking example is the FELIN soldier modernization system for which Sagem is prime contractor on behalf of the French army. Its intuitive Battle Management System provides greater efficiency navigation Blue Force tracking transmission of orders on digital maps aid in weapons deployment and image transmission. The JIM LR multifunction thermal imager bring together in a single equipment infrared vision range-finding laser pointer direction-finding GPS and data transmission. This gives combat units precise short-loop target designation and intelligence for theater command and front-line units. JIM LR is integrated in radio network in the warfighter s integrated equipment and can be remotely operated. A Sagem JIM LR Multifunction Thermal imager GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Sagem partnership with India Partnership with government organisations and armed services is an important dimension of military programs. Sagem Sigma 95 INS are integrated in the most modern Indian combat aircraft. Moreover the Sigma 30 INS artillery is deployed currently by first two Pinaka multiple launch rocket system regiments. Sagem has also set up a maintenance shop near New Delhi to help the Indian army keep the Sigma in fighting trim and Indian mechanics received specialized training for this system in both France and India. Sagem is a world or European leader in solutions and services in optronics avionics electronics and critical software for the civilian and military markets. Sagem is the European No. 1 and worldwide No.3 in INSs for aeronautic naval and land applications. It is also the worldwide No.1 in helicopter flight controls and the European No.1 in optronic and tactical UAV systems. Sagem employ 6700 people in Europe South East Asia and North America. 142 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue SAMTEL DISPLAY SYSTEMS Your Offset Partner for Cockpit Naval and Military Displays Avionics Equipment and Systems SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 143 REGIONAL BALANCE amtel Display Systems (SDS) is a key Indian player in hightechnology products for avionics and military applications in both domestic and international markets. SDS straddles the entire value chain from design development manufacture testing qualification repair & maintenance and obsolescence management of avionics products and equipment for military as well as commercial aircraft. Its products include Colour Avionic Tubes (CAT) Multi-function Displays (MFD) Head Up Displays (HUD) Helmet Mounted Displays (HMD) Automated Test Equipments (ATE) and IADS as well as Control Displays for Armoured Military Vehicles. Samtel s Ruggedised LCDs are specially suitable for land and naval defence systems and are known for their ruggedness high contrast and compact design. SDS is a part of the Samtel Group --India s largest integrated manufacturer of a wide range of displays for television avionics industrial and professional applications TV glass S components for displays machinery and engineering services. The group has an annual turnover of Rs 12 billion (USD 300M). SDS s JV with Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) aims to address the avionics requirements of HAL especially cockpit displays of all kinds. Samtel HAL Display Systems is the FIRST public-private partnership in the defence avionics domain in India. Through the JV Samtel and HAL are targeting to replace all the imported cockpit displays across all platforms of HAL. Through another JV with Thales the company plans to work towards (top) Samtel s MIL certified facilities at Delhi-NCR (above) Multifunction Display (MFD) by Samtel GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE the local development production sale and maintenance of Helmets Mounted Sight & Display and other Avionics Systems destined for the Indian market. SDS already has a long-term contract with Thales to supply Full Colour Displays for Airbus (A320 A330 340) and is the sole source to supply Honeywell with EFIS 40--an electronic flight instrument system for Honeywell s Bendix King range. An MoU has also been signed between SDS and Saab Avitronics for RIGS HUD. Samtel s professional grade products are compatible with the latest relevant MIL standards. Samtel is operating with SAE AS 9100 Rev-B quality system standard at its production facilities in Delhi NCR. SDS has been awarded with Frost & Sullivan Hot Investment Opportunity Award 2009 and Gold trophy of the EMPI- Indian Express Indian Innovation Awards 2010. Samtel is truly poised to become the offset partner for all avionics display system integrators around the world. ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS SELEX COMMUNICATIONS Excellence in secure communications Finmeccanica company SELEX Communications is a global supplier of secure land naval and avionic communication systems conceived to protect communities the environment and critical infrastructure for civil military and government customers. It has over 100 years of experience in the telecommunications sector and employs nearly 4.300 people. Headquartered in Italy it has offices and facilities in UK Russia United States Germany Turkey Romania and Brazil. SELEX Communications mission as well as the special features that allow the company to differentiate its supply hinge upon an increased capability to offer systems and equipments which are able to provide Defense and Security operators with secure and reliable telecommunications solutions and applications. A Technology and Innovation Nearly 850 people work in SELEX Communications Research & Development with the aim of setting up state-of-the-art technologies in the field of secure professional civil and military communications. The abilities developed in the course of 100 years also thanks to collaboration agreements with universities and key ICT market players made it possible to produce a wide range of turn-key products systems and solutions which can GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE At the beginning of the 90 SELEX Communications creates a technological OWSObstacle Warning System demonstrator. This leads to the product today known as LOAM Laser Obstacle Avoidance & Monitoring a laser system against obstacles and wires to be used on helicopters. be integrated and interoperable and designed for land satellite naval avionics professional and civil applications. Some of the main Research & Development lines incorporate software radio wideband wireless networks as well as All-IP and ad hoc networks advanced solutions. The partnerships SELEX Communications plays a crucial role when it comes to successfully accomplishing the challenge 144 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue SELEX GALILEO ELEX Galileo forms part of the Finmeccanica Group of companies that specialise in aerospace defence and security applications. A leader in surveillance protection and situational awareness SELEX Galileo combines a range of technologies to deliver integrated capabilities for defence operations. CORE CAPABILITIES SELEX Galileo is at the forefront of technologies considered by many customers as being critical to mission success and survivability. The Company applies these technologies into products in an integrated way to match the required capabilities of Customers. SELEX Galileo is a partner of choice for providing capabilities in Battlespace Surveillance Simulation & Training and Service & Support Solutions. In the battlespace SELEX Galileo provides a range of products and systems than keep troops safe while S Across the whole business inno- enhancing battlefield effectiveness. The Company also delivers fully integrated surveillance systems such as the Airborne Tactical Observation and Surveillance (ATOS) mission management system are able to directly support decision makers in their response. SELEX Galileo s simulation facilities give crews the constant training they need to reach the highest level of efficiency. EW Systems covers a wide range of fixedwing (fast-jet and transport) rotary-wing UAV and marine applications GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE vative support and service arrangements improve the overall outcomes for the Customer while reducing their through-life costs. Key items in our extensive product portfolio are Airborne Radars Supplying both mechanicallyscanned and electronically-scanned (AESA) technologies for Fire-Control and Surveillance applications Landborne and Naval Radars Precision Approach as well as Low Probability of Intercept radars EO TI Systems Turreted Airborne Systems as well as Driver Vision Systems Sighting Systems and Fighting Systems for armoured vehicles Laser Systems Spot-Trackers Designators and Burst-Illumination (Active Imaging) systems Artillery Systems Sound ranging systems and Artillery Pointing Systems Airborne Systems Both Mini- and Tactical-Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) as well as transonic target drones and reconnaissance 146 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue ST KINETICS SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 149 REGIONAL BALANCE weapons and ammunition systems meeting a wide spectrum of operational requirements from conventional conflicts to urban warfare through to homeland security. With sales to more than 30 countries worldwide ST Kinetics has won international acclaim through its stellar line of products including the Bronco the best protected and highest payload All Terrain Tracked Vehicle the Ultimax 100 the world s lowest recoil machine gun the SAR21 the first assault rifle equipped with builtin laser and protection plate the FH2000 the first 52 calibre artillery to be fielded and the SRAMS the world s lowest recoil 120mm mortar. ST Kinetics is also the global leader in Total 40mm solutions. The Bronco All Terrain Tracked Vehicle has proven itself to be highly reliable and superbly maneuverable in extreme climatic conditions across difficult terrains including tropical jungles snow swamps and deserts. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Enhanced Protection for Troops Bronco All Terrain Tracked Vehicle The Bronco All Terrain Tracked Vehicle is a proven vehicle with an excellent payload of up to 5 tons a range of about 400 km an internal capacity of over 7 200 cc and a high level of protection. Fielded since 2001 the vehicle has proven itself to be highly reliable and superbly maneuverable in extreme climatic conditions across difficult terrains including tropical jungles snow swamps and deserts. The Bronco comes in a multitude of variants including Troop Carrier Fire Support Field Ambulance Repair and Recovery Load Carrier Fuel Re-supply Vehicle and Mortar Tracked Carrier to name a few. In ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS S ingapore Technologies Kinetics Ltd (ST Kinetics) is the land systems arm of Singapore Technologies Engineering Ltd (ST Engineering) an integrated engineering group providing solutions and services in the aerospace electronics land systems and marine sectors worldwide. One of the largest companies listed on the Singapore Exchange the Group recorded a turnover of US 4b in 2009. With defence sales at US 1.5b ST Engineering is ranked among the top 55 defence player in the world according to Jane s International Defence Review. Leveraging a heritage of over 40 years and a culture that embraces innovations and engineering ST Kinetics is constantly developing solutions that meet the evolving needs of the battlefield and operations other than war. Today ST Kinetics is a key player in equipping warfighters with a comprehensive range of mobility TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS TATA MOTORS SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 151 REGIONAL BALANCE ata Motors Limited is India s largest automobile company with revenues of Rs 92 519 crore ( 20 billion) in 2008-09. Through subsidiaries and associate companies Tata Motors has operations in the UK South Korea Thailand and Spain. Among them is Jaguar Land Rover. It also has an industrial joint venture with Fiat in India. With over 4 million Tata vehicles plying in India Tata Motors is the country s market leader in commercial vehicles and among the top three in Passenger vehicles. The company is the world s fourth largest truck manufacturer and the world s second largest bus manufacturer. Tata cars buses and trucks are being marketed in several countries in Europe Africa the Middle East South East Asia and South America. Tata Motors has been associated with the country s defence forces since 1958. Over 1 00 000 vehicles have been supplied to Indian military and paramilitary forces so far. Tata Motors defence solutions cover the complete range of logistics and armoured vehicles. The recent launch of combat and tactical vehicles and equipment will allow it to leverage the entire defence mobility spectrum. Tata Motors offer products and services that not only meet the needs of the domestic market but are also positioned to meet most of the stringent requirements of armies across the world. Tata Motors exports its range of specialized defence vehicles to countries in the SAARC region ASEAN and Africa. Tata Motors has a range of armoured vehicles for catering to varied needs of Armed Forces. It includes Armoured Sumo for CIOps Armoured Safari for VVIPs travel Light Armoured Troop Carrier (LATC) 8x8 weapon platforms Armoured Bus Light Specialist Vehicles (LSV) and Mine Protected Vehicles (MPV). Tata Motors is now focusing on modernization and system upgrades of mobility platforms. Project management and system integration expertise has positioned Tata Motors as prime contractor in various upgrades and life extension GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS Tata 8x8 HighMobility vehicle. Tata Motors has a range of armoured vehicles for catering to varied needs of armed forces. programme based on in-house core competencies and technologies. Such upgrade programme includes Missiles Carriers Mine Protected Vehicles Main Battle Tanks (MBT) and Infantry Combat Vehicles. In addition to products Tata Motors defence solutions include Consultancy & Advisory Service Prime Contracting Services R&D and Test Services Information Technology (software hardware services) Manufacturing Services Maintenance and Repair Services Packing Storage and Transport Service. Mr P.M. Telang Managing Director (India Operations) of Tata Motors said Our aim is to participate in the Entire defence value chain. Besides consolidating our traditional supplies going forward we will also participate in creating vehicles and equipment specific to the defence sector and also offer our expertise in upgrades and life extention programmes. In addition to our own initiatives we will form appropriate partnerships and harness the capabilities of our own subsidiaries and other Tata Group companies. TECHNOLOGY T CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS TERMA Provider of mission-critical solutions for the global defence and aerospace markets erma is a leading supplier of advanced self-protection systems for fixed and rotary wing aircraft as well as decoy systems for naval vessels and a world leading supplier of radars for coastal surveillance. The company is headquartered in Denmark with subsidiaries in the United States of America The Netherlands Singapore and facilities in Germany. More than 80 percent of its turnover is based on exports and Terma continuously seeks to expand its global presence including South and South East Asia. In India Terma is looking into a number of exciting programs which include coastal surveillance programs and self-protection solutions for India s coming fighter in the Medium Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) program as subcontractor to Lockheed Martin one of the contenders in the ongoing competition. Terma s command & control solutions are based on a common T software platform called T-Core thus enabling seamless integration for joint operations by for instance army and navy forces or army and police units. Other examples include integration of disparate missiles radars and platforms in air defence systems and integration of digital radios and army battle management systems. The latest addition to Terma s family of command & control systems is the joint development with 25 year s excellence in Electronic Warfare GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Lockheed of an integrated and joint Ballistic Missile Defense C2 system for both land and maritime deployment. Most often Terma s business model involves the use of indigenous partners who will carry out the physical installation and integration of the solution that Terma provides. Superior self-protection Terma is also one of the world s leading integrators of self-protec- 152 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue THALES World Leader in Mission Critical Systems hales has been operating in India since 1953 participating in the creation of Bharat Electronics Ltd. (BEL) and has been a constant partner of the Indian Armed Forces ever since. After opening its first permanent representative office in Delhi in 1970 Thales created a service company in 2003 Thales India Pvt Ltd with the aim to develop in India customer support and services. Today Thales India runs offices in Delhi Gwalior Mumbai Visakhapatnam Bangalore Chennai and kochi to better serve its Army Navy and Air Force customers. In 2008 a JV was formed with Samtel Samtel Thales Avionics Ltd to work towards the development production and sale of Helmet Mounted Sight Displays and avionics for the Indian and export markets. The systems will be developed produced and maintained in India with the aim of producing T a true Indian product destined for the local market. Major contracts with the MoD have included Air defence radars and systems such as THD 1955 Master M Flycatcher Mark 1 and Reporter. Vicon 91 Reconnaissance pods for the Air Force. FLYCATCHER Mk1 Radar and Fire Control System. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Avionics and INGPS for military aircraft such as the Mirage 2000 Mig 21 and 27 Su 30. Optronics 500 HHTI Sophie and 1000 Catherine Thermal Imagers on T90. EW systems for Army and Navy. Sonars on the Sea King helicopters and Scorpene submarines. Mine Hunting sonar and CMS for the Karwar class refit. DA 04 and LW08 long-range surveillance radar for Navy. Thales India Ltd. s long term objective in line with the group s international policy and the Government of India vision of self reliance is to address the Indian market as an Indian player through the development of its local entity and the creation of JVs with the major PSU and Private Industrial Partners in order to answer tenders with locally-developed products or systems and the maximum local content. 154 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue ZVYOZDOCHKA shipyard is open for military technical cooperation A thrifty owner prefers to have existing items and products repaired rather than to buy new ones. It also refers to such complicated products as submarines. If a ship comes in for repair she is expected not just to look like a new one after treatment but to obtain advanced combat capabilities. This is the way that Zvyozdochka placed in Severodvinsk is capable to perform repair. 55 years ago Zvyozdochka was established as a ship repair industry. That was justified by many factors geographical location proximity to sea test-sites to test ships as well as any kind of armament installed at repaired ships. To reach the present highest level the shipyard applied a complex approach to creation of advanced technological facilities specialized workshops and services unique testbenches to check and to test repaired and recovered equipment. However no equipment can work without Facilities of JSC Shiprepairing Center Zvyozdochka (left) Vladimir S.Nikitin General Director of Zvyozdochka GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE man. Zvyozdochka has built its own personnel education school. Another pro is availability of inhouse scientific centre. Independent scientific research design technological bureau Onega was founded in 1975 on the basis of the shipyard s technical services. Onega is the leading national organization in the field of submarine repair technology development which contributes a lot to solution of technical problems reduction of repair timing improvement of quality and reliability. Zvyozdochka is a key Russian dockyard leader in repair and refit of 156 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue contributors profile contributors profile air Marshal (retd) a.k. trikha The author s illustrious career in the IAF comprised extensive tenure in the Jaguar strike aircraft bases as Chief Operations Officer in-charge flying and overall base commander. He superannuated from the IAF in the post of AOC-in-C Southern Air Command. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 81 air Marshal (retd) b.k. Pandey Air Marshal b.K. pandey retired from the IAF after serving the organisation for nearly 40 years. During his career he held a number of important command and staff appointments the last being that of AOC-in-C of Training Command of the IAF. Currently he is an editor with the Sp guide publications and is a resident of bangalore. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 267 & 289 admiral (retd) arun Prakash Admiral Arun prakash retired as India s 20th naval Chief and Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee in 2006. In flag rank he commanded the Indian navy s eastern Fleet the national Defence Academy the Andaman & nicobar Joint Command and the Western naval Command. He is currently a member of India s national Security Advisory board and Chairman of the national Maritime Foundation. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 35 Vice admiral (retd) b.S. randhawa Vice Admiral b.S. randhawa retired from the Indian navy on December 31 2008 as Chief of Material naval Headquarters. He is settled in new Delhi and is pursuing consultancy in maritime technology. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 77 brigadier (retd) Gurmeet kanwal brigadier gurmeet Kanwal is a well-known military and strategic analyst who commanded an infantry brigade on the L0C with pakistan. He has been a Military Observer in the united nations Mission unTAg in namibia. He has authored a large number of books and is currently the Director Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) new Delhi. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 21 & 111 ambassador (retd) arundhati Ghose Ambassador Arundhati ghose (retd) joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1963. She has been posted as Ambassador to the republic of Korea egypt and as permanent representative to uneSCO and the un Offices in geneva. After retirement in 1997 she has held many important posts. Currently she is a Distinguished Fellow at the Institute for peace and Conflict Studies and global India Foundation Kolkata. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 47 ikbal Singh Ikbal Singh joined the Instrument research Development establishment of the DrDO in 1978 as an optical designer and since then has a number of designs to his credit. He has been awarded DrDO Scientist of the year 2003 award for his contribution for the development of CpS for MbT Arjun. He has published more than 20 research papers in national and international journals. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 93 lt General (retd) arvind Sharma Lt general (retd) Arvind Sharma has served with distinction in all operational theatres and has the distinction of commanding a mountain division in the east and a corps in Jammu & Kashmir. He retired as the goC-in-C eastern Command. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 323 lt General (retd) ashok kumar Saini Lt general Ashok Kumar Saini was commissioned in Corps of Signals in June 1970 with two years seniority. He is an allumni of DSSC Wellington and national Defence College new Delhi. The officer retired as Director general rashtriya rifles in August 2007. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 73 Vice admiral (retd) J.S. bedi Vice Admiral J.S. bedi retired from the Indian navy on April 30 2009 as Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief Western naval Command.He is currently settled in pune and is engaged in writing for professional journals. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 39 158 SP s Military yearbook 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue contributors profile DiG k.r. Suresh Deputy Inspector general K.r. Suresh joined the Coast guard in January 1987 as Assistant Commandant. He has specialisation in Communications. He holds a post graduate degree in Telecommunications from Madras university. He is currently principal Director Operations Coast guard Headquarters new Delhi. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 239 Cmde (retd) rajeev Sawhney Cmde rajeev Sawhney retired from the Indian navy on March 31 2009. He is at present the Deputy Director research and Head of the Centre for Strategic Studies & Simulation at the uSI since June 2009. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 117 Major General (retd) Mrinal Suman general Suman heads the Defence Technical Assessment and Advisory Service (DTAAS) of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). As the first Technical Manager (Land Systems) he was closely associated with the evolution and promulgation of the new defence procurement mechanism in whichhis expertiseis well known. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 101 & 107 ambassador (retd) ranjit Gupta Ambassador ranjit gupta is a retired Indian Foreign Service officer. He has been India s Ambassador to Yemen (north) Venezuela Oman Thailand and Spain and finally Head of the non-official office in Taiwan. He is currently a member of the national Security Advisory board and is leading a Joint research project with the gulf research Centre Dubai and on India gCC relations on behalf of the Ministry of external Affairs. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 57 Dr Monika Chansoria Dr Monika Chansoria is currently a Senior Fellow in France and is a Visiting professor and Associate Director of Studies (Directeur d tudes associ ) at the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l Homme paris. In addition she is a research Fellow at the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) new Delhi. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 55 air Chief Marshal (retd) S. krishnaswamy Air Chief Marshal S. Krishnaswamy was commissioned in the IAF in 1961. He has more than 4 000 hours of flying experience and has captained over 30 varieties of aircraft and helicopters. He has served as Chief of the Air Staff and has also been AOC-in-C of three operational air commands. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 63 lt General (retd) Naresh Chand Lt general (retd) naresh Chand is the former Director general of Army Air Defence. A prolific writer he his currently the Senior Technical group editor with Sp guide publications since September 2005. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 327 lt General (retd) S.r.r. aiyengar Lt general (retd) S.r.r. Aiyengar was commissioned in the Corps of Signals Indian Army on June 11 1961. He has been the Chief Signal Officer of a Strike Corps in the Western Sector and has commanded an eW group in operations in Sri Lanka. He is a well-known military and strategic analyst. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 85 lt General (retd) P.C katoch Lt general p.C Katoch superannuated as Director general Information Systems of the Indian Army. A third generation army officer he commanded Strike Corps in the South Western Theatre. He has served as Defence Attache in Japan with accreditation to republic of Korea. He is currently settled in gurgaon. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 65 69 127 & 315 Sanjay kumar A security analyst and prolific writer Sanjay Kumar has to his credit a number of articles on security published in leading Indian journals and websites. He is presently associated with the Vivekananda International Foundation new Delhi where he is entrusted with the responsibility of setting up a research resource Centre. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 129 & 435 Prakash Singh prakash Singh is a recipient of padmashri. He was the Director general (Dg) border Security Force Dg police up and Dgp Assam. He was also a member of the expert group of planning Commission which studied the Development Challenges in extremist Affected Areas. He is known for the public Interest Litigation filed in the Supreme Court along with n.K. Singh regarding non-implementation of the recommendations of national police Commission. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 321 brigadier (retd) Sapan kumar Chatterji brigadier Sapan Kumar Chatterji has commanded one of the largest brigades of the Indian Army in an intense counter-insurgency environment. His last assignment prior to superannuation was Deputy Director general public Information where he was Media Adviser to the Army Chief. He has written over 80 articles in national newspapers and magazines on a wide variety of subjects. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 59 SP s Military yearbook 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue 159 contributors profile Major General (retd) Sheru thapliyal Major general Sheru Thapliyal has been an Instructor at the School of Artillery Devlali. He has commanded an Infantry Division in Ladakh. He is currently Vice president business Development Memory electronics pvt Ltd a Tandon group Company. He is also Director of Syrma Technologies another Tandon group Company. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 25 General (retd) V.P. Malik general V.p. Malik was Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army from October 1 1997 to September 30 2000 and the Chairman COSC of India from January 1 1999 to September 30 2000. He planned coordinated and oversaw execution of the Operation Vijay to successfully defeat pakistan s attempted intrusion in the Kargil Sector in 1999. After retirement he was a member of the nSAb for two years. He writes frequently for newspapers and magazines. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 51 & 61 k. Subrahmanyam K. Subrahmanyam joined the Indian Administrative Service in 1951 in the Tamil nadu cadre. Among his more prestigious appointments he has been the Home Secretary of Tamil nadu Chairman Joint Intelligence Committee Cabinet Secretariat and Secretary Defence production Ministry of Defence. He has had two stints as the Director of the IDSA. He has served as the Convenor of nSAb and has chaired the un Study group on nuclear Deterrence in 198586 the Kargil review Committee 1999-2000 and the Committee on national Defence university 2001-02. He is the author and editor of 16 books. He continues to indulge in his passion for strategic analysis. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 11 lt General (retd) V.r. raghavan The general is a graduate from the royal Military College of Science and Army Staff College uK. After a distinguished career in the Indian Army general raghavan retired in 1994 as Director general of Military Operations of the Indian Army. Currently he is the Director Delhi policy group and president Centre for Security Analysis. The general has authored many books and a monograph.n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 1 lt General (retd) Vijay oberoi Commissioned in 1961 he is an International Fellow at the Army War College uS. He has been gOC-in-C of Army Training Command and Western Command. Despite losing one leg in 1965 War he retired as the VCOAS in 2001. He was Founder Director of the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) and a prolific writer. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 17 rear admiral (retd) Sushil ramsay rear Admiral Sushil ramsay retired after serving for 38 years in the Indian navy. He provided extensive strategic directions and operational expertise towards capacity building in logistics defence expenditure administrative reforms and restructuring of Services Headquarters. During his last assignment as project Director-personnel & Administration he was instrumental in establishing a state-of-the-art and sophisticated headquarters for ATV project. He is currently is Senior editorial Adviser of SP s Naval Forces and technical editor of SP s Military Yearbook n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 191 brigadier (retd) Vinod anand brigadier Vinod Anand was brigadier general Staff Joint Operations at Army Training Command in his last assignment. He is a postgraduate in defence and strategic studies. He is currently a Senior Fellow at the uSI of India. He writes on regional and international security issues besides military subjects. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 161 air Marshal (retd) V.k. bhatia The author has the distinction of having accumulated more than 5 000 hours on all types of aircraft but mostly on single-engine fighters in the IAF. He was conferred gallantry awards (Vir Chakra) in both 1965 and 1971 wars against pakistan flying the Mystere and Su-7 respectively. He also has the rare distinction of being the AOC-in-C of three major operational commands of the IAF. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 123 air Marshal (retd) Vinod Patney He was commissioned into the IAF in May 1961. He has held the appointments of AOC-in-C Central Air Command Western Air Command (during the Kargil conflict) and VCAS. He has also been a member of the nSAb after superannuation. He regularly contributes articles for magazines and journals on strategic and military issues. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 43 lt General (retd) V.k. kapoor Lt general V.K. Kapoor was commissioned on February 9 1964. He is a specialist in armoured and mechanised warfare and in the art of war-gaming. prior to superannuating he was the Commandant of the Army War College at Mhow. He has written more than 90 articles for magazines and journals on strategic and military issues. He is currently the editor of SP s Land Forces and technical editor of SP s Military Yearbook. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 29 97 299 & 309 yang Jiemian Jiemian YAng is currently a Senior Fellow and president at the SIIS Member of Shanghai Committee of people s political Consultative Conference and president of Shanghai Association of International relations. n COnTrIbuTIOnS On pAge 5 160 SP s Military yearbook 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue section one uuuuuu uuu u u Contents One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Changing World Order Regrouping of International Forces Indo-US Relationship Afghanistan-Pakistan Perspective People s Liberation Army of China China s Armed Forces Land Warfare Emerging Role of Indian Navy India s Maritime Challenges Aerospace Power Multilateral Nuclear Ties India s Higher Direction of War 1 5 11 17 21 25 29 35 39 43 47 51 55 57 59 61 63 REGIONAL BALANCE uViewpoints Expert Opinion One China-Pakistan Alliance Two India-China Relations Three North Korea Rising Four Combating Internal Security Threats Five We Need to Spend More Efficiently ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Concepts & Perspectives CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 1 CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m India in the Obama Regime The world has changed in the first decade of 21st century and both the US and India have been impacted by that change. The nature and content of Indo-US relations in the Obama presidency thus hold both a promise of constructive engagement and the risks of not meeting the mutual expectations. LT GENERAL (RETD) V.R. RAGHAVAN Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook he US according to President Barack Obama needs to be engaged with the rest of the world instead of driving it. That is the essential change in the White House thinking after eight disastrous years with George W. Bush as President. India has been charmed and impressed by the new President s oratory and promise of change. The world has changed in the first decade of 21st century and both the US and India have been impacted by that change. The nature and content of India-US relations in the Obama presidency thus holds both a promise of constructive engagement and the risks of not meeting the mutual expectations. T 1 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE The new world order is driven by four major movements. The first is of economic collapse and recovery. The global collapse of the long established financial systems coincided with the assumption of office by President Obama. It was a fascinated world which witnessed his heroic efforts to pump start the US economy even as the operators of the banking world attempted to make personal profits out of the financial bail-out packages. The recovery has begun but will remain slow and of long duration. Economies of all major and minor powers have been affected and will not improve drastically for the better in a long while. The success of Obama presidency will be marked by the degree of economic growth in the US. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO The Global Strategic Context The second movement is led by international terrorism marked by political and strategic vacuum in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The umbilical link between the two countries is highlighted by the Af-Pak policy designed by the US. The Taliban Al-Qaeda and other multiple terrorist organisations are operating with impunity in and from Pakistan. All liberal and democratic countries are under continuous threat of major terrorist attacks from such organisations. President Barack Obama has declared a new strategy for Afghanistan based on enhanced military activity through a force level surge and a timetable for troop withdrawal. His Presidency will be severely impacted upon by the success or lack of it in the next two years. The US has and will continue to pour billions of dollars to prevent an economic collapse in Pakistan. A substantial percentage of such aid in the past has been diverted for use by the military for its benefit. There has thus been no meaningful impact on anti-terrorism operations within Pakistan or in Afghanistan. Pakistan s political stability and economic future will hinge on the new US strategy just as the success of the strategy will hinge on Pakistan s capacity to play a major and constructive role in it. Neither is success of the strategy certain nor is the outcome which will define the contours of the Obama world. The third movement is related to nuclear proliferation and disarmament. President Obama s stirring call for a world free of nuclear weapons was a remarkable departure from the Cold War mindsets on the subject. This has excited global hope and anticipation on a new beginning to rid the world of nuclear threats. The dangers of nuclear weapons coming in the possession of terrorist groups and the possibility of weapons being acquired by more states have added to this antici- INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 World Order Changing WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Four Groups Multi-polarisation Emerging Powers Regional cooperation helps push for a peaceful and orderly transformation of the international system and the emerging powers should serve as the new strategic backup for China on its road towards global power YANG JIEMIAN Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook he present world is in a stage of great development great change and great adjustment while the co-relation of international forces is evolving in favour of developing countries with emerging powers as their representatives. This has resulted in the formation of Four Groups namely the gaining defending losing and weakening forces. This article examines the regrouping of international forces and its impacts in respect of Four Groups and explores the extended contemporary connotation of peace and development in response to global problems. Moreover to this author regional cooperation helps push for a peaceful and orderly transformation of the international system and the emerging powers should serve as the new strategic backup for China on its road towards global power. Four Groups New Perspective in Analysing the Regrouping of International Forces The grasp of shifting situation and correlation of forces are most important and effective to begin with in studying international relations (IR). Since the onset of the 21st century the major actors of international society and IR strategists paid great attention to gauging the change of international forces through various measures. For example emerging powers like China Russia and Brazil champion multi-polarisation European countries either maintain or oppose multi-polarisation on the basis of given timings and opportunities and the United States attempts to sustain its leadership over the world though the sole superpower 5 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE T status is helplessly waning. In the words of Henry A. Kissinger the former US Secretary of State The centre of gravity of world affairs is shifting from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Helmut Schmidt the former German chancellor said The US Russia China Islamic countries Africa India and European Union (EU) are the gravity of the current world and are affecting the direction of the international state of affairs. Lee Kuan Yew Minister Mentor of Singapore states that the next two decades will remain to be an asymmetry multi-polar world with the US as the sole superpower. Editor of Newsweek International Fareed Zakaria said that the ascent of newly emerging powers and NGOs is the rise of the rest in the post-American world which constitutes the third shift of power in the past 500 years. Multipolarisation in the international configuration a viewpoint recognised by this author though can be reexamined in terms of the epochal characteristics of the regrouping of international forces. The 9 11 event and financial crisis are catalysing the formation of Four Groups namely the gaining defending losing and weakening forces. The term gaining forces refer to the newly emerging powers and aggressive international and regional organisations which have rallied considerable economic and political strengths with greater right of discourse in the world affairs and secured relatively equal participation in the reform of international system and international order. The term defending forces refer to international actors like the United States and NGOs such as International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. In the wake of the end of the Cold War the once almighty US has lost the sole superpower status in the world affairs. IMF and World Bank have greatly declined both in terms of general magnitude and in terms of practical influence. The term losing forces refers to EU Japan Russia and international organisations like the Commonwealth of Independent BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 International Forces WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Regrouping of CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Laying Foundation for a Partnership The proposed joint Indo-US clean energy and climate change initiative can do to India what the US investments and joint ventures did to China in the eighties and nineties. To deal effectively with climate change and green house gas emission India should concentrate on getting the clean energy and climate change initiative started at the earliest. This is going to be an industrial revolution. K. SUBRAHMANYAM 11 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE oth India and the US are new to the concept of partnership. The US inherited the leadership of the western world with its entry into the Second World War and its victory in it and its subsequent efforts in rehabilitating and providing security to the Western European countries and Japan. Since the US was the liberator rehabilitator and security provider for the western world and subsequently the engine of growth to China and East Asian and Southeast Asian countries it was accepted as an undisputed leader of most of the market economies and democratic countries. The US exercises leadership over NATO and Anzus alliances and provides bilateral security to Japan and South Korea and tacit security to ASEAN. Therefore it was not used to having partners but only allies who accepted its lead. India practised isolationism in the name of non-alignment. It maintained cordial relationship with the Soviet Union and a non-antagonistic relationship with the US during the Cold War. Though during the Cold War there was a greater commonality of values between democratic and pluralistic India and democratic and pluralistic US than between India and communist USSR the US chose to align itself with non-democratic dictatorships and distance itself from India as part of its Cold War strategy and tactics. The US made a deal with China at the time when the country was passing through the worst phase of Cultural Revolution. China is today the main challenger of the US and holds it as an economic Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook B hostage. The US though a secular country had no compunction in using religious fundamentalism and extremism as instrumentalities to fight a Holy War to defeat the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. That Holy War gave rise to the Jihadi terrorism which led to the 9 11 attack on the US. Today US President Barack Obama pledges himself to fight a just war against those holy warriors spawned by the tragic blunder of the US straying from its basic values in the late seventies and early eighties. India s isolationist non-alignment was the result of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru s strategic calculation. India could not afford to alienate the Soviet Union with a Zdhanov s thesis in the Cominform calling on Asian communists to carry out the uprisings. The Chinese Communist Party was even more antagonistic to the Jawaharlal Nehru government in India than the Soviet Communist Party. Nehru s non-alignment aimed at not alienating the USSR. He succeeded in this effort and the Soviet attitude towards India became increasingly benevolent as the Soviets sensed potential hostility from China. By the late fifties India and the Soviet Union developed a mutuality of security interest vis-a-vis China. This mutuality of security interest lasted through the Cold War. From 1971 onwards China switched sides and became a tacit ally of the US against USSR. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union called for review of policies by both India and the US. The P.V. Narasimha Rao government carried out economic liberalisation established ambassadorial relations with Israel opened to the east and took steps to improve relations with the US. Washington on its part carried out a number of think-tank studies on improving relations with India. The NDA government assuming office in 1998 marked a watershed GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 Relationship Indo-US WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Cause for Alarm Pakistan has played its cards well. If the move to negotiate and bribe the Taliban gathers steam the region is in for a great deal of instability. The civil society of Pakistan is likely to be the biggest sufferer and India may well be the next. Afghanistan is the graveyard of Empires. --The Great Game I am not prepared to say we are winning. I am prepared to say we are very much engaged and I am confident we re going to see serious progress this year. --General Stanely McChrystal Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook Current Scenario 17 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE The low standard of living of much of the population has been exacerbated by 30 years of civil war. The economy continues to depend on the cultivation and sale of narcotics. Widespread corruption has under- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO T he Af-Pak area has been the most alarming concern of the world for nearly one year now. Although both Afghanistan and Pakistan have been the focus of security experts for many years there is a sense of urgency now on account of rapid changes taking place. Recent Afghan history has been marked by almost a constant war. Conflict began with the overthrow of King Zahir Shah in 1973 and has continued thereafter. Its intensity increased after the Soviet occupation in 1979 as Mujahideens recruited trained and equipped by the United States and with the help of Saudi Arabia and Pakistan commenced operations and ousted them in 1989. The Taliban emerged on the scene in 1994 and established control over 95 per cent of Afghanistan by 1996. In 2001 the US and its allies in their quest for Al-Qaeda terrorists after 9 11 invaded Afghanistan and with the help of the Northern Alliance defeated the Taliban. Despite the military victory a large num- INDIAN DEFENCE LT GENERAL (RETD) VIJAY OBEROI ber of Taliban and Al-Qaeda cadres escaped and took shelter in the border belts of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Hamid Karzai a Pashtun was installed as the interim head of state in 2002 and in 2004 a new constitution was adopted. After the US shifted focus to Iraq the Taliban staged a comeback both within Afghanistan and in the border areas of Pakistan. Currently an international force under the control of the US is operating against the Taliban. Simultaneously the country is being rebuilt by international support. The tribal and ethnic composition of Afghanistan (map) makes centralised control difficult and is the reason for the fierce independence of the people. The ethnic groups of Afghanistan comprise 36.4 per cent to 42 per cent Pashtun 27 per cent to 38 per cent Tajik 8 per cent to 10 per cent Hazara 6 per cent to 9.2 per cent Uzbek 1.7 to 3 per cent Turkmen 0.5 per cent to 4 per cent Baloch 0.1 per cent to 4 per cent Aimak 1.9 per cent to 9.2 per cent other (Pashai Hindki Nuristani Brahui Hindkowans etc). BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 Perspective WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Afghanistan-Pakistan CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Doctrinal Reforms Since China s ignominious incursion into Vietnam in 1979 PLA doctrine has evolved from Mao s people s war characterised by protracted large-scale land warfare through a limited local war phase to people s war under modern conditions introduced in 1993. BRIG (RETD) GURMEET KANWAL Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook hina has spelt out its aim for developing the People s Liberation Army (PLA) into a modern force stating A major strategic task of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in exercising state power is to secure a coordinated development of national defence and the economy and to build modernised regularised and revolutionary armed forces to keep the country safe. The PLA is gradually becoming a more modern and professional force capable of dealing with diverse threats. This transformation is being fuelled by significant changes in the doctrine and tactics the introduction of sophisticated command and control systems the gradual acquisition of state-of-the-art hardware an enhanced training regime and steady downsizing of paramilitary personnel to improve the teeth-to-tail ratio. Since China s ignominious incursion into Vietnam in 1979 the PLA doctrine has evolved from Mao s people s war characterised by protracted large-scale land warfare through a limited local war phase to people s war under modern conditions introduced in 1993. C New Doctrines Active Defence and High-tech Limited War Underpinning the new professionalism of the PLA is the new doctrine of active defence (jiji fangyu) that seeks to conduct people s war under modern conditions but is better understood as local wars 21 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE under high-tech conditions (gaojishu tiaojian xia de jubu zhanzheng). The active defence doctrine calls for integrated deep strikes--a concentration of superior firepower that is to be utilised to destroy the opponent s retaliatory capabilities--through pre-emptive strikes employing long-range artillery short-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs) and precision-guided munitions. David Shambaugh writes Rather than conducting a people s war (a strategy to lure the enemy in deep into one s own territory) the PLA doctrine of active defence calls for forward positioning frontier defence engagement of the enemy at or over the border and potential engagement in conflict beyond China s immediate periphery. Compared with China s historically reactive stance of luring the adversary deep inside and destroying him through strategic defence this doctrine is essentially pro-active and seeks to take the battle into enemy territory. The doctrine emphasises the effective use of advanced equipment wielded by elite units with a focus on joint operations. The overall aim in this limited war under high-tech conditions doctrine is to disrupt the enemy s combat forces and logistics but not annihilate him so as to bring about a negotiated end to the conflict or dictate terms if possible. Beijing has identified the following five limited war scenarios as being likely Military conflict with neighbouring countries in a limited region Military conflict on territorial waters Undeclared air attack by enemy countries Territorial defence in a limited military operation Punitive offensive with a minor incursion into a neighbouring country The new doctrine and the strategy and tactics associated with GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 Army of China WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES People s Liberation CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Modernisation & Innovations Although military modernisation figured last among Deng Xiao Ping s Four Modernisations there are increasing signs that China has embarked on its military modernisation to turn its army into a modern force capable of defeating a moderate size adversary We should draw on the experiences in new military changes of the world and seize the opportunities to achieve development in national defence and army modernisation. --President Hu Jintao MAJ GENERAL (RETD) SHERU THAPLIYAL 25 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he People s Republic of China (PRC) launched a comprehensive modernisation programme for its armed forces the People s Liberation Army (PLA) in the mid-1980s. While the PLA has made efforts in this regard from the 1950s onwards the recent phase of modernisation has been wide-ranging and has the effect of gradually changing the traditional image and composition of the PLA in the coming decades. After the 1979 Vietnam War China has experienced a relatively peaceful external environment. Most of this goes to the launch of the modernisation programme in its armed forces. Military modernisation was the last of Deng Tsio Ping s Four Modernisations. In the early 1990s the Central Military Commission (CMC) reportedly projected a three-state modernisation programme for the armed forces--an initial modernisation of the three branches from 1992 to 1996 the second phase of fundamental modernisation by 1998 and the third phase of basic advanced modernisation to be completed by 2001. Further blueprints were drawn by the new fourth generation Chinese leaders after the 16th Party Congress for modernising the PLA in the coming years. Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook T Modernisation Strategy The mid-1980s witnessed some soul-searching in the PLA after the losses suffered in the Vietnam War of 1979. To overcome the problems in the PLA a strategic transformation was initiated at the May-June 1985 CMC enlarged conference aimed at not only demobilising soldiers but also improving the command system and upgrading technological level of its weaponry. The Gulf War of 1991 also came as an eye-opener for the PLA GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO China s armed forces have been unique in several aspects as compared to their counterparts in other parts of the globe. The development of the PLA was conditioned by the political vagaries of the socialist system with its guiding principles of modernisation revolutionisation and regularisation which differed in importance in the last five decades. Modernisation efforts of the PLA involved streamlining and reorganising its force structures raising elite troops restructuring of command and control mechanisms restoration of the rank system and grades emphasis on professional military education revamping curriculum and upgrading the defence technological capabilities of the personnel. These are meant to enhance military capabilities of the country so as to overcome the perceived challenges to the state. Several factors influenced such modernisation efforts. They include changes in the nature of warfare technology ability to divert precious budgetary and human resources political leadership s choices and outlook and so on. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 Armed Forces China s WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Indian Army The Changing Needs It is disappointing to note that in the 21st century the Indian Army and indeed the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force are still planning for conflicts essentially service wise the way it was done in the early years of Second World War. Doctrinal differences lack of suitably integrated joint organisations poor knowledge and experience of joint staff work and bereft of networked communications the Indian armed forces lack the organisational culture and response to effectively fight future conflicts. Would you tell me please which way I ought to go from here said Alice. That depends a good deal on where you want to get to said the Cheshire cat. --Lewis Carrol Alice in Wonderland Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook 29 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO I ndia faces three types of threats in the future. The long-term threat from Pakistan and China respectively may take the form of limited mid high intensity conventional wars while the internal threat and the contemporary challenges are likely to take the form of terrorism and insurgencies emanating from traditional adversaries international terrorist networks non-state actors and or from dissident groups of homegrown variety. The transnational nature of these threats and the increasing involvement of state actors in using sub-conventional conflicts as war by other means have exacerbated their complexity. The conventional conflicts are likely to be of short duration and may vary from a few days to a few weeks due to the inevitable international pressures. The reaction time during crises situations and especially in the case of terror attacks will be very limited. Thus there is a constant need for intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance to preempt attacks and to react in a timely manner in case pre-emption is not feasible. INDIAN DEFENCE LT GENERAL (RETD) V. K. KAPOOR The low intensity conflicts (LIC) fall under the category of politico-military confrontation between contending states or groups and are at a much lower scale than conventional wars but are above the routine and peaceful competition among states. LIC ranges from high-grade internal security situations to the extensive employment of army in counter insurgency operations. LIC may be waged by a combination of means employing political economic informational and military instruments. It includes terrorism but excludes purely criminal acts. Such conflicts as opposed to conventional wars may prolong indefinitely because conflict resolution has to be achieved within many conflicting influences. India is likely to face hybrid conflicts involving conventional as well as low intensity conflicts simultaneously. The types of threats are by themselves indicative of a threat cum capability based force structure in which the potential adversary s capabilities and threats can both be countered by acquiring a full spectrum capability but without overstretching the country s resources. This can be achieved by employing a new joint war fighting doctrine which combines the strengths of each service through technology with innovative operational art evolved contextually. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 7 Warfare Land WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Indian Navy Challenges in the Maritime Domain The next few decades are going to witness the graceful decline of America s economy and with it her maritime power and global influence. This will be accompanied by the phenomenal ascendance of China in the economic industrial and military fields with concomitant gains in terms of international clout. India for all its promise in terms of a steadily growing economy native talent and youth bulge may remain a laggard because of the absence of a grand strategy or coherent long-term vision. ADMIRAL (RETD) ARUN PRAKASH 35 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he recent past has seen a succession of study teams of Western (mainly American) analysts focusing on the geostrategic state-of-play in the Indian Ocean and attempting to predict the long-term intent and purpose behind India s accretion of maritime capability. Similarly the Indian Navy s Doctrine and Strategy documents seem to have received more attention and analysis abroad than at home. Highlighting the steadily increasing centrality of the Indian Ocean in world affairs Robert D. Kaplan says in the February 2009 issue of the Foreign Affairs magazine Already the world s pre-eminent energy and trade interstate seaway the Indian Ocean will matter even more in the is where global struggles will play out in the twenty-first century. To bolster his argument Kaplan quotes two ancient aphorisms of esoteric provenance. One says If the world were an egg Hormuz would be its yolk and the other Whoever is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice. If we are discussing ancient maritime wisdom it is time for Indians to re-read the forgotten writings of Sardar K.M. Panikkar the historian and distinguished son of India. Sixty-five years ago he pointed out that much of the materials found in the remains of the Indus Valley civilisation (3000-2500 BC) and many products discov- Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook T ered in Mohenjo-Daro came either from the shores of the Red Sea or the extreme south of India and could only have been transported by sea. Panikkar recounts the continuum of colonisation as well as cultural and religious osmosis from India s east coast by sea to Southeast Asia. This resulted in establishment of large Hindu kingdoms and empires in Siam Cambodia Java and Sumatra for eight hundred years from the fifth century BC. From this apogee India s maritime prowess went into rapid decline mainly because the Central Asian dynasties which came to rule in Delhi in the 13th century had never seen the seas and knew nothing about maritime power. Lamenting this inherited tendency to overlook maritime aspects while examining security issues Panikkar warned in a 1945 book While to other countries the Indian Ocean is only one of the oceanic areas to India it is the vital sea. Her future is dependent on the freedom of its waters. His prescience appears even more remarkable when he declared in the midst of the Chinese Civil War That China does intend to embark on a policy of large-scale naval expansion is clear from the attitude of both the communists as well as the nationalists. Conscious of its increasingly crucial role in the region the Indian Navy (IN) as it looks ahead will need to examine the emerging power play in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) as well as the main participants while evolving its medium-and long-term strategy. GET YOUR COPY TO Power Shift READ IN COMPLETE Even as many Western nations teeter on the brink of economic uncertainty there are now significant signs that after a deep and vicious ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 8 Indian Navy WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Emerging Role of CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Indian Navy In the Coming Decade For India to seek her rightful place in the comity of nations it is incumbent upon India to have a strong maritime force and actively engage in maritime diplomacy so that maritime challenges of today can be effectively neutralised before they translate into long-term threats for the nation VICE ADMIRAL (RETD) J.S. BEDI 39 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE rystal ball gazing at the best of times is fraught with uncertainties. Nobody could have predicted the collapse of the Soviet Union or for that matter the demolition of the Berlin Wall a decade in advance. In more recent times all the brilliant graduates from the best management and financial institutions of the world failed to see the current economic recession (except for the US realty market to some extent). Therefore prediction of maritime challenges in India s context is a rather complex issue linked to a host of factors. Geo-strategically the centrality of the Asia-Pacific region to the current and foreseeable world order has been accepted by most strategists. Key players in the region will be China Japan Korea Australia and India. While most economies of the western world are either in recession or stagnating China and India are the current economic drivers averaging nine per cent and six per cent growth respectively. One would like to believe that China and India are the current flavour for all strategic crystal ball gazers. There are many who are worried about the Chinese financial condition especially due to very large loans doled out by the banks. There is a fear of economic meltdown. Notwithstanding this in the international scene China would like to be seen as a responsible and mature nation. However China s assertiveness both as an economic and military power cannot be wished away. Indian strategists must factor China in their long-term threat perceptions. Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook C On the other hand India has certainly come a long way from the doomsday prediction of balkanisation and Third World War scenario. India today is a well established and largest practising democracy though relatively young. While we have all the linked problems of a developing economy our lack of strategic planning and thought process poor infrastructure and deep-rooted corruption are probably the biggest stumbling blocks in our effort to develop faster and assert ourselves internationally. From a nascent democracy with a colonial hangover India is slowly but surely moving to become a key regional player. Our interests would be the key factor which will shape our actions within the region and internationally. These interests would be the drivers for our foreign and defence policies. Also these interests would automatically throw up challenges for our nation. These challenges would need to be met head on and resolved. It would thus be safe to assume that the interests generate challenges. If 40-50 years ago anyone had posed the question about India s maritime interests the answer presumably would have been simple. India s interests were limited and in all probability confined to protecting its territorial integrity against all forms of maritime threat and safeguarding of its sea lanes of communication (SLOCs). Over the years and in keeping with the stature of India the maritime interests have grown manifold. Let us first look at India s area of maritime interest. During independence the country s area of interest was confined to its immediate neighbourhood and coastal seas. This was probably shaped by the continental mindset of India s political leadership and sea blindness that GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 9 Challenges WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES India s Maritime CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m SP Guide Publications Defence Against Cyber Attacks The impact of modern aerospace can be so emphatic that aerospace domination has become the primary task of the armed forces AIR MARSHAL (RETD) VINOD PATNEY 43 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he word warfare lends itself to many interpretations. For instance warfare could also mean conflict with little or even no use of military power. Attempts at industrial and scientific espionage are a form of warfare the extent of modernity of such warfare is dependent on the techniques and procedures used. Similarly cyber warfare is a form of warfare that is fast gaining importance even though its prosecution does not have to use explosives. No casualties occur through direct action although attendant damage could result in casualties. For instance there could be loss of life or property as a result of breakdown of power or railway networks caused by cyber attacks. In any case cyber attacks are becoming more frequent and warrant priority attention. In October 2009 UN Secretary General of the International Telecommunications Union (UTU) warned that the next world war could happen in cyberspace . Strong words indeed but they demand that nations pay heed to the threat posed. Defence against cyber attacks could involve the use or the threat of use of even more punishing cyber attacks. Even the threat itself of such attacks could be a valid deterrent. Defence against cyber attacks would also involve hitting enemy facilities used to conduct cyber warfare. These enemy centres could be ground based or airborne or even in space. The centres could be attacked to bring about permanent damage or destructions (hard kills) or temporary incapacitation caused by electronic means (soft kills). In both cases aerospace power has an important role to play. In the very near future cyber warfare could become a Spectrum of Conflicts In recent years we witness the increasing use of the phrase spectrum of conflict . Implicit in the phrase is the recognition that the levels and nature of conflict are becoming more diverse. In other words armed forces have to contend with a host of possible eventualities and should be prepared to fight and win in every case. Within the last two decades or so a number of disparate combat situations have occurred. At a supposedly lower level of conflict is the seemingly never ending terrorism and militancy as exemplified by the Al-Qaeda Taliban Hezbollah and a number of other terrorist organisations that are active in many parts of the world including India China Europe and the Middle East. The activities of these terrorist organisations can extend from relatively minor skirmishes to major attacks like the September 11 2001 attack on the US and attacks in UK Madrid and Mumbai etc. At a supposedly higher level are the conflicts such as in Kosovo Kargil and Lebanon. Such conflicts were limited or remained limited in terms of area duration forces used and objectives. Possibly there was also an unstated desire on both sides to avoid escalation. Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE T major task for aerospace power. Similarly it is but a question of time that more meaningful transformations in the manner of waging wars occur. It is certain that such transformations would involve higher technology including space facilities and their use in war would demand both quick reaction and the ability to hit targets at some distance. Aerospace power by its very nature will be required to lead such activities. In fact the changes in war fighting that will inevitably occur in and beyond cyber warfare will place even greater demands on aerospace power. Air force must recognise the inevitability of such an outcome and prepare for it. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 10 Power WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Aerospace CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m SP Guide Publications India s Changing Approaches to Nuclear Ties India has travelled far from the time when she entered the NPT negotiations. The economic and military strengths are vastly different now. India s approach to and positions on multilateral nuclear treaties should reflect the changed circumstances. ARUNDHATI GHOSE is today perceived even by commentators at home to be against most multilateral arms controls particularly in the nuclear field. 47 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he year 2010 will see a resurgence of the debates on non-proliferation and the elimination of nuclear weapons at the international level. In view of the review conference on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) being held in New York from May 3 to May 28. At the domestic level India will be faced with a complex variety of questions some pertaining to the impact of these activities on her own security interests and others of a more political nature. It is essential that these issues are examined as objectively as possible and a serious non-ideological debate takes place nationally particularly on the multilateral nuclear treaties that India has so far tended to view with wariness and suspicion. Contrary to what is commonly believed India has not always been against multilateral treaties controlling the spread of weapons technology and materials. In fact it was India after the first Chinese nuclear weapon test in October 1964 who took the issue of non-proliferation (and nuclear blackmail ) to the United Nations General Assembly in early 1965 with the help of the Soviet Union. A year earlier soon after the Partial Test Ban Treaty was signed and opened for participation to countries other than the depositories the US UK and the Soviet Union India was amongst the first to sign on to this treaty that banned nuclear explosions in the atmosphere in 1963. In 1972 India signed the Biological and Toxic Weapons Treaty and as late as 1995 signed the Chemical Weapons Convention. Despite these early moves India Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook T India s Changing Approaches To understand India s changing approaches it is necessary to revisit some of the early declarations by Jawaharlal Nehru who at that time was not only the Prime Minister but also possibly the only authoritative voice of India that was heard abroad. Speaking at the Conference of Scientists on Development of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes in 1954 Nehru recognised that a dominating factor in the modern world is the prospect of these terrible weapons suddenly coming into use before which our normal weapons are completely useless. Clearly the implication of this was to either try or push for the elimination of these terrible weapons or to develop them to meet any future security challenges. It should also be remembered that while India faced many challenges in those early years not the least the integrity and economic survival the country was also in the process of building its capacity in the field of nuclear energy which was then seen as a possible panacea to India s economic woes. These circumstances and the in-built moral repugnance to a weapon of mass destruction appears to have tilted the balance towards the first course of action-to demand actions which would lead to the elimination of weapons that India felt might pose a challenge in the future to her security. Somewhere along the way the moral argument overwhelmed the original security imperative at least in articulation except in rare cases as will be seen later and nuclear disarmament became the touchstone of India s positions on issues of control of the spread of nuclear weapons and related technologies. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 11 Nuclear Ties Multilateral WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m The Prevailing Weaknesses & Challenges There is an urgent requirement to review our higher defence control system. We need changes in the structures processes and procedures that would make it more efficient resilient and speedily responsive. It is only then that we can be secure internally and externally fully prepared to take on the role that we see for ourselves as a regional power. The military s isolation from India s political leadership is perhaps its only negative contribution to the Indian democracy. --Anonymous In no other major democracy are the armed forces given so insignificant a role in policy making as in India. In no other country do they accept it with the docility they do in India. --Shekhar Gupta Editor-in-Chief The Indian Express GENERAL (RETD) V.P. MALIK failed to convert hard-won operational achievements into long-term politico-strategic successes. Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook 51 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO A India s Weak Strategic Culture Strategic culture may be defined as the ability of the people and society to generate to have social will and ability for a full and effective employment of that power . Barring periods under the Mauryan Gupta and Mughal kings and under the British our strategic culture has remained internalised fixated upon curbing within rather than combating the external. During centuries of slavery and colonialism the Indian leadership forgot all about Chanakya s Arthashastra. Our vast diversity has made us culturally a strong soft power with a global philosophy of Vasudhai Kutumbkam --the world is one large family. As a result most of our political leaders grew up conjuring the idea of a morally superior India professing peace and harmony in a world where nations indulge in cut-throat competition. The ability to generate hard power and the will and the ability to make use of that is not our strong point. national security apparatus of any country depends upon its strategic culture awareness of its elite its strategic environment and the emerging trends in the nature of conflict and warfare. The test bed of such an apparatus is the achievement of national security interests without going to war and if necessary by going through a war. India s defence and security report card for the past six decades has been more positive than negative. Despite reactive strategic policies ad hoc defence planning intelligence failures and strategic and tactical surprises the armed forces have maintained India s security and territorial integrity better than any other democratic developing nation in the world. But the credit for these successes goes less to the higher direction of war and more to those responsible for operational planning and execution on the ground. Most of the time we have also INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 12 Direction of War India s Higher WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m EXPERT OPINION & Targeting India China is using Pakistan as a strategic tool to deny India a peaceful setup so as to achieve overall development including the economic sphere. Beijing and Islamabad are making earnest attempts at keeping India tied down to subcontinental matters and not allowing it to grow to its full stature as it seeks a global image for itself beyond Asia. DR. MONIKA CHANSORIA Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook A s China envisions a superior role for itself in the international theatre it has circumspectly chosen to nurture its ties with certain countries in the region which would be of significance as far as tying down its potential challengers goes. Of these China s ties with Pakistan remain a core and crucial component of the strategy. With a larger aim to keep New Delhi tied down within the subcontinent and attempting to restrict its growth beyond the region Beijing has adeptly crafted its relationship with Islamabad. Given these equations India justifiably nurses an apprehension that the Sino-Pak nexus could well project the potential threat of a two-front war should there be a shift in the existing status quo. While the world debates and ponders over the safety of Pakistan s nuclear weapons given the worrisome security situation in Pakistan China s silence on the issue remains conspicuously evident. Beijing has carefully chosen not to comment on the issue of being hand in glove with Pakistan on nuclear weapon arsenal safety. This primarily is aimed at deflecting the attention away from the proliferating role played by China vis- -vis Islamabad laying its hands on such weapons and their means of delivery in the first place. Beijing s position as Islamabad s nuclear and missile benefactor is a 55 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Nuclear and Missile Nexus widely accepted and authenticated veracity. Following its striking military defeat at India s hands in 1971 Pakistan s Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had said that Pakistanis would eat grass if need be but would spare no effort to produce an Islamic (nuclear) bomb. It has been well known that Pakistan acquired this capability with munificent assistance from the Chinese who found in Pakistan a strategic ally willing to countervail India--a common adversary for both. According to a statement given to The Washington Post by none other than Abdul Qadeer Khan facing house arrest in Pakistan the year 1982 witnessed Pakistan s military C-130 leaving the western Chinese city of Urumqi with a highly unusual cargo--enough weapons-grade uranium for two atomic bombs. The uranium transfer in five stainless-steel boxes was part of a broad-ranging secret nuclear deal approved years earlier by Mao Zedong and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto that culminated in an exceptional and deliberate act of proliferation by a nuclear power. As a matter of fact China provided direct assistance to Pakistan s nuclear weapons programme since the 1980s which proved instrumental for Islamabad. According to a study conducted by the Monterey Institute of International Studies China reportedly transferred the nuclear weapon design of a 25-kiloton nuclear bomb--possibly a Chic4 design--to Pakistan in 1983. Besides Pakistani nuclear scientists claimed to have been permitted by the Chinese to test a nuclear device in the Lop Nor test range in China back in 1983. Providing an insight to this issue nuclear proliferation analyst Leonard S. Spector confirmed that Beijing assisted Islamabad in the construction of an unsafeguarded plutonium production reactor at Khushab GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 Alliance WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES China-Pakistan CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m EXPERT OPINION The Way Ahead China now holds all the cards in shaping the course of Sino-India relations in the future irrespective of whatever India might say or do. There is a huge gap today in comprehensive national power which encompasses military prowess economic strength and political influence. RANJIT GUPTA 57 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE reater awareness of each other s concerns and aspirations is an essential building block for mutual trust said Nirupama Rao in an article India China Relations The Way Forward published in the Beijing Review (Number 4 January 22 2009). Rao was then India s Ambassador to China. Since August 2009 Rao has been Foreign Secretary and has thus become India s top official dealing with China. But thereafter whatever she has said is more in the realm of wishful thinking if not almost completely illusory. I will give just a few examples. The special representatives appointed by the leadership of our two governments to discuss the settlement of the boundary question have achieved distinct progress in terms of having reached agreement on the political parameters and guiding principles for a boundary settlement. This was destroyed by the Chinese Ambassador s offensive and undiplomatic public statement claiming the whole of Arunachal Pradesh not merely Tawang as part of China on the eve of President Hu Jintao s visit to India in November 2006. The Chinese Ambassador s comments violated the tacit agreement that neither side will publicly air their respective claims officially. Since then China s Foreign Minister has also questioned the populated areas principle and China is now frequently publicly asserting its claim in increasingly vituperative language and even protesting the Prime Minister s visits to Arunachal. All this has coincided with increasing intrusions into Indian territory particularly in the Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook G Ladakh and Sikkim sectors and to frequent references in Chinese state controlled media and think-tank articles to 1962 and possible invasion of South Tibet as Arunachal is now increasingly referred to in China. On an issue of concern for China namely the Tibet issue our government has shown tough action that we do not allow Indian soil to be used for anti-China political activities. On the Taiwan issue similarly our position has been consistently supportive of the principle of one China. All Sino-Indian joint statements have contained unilateral assurances by the Indian side to respect China s sensitivities. China is the only country in the world which questioned Sikkim s merger with India even though it had no claims in relation to Sikkim and thus made it a pressure point in bilateral relations. But till date it has not agreed to a similar declaration in a joint statement relating to Sikkim or Kashmir. Chinese assistance converted incipient unrest in the Northeast into an insurgency in the 1950s and China seems to have resumed its support for the insurgents in recent years. Furthermore Indian sensitivities in regard to China making Pakistan into a nuclear weapons power with lethal missile capabilities and growing conventional high-tech military manufacturing expertise have always been ignored. We in India also appreciate China s assistance by way of provision of hydrological data on our common rivers which has helped flood prevention and mitigation downstream in India its import has been much more than a technical discussion involving experts. When the issue of the construction of dams came out in the open in early November 2009 the Foreign Secretary had said that whenever we have taken up the matter with China they have consistently denied that GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 Relations India-China WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m EXPERT OPINION Nuclear Gambling North Korea s leadership would certainly like to retain their independence and not be amalgamated with the South as some wishful thinkers would like it to be. Meanwhile perhaps what spurs the North most is its desire to be seen as an equal member in the comity of nations that holds direct talks with other nations especially the United States. BRIG (RETD) S.K. CHATTERJI 59 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he ground beneath the feet trembled in the Chinese border town of Yanji on May 25 2008. About 130 miles away on the same day and at the same hour at 9.54 am local time to be precise Kizu County in Northeast Korea experienced an earthquake measuring a magnitude of 4.5 on the scales. North Korea had conducted its second nuclear test. The country s official news agency removed whatever doubts the international community had with a terse announcement and said We have successfully conducted another nuclear test on May 25 as part of the republic s measures to strengthen its nuclear deterrent. There are two basic elements required to create the equations that are of relevance in nuclear deterrence assessments nuclear weapons capability and delivery means availability. The North Koreans had testlaunched a ballistic missile on April 5. Pyongyang at that stage had argued that it was a peaceful communication satellite. However the technology was considered as too evidently identical to that used for a long-range Taepodong-2 missile. On May 25 when they tested a weapon that was comparable to that used in Hiroshima the fact that the world would be alarmed was inevitable. The North Koreans like the Iranians have kept the western world on tenterhooks for long. Though not echoed too often today along with Iran and Afghanistan North Korea formed the third constituent of the Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook T triad that was termed as the Axis of Evil by US President George W. Bush in the aftermath of 9 11.The history of Pyongyang s flirting with nuclear capability is old and well orchestrated. It requires delving into it in order to establish the reasons that compel North s dictatorial regime to pursue its nuclear agenda despite the sanctions that they invite. North Korea initiating a nuclear programme can be traced back to the rising tide of South s conventional capability with the US providing the latter with the wherewithal. When the fact of being left behind was perceived by the North in the 1980s it went in for a nuclear option an asymmetric approach to circumvent the growing chasm in its conventional capabilities vis-a-vis South Korea. They established the first experimental 5 MWe reactor in Yongbyon. By 1986 North was assessed to have plutonium. Yongbyon also has another reactor that is possibly dysfunctional now. The US started a dialogue to wean North Korea away from its nuclear ambitions. However when the North s leadership responded by deciding to walk out of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty that they had been a signatory to matters came to a head. The US focussed on the option of attacking the North s nuclear sites. The threat of the US intervention by force paid its dividends. The North consented to Clinton s Agreed Framework in 1994 that witnessed the North putting its plutonium enrichment on hold for the next eight years. The Agreed Framework signed by the US and North Korea on October 21 1994 in Geneva in addition to freezing the existing nuclear programme and access to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for enhanced safeguards also made room for normalisation of political and economic relations. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 Rising WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES North Korea CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m EXPERT OPINION In the Grip of Insurgency Fundamental changes in the manner in which the country will be secured and protected are in the offing Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook Centre-State Synergy Law and order is a state subject. Policing authority therefore is vested with state governments. This has made the Central government incapable of directly affecting the quality of policing a source of much of the problems in managing internal security. Unfortunately the state governments devote little attention to this important issue and very often refuse to recognise basic linkage between normal policing and internal security. They have nei- 61 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO Operational Synergy among Civil and Military Forces READ IN COMPLETE Greater liaison coordination and interoperability for operations among agencies responsible for internal security is essential. It is time to think ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE A t the annual internal security conference of Governors and Chief Ministers last year Prime Minister Manmohan Singh acknowledged that internal security threat to India is a major cause of concern. Currently 45 per cent of India s geographical area covering 220 districts is in the grip of insurgency. Internal security problems in Jammu & Kashmir and Northeastern states are well known. In addition Naxalites have spread their activities to 180 districts in 17 states. Sixty districts in Chhattisgarh Jharkhand Bihar Andhra Pradesh Orissa and Maharashtra are seriously affected eight of them being critical. India s open and pluralistic society remains vulnerable to several internal contradictions even after 62 years of independence. Given our poverty illiteracy communal and caste vote bank politics these contradictions are unlikely to disappear soon. In a strategic environment wherein internal and external security is enmeshed more than ever before a Balkanised India is not in our strategic and national interest. Combating security problems--internal external or their combination--requires a high level of synergy at strategic operational and tactical levels. BUSINESS GENERAL (RETD) V. P. MALIK ther the resources nor inclination to upgrade the quality of the state police or to raise extra forces without substantial financial help from the Centre. They let the situation deteriorate till it blows out of their control. At operational level too as noticed in many states recently synergy is lacking particularly when the Centre and the state governments are run by different political alliances. There is far too much of political interference in the professional functioning of police organisations in the states. As a result law enforcement agencies across the country without exception are in a state of utter disrepair. Unless these are re-invigorated and energised we cannot achieve the desired results from internal security operations. The responsibility without resources at the state level and the lack of accountability at state level and at the Centre must be resolved. The government must implement the recommendations of the National Police Reforms Commission of 1979 and advice from the Supreme Court on the PIL filed by the former DGP Prakash Singh in letter and spirit. We need synergised Centre-state strategy and doctrines to deal with different aspects of internal security including insurgencies and terrorism. This should cover the above mentioned law and order related reforms better coordination as well as broad-based domains of national and states policies like accelerated economic development and social justice security and media policies in affected areas. Most importantly it should address dedicated and effective governance through good administration prompt and fair judiciary and law and order machinery that inspires public confidence. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 Security Threats Combating Internal WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m EXPERT OPINION Upgrade Defence Accounting The problem is not with adequacy of budget but the efficiency with which we spend. And it is not the efficiency of spending alone that matters but also how and on what the defence forces are spending on. AIR CHIEF MARSHAL (RETD) S. KRISHNASWAMY 63 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he defence budget as a subject does not anymore trigger interest other than to those who are directly concerned. Public opinion by and large is simple and noble. They believe that the defence services must have quality systems and be able to effectively fend off threats to the nation. They also believe that modernisation is essential but is not keeping pace with requirements they also feel that the military is not getting adequate funds. The malady is attributed to bureaucratic inefficient processes. The government for its part articulates its strong support to military modernisation and this will has translated into new procedures that promise desired efficiency and greater transparency. But can these new procedures solve the problems at hand Will defence allocations ever be adequate Will the government get better value for every rupee being spent on defence Will our military have quality equipment and good operational standards In the author s opinion we are unlikely to see dramatic improvement in the near future for very many reasons. Primarily the problem is not an adequacy of budget but the efficiency with which we spend. It is not the efficiency of spending alone that matters but how and on what the defence forces are spending. Practically every military operation that India has undertaken since Independence has exposed a number of inadequacies both in terms of inventory as well as capabilities. The solution is to comprehensively address issues that call for a thorough overhaul not just the acquisition procedure but the entire gamut Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE T of planning supply chain management maintenance and training. Money alone will not solve problems. It is relatively simple to resolve budget-related issues. Revised estimates are prepared around October and the expenditure over the next four-five months leads on to the next year s budget calculations. The last four months of the financial year witness a feverish spending spree and many PSUs churn out their entire annual production during the period. Every service races to spend the budget allocation by March 31. Unspent resources are promptly surrendered after that date and understandably there is a lot of dissatisfaction all around. Defence services have been continually underutilising budget allocations. Year on year underutilisation had been increasing. This multiplied over four-and-a-half times to Rs 7 000 crore for 2009-10 since 2004-05 with 15 per cent of the allocation being earmarked for modernisation. Last year Rs 1 561 crore revenue expenditure was adjusted from unspent capital expenditure highlighting a new trend in the bargain. Besides being an unorthodox way of adjusting expenditure it indicates an unforeseen increase in support to the military. This is a disturbing trend. From the figures it appears that the defence services get as much as they can spend. Hence it is argued inadequate allocation cannot be a complaint. The difficulties in managing defence expenditure are known to the government but it lacks the means to enforce accountability. The Standing Committee on Defence in its report on Demand for Grants (2009-10) placed in the Lok Sabha in December 2009 recommended that there is an urgent need to curb wasteful expenditure. The 13th Finance Commission observed that there exists immense scope to improve the quality and efficiency of defence expenditure through increased private sector engagement import substitution and indigeni- BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 More Efficiently We Need to Spend WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS section two uuuuuu uuu u u Contents One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Revolution in Military Affairs Network Culture Military Communications Surface Warships Fighter Aircraft Engines Indian Cyberspace Security Directed Energy Weapons Thermal Imaging 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Technology CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 2 CONTENTS 4847 05.10 We Provide Mission Customized Solutions High-tech combat-proven solutions systems and products for military and non-military applications in the air at sea and on the ground Terma s Business Areas Aerostructures High quality and complex structures for high performance commercial and military fighter aircraft and helicopters. Integrated Defense Systems Network and tactical systems airborne self-protection systems and electronics manufacturing services for mission-critical defense applications. Radar Systems Advanced ground-based naval and airborne radar systems for the surveillance of coasts ports airports and territorial waters. Space Software hardware and related engineering services for European and U.S. commercial and scientific space missions. www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m SP Guide Publications Transformation through RMA RMA in the Indian military is ongoing but needs to be drastically focussed and accelerated. We must be able to protect our information systems attack influence the information system of the adversaries and leverage our strengths to gain decisive advantage in a battle space where our national security is threatened. LT GENERAL (RETD) P.C. KATOCH Definition Throughout history advances in technology and strategy have revolutionised the way wars are fought. Many definitions have been coined to describe the nuances of RMA. The Wikipedia says The military concept of RMA is a theory about the future of warfare often connected to technological and organisational recommendations for change . RMA results when a nation seizes an opportunity to transform its military doctrine training organisation equipment tactics operations and strategy in a coherent pattern in order to wage war in a novel and more effective manner. RMA can be defined as a major change in the nature of warfare brought about by the innovative application of technologies which combined with dramatic changes in military doctrine and operational concepts fundamentally alters the character and conduct of operations. Transformation is essential to cope with these changes and most countries have put in place organisations dedicated to conceptualising and implementing transformation. Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook R 65 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE evolution in Military Affairs (RMA) can be considered a phenomenon that is about three decades old. Soviet military thinkers during the period 1960-70 first dabbled with RMA (though the RMA term was not coined by them). The Soviet experiment was primarily with respect to the impact of nuclear weapons and Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs). Their focus was to dovetail the employment of nuclear weapons into their war-fighting doctrine giving them the cutting edge in future wars. More than a decade later in the mid-eighties Chief of Soviet General Staff Marshall Nikolai Ogarkov revived the debate about RMA with reference to precision guided conventional weapons. The concept caught the fancy of the US much later who actually coined the term RMA. Militaries worldwide have been experimenting and adopting RMA. Chinese interest in RMA and the structure of the future US armed forces is strong and is being incorporated into the Chinese strategic military doctrine. Their interest in the RMA theory and practice was accelerated due to the dramatic and speedy victory of the US over Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War wherein the US dominance was achieved through precision weaponry satellites and superior information and communications technology. The power of technological advances coupled with matching strategy and concepts organisations and training was fully apparent. This was a catalyst for the Chinese People s Liberation Army (PLA) to get going on the path to Informisation . Perspectives The global debate on RMA is centred on the following perspectives This perspective highlights the political social and economic factors worldwide which might require a completely different type of military and organisational structure to apply force. It focusses primarily upon changes in the nation state and the role of an organised military in using force. This most common System of Systems perspective on RMA highlights the evolution of weapon technology information technology military organisations and military doctrine including three overlap- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 Military Affairs Revolution in WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Application in Military Operations Our inherent strength lies in the field of software. We need to capitalise on this strengthen this in-house capability to augment our technologies and to enhance the effectiveness of our operations LT GENERAL (RETD) P.C. KATOCH Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook Focus The future focus of the Indian armed forces will be on leveraging emerging technologies to integrate dispersed sensors networks and modern weapon systems. This transformation requires alterations in concepts of operations doctrine organisations and force structure and above all in the psyche of the fighting man and the leaders. Associated changes in logistics education and training will also be required. These changes will have to be concurrent and on existing structures so as to bring about a graduated increment in NCW capability within the constraints of development and implementation time. Domains and Grids The network fighter must simultaneously focus on the physical information and cognitive domains. Physical domain is where physical weapons and units and communication networks reside. Traditionally combat power is measured through this domain. Information domain is where information lies facilitating sharing of information and communication of command and control of commanders. It must be protected against infor- 69 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO CW (Network Centric Warfare) relates to behaviour both human and organisational. Most important is to develop a Network Culture for application in military operations to ensure success. NCW focusses on the combat power that can be generated from the effective linking of maximum war-fighting entities. It is the ability of geographically dispersed forces to create a high level of shared awareness that can be exploited for effective and efficient execution of operations to successfully achieve the intent of the commander. Transparent to geography mission and size of the force it has the potential to merge tactical operational and strategic levels of military hierarchy leading to cohesive employment of disparate resources. NCW is not technology alone but encompasses the gamut of emerging military response to the information age. An NCW capable force is robustly networked with improved information sharing situational awareness collaboration self-synchronisation sustainability speed of command and mission effectiveness. INDIAN DEFENCE N mation attacks. The force must have capability to collect share access and share information improve its information position by fusion and analysis and achieve information advantage over the enemy. Cognitive domain is the domain of the mind of the fighter intangibles of leadership morale unit cohesion training experience situational awareness etc. Here the commander s intent doctrine tactics techniques and procedures reside. NCW operations exploit state-of-the-art science and technology to integrate widely dispersed human decision-makers situational and targeting sensors weapon platforms and field forces into a highly adaptive comprehensive system of systems to achieve unprecedented mission effectiveness. For exploiting science and technology and to apply a technology-oriented framework NCW needs a surveillance grid that rapidly generates battle-space awareness and self-synchronisation an information grid that provides the back plane for computing and communication a command grid that includes knowledge-based artificial intelligence and software applications and an engagement grid that exploits the awareness and translates it into increased combat potential. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 Culture Network WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m SP Guide Publications Future Trends The power of communication networks and the exploitation of electromagnetic spectrum will be the key elements of technology-driven future warfare. The armed forces must be prepared to meet the multi-dimensional threats in the entire spectrum of warfare. LT GENERAL (RETD) A.K. SAINI Technological Dimensions of Warfare Digital Battlefield The armed forces have witnessed induction of discreet digital communication equipment sensors and high-tech weapons in the last decade. What is peculiar in a network-centric force is the extensive interlinking of all these technologies into a common platform and the capability for real-time processing and distribution of data. Full realisation of network-centric concept demands amalgamation of this critical mass of technologies into a digitally networked battlefield. In future war communications and info structure will be the enemy s prime targets due to over-dependence of forces on these for conduct of operations. In fact the exploitation and dominance of electromagnetic (EM) spectrum -- denying degrading disrupting or destroying the communications -- will become increasingly important in the future conflicts. There is a need for the armed forces to develop defensive and offensive capabilities to protect and dominate the EM spectrum alongside the development of Network Enabled Capability (NEC) as the networks are expected to grow faster than we can defend them. Network-Enabled Capability (NEC) Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) The combat potential of fighting forces multiplies significantly with the networking between the sensors command and control (C2) elements and weapon systems. A network is at the centre of force integration. NCW focusses on the application of technology to increase situational awareness and to speed up communications through networks for improving the effectiveness of military operations. 73 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he current security environment in the Indian subcontinent poses serious threats to India from both the state as well as the non-state actors. The deteriorating situation in Pakistan and the recent aggressive posturing by China on border and geo-political issues are matters of concern for the Indian state. Besides the conventional security threats the heavy dependence of national critical infrastructure and defence forces on the communication networks has added yet another threat-- the war in the cyber domain. To counter these emerging threats the defence forces need to urgently develop war fighting capabilities and concepts to cover the entire spectrum of warfare--conventional asymmetric nuclear biological and chemical cyber. The complexities of future threats will demand a swift and precision response from the armed forces. Technology should therefore be the main driver of the armed forces ongoing process of transformation. In the last decade the communication and information technologies for military applications have advanced at a very fast pace and have been the basic building blocks for the network centric capabilities. The manipulation of information to own advantage and ability to act fast in time and space will be the key battle-winning factors. The future battlefield environment will need a network centric approach for force optimisation to meet the emerging challenges of multidimensional warfare. Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook T GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 Communications Military WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m New Concepts & Technologies The pace of innovation in surface warship design and related technologies would increase in future and the concept to proven product loop would be shortened. For technology buffs it promises and upholds exciting times ahead. VICE ADMIRAL (RETD) B.S. RANDHAWA he turn of this decade is an appropriate point in time to review new concepts and technologies that had appeared over the horizon at the turn of the millennium and take stock of their status. However covering the entire spectrum of naval technologies would be a monumental exercise. Hence the current focus is confined to concepts major sensors and principal platform technologies. Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook T Concepts DDG-1000 One of the most revolutionary concepts conceived in the mid-1990s was the so-called Arsenal ship of the US Navy later known as DD-21 and now as DDG-1000. These Zumwalt class destroyers are intended to be capable of operating in littoral waters and providing gunfire support far inshore in addition to being armed with a full suite of missiles. From an originally conceived number of 50 ships building of a class of seven ships was planned. The ship with its path-breaking tumblehome hull design was intended to form the basis for the design of the new CG(X) cruiser. Among the new technologies embodied in the design are the dual band multifunction radar a high medium frequency bow mounted sonar and a multifunction towed array optimised for operation in littoral waters a vertical launch system located along the peripheral edges of Littoral Combat Ship 77 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE The US Navy s littoral combat ship (LCS) represents a dramatic change in operational concepts and in platform design and performance. It represents a totally new approach to the way in which warships are being built and operated. Intended to operate in littoral waters its specification required a platform with displacement less than 3 000 tonnes a speed of at last 40 knots at sea state 3 (desired 50 knots) a payload of GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO the large flight deck capable of launching at least four types of missiles an advanced gun system firing 155mm long range land attack projectiles with GPS guidance at ranges of up to 100 miles (160 km) an integrated power system for providing propulsion and ship service energy and an integrated composite deckhouse for enhanced stealth. The wave piercing hull form is intended to enhance platform stability. In mid-2009 a decision was taken to construct only three DDG1000 ships and instead to build additional DDG-51 Arleigh Burke class destroyers. This decision is reported to be the outcome of a fresh assessment of the future threat environment which had revealed the need for ships capable of ballistic missile defence and blue water antisubmarine warfare (ASW). The decision was rather surprising in view of the fact that only a little while earlier the US Navy had argued strongly in favour of the DDG-1000 project. A total of about 13 billion (Rs 59 100 crore) in development and procurement costs has been provided for the DDG-1000 programme since its inception. After removing R&D costs a cost figure of 2 billion (Rs 9 000 crore) per ship has been indicated but there is a concern that this could rise further. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 Warships Surface WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Existing and Upcoming Future engine designs will yield continuing improvements in performance with additional emphasis being placed on simplicity durability and life-cycle costs. As stronger lighter-weight materials are available and turbine cooling technology improves engines should be able to deliver higher performance. AIR MARSHAL (RETD) A.K. TRIKHA Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook The Jet Era In the immediate post-war era jet engines still suffered from major shortcomings like a relatively low thrust poor specific fuel consumption (SFC) and sluggish acceleration. The way forward to solve the low thrust poor SFC problem was to increase the compressor pressure ratios dramatically. Twin spool engines provided the technological leap to make it possible. Consequently while the best engines in the early post-War years produced not more than 4 000-5 000 Ibs of thrust in 1950 Pratt Modern Fighter Engines 81 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE The dual spool low-bypass turbofan with variable geometry stators and many more evolutionary refinements is the standard fit on all modern fighters--including all 4.5 and the only fifth generation aircraft currently in service. The table below illustrates that all of them have very high thrust GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO he fundamental principle underlying all propulsion systems employed to propel heavier than air machines in the air has been encapsulated in the Newton s third law of motion. Engines of all varieties consume energy to accelerate a mass of air and or gases. Reaction propels the air vehicle forward. The means employed to generate an energetic enough air or gas stream differ but the principle remains essentially the same. Aviation began with internal combustion engines rotating propellers which imparted relatively small acceleration to a large mass of air. More and more powerful piston engine propeller combinations were built over the next four decades or so when they conceded ground to jet engines as a more efficient (even the only viable) means of high speed propulsion. By the end of Second World War Germany had fielded Me 262 the first successful jet fighter powered with 2 X 2000 lb thrust Jumo 004 jet engines. T & Whitney could put an axial flow twin spool engine (J57) on test stand which developed 10 000 Ibs with twice the fuel efficiency of the most successful WWII jet engine. J57 heralded the age of the first supersonic fighter. In May 1953 North American YF-100 fighter became the first combat aircraft in the world to achieve sustained-level supersonic flight. High pressure ratio engines were confronted with another problem. Since airflow pattern at low speeds and particularly during acceleration tended to be very different from the design for optimal cruise conditions even small disturbances tended to stall the compressor. The problem was solved by developing variable geometry stators which changed their orientation according to the airflow conditions thus ensuring appropriate angle of attack on aerofoils of the spinning compressor blades. The dual spool configuration made possible another innovation which converted the J57 into a low bypass turbofan. With a large front end compressor or fan rotating at a slower speed than the following HP compressor the design made for ducting part of the compressed air around the core of the engine remixing it with the hot combusted gases before expulsion through the jet pipe. By increasing the mass flow the turbofan engines produced higher thrust with better SFC and lower noise. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 Aircraft Engines Fighter WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m The Challenges Involved Threats in cyberspace have risen dramatically. Securing cyberspace is an extraordinarily difficult strategic challenge that requires a coordinated and focussed effort from the entire society--the Central state and local governments the private sector and the ordinary citizens. In security matters there is nothing like absolute security. We are only trying to build comfort levels because security costs money and lack of it costs much more. Comfort level is a manifestation of efforts as well as realisation of their effectiveness and limitation. Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (Government of India) LT GENERAL (RETD) S.R.R. AIYENGAR 85 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he way business is transacted the government operates and national defence is conducted have changed as they now rely on an interdependent network of information technology infrastructures called cyberspace. Cyberspace touches practically everything and everyone. It is composed of hundreds of thousands of interconnected computers servers routers switches fiber optic cables that allow the critical infrastructures to work. It provides a platform for innovation and prosperity. However with the broad reach of a loose and lightly regulated digital infrastructure great risks threaten nations private enterprises and individual rights at the same time. Thus addressing cyber security becomes an increasingly important priority for both the government and the private sector. In the past few years threats in cyberspace have risen dramatically. Securing cyberspace is an extraordinarily difficult strategic challenge that requires a coordinated and focussed effort from the entire society--the Central state and local governments the private sector and the ordinary citizens (netizens) who use the internet . Any cyber attack can have serious and expensive results whether it is targeted towards individuals small businesses or corporations. Intellectual property can Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook T be compromised personal and business information can be stolen normal business operations can be disrupted and major financial losses can occur. More seriously attacks on the government machinery have the increased threat of theft of government and military secrets. There is also the possibility that a cyber attack could disable defence command systems bring down power grids open dam floodgates paralyse communication and transportation and create mass confusion and hysteria. Any or all of which could be a precursor to land sea and air conventional and nuclear military attacks. Addressing these attacks and securing cyberspace is going to require a comprehensive and coordinated national strategy. Threat Scenario and Assessment of the Vulnerabilities A more recent Symantec India 2009 Security and Storage survey reveals that in 2008 India registered a sizeable increase in nefarious web activities with 12 per cent of spam detected in the Asia-Pacific Japan region originating from here as against four per cent in 2007. These figures compiled from the survey report secured the country the third position in the region with a staggering 250 per cent increase in bot infected computers. Globally the report observed a 31 per cent increase in the same category. Cyber crime is now a global issue. It has evolved significantly and is no longer just a threat to industry and individu- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 Security WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Indian Cyberspace CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m An Overview Besides the US many other countries like China Russia France UK Germany Japan and Israel are actively pursuing DEW-oriented R&D. A rising power India should take steps to initiate its own DEW with help from the academia and industry. BRIG SUBODH KUMAR Development and Characteristics The idea of projecting energy in pursuit of warfare is not new. Indian epics like the Mahabharata and the Ramayana have references to celestial beam weapons like the Suryastra and Vajra. In Greek mythology Zeus uses a lightning bolt as a weapon. Apart from mythology in the third century BC Archimedes is said to have used reflected sunlight to set afire the invading Roman fleet. However in the modern era it was HG Well s 1898 War of the Worlds which popularised the idea of death rays in public imagination. Since then science fiction has been replete with references to laser guns ray guns death rays etc. Very often ideas popularised in fiction lead to serious research along similar lines. In case of directed energy it was the pioneering work of Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) which marked the first forays in this field. It was however the invention of lasers and masers in the 1950-60s and subsequent developments which made the idea of designing weapons utilising beam energy seem a possibility. The potential of utilising electromagnetic energy to degrade the enemy s war-fighting capabilities has been in vogue since Second World War when jammers were first used. Post-war research on the effects of nuclear weapons fully revealed the vulnerability of electronic systems to high powered electromagnetic radiation. The invention of lasers and subsequent technological advances expanded the thinking on viability of weapons based on electromagnetic energy as a possible replacement of conventional propellant projectile based weapons. In addition to beam weapons electromagnetic bombs (also called e-bombs) and Railgun systems were conceptualised. Since those early days a large number of experiments and technology demonstrations have conclusively Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook S 89 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ince the dawn of history there have been many instances where induction of disruptive new technology has fundamentally altered the prevalent methods of warfare. In the 14th century introduction of the six-foot longbow changed medieval warfare forever. Similar revolutions occurred with the introduction of gunpowder muskets artillery aircraft radios radars atomic weapons missiles etc. Often termed as Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) such events have altered not only the character and conduct of military operations but also the society at large. Invariably and perhaps inevitably RMAs are accompanied by the obsolescence or replacement of technology hithertofore considered as irreplaceable. Recent developments in directed energy weapons (DEW) especially in the US promise to shift the paradigm once again potentially ushering in the next RMA. In the US millions of dollars have been invested in DEW-related research and more than a dozen active programmes are nearing fructification. In all probability DEWs will become the centrepiece of the US military arsenal in the coming decades. As not to be left behind many other countries like China Russia France UK Germany Japan and Israel are actively pursuing DEW-oriented research and development (R&D). While DEW research in India is still in its infancy it is imperative that Indian strategic planners take due cognisance of developments in this field so that India is not found lacking in the emerging form of 21st century warfare. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 7 Energy Weapons Directed WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Thales Group Selex Communications For Night Vision Surveillance & Target Acquisition Thermal imagers have become the primary choice of defence forces for their weapon sights and surveillance equipment. It can detect infrared radiation in a way similar to the way an ordinary camera does in visible light. IKBAL SINGH Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook TI camera A TI camera mainly consists of four components optical system IR detector amplifier & signal processing electronics display unit etc. These parts work together to convert infrared radiation coming from warm objects or flames into a visible light in real time. The camera display shows infrared output differentials. As a result the two objects with the same temperature will appear in the same colour . Many TI cameras use grayscale to represent different temperature objects. 93 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO hermal Imager (TI) works on the principal that all objects emit a certain amount of black body radiation as a function of their temperature emissivity. Generally speaking the higher an object s temperature the more infrared radiation (as blackbody radiation) it emits. A special camera known as TI camera can detect this radiation in a way similar to the way an ordinary camera does in visible light. It works even in total darkness because ambient light level does not matter. With the recent advancement and rapid development of Infra-Red (IR) detectors it has become possible to carry out surveillance and target acquisition at night. The development of high resolution charge-couple device complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CCD CMOS) camera has also improved the surveillance and target acquisition during day time apart from its see-through capability in dust & smoke. Thus thermal imagers have become the primary choice of defence forces for their weapon sights and surveillance equipment. INDIAN DEFENCE T The most commonly used form of TI camera isc. Normally HHTIs are based on cooled detectors has two ocular eyepieces weighs around less than 3 kg and can see a group of persons at around 2.5 km. Cooled TIs are also used as thermal sight for medium-range weapons night viewing sensors for Fire Control System (FCS) and night viewing sensors for surveillance system. TIs based on uncooled detectors which are generally cheaper are used for short range applications. Tank driver s sight where range requirement is limited to around 100 metres with wide field of view of around 45 degree uncooled TIs are the most suitable. Attempts are on to make these uncooled TIs cheaper to the extent that they can replace image intensifier tube based sights to be used for small arms applications. Uncooled TIs with pseudo-colour image display have found their application in the civil and medical sector. Gimbaled payloads with thermal imagers and other sensors in different sizes varying from micro to big sizes have become very popular for various applications. Mainly these gimbaled payloads are used for micro UAV mini UAV UAV helicopter aircrafts AFVs naval ships ground-based anti aircraft guns and border and coastal surveillance. Selection of thermal imager is a critical and tricky issue which mainly depends upon its range performance which in turn depends upon many parameters such as weight size platform cost environment target type and size detector type display and the experience of the operator. In fact transmission of IR spectrum through atmosphere reduces because of either the absorption by various molecules present in the atmosphere or by various scattering due to the presence of tiny particles. For example in dusty and cloudy environment Rayleigh scattering dominates which is much less for higher wavelengths. Therefore TIs in 8-12 m are preferred while for BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 8 Imaging Thermal WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS secti on three uuuuuu uuu u u One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight India s Defence Budget Defence Procurement Procedure Make (high-tech) Procedure Indian Army Modernisation Plans Indian Navy Modernisation Indian Air Force Modernisation Declining Defence Budget India s Strategic and Business Environment Global Contracts 97 101 107 111 117 123 127 129 137 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE Contents BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Business CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 3 CONTENTS A powerful partnership. mmrca MMRCA The elephant is revered as a remover of obstacles and a harbinger of success. An F-16 with Northrop Grumman s operationally proven 2010 northrop Grumman corporation APG-80 AESA fire control radar system could become the modern day symbol of protection for one of the world s largest air forces. The team of the Indian Air Force Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman have the unmatched capabilities and cohesive partnership to accomplish any Air Force mission. www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m A Critical Analysis Considering the challenges confronting India the defence budget seems too modest to ensure either modernisation or indulge in the long-term capability building exercise LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR 97 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he security threats and challenges facing India have increased enormously. While the old adversarial threats due to unresolved borders remain new threats and challenges have also added to the old inventory. Terrorism in all its varieties and forms is a palpable threat and India also faces insurgencies generated both externally and internally. Likewise proxy war in Jammu & Kashmir fostered and supported in all respects by Pakistan continues unabated. It is a well-known fact that building military capability is a longterm exercise which depends not only on the level of expenditure but on a holistic plan which presents stage-wise milestones of capability development. Thus defence expenditure is linked to long-term planned expenditure based on the emerging challenges and threats trends in warfare induction of new technologies and new methods of warfighting depending on the nature of future conflicts. Hence military expenditure for capability building is associated with a wide range of issues. The other factors which impinge on building a military capability include the voids in the inventory of equipment and munitions of each service the revenue to capital ratios indigenous research and development and manufacturing capabilities import content the technology and performance of acquired weapon systems their lifetime support interoperability with other systems in use within the three services and the efficiency of the equipment in local geographical environment etc. Considering the challenges confronting India the defence budget announced by the Finance Minister in the Parliament on February 26 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook Budget Details and its Impact Last year the defence budget stood at 2.35 per cent of the GDP an increase by 34.19 per cent over the previous year s budget estimate (BE) of Rs 1 05 600 crore. However at the revised estimate (RE) stage of 2008-09 the budget stood at Rs 1 14 600 crore scaled upward by Rs 9 000 crore (8.52 per cent). Compared to the RE figure the increase in the budget was 23.65 per cent. For the year 2010-11 defence has been allocated Rs 1 47 344 crore a marginal increase of 3.98 per cent over the BE of 2009-10 and 8.13 per cent from the RE. The outlay for defence comprises of Rs 87 344 for revenue expenditure and Rs 60 000 crore for capital expenditure as declared by the GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE T 2010 seems too modest to ensure either modernisation or indulge in the long-term capability building exercise. The defence budget over the last three decades has varied between 2-3 per cent of the GDP which corresponds to 13-17 per cent of the Central government expenditure. The annual increase has varied from as low as 3 per cent to a high of 34 per cent as witnessed last year. This time it has been pegged at 2.12 per cent of the GDP. Historically the resource allocation strategy of the government has appeared to be incrementally driven by the need to replace the obsolescent equipment and hardware of each service. Last time an additional factor was introduced namely the substantial increase in the revenue expenditure due to the enhanced pay and allowances for all Central government employees in accordance with the Sixth Pay Commission report. As far as building a military capability is concerned despite all the rhetoric of the need for capability based defence budgeting to ensure a secure future in practice we are still employing the same old methods with an element of superficial sophistication brought in by the integrated defence staff. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 Defence Budget India s WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m SP Guide Publications Planning & Acquisition No major deal is getting concluded in an open competitive environment under the provisions of the procurement procedure. Invariably MoD has to resort to single vendor deals to procure urgently required equipment. As the current regime has failed to deliver it is time MoD carries out a holistic review of the complete gamut of procurement structures and processes. Sundry amendments are proving counter-productive. MAJ GENERAL (RETD) MRINAL SUMAN Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook I Planning Process Planning for the acquisition of modern systems and equipment commences with the issuance of Defence Planning Guidelines by the Ministry of Defence (MoD). Thereafter it goes through the following stages Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS) evolves a 15-year defence capability plan as per the guidelines issued by MoD and is approved by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC). For medium-term perspective HQ IDS in consultation with Service Headquarters (SHQ) formulates a five-year Services Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) as part of five-year defence plan. DAC accords approval to SCAP. 101 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO ndia s defence procurement procedure has undergone a number of revisions since its promulgation in 2002. Even the current version Defence Procurement Procedure 2008 (DPP-2008) has undergone significant amendments in November 2009. Although the underlying philosophy basic structure and original contours have remained unaltered important changes have been made as regards categorisation of acquisition proposals formulation of services qualitative requirements (SQR) transparency of field trials and probity provisions. Procurement process consists of two distinct stages--planning and acquisition. For clearer understanding both have been discussed in a sequential manner in this article. Categorisation of Acquisition Proposals All procurement proposals are examined in-depth by the Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee (SCAPCC) and reviewed by the Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee (SCAPCHC) as regards the route to be adopted Buy Buy and Make and Make . While Buy means outright purchase of the complete requirement Buy and Make implies purchase of part requirement from a foreign vendor and production of the balance quantity under licence in India and Make denotes indigenous development of the equipment to meet the complete requirement. Recommendations of SCAPHC are debated at length in DAC and the approval accorded. With a view to spell out the precise route to be followed MoD has specified seven different procedures that can be followed to acquire new equipment albeit within the purview of the above mentioned primary categories. These have been shown in Illustration 1. As can be seen Buy category has been split to promote Indian industry through Buy (Indian) route wherein only Indian vendors can INDIAN DEFENCE Annual acquisition plan (AAP) of each service is prepared by the respective SHQ. It is a two-year roll-on plan and normally consists of the schemes which stand approved in SCAP. In other words AAP is a subset of SCAP. However a proposal not listed in SCAP may be processed after due approval of the DAC. Based on the schemes included in AAP the HQ IDS projects requirement of funds for each service taking into account committed liabilities and anticipated cash outflow. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 Procedure WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Defence Procurement CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m A Flawed Initiative MoD has mastered the art of introducing policy provisions that compound the existing confusion and result in total inactivity. It is time MoD accepts total failure of the Make policy of 2006 and affects changes. MAJ GENERAL (RETD) MRINAL SUMAN Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook Genesis of Sub-Categorisation of the Make Procedure Earlier all proposals initiated by the services for procuring new equipment for modernisation were referred to the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for considering feasibility of indigenous development. Invariably decisions were taken on the basis of the recommendations made by DRDO. No equipment could be imported unless DRDO con- 107 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO uphoria created by the recently introduced Buy and Make (Indian) categorisation of procurement proposals appears premature. The Ministry of Defence (MoD) has claimed that it would enable pro-active participation of Indian industry in manufacturing defence products through co-production arrangements with foreign manufacturers and through transfer of technology. Some reporters have gone to the extent of hailing the new categorisation as a move that has the potential to revolutionise the Indian defence industry. One is reminded of similar excitement generated by Make (Hightech) procedure in 2006 although more than three years have passed there is little progress on ground. After prolonged quibbling three cases have recently been categorised as Make (High-tech) . This neither reflects positively on the efficacy of the policy nor augurs well for the indigenous development of equipment. Many enthusiasts have already turned sceptic. This article endeavours to examine if the procedure can be implemented in its present form or needs to be modified. INDIAN DEFENCE E ceded that it could not develop it within the timeframe stipulated by the services. As is with all government agencies DRDO made confident assertions expanded its own domain and expended scarce defence funds but produced little. In a handful of cases DRDO did achieve some success but it was always a case of too little too late. On the whole the DRDO record is a saga of false claims tall promises unexplained delays and sub-optimal products. It was natural that the services resented the veto power enjoyed by DRDO as they had to carry critical voids for prolonged periods. Due to the poor track record of DRDO the government felt compelled to curtail its role. The services were no longer ready to be fed with excuses while waiting ad infinitum for crucial equipment to materialise. Despite having some of the best talent available in the country huge facilities with 51 laboratories sizeable funds and total autonomy in functioning DRDO has surprisingly failed to deliver. It is generally felt that its lackadaisical track record is due to three major reasons Lack of accountability Director General of DRDO is also Secretary Defence R&D. In addition he performs the functions of Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister. Thus he wears three hats and is yet answerable to none. Lack of focus Rather than concentrating on a few selected fields DRDO has expanded its domain to irrelevant activities. Its failure in high-tech areas has resulted in a crisis of identity. It has lost sight of its primary responsibility and resorted to delving in infructuous work to justify its existence. Failure to develop scientific disposition Unfortunately construction of facilities and infrastructure has been given primacy over the development of a scientific temper. Every DRDO establishment boasts of world class auditoriums convention centres conference BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 Procedure WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Make (High-tech) CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Mired in Red Tape It is time to institute a rolling non-lapsable defence modernisation fund of Rs 25 000 crore as a viable method of ensuring that defence procurement is not subjected to the vagaries of the annual budget. The present situation is disturbing and if allowed to go on indefinitely will seriously compromise the army s preparedness to fight the next border war that inimical neighbours like Pakistan can be expected to thrust on India. New procurements have commenced... but we are still lagging by 15 years. --Defence Minister A.K. Antony BRIG (RETD) GURMEET KANWAL Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook 111 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO Main Battle Tanks T-90S Replaces Arjun READ IN COMPLETE On Army Day 2010 the COAS admitted that a large number of India s battle tanks are night blind. The indigenously designed Arjun main ASIAN WHO S WHO I n the prevailing era of strategic uncertainty while terrorism is gradually becoming the primary threat the external and internal threats and challenges faced by India are such that a large army is still required to be maintained. Also a high degree of preparation and operational readiness are still necessary as conventional war though improbable cannot be categorically ruled out due to unresolved territorial and boundary disputes with China and Pakistan. At the same time heavy capital investments in modern defence equipment are undoubtedly a drain on a developing economy that is ill-equipped to handle the burgeoning defence expenditure. Several eminent analysts have recommended that qualitative upgradation should be accompanied by quantitative downsizing of personnel strength of the army to generate funds for modernisation. However given its responsibilities for border management and the manpowerintensive sub-conventional operations that the Army is involved in this is easier said than done. Future conventional conflict on the Indian sub-continent will in all probability result from the ongoing low-intensity limited war on the Line of Control (LoC) with Pakistan or the unresolved territorial and boundary dispute with China. It will predominantly be a land conflict. The Indian Army lacks a potent firepower punch especially in the mountain sector. Precision-guided munitions (PGMs) have still to enter service in numbers large enough to make a real difference. The reconnaissance surveillance and target acquisition (RSTA) assets necessary for the optimum exploitation of even the existing firepower assets are grossly inadequate. Automated command and control and decision support systems have been on the drawing boards for several decades but are yet to mature. According to Lt Gen Noble Thamburaj (Retd) former VCOAS the modernisation focus intelligence in the 11th Defence Plan is on precision fire power air defence aviation Future Infantry Soldier as a system infrastructure development network centricity and achieving battlefield transparency through improved surveillance night vision and target acquisition... Considering the receding span of technological cycle right balance has to be maintained between state-of-art current and obsolescent technologies . INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 Modernisation Plans Indian Army WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Indian Navy Goals Ahead The stated goal is to develop the Indian Navy into a force possessing adequate capability to deter any challenge posed by a potential adversary. The large area of maritime responsibility that India has articulated dictates that the navy develops the capability to undertake missions related to India s ambitions and leading role in the region. The events of 26 11 have further increased the challenges that the navy faces as it confronts the future. The government is committed to modernise the Indian Navy to keep in tune with the changing requirements of the 21st century. --President Pratibha Patil Onboard INS Viraat December 23 2009 Departing from traditional wisdom that predicates a strategy on definite specified threats the Indian Navy s maritime strategy has preferred to adopt a generic capacity building approach. This is justified by the well-known dictum that there are no permanent friends or enemies only permanent maritime interests. Such an approach provides dual advantage firstly controversy is avoided through naming likely adversaries and secondly a framework provided to outlive any major shifts in threat perception. One basic philosophy adopted in the strategy is to acquire capabilities that would enable it to influence events ashore and to undertake military manoeuvre from the sea . In order to ensure that the Indian Navy continues to retain its relevance as a prime instrument of state policy in the midst of future imponderables we will need to develop a flexible approach and ensure continuous upgradation of our warfighting capabilities and skills. --Vision Document Indian Navy Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook COMMODORE (RETD) RAJEEV SAWHNEY 117 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE I n 2008 the then Navy Chief Admiral Sureesh Mehta announced that by 2022 we plan to have a 160-plus ship navy including three aircraft carriers 60 major combatants including submarines and close to 400 aircraft of different types constituting a formidable three dimensional force with satellite surveillance and networking. That this vision has been accepted by the government was clear from the President s statement above while on board the Viraat in December 2009. She also stated that the multidimensional responsibilities of the Navy in the Indian Ocean region are important for the prosperity of the nation and the country has implicit faith in the capability and capacity of the maritime forces to secure the sea frontiers to provide a peaceful environment for maritime trade and other activities . The President also noted the Navy s contribution in making its presence felt in the international arena in keeping with the country s increased responsibilities. This included the Navy s participation in the international efforts against piracy in the Indian Ocean its contribution to assisting other countries in the region for increased assistance in surveillance of their exclusive economic zones and wide recognition of the GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 Modernisation Indian Navy WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m SP Guide Publications Meeting Multifarious Challenges There is little doubt that the IAF is keen and doing all that it can do to modernise and improve its overall operational capabilities whether in the air space or on the ground. The big question however is whether it is being done adequately and in the required timeframe. AIR MARSHAL (RETD) V.K. BHATIA Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook S Background Information To redux throughout its long and mostly turbulent history the IAF has at times super-cruised and at other times literally stalled in its quest to create operational capabilities to meet the multifarious challenges. This has by and large been due to the knee-jerk policies of the Indian government which is known to respond only in a reactive mode as far as the country s defence needs are concerned. In the past after each war it was forced to fight with its neighbouring countries India embarked on a soul-searching mission to rationalise its defence needs. 123 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO ustained and fast-paced economic growth since the dawn of the new millennium has put India in the forefront of the leading nations of the world. Emergence of India as the new economic powerhouse has also put additional responsibilities on the shoulders of its armed forces especially the Indian Air Force which has aspired for more than a decade now to transform itself from a mere subcontinental tactical force to an intercontinental strategic aerospace power in conformity with other leading air forces in the world. India s economic rise on the world stage coupled with changing geo-political-cum-security scenarios has transformed the IAF s perceptions of its vastly enhanced roles and responsibilities. But has the IAF been able to equip itself adequately to live up to its aspirations or to match its increasing roles and responsibilities In the 1960s following the two quick conflicts with China and Pakistan various studies were conducted to strengthen the armed forces. And as far as the IAF was concerned a force level of up to 64 squadrons (with 45 combat squadrons) was recommended to effectively fight against its belligerent neighbours. The closest that the IAF has been able to come to this was the officially declared figure of 39.5 combat squadrons achieved during the golden era of the 1970s and 1980s. The late 1970s saw the dawn of the golden decade of the IAF with the induction of the Anglo-French Sepecat Jaguar deep penetration strike aircraft (DPSA) into operational service. This was quickly followed by the induction of the Soviet MiG-23 both strike and air defence versions into the IAF in substantial numbers. MiG-27 a fixed-intake improvement of the MiG-23BN did not only follow in quick succession but this variant was also licence-produced by the HAL. At about the same time the IAF also received from the Soviet Union the Mach-3 strategic reconnaissance version of the formidable MiG-25 and the MiG-29 air superiority fighters. But the icing on the cake was the prize acquisition of the multi-role Mirage 2000 from France which formed two frontline state-of-the-art IAF combat squadrons in the early 1980s. These also provided much greater teeth in terms of enhanced operational capability and were to show their prowess later during the 1999 Kargil War against Pakistan. These were truly happier times for the IAF but unfortunately the golden period did not last long. The beginning of the 1990s witnessed the then unimaginable and sudden disintegration of the Soviet Union as also the dire financial state that India found itself in. While the former had a crippling effect on the spares supply line of the Soviet-supplied equipment which still formed the backbone of the IAF s operational INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 Modernisation Indian Air Force WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m The Proverbial Ostrich Approach Today the Indian military is in dire need of urgent operational capacity building while the vultures are watching. We need to develop a strategic vision and get on with the task of boosting our national defence post haste. LT GENERAL (RETD) P.C. KATOCH Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook Defence Budget 2010-11 Announcing the Rs 147 344 crore (Rs 1.47 trillion 32 billion) defence budget for 2010-11 the Finance Minister declared it as a seven per cent increase over the previous year s allocation. However taking into account the figures of inflation the actual increase comes to only 3.98 per cent. 127 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE W ith monotonous periodicity over the last few years both the print and electronic media have been highlighting the increasingly antiquated state of our military voids in our ground air sea surface sub-surface and cyber defences poor functioning non-accountability and the lagging behind indigenous programmes under the DRDO extremely limited civil industry participation in defence modernisation despite tall promises to the contrary exponential increase in military prowess and aggressiveness of China the US arming of Pakistan under plea of fighting terrorism and above all the mounting threats to our national security. However our national exercise in working out the yearly defence budget remains limited to mere juggling of figures in relation to the GDP highlighting increases while not talking of inflation since that would reveal the hollowness of significant increase disregarding steady decline in capital expenditure meant for modernisation and to cap it all the criminality of surrender of critical modernisation funds every year. We have been following this ostrich approach year after year. Defence budget 2010-11 has been no exception. This is the lowest increase in the last nine years at a time when we need to urgently modernise our military be prepared for a two front two and a half front war and the growing internal instability and weaknesses which are being exploited by both China and Pakistan. The defence budget includes revenue expenditure of Rs 87 344 crore (a nine time increase from Rs 10 194 crore in 1989-90) leaving only Rs 60 000 crore (40 per cent funds) for capital expenditure the latter being the vital component for modernising the military. The army navy and air force got Rs 17 060.63 crore Rs 11 339.24 crore and Rs 24 954.68 crore respectively of the capital funds. While the defence ordnance factories have been given Rs 769.34 crore and the DRDO has been allocated Rs 4 578.3 crore. Over the years the revenue expenditure (operating expenditure of the military) has been growing at a much faster pace in comparison to capital expenditure required for modernisation. There have been periodic suggestions to reduce the size of the military in order to reduce revenue expenditure. How do you downsize manpower amidst expanding asymmetric threats and when persistent intransigence both by the concerned states and the Centre has permitted festering sores like Naxalism to bloom into full blown AIDS. The military has little option but to remain manpower intensive notwithstanding the hundreds of police and paramilitary battalions being raised. The talk of military not being employed in anti-Naxalite operations is bunkum as eventually and as always the military will be used as the last resort. If we are really serious in reducing revenue expenditure of the defence budget then what is stopping the funding of the Rashtriya Rifles (RR) from the Home Ministry Budget (like the Assam Rifles) as was originally planned What should be of critical concern is the practice of yearly surrender of funds earmarked for capital expenditure and meant for moderni- BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 7 Defence Budget Declining WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Building Indigenous Technology India will continue to attract the global arms industry for many more years. While offset may be a good starting point to revive the manufacturing industry it will not result in India getting access to key technologies. India needs to rely more on indigenous capabilities and pursue a policy of increased indigenisation in defence and research. Raising the FDI limit to a level that satisfies foreign investors should not be seen as mortgaging India s security. We do not have any aggressive designs nor do we seek to threaten anyone. We seek an external environment in our region and beyond that is conducive to our peaceful development and protection of our value system. Nevertheless it is incumbent upon us to take all measures necessary to safeguard our country and to keep pace with technological advancement worldwide. It has rightly been said that eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. Excerpts from Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh s speech delivered on the occasion of the launch of India s first indigenously developed nuclear-powered submarine for sea trials at Visakhapatnam on July 26 2009. SANJAY KUMAR 129 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE s India seeks to rise in the international power hierarchy it finds itself beset with a strategic environment which has worsened steadily over the years due to factors such as the continuing geo-strategic rivalry among major powers for regional supremacy the rising military and economic power of China the enduring war on terrorism in the neighbourhood and the growing scourge of left-wing extremism and Islamic terrorism within the country. All of these factors working in tandem have put significant strain on India s military to expand its fighting capabilities to provide the country with a peaceful and secure strategic environment which is conducive for sustained economic growth and overall well-being of its people. The present strategic environment is also dominated by an increasing interplay between traditional and non- A traditional security threats which further necessitates Indian military to evolve for new roles and missions including anti-piracy missions international peacekeeping operations and countering new challenges in space and cyberspace. While modernisation is a continuous process and all evolving militaries induct new technologies and weapon platforms to support their roles and missions the Asia-Pacific region in particular is witness to an unprecedented upsurge in military capabilities by all major players. Within the region China and India are engaged in an arms race of sorts shoring up their military capabilities with long-range power projection weapon platforms as also inducting the state-of-the-art weapon technologies. However both China and India have different objectives as well as approaches with regard to their military modernisation. China is widely perceived to have almost perfected reverse engineering as an art to indigenise its defence industry producing now the state-of-the-art weaponry. By contrast India continues to rely heavily on imports to sustain its military s thirst for new technologies. Also contrary to the notion Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 8 Business Environment India s Strategic and WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Global Contracts Contract Value 5 billion Full-scope logistics support March 2009 10 years Product Job Task Quantity Date of Contract Date of Delivery Remarks Under this contract it will repair and maintain the fleet of special operations aircraft ground vehicles weapons and electronics equipment to include managing a global supply chain of parts warehouses and depots. This will ensure the availability of the Typhoon fleet to meet its standing and future operational commitments. This will help the DoD to meet urgent system requirements and increased production demands to prevent the detonation of radio controlled IEDs. ITT will deliver simulation training and instrumentation expertise and systems to the US Army warfighter. It will support infantry troops by removing obstacles and opening routes providing useful assistance on operations including peacekeeping and humanitarian missions. March 2009 March 2009 Lockheed Martin will perform task orders consisting of mission critical applications contract transition activities and programme management. April 2009 10 years General Dynamics will provide infrastructure application and information technology management services to support federal government agencies. April 2009 Northrop Grumman under this contract will provide increased network functionality visibility and security control. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) Free electron laser (FEL) weapon April 2009 It will provide an ultra-precise speed-of-light capability and unlimited magazine depth to defend ships against new challenging threats such as hyper-velocity cruise missiles. 615.7 million Maintenance of Typhoon fleet CREW 2.1 vehicle receiver jammers 4 501 March 2009 March 2009 317 million Country Recipient Country Supplier Company US Special Operations Command Lockheed Martin UK MoD BAE Systems US Navy ITT Corporation US Army ITT Corporation 3.1 billion Simulation training and instrumentation (PEO STRI) Armoured earth movers 60 March 2009 www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m 137 410 million 400 million IT support to the Federal Acquisition Service (FAS) IT management services 50 billion 429 million 163 million UK MoD BAE Systems SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue US General Services Administration Lockheed Martin US General Services Administration General Dynamics US DoD Northrop Grumman US Navy Boeing REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Country Recipient 785 million Maintenance of Harriers April 2009 BAE Systems will be responsible for the maintenance of the RAF s and RN s Harriers along with providing spare parts and technical advice to the operational squadrons. 2013 Boeing will build the ICH-47F & AgustaWestland will be responsible for design and systems integration aircraft final assembly and delivery to the Italian Army. Bradley vehicles under this contract will be equipped with improvised explosive device armour. It will reset 346 Bradley A3 vehicles 141 A2 ODS vehicles and 119 A2 ODS SA vehicles. This will enhance and maintain the capabilities of the Army Battle Command System. General Dynamics will provide analysis research and development concept development and experimentation support that will lead to new concepts and capabilities to meet emerging and future warfighter challenges. Country Supplier Company Contract Value Product Job Task Quantity Date of Contract Date of Delivery Remarks BUSINESS UK MoD BAE Systems Italian Army Boeing and AgustaWestland 1.23 billion ICH-47F Chinook helicopters 16 May 2009 US Army BAE Systems 601 million Repair & upgrade Bradley vehicles 606 May 2009 March 2010 US Army 328 million June 2009 5 years Raytheon 777.4 million Battle command development May 2009 5 years US Joint Forces Command General Dynamics www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m 138 700 million Logistic support services Single channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS) and logistics support A-10 Thunderbolt II total life-cycle programme support 58 000 June 2009 363.1 million June 2009 1.6 billion June 2009 432 million Low-rate initial production E-2D advanced Hawkeye LPD 17 class amphibious ship June 2009 213.8 million June 2009 Project Support services to the USJFCOM Enterprise and the Joint Concept Development and Experimentation Directorate (J9) 10 years US Marine Corps. Honeywell Technology Solutions Inc. (HTSI) This ensures that Marine Corps ships are stocked and available for deployment to combat zones. June 2011 ITT will provide 58 000 RT-1523 SINCGARS radios [PDF] 34 800 vehicle adapter assemblies Internet routers and 34 800 radio frequency amplifiers to the Army s CommunicationsElectronics Command. 10 years The company will support both A-10As and Cs under the 10-year Thunderbolt Lifecycle Programme Support (TLPS) indefinite delivery indefinite quantity contract. This contract will include two LRIP Lot 1 aircraft and an advanced acquisition contract for two LRIP Lot II aircraft as well as associated engineering and testing. They will provide long lead materials for LPD 26. SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue US Army ITT Corporation US Air Force Northrop Grumman US Navy Northrop Grumman GLOBAL CONTRACTS US Navy Northrop Grumman Country Recipient 460 million NASAMS II air defence missile system Armoured modular vehicles Advisory and assistance services June 2009 5 years 113 June 2009 Between 2010 and 2014 The company will provide AMV 8x8s as part of the AWV 2014 project. L-3 will provide the USAFE with a variety of advisory and assistance services (A&AS) including engineering and technical services with management and professional support. NGCI will deliver 500 VIS-X systems a month for the first year with scheduled delivery of 2 000 systems in following years. 5 years It will provide Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) units and the Army Materiel Command (AMC) with maintenance material and logistics services for troops serving both in the United States and overseas. This programme is designed to provide early warning of missile launches and simultaneously support other missions including missile defence technical intelligence and battlespace awareness. 2010 June 2009 2014 NASAMS II system made by Kongsberg will be Finland s new medium-range air defence missile system. Country Supplier Company Contract Value Product Job Task Quantity Date of Contract Date of Delivery Remarks Finnish Army Kongsberg GLOBAL CONTRACTS Swedish Patria Defence Materiel Administration 375 million 328 million US Air force L-3 Communications US Army Northrop Grumman and Cobham joint venture (NGCI) 203 million Operate the Fort Bragg Field Logistics Readiness Centre June 2009 2.4 billion Vehicular intercom systems (VIS-X) 2 500 June 2009 US Army Lockheed Martin www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m 139 1.5 billion SBIRS Follow-On Spacecraft June 2009 2.1 billion Production of F-35 lightning II stealth fighters in the third lot of low-rate initial production (LRIP) MRAP all-terrain vehicles (M-ATV) Fielding and operational deployment of the battlefield airborne communications node (BACN) MRAP all-Terrain vehicles (M-ATV) 1 700 2 244 17 June 2009 1.05 billion June 2009 276 million July 2009 1.06 billion July 2009 US Air Force Lockheed Martin SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue February 2010 US DoD Lockheed Martin US DoD Oshkosh Corporation M-ATVs protect the crew from any IEDs enhancing troop mobility and vehicle durability in rough terrains like Afghanistan. It is an airborne communications system that provides warfighters with critical real-time battlefield information. US Air Force Northrop Grumman BUSINESS REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS US Army Oshkosh Corporation Under this contract it will deliver 1 700 additional MRAP all-terrain vehicles (M-ATV) to the US Armed Forces. ASIAN WHO S WHO TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS section four uuuuuu uuu u u Contents One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Integrated Defence Staff The Indian Army The Indian Navy The Indian Air Force The Indian Coast Guard Who s Who in Indian Defence Defence Industry Defence R&D 161 169 191 215 239 249 267 289 REGIONAL BALANCE uHomeland Security Special Focus One India s Homeland Security Two A Spate of Reforms Three Countering Maoist Insurgency Four Naxalite Rage Five Challenges in the Northeast Six Coastal Management 299 309 315 321 323 327 ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Indian Defence CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 4 CONTENTS Voice Over IP Video Surveillance Teleconferencing C4I Biometrics and Intelligence RF-7800W Broadband Ethernet Radio Go The Distance The RF-7800W is a high-capacity line-of-sight radio that offers high-speed wireless IP networking for bandwidth-intensive applications with data rates up to 108 Mbps and latency lower than 4ms. It operates in the 4.4 5.0 GHz frequency band while supporting links in excess of 50 km. The RF-7800W employs a new security feature TFS (Traffic Flow Security) which authenticates every message transmission protects all management content and conceals all datatraffic flows. Network security for user and data authentication is ensured via FIPS 140-2 Level 2 encryption. Currently deployed worldwide Designed for military homeland security and public safety applications Point-to-point Point-to-multipoint For more information visit 7800W RF Communications Gover nment Communications Systems Broadcast Communications www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m SP Guide Publications Jointmanship in Defence Planning India cannot lay claim to becoming a major power unless all the services work towards a common goal. So far some degree of integration and jointness have been achieved but achieving optimum levels in these two areas appears to be a distant dream. BRIG (RETD) VINOD ANAND 161 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was established in 1986 under the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) when it became clear that future wars would be fought jointly by the three services and that the time had come for jointmanship . Working under the COSC Chairman and headed by the Director General Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS) the DPS had under it directorates covering policy and plans international and regional security affairs weapons and equipment and financial planning. It also operated as a think tank for the COSC. The DPS was the forerunner to the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) or what is called in some countries as Joint Staff. The IDS came into being in October 2001 with the merging of the Military Wing which was established at the time of Independence and had functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat for a number of years till it came under the COSC with the DPS. After the Kargil War in 1999 the report of the Kargil Review Committee headed by K. Subrahmanyam was examined by a Group of Ministers (GoM). They recommended the formation of the four task forces to review the national security system Management of Defence Internal Security Border Management Intelligence Systems & Apparatus Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook T The task force on the Management of Defence headed by Arun Singh recommended among other things the appointment of a Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and the setting up of Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff. Key GoM Recommendations After considering the report of the task force on the management of defence the GoM made the following key recommendations Integration of the armed forces headquarters with the Ministry of Defence (MoD). Creation of the posts of CDS and Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS). Setting up of IDS to support the CDS. Establishing a Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA). Organising an Andaman & Nicobar Command (ANC). Creation of a Strategic Forces Command (SFC). Establishing a Defence Procurement Board (DPB). Setting up of a National Defence University (NDU). A number of other long-term recommendations on aspects concerning air space and maritime management budgetary reforms including performance budgeting private sector participation in defence production improvement in service conditions media handling and cost effectiveness. All the recommendations except the one on the appointment of the CDS were accepted by the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) on May 11 2001. The decision on appointing a CDS was kept in abeyance pending consultations with other political parties. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1 Defence Staff Integrated WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Indian Army Guaranteeing Internal & External Security The security challenges facing India are varied and complex. India s response to these threats and challenges has always been restrained measured and moderate in keeping with its peaceful outlook and reputation as a responsible and peace-loving country Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook Role and Responsibility of the Army 169 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE The world s second largest standing army the Indian Army with the fourth largest budget globally apolitical in a subcontinent that has witnessed armies often imposing their will on their people by eliminating legitimate democratic dispensations remains the repository of the Indian citizens GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE G lobal and regional security concerns together with the growing internal security problems define India s security environment. The conventional threats from traditional adversaries continuing presence of terrorist and fundamentalist forces in its western and eastern neighbourhood has prompted India to maintain a high level of defence vigilance and preparedness to face any challenge to its security. The developments across India s western borders are alarming and dangerous as the drift in both Pakistan and Afghanistan shows the lack of state control and breakdown of economy governance and law and order. Both states are staying afloat because of the aid from the international community. Moreover there is also the ever present possibility of hostile radical fundamentalist elements gaining access to the weapons of mass destruction in Pakistan. The proxy war conducted by Pakistan and the various radical jehadi outfits promoted by them through the instrumentality of terrorism are continuing unabated. In the east China s challenge to India s security is looming large on the horizon. Its strategy of encircling India through her neighbours and confining her within the subcontinent is apparent and palpable apart from its outlandish claims on the Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh. Internally the country faces a series of low-intensity conflicts (LIC) characterised by tribal ethnic and leftwing movements and ideologies and these conflicts have the capacity of deflecting the Indian Government from their long-term social and economic development plans. India is also affected by the trafficking in drugs and proliferation of small arms. Thus the security challenges facing India are varied and complex. India s response to these threats and challenges has always been restrained measured and moderate in keeping with its peaceful outlook and reputation as a responsible and peace-loving country. India s National Security Objectives India s national security objectives have evolved against a backdrop of India s core values namely democracy secularism peaceful coexistence and the national goal of social and economic development. It includes defending the country s borders as defined by law and enshrined in the Constitution. Protecting the lives and property of its citizens against war terrorism nuclear threats and militant activities. Protecting the country from instability religious and other forms of radicalism and extremism emanating from neighbouring states. Securing the country against the use or the threat of use of weapons of mass destruction. Development of material equipment and technologies that have a bearing on India s security particularly its defence preparedness through indigenous research development and production inter-alia to overcome restrictions on the transfer of such items. Promoting further cooperation and understanding with neighbouring countries and implementing mutually agreed confidence-building measures. Pursuing security and strategic dialogues with major powers and key partners. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 Army WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES The Indian CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m SP Guide Publications Indian Army is fully prepared to meet the variety of security challenges confronting our country General V.K. Singh took over as the Chief of Army Staff on April 1 2010. In a candid interview with SP Guide Publications General Singh shares his thoughts and perceptions on a wide range of issues such as the security challenges facing the nation modernisation and transformation of the Army for future challenges. SP Guide Publications (SP s) Having taken over as one of the largest and most combat experienced armies of the world what are your feelings as the Chief of Army Staff Chief of Army Staff (COAS) It is indeed a matter of honour and privilege for me to take over the reins of the Indian Army one of the world s finest fighting forces comprising absolutely dedicated and professional officers and men. It is indeed an onerous responsibility. I feel humbled by the trust reposed in me. I am conscious of the emerging security challenges both homeland and in the subcontinent. Indian Army will undertake all challenges to the nation s security with utmost commitment and professionalism. The responsibilities and challenges bring a feeling of great concern for the valiant men who make up our Army. SP s In your tenure what are the major challenges that you perceive you will have to confront and how do you propose to tackle them What are the key result areas that you propose to adopt during your tenure COAS At the outset let me assure you that the Indian Army is fully prepared to meet the variety of security challenges confronting our country. There has been a paradigm shift in the nature of conflict (and emerging technologies) with its centre of gravity now focussing towards Asia. Terrorism proxy war militancy insurgency fourth and fifth generation war are likely to be employed by the non-state actors against the stable and economically progressive nations. Conventional conflicts in the future will be reinforced by the inclusion of large force multipliers and PGMs. Our country therefore faces a large number of challenges ranging from conventional land centric threats to fourth and fifth generation warfare and internal security challenges. However the fast changing nature of conflict and emerging technologies requires constant reappraisal and improvement. I have laid down an all-encompassing vision for the Indian Army which is to hone the Army into a well-motivated operationally prepared well-equipped force capable of meeting the security challenges faced by the nation. Also initiate the transformation process to function in a networked joint services environment to leverage technology and the human resource capital in consonance with the rich values and traditions of the Indian Army. Having said that I would essentially focus on the following issues Enhance operational preparedness Consolidate and address the deficiencies Enhance meaningful training to prepare for existing and emerging challenges Uphold the image of the Army and ensure inculcation of core values of selflessness and professionalism Provide dignity to the art of soldiering and restoring pride in all ranks Speed up the modernisation process and ensure refinement of procedures and work culture Improve quality of life habitability and living conditions in forward deployment areas Enhance synergy with other services Commence the transformation process for a more agile lethal versatile and networked force Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook 179 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Chief of Army Staff WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Interview CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDIAN DEFENCE MBTs T-90S Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Width over tracks Height over turret roof Engine T-72S Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height Armament PKT MG (2 000 rounds) 45 x APDSFS HEAT HESH (incl 6 ATGW) V-12 multifuel (V-84) 840 hp at 2 000 rpm 60 km h (max) 550 km 280mm (max) Road range Armament and Amn 550 km Main 1 x 125mm SBG which fires an ATGM as well as conventional amn. Has a laser range finder & thermal imaging night sight [43 (22 - in autoloader) rounds] Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm MG (2 000 rounds) AA 1 x 12.7mm MG (300 rounds) 8 rounds min 2.23m V-84MS four-stroke 12-cylinder multifuel diesel engine developing 840 hp Main gun rate of fire Cbt Improved T-72M-1 (Ajeya) Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height (turret roof) Engine Trench crossing Shallow fording Armament 2.6 to 2.8 m 1.2 m Main 1 x 125mm SBG Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm MG AD 1 x 12.7mm MG 16 to -6 360 3 km 8 rounds min Auto 44 projectiles charges T-55 (Up Gunned) Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height Armament AA 1 x 12.7mm NSV M (2 800 rounds) 43 rounds x APDSFS HEAT HESH V-2-55 V-12 Diesel rated at 600 bhp 50 km h (max) 500 km 140mm Arjun (Country of Origin India) Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Overall length (with gun forward) Overall height (with AD gun mount) Overall width Ground pressure Armament 4 58.5 tonne 10.638 m 3.03 m 183 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 3.864 m 0.85 kg cm2 Main 1 x 120mm Rifled gun AA 1 x 12.7mm MG Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm MG ASIAN WHO S WHO 3 43 000 kg 2.26 m Main 1 x 105mm rifled bore gun Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2 000 rounds) Main gun amn Engine Speed Range Armour INDIAN DEFENCE Power to Weight ratio Max speed (on road) Max speed (Cross country) Gradient Ability Vertical obstacle Elevation depression Traverse Max range Main gun rate of fire Amn loading Amn stowage 35 to 45 km h 60 850mm Note Other improvements incl Explosive Reactive Armour Integrated Fire Detection and Suppression System and GPS. BUSINESS 3 43.5 tonne 2 190mm Up rated V46-6 engine a 12 cylinder 4 stroke V 60 turbocharged water-cooled multi-fuel direct injection engine developing 1 000 hp at 2 000 rpm. 22.98 hp t 60 km h TECHNOLOGY 3 46 500 kg 2.228 m Main 1 x 125mm SBG AA 1 x 12.7mm NSVT (300 rounds) Co-axial 1 x 7.62mm Main gun amn Engine Speed Range Armour Protection CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 46.5 tonne 3.37m WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Equipment Catalogue Indian Army CONTENTS YOUR NEW DIRECTIONAL INFRARED COUNTERMEASURES SYSTEM The new ELT 572 DIRCM System is a product of Elettronica SpA and Elbit Systems Inc. It protects rotary and fixed wing aircraft against IR homing missile threats. Based on the state-of-the-art Infrared Laser and Sensor Technology ELT 572 represents a step ahead with respect to other DIRCM Systems. Its inherent Installation Flexibility as well as Integrability with any Electro-Optic Suite is a unique feature no other IR countermeasure can target. ELT 572 features an outstanding Reliability and Maintainability as well as a very low Life Cycle cost money is not just spent it is safely invested. DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF ELECTRONIC DEFENCE SYSTEMS. www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Indian Navy Safeguarding Country s Maritime Interests The mission of the Indian Navy is to ensure that India s maritime security and vital national interests at sea are fully safeguarded against multifarious threats. With the transformation that has taken place in the international political arena from bipolarity to the uncertain and undefined international order of today India needs to evolve coherent strategies that are relevant and will be able to cope with the evolving challenges. 191 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he Indian Navy s responsibilities include safeguarding a wide spectrum of the country s maritime interests. These include a coastline of 7 516 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of over two million sq km which is expected to increase to over three million sq km after the inclusion of the extended continental shelf by 2008. In its EEZ the country has sovereign rights to explore and exploit economic assets without encroachment or hindrance from others. The country s overseas trade is more than 513.5 million tonnes over 95 per cent of which by volume and 77 per cent by value moves through the medium of the sea to and from 13 major ports and dozens of smaller ones on either coast. India has island territories on both seaboards. To the east more than 1 120 km from the Indian mainland are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands stretching 720 km from north to south. The southern-most of these islands is only 145 km from the western tip of the Indonesian archipelago while in the north Myanmar (Coco islands) lies only 35 km away. To the west about 240 km from the mainland are the Lakshadweep group of Islands occupying a strategic location astride vital international shipping lanes. India s merchant marine is close to nine million tonnes GRT comprising over 700 ships. The country shares maritime boundaries with seven Indian Ocean littoral states. Another example of the importance of the sea is India s current oil consumption which was 2.5 million barrels per day (bbl d) in 2005 and is likely to rise to 5.3 million bbl d by 2025. This will mean a drastic increase in oil imports half of which will come from the Middle East. Any stoppages or even interruptions are likely to have a crippling effect on the economy. Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook Background The maritime traditions of the country can be traced as far back as the Mohenjodaro civilisation with many archeologists claiming that a basin dating back to 4000 BC discovered in Lothal was the world s first drydock. Indian trade and culture were carried across the seas during the Chola Satavahana Chalukya Pandyan and Kalinga periods. The story of the Ramayana and Mahabharata spread by Indian seafarers can even GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE T Thus India is truly a maritime nation and the sea is critical to her survival and prosperity. It is the role of the Indian Navy to ensure that these interests are adequately safeguarded in peace and in war. The Navy will hopefully in the very near future provide the third leg of the nuclear triad which India seeks to develop in order to safeguard its interests as a de facto nuclear weapon state. The relief operations carried out after the devastating Tsunami in December 2004 have demonstrated the ability of the Indian Navy to respond with alacrity to the humanitarian needs of the neighbouring countries in the region while simultaneously undertaking disaster relief tasks for fellow citizens in our own coastal states and island territories. Thereafter in 2006 we witnessed the swiftly executed refugee evacuation operation from strife-torn Lebanon where again the Navy rendered succour not just to Indians but also to stranded Sri Lankans and Nepalese. These two successful operations were observed by navies across the world and they highlighted the fact that the Indian Navy was capable of discharging its tasks commensurate with India s regional status and responsibilities. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 3 Indian Navy The WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m SP Guide Publications India s Economy Is Dependent on the Seas Admiral Nirmal Verma took over as the Chief of Naval Staff on August 31 2009. In an interview with SP Guide Publications he spoke about the Indian Navy s role as the authority responsible for the overall maritime security of the nation. SP Guide Publications (SP s) Incidents of piracy off the coast of Somalia and in the Gulf of Aden have continued unabated despite well-coordinated surveillance and vigil by various navies including the Indian Navy (IN). What in your view should be the security construct to deal with this kind of a menace Chief of Naval Staff (CNS) Piracy off the coast of Somalia has grown steadily over the years and has now assumed serious proportions. The number of piratical incidents reported so far in 2009 has surpassed the total number reported in 2008. As per the IMB annual piracy report of 2009 the total number of attacks reported in 2009 around Somalia Seychelles and off the Oman coast are over 200. Of these 47 have resulted in hijacking of vessels. To protect Indian flag ships and Indian citizens employed in seafaring duties the Indian Navy commenced anti-piracy patrols in the Gulf of Aden from October 23 2009. A total of 17 IN ships have been deployed in the Gulf of Aden since October 2008. In addition to escorting Indian flag ships ships of other flags have also been escorted. Merchant ships irrespective of their flag are currently being escorted along the entire length of 490 nm long and 20 nm wide Internationally Recommended Transit Corridor that has been promulgated for use by all merchant vessels. This arrangement has been working satisfactorily and a total of 843 ships (111 Indian flagged and 723 foreign flagged from 47 different countries) have been escorted by IN ships since October 2008. Navies at sea are only dealing with the symptoms of mis-governance in Somalia. SP s Recognising the need for augmenting the rapid response mechanism to deal with maritime security challenges the government post-26 11 has revamped the maritime security framework. What is your perspective on the adequacy of approved infrastructure and commensurate assets and how would it equip IN to effectively deal with this new dimension of maritime challenge CNS The Cabinet Committee on Security has designated the IN as the authority responsible for the overall maritime security of the nation. This includes coastal and offshore security. Patrolling and surveillance have been enhanced by the Indian Navy Indian Coast Guard (ICG) and Marine Police of coastal states. Inter-agency coordination has improved through conduct of regular exercises on coastal security. All concerned Central and state government agencies like the Marine Police Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) Fisheries Department port authorities state police and customs and immigration are included in these exercises. Nine additional coast guard stations have been sanctioned at Karwar Ratnagiri Vadinar Gopalpur Minicoy Androth Karaikal Hutbay and Nizampatnam and are to be integrated into the hub and spoke concept with coastal police stations. In addition ICG is set to induct ships patrol boats and aircraft at an approximate cost of over Rs 6 000 crore ( 1.25 billion) for coastal security functions. Setting up of a Static Coastal Radar chain and a networked chain of Automatic Identification System (AIS) stations along our coast and in the island territories is also being progressed expeditiously. The radar and AIS chain would be major coastal surveillance assets providing gapless cover all along the coast. The National Command Control Communication and Intelligence Network will integrate navy coast guard and marine police stations as also other agencies for seamless sharing of information concerning maritime security. Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook 199 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Chief of Naval Staff WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Interview CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDIAN DEFENCE SUBMARINES Shishumar (209) Class Type 1500 Total No. in service Name Specifications Displacement tonnes 4 Shishumar Shankush Shalki Shankul Standard 1 450 Surfaced 1 660 Dived 1 850 211.2 x 21.3 x 19.7(64.4 x 6.5 x 6) Diesel Electric 4MTU 12V 493 AZ80 GA31L diesels 4 Siemens alternators 1 Siemens motor 1 shaft Surfaced 11 Dived 22 8 000 Snorting at 8 knots 13 000 Surfaced at 10 knots 40 (8 officers) 8 Nos. 21 inch (533mm) tubes carries 14 AEG SUT Mod 1 wire guided active passive torpedoes homing to 28 km at 23 knots Mines Counter-measures 12 km at 35 knots warhead 250 kg. External Strap-on type for 24 Mines Decoys C303 acoustic decoys ESM Argo Phenix II AR 700 or Koll Morgen Sea Sentry radar warning ESM-DR 3000 Weapon Control Singer Librascope MKI CCS 90-1 ISUS Radars Surface Search Thomson-CSF Calypso I-band KH 1007 2007 Sonars Atlas Elektronik CSU 83 active passive search and attack Thomson Sintra DUUV-5 passive ranging and intercept CSU 90-14 Programme HDW concluded an agreement with the Indian Navy on 11 December-1981. Out of the four submarines first two were built in West Germany and the balance two at Mazagon Docks Mumbai with supply of material package from HDW. (Submarines form the 10th Submarine Squadron based at Mumbai. Mid-life refits-cum-modernisation of the class is being undertaken in a progressive manner starting with Shishumar in 1999.) Dimensions feet (metres) Main machinery Complement Torpedoes Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class (Project 877 EKM 8773) Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) Main machinery Speed knots Range miles Complement Torpedoes Mines Counter-measures Weapon control Radars Sonars 201 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE 2 Model 4-2AA-42M diesels 2 generators 1 motor 1 shaft 2 MT-168 auxiliary motors 1 economic speed motor 10 surfaced 17 dived 9 snorting 6 000 at 7 kt snorting 400 at 3 kt dived 52 (13 officers) 6-21 in (533 mm) tubes combination of Type 53-65 passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 n miles) at 45 Kt TEST 71 96 antisubmarine active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt or 20 km (10.08 n miles) at 25 kt warhead 220 kg Total of 18 weapons. Wire-guided on 2 tubes. 24 DM-1 in lieu of torpedoes ESM Squid head radar warning Porpoise (Indigenous) Uzwl MVU-119EM TFCS Navigation Snoop Tray MRP-25 I-band MGK 400 hull mounted active passive search and attack medium frequency. MG-519 hull mounted active search high frequency. Being replaced Programme The Kilo class was launched in the former Soviet Navy in 1979 and India was the first country to acquire these between 1993 and 2000. Indian Navy procured 10 submarines of this class from Russia. This class of submarine has since been supplied to Algeria Poland Romania Iran and China. Modernisation Medium refits-cum-modernisation of the submarines is being undertaken in India Russia on a progressive manner. A submarine launched cruise missile (SLCM) capability is also part of the refit. Retrofit and trials of submarine launched version of BrahMos missile (a joint Indo-Russian venture) is expected to be undertaken on one of the submarines. An Indian designed main battery with a five-year life has replaced Russian batteries in all of the class. Battery cooling has been improved. Operational First four form the 11th Submarine Squadron based at Visakhapatnam and the remainder of the 12th Squadron based at Mumbai. Sindhuvir completed major refit at Severodvinsk from May 1997 to July 1999. Sindhuraj and Sindhukesari completed similar refits at Admiralty Yard St. Petersburg from May 1999 to November 2001. Sindhuratna completed a two-year refit at Severodvinsk in 2002. Sindhughosh was refitted at Visakhapatnam from September 2002 to 2004. One submarine is expected to be fitted out with BrahMos cruise missile an Indo-Russian venture the surface version of this 290 km range missile is already being fitted on the Indian Navy s surface platforms. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS Total No. in service Name 10 Sindhughosh Sindhudhvaj Sindhuraj Sindhuvir Sindhuratna Sindhukesri Sindhukirti Sindhuvijay Sindhurakshak Sindhushastra 2 325 surfaced 3 076 dived 238 x 32.5 x 21.7 (72.6 x 9.9 x 6.6) by Sonar USHUS manufactured by BEL Bangalore in a progressive manner on submarines. TECHNOLOGY Speed knots Range miles CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Equipment Catalogue Indian Navy CONTENTS Answering the call with confidence. It s in our power.TM There are powerful reasons why 27 armed services across the globe employ 11 000 of our engines to deliver when it really counts. Learn more at Military Engines www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Impacting Modern-day Warfare The role of the Air Force can make or mar the war potential of a modern-day state. Recent international conflicts have proved the overwhelming importance of air power. In the Indian context the contribution of the IAF to the national security effort was emphatically driven home during the Kargil conflict in 1999 when intruding Pakistani soldiers stunned by the strike potential of the IAF and resolute Indian response retreated from their positions inside the line of control (LoC). Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook Looking Back On October 8 1932 the IAF Bill was passed allowing for creation of the Number 1 Squadron of the IAF with only one flight equipped with four obsolescent Westland Wapiti aircraft at Drigh Road Karachi on April 1 1933. The flight was commanded by an RAF officer and had five pilots and the first batch of Hawai Sepoys . The fledgling IAF went into action for the first time in 1937 during air policing operations in the North West 215 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO he Indian Air Force (IAF) would have to seek greater governmental indulgence to acquire additional aircraft. In addition the force will have to start working towards development and acquisition of fifth generation fighter aircraft. Manifestations of flight capabilities (the third dimension) in military affairs have witnessed phenomenal changes. The term air power is used to denote the flight potential of military services. Air power is in itself an indicator of its undeniable impact on modern warfare. The role of the air force can make or mar the war potential of a modern-day state. Recent international conflicts have proved the overwhelming importance of air power. In the Indian context the contribution of the IAF to the national security effort was emphatically driven home during the Kargil conflict in 1999 when intruding Pakistani soldiers stunned by the strike potential of the IAF and resolute Indian response retreated from their positions inside the line of control (LoC). However its current effectiveness notwithstanding the origin of the IAF was very humble. INDIAN DEFENCE T Frontier Province (NWFP). During Second World War the IAF expanded rapidly to about 10 squadrons. For its achievements during the war the service was awarded the prefix Royal in March 1945. The division of assets and manpower of the armed forces at the time of independence in August 1947 reduced the force level to a little more than half its original size. Two months later the Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF) went into action in Kashmir which saw the landing of Dakotas at what was termed the roof of the world . On January 26 1950 India became a Republic and the RIAF dropped the Royal prefix. The 1950s witnessed rapid expansion and modernisation of the IAF both in terms of capital assets and infrastructure. The modernisation process was kicked off in 1948 with the arrival of the Vampire--the first combat jet of the IAF. Subsequently Ouragan Mystere Canberra Hunter and Gnat entered service during the 1950s. Closer strategic and military cooperation with the USSR resulted in the IAF acquiring the MiG-21 supersonic aircraft in 1963 which then went on to pave the way for subsequent induction of various other combat aircraft and weapon systems of Soviet origin. From this point onwards the IAF inventory acquired a distinct Soviet orientation which is still in evidence 43 years after the first induction of the MiG-21. This also had a great bearing on the evolving shape and structure of the aviation industry in India. The 1965 war saw the IAF aggressively using the famous Gnat demolishing the myth of the F-86 Sabre being the best combat aircraft of that time. The Gnat again played a significant role in the 1971 con- BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 Air Force The Indian WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m SP Guide Publications IAF is Transforming Into a Potent Strategic Force Air Chief Marshal P.V. Naik took over as the Chief of Air Staff (CAS) on May 31 2009. In an interaction with SP Guide Publications the CAS delineates the emerging roles and responsibilities of the Indian Air Force and its efforts to adequately prepare itself to face the myriad challenges of the 21st century. Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook 221 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE SP s The IAF in metamorphic transformation is an often repeated statement emanating from different quarters from within and outside the establishment. Do you agree If so could you elaborate especially with regard to the IAF s ideology concepts doctrine and so on CAS I agree with the statement. The IAF is transforming into a potent strategic force keeping in line with national aspirations. In the coming decade the IAF envisions itself to be a modern force with cutting edge technologies that are flexible adaptable and have a strategic reach to SP s It has been reiterated on many occasions that the IAF needs to be fully equipped and trained to fight across the entire spectrum of modern-day conflict. Describe the measures being undertaken by the IAF to build the necessary capabilities. CAS Nobody can accurately predict the kind of war one may have to GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO SP Guide Publications (SP s) Having spent more than four months at the helm of one of the largest and battle-tested air forces in the world what do you reckon are the major challenges facing the Indian Air Force (IAF) How do you propose to cope with these Chief of Air Staff (CAS) The first and foremost challenge that the IAF is facing is the requirement of capability build up which has been affected by the depletion due to phasing out of aircraft and systems since last few years. India is an emerging regional power. As an emerging power you have attendant responsibilities as well as larger security challenges. A comprehensive modernisation plan is already underway which involves enhancement and modernisation of our air defence (AD) and offensive strike capabilities enhancement of our force multipliers space assets and NCW (network-centric warfare) capabilities. Associated with acquisition is the challenge of operationalising these modern and high-end technology platforms and weapon systems. Training and preparing our air warriors to absorb the new technology in the shortest possible time is also a challenge and we are looking into these aspects by reviewing our organisational policies and training patterns. provide limitless options to India. The concepts beliefs and practices will evolve to keep pace with advances in technology changing global environment military capabilities and vital national interests. The upgrades in technology change the concept of employment of air power which in turn affects ideology. The doctrine also must be receptive to the advantages that new technologies offer and must evolve accordingly. SP s What are the key ingredients of the IAF s latest revised doctrine Have these been disseminated and practised right down to the field level How will these affect the IAF s war-waging and winning capabilities CAS The Indian Air Force Doctrine is the essence of the IAF s understanding of aerospace power. It has two parts Basic and the Operational . Part I of the doctrine is a guide on the basic aspects of aerospace power with inputs from old precepts and their subsequent evolution. The amalgamation of space and its enormous force-enhancing impact have also been included. Part II covers the operational aspect of the employment of aerospace power. The doctrine has been disseminated and is being practised right down to the field level. It is helpful in understanding planning and employing aerospace power and provides the options to select from when confronted with an operational situation. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Chief of Air Staff WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Interview CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDIAN DEFENCE Air Defence and Strike Fighters Mikoyan MiG-21FL MF Bis NATO reporting names Country of origin Type Number in service Fishbed and Mongol (trainer version) USSR Single-Seat Multi-Role Fighter. 250-300 all variants. Max take-off Performance Max speed Above 10 000 m At sea level Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Max rate of climb g Limits 10 500 kg 8 750 kg Mikoyan MiG-23BN MF NATO reporting names Indian Air Force names Country of origin Type Number in service MiG-23BN (Flogger-H) MiG-23MF (Flogger-B) Vijay Rakshak USSR Single-Seat Variable Geometry Strike Fighter. All MiG-23 variants reportedly phased out from operational service Conventional fin houses a large inset rudder. Power Plant One Tumansky R-29 Turbojet rated at 17 500 lb dry and 25 350 lb reheat four fuel tanks aft of cockpit in fuselage and two integral wing tanks. Total usable fuel capacity of 6 275 litres. Provision for 800 litre droptanks at three points. Cockpit KM-21 0-130 kmph ejection seat in a pressurized and air-conditioned cockpit. Bullet proof wind screen and small rearward looking mirror on top of canopy. Kevlar plating around cockpit to withstand hits up to 23mm calibre shells. Avionics and Systems (MiG-23BN) KLEN Laser marker and ranger in nose cone VHF UHF IFF equipment. Doppler nav attack system and radar altimeter. Gyro gun sight accurate up to 7.5 g loads. Armament One GSh-23 2 23mm cannon in fuselage belly pack with 200 rounds normal loading pattern is AP API HEI. Seven pylons (five underbelly one on each wing) capable of carrying various combinations of ordnance up to 4 500 kg. 225 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Construction Wings Shoulder wing mono-plane with variable sweep angles at 16 deg 45 deg and 72 deg. Full span hydraulically actuated trailing edge flaps in three sections. No ailerons. Instead two-section upper surface spoilers lift dumpers operate differentially in conjunction with horizontal tail surfaces to provide aileron functions Fuselage Conventional semi-monocoque structure with lateral air intakes. Four forward hinged air brakes above and below horizontal tail planes. All moving horizontal surfaces of the tail unit act differentially and symmetrically to provide aileron and elevator functions. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE Dimensions Wing span Length Height Wing area Weights Take-off (combat) 7.15 m 16.10 m including pitot boom 4.5 m 23.45 m2 BUSINESS Construction Wings Delta planform with a 2 anhedral and 57 sweepback with small boundary layer fences at tips. Large blown plain trailing edge flaps. Fuselage Circular section all metal semi Tail Unit monocoque structure. Ram air intake in nose with floating centre body controlled by air speed and alpha angle. Large dorsal spine for avionics and fuel tanks. Air brakes under the leading edge of wing roots. Second air brake forward of the ventral fin. Tail unit of all moving surface type mass balanced at tips. Conventional fin with large inset rudder. Power Plant One Tumansky R-13 turbojet rated at 9 400 lb dry and 14 000 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity 2 750 litres Provision for drop tanks under fuselage and inboard wing pylons. The MiG-21Bis is powered by a Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet rated at 15 000 lb static thrust with reheat. Cockpit K-13 ejection seat with 0-130 kmph capability. Avionics and Equipment ALMAZ search and track radar with a 30 km lock on range. ARK radio compass IFF and Gyro gun sight Armament One twin-barrel 23mm GSh-23 2 cannon with 250 rounds carried internally & up to 2 500 1b of ordnance on four wing pylons. Typical loads include 2 1 000 lb RVV-AE R-73 R-60 AAMs S-24 and UB80 UB 57 rocket pods. 390 km 6 500 m min 7 1.5 Note While the FL version of the MiG-21 is being phased out a fleet of 125 MiG-21Bis aircraft with adequate residual airframe life have reportedly undergone an avionics and armament upgrade programme which comprises the following Fitment of KOPYO multi-mode radar in the nose cone in place of the original ALMAZ radar which in combination with the active homing RVV-AE Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air missile in place of the R-60 has given the aircraft a Fire-and-Forget capability. Coupled with a new Russian made Mission Computer the KOPYO radar has also enhanced the aircraft s overall air-to-surface capability. The aircraft has been fitted with a Thales Monolith Ring Laser Gyro based INS with integral GPS and GLONASS card. The INS has a drift of 0.5 nm per hour which is automatically updated by the integral GPS giving it a highly reliable navigation system. The aircraft has been given a semi-glass cockpit with the fitment of a Russian made Liquid Crystal Multi-function Display and a Head-up Display. Additional avionics include a HAL made INCOM jam resistant communications equipment and TARANG RWR equipment. An Israeli video recording system has been fitted in the cockpit which captures HUD as well as visual parameters during air-to-ground strikes for better post-strike debriefs. The upgraded MiG-21Bis aircraft has been renamed the Bison by the Indian Air Force. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Mach 2.23 Mach 1.1 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force CONTENTS MISSION-CRITICAL ADVANTAGES WHATEVER THE MISSION For more than 40 years some 300 Bombardier special mission aircraft have been selected by countries around the globe to fulfill a wide spectrum of missions ranging from government VIP transportation through search and rescue to C4ISR. Today we continue to meet the critical needs of governments armed forces and commercial operators with high performance Global Challenger and Learjet series jets and Dash-8 Q-series turboprops. We meet your needs. We deliver. FOR MORE INFORMATION W W W.SPECIALMISSION.BOMBARDIER.COM BOMBARDIER LEARJET CHALLENGER GLOBAL GLOBAL EXPRESS DASH 8 Q-SERIES AND OTHER BOMBARDIER AIRCRAFT MODEL NAMES ARE REGISTERED AND OR UNREGISTERED TRADEMARK (S) OF BOMBARDIER INC. OR ITS SUBSIDIARIES. GLOBAL EXPRESS PICTURE COPYRIGHT 2006 RAYTHEON COMPANY. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RAYTHEON COMPANY IS THE MISSION SYSTEMS INTEGRATOR FOR ASTOR. www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Ensuring Peace-time Maritime Security The Indian Coast Guard functions under the Ministry of Defence primarily for non-military maritime security purposes. It has military functions in a war situation when it conjoins with military forces in national defence under the Indian Navy. Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook he Indian Coast Guard (ICG) was constituted as an armed force of the Union by an Act of Parliament on August 18 1978 to undertake the predominantly peace-time tasks of ensuring the security of the maritime zones of India with a view to the protection of maritime and other national interests in such zones and for matters connected therewith. The Indian Coast Guard functions under the Ministry of Defence (MoD) primarily for non-military maritime security functions. It has military functions in a war situation when it conjoins with military forces in national defence under the Indian Navy. The Coast Guard began patrolling in earnest with two old frigates inducted from the navy and five patrol vessels seconded from the Central Board of Excise and Customs Ministry of Home Affairs. Duties and Functions The Coast Guard Act 1978 specifies the duties and functions of the service mandating adoption of appropriate measures for the following tasks Safety and protection of artificial islands and offshore terminals installations and devices. Protection and assistance to fishermen at sea while in distress. Preservation and protection of marine environment. Prevention and control of marine pollution Assistance to customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations. Enforcement of Maritime Laws in force. Safety of life and property at sea. Collection of scientific data. Other duties as and when prescribed by the Government of India. 239 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE T The following additional responsibilities have been entrusted to the Coast Guard Coordinating authority for taking measures to address oil pollution response in the maritime zones of India. The Director General Indian Coast Guard (DGICG) is the Chairman of the National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOSDCP) Preparedness Meeting. The authority for coordinating Maritime Search and Rescue in the Indian Search and Rescue Region. The DGICG is the Chairman of the National Maritime Search and Rescue Board. The DGICG is the Chairman of the Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC) and regular meetings are conducted at the national level to identify threats to offshore installations such as internal sabotage terrorist attacks hijacking of platforms drill ships jack up rig blowouts fire hazards etc. The authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters. The DGICG has been designated as the Commander Coastal Command with the responsibility for overall coordination between central and state agencies in all matters related to coastal security. Nominated as the Lead Intelligence agency (LIA) for the country s coastal sea borders for the purpose of generating coordinating and sharing the intelligence with the agencies concerned including the Central Government. These duties are carried out by the ICG over an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) measuring 2.01 million sq km that are home to inter alia 3 565 sq km of mangroves 18 000 sq km of coral reefs and a potential 4.72 million tonnes of fisheries resources. It is also entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the safety and security of a peninsular nation BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 Coast Guard The Indian WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDIAN DEFENCE Surface Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels (AOPVs) Samar class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Armament 6 Indian built Light 1 840 Deep 2 000 101.95x11.5x3.65 m 2x12.7mm HMG CRN 91 2x12.7mm gun Flight deck Main machinery Speed knots Range Complement (crew) with Electro-Optical Fire Control (EOFCS) Can operate ALH & Chetak 2xdiesels 7 710 kw each 23.5 6 500 nm at 12 knots 106 Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Vikram class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Armament 7 2 (on lease) Indian built Light 1100 Deep 1220 74.1x11.4x3.2 m 40 60 or 30mm 2A42 Gun Flight deck Main machinery Speed knots Range miles Complement (crew) Optical sight 2x12.7mm HMG Can operate Chetak 2 diesels 4 707kw each 22 4 000 nm at 14 knots 90 Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Priyadarshini class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) 8 Indian built Light 164 Deep 215 48x7.5x2.09 m Armament Main machinery Speed knots Range Complement (crew) 40 60 or 30mm 2A42 Gun 2x12.7mm HMG 2xdiesels 1 480 kw each 23 2 400 nm at 14 knots 35 Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Sarojini Naidu class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) 7 Indian built Light 235 Deep 260 48.14x7.5x2 m Armament Main machinery Speed knots Range Complement (crew) 30mm 2A42 Gun 2x12.7 mm HMG 3xdiesels 2 720 kw each 35 1 500 nm at 12 knots 35 Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs) Jija Bai class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) 6 Singapore Indian Light 195 Deep 273 44.9x7x1.99 m Armament Main machinery Speed knots Range miles Complement (crew) 30mm A242 Gun 2xdiesels 1 480 kw each 25.5 2.400 nm at 14 knots 35 Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs) Tarabai class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) 6 Singapore Indian Light 195 Deep 273 44.9x7x1.99 m Armament Main machinery Speed knots Range miles Complement (crew) 247 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 30mm A242 Gun 2xdiesels 1 480 kw each 25.5 2 400 nm at 14 knots 35 ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Equipment Catalogue Indian Coast Guard CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Compiled by SP Guide Publications team As on May 31 2010 President & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces ....................................................................................... Pratibha Devisingh Patil Vice President..................... M. Hamid Ansari Prime Minister .................... Dr Manmohan Singh Minister of Defence............. A.K. Antony Minister of State for Defence............................................................................................................................... M.M. Pallam Raju Ministry of Defence Department Defence Secretary ............... Pradeep Kumar Secretary ............................ Neelam Nath Joint Secretary (Navy Ordnance) ......................................................................................................................... Binoy Kumar Joint Secretary (Establishment Public Grievance & Chief Vigilance Officer) ......................................................... Arun Kumar Bal Joint Secretary (General Air) ............................................................................................................................... Subhash Chandra Joint Secretary (Ex-Serviceman Welfare) ............................................................................................................. Sanjeeva Kumar Joint Secretary (Training) .... Upamanyu Chatterjee Acquisition Wing Director General (Acquisition) ............................................................................................................................. Shashikant Sharma Financial Adviser (Acquisition) & Additional Secretary ........................................................................................ S. Chandrasekaran Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Land Systems) ........................................................................................ Jatinderbir Singh Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Maritime & Systems) .............................................................................. Preeti Sudan Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Air) ......................................................................................................... Ranjan Kumar Ghose Technical Manager (Land Systems) .................................................................................................................... Major General Sanjiv Chachra Technical Manager (Maritime & Systems) ............................................................................................................ Rear Admiral B.R. Taneja Technical Manager (Air) ...... Air Vice Marshal P. Singh Finance Manager (Land System) & Joint Secretary ............................................................................................... Vishvajit Sahay Finance Manager (Maritime & System) & Joint Secretary ..................................................................................... Rajnish Kumar Finance Manager (Air) ......... Vandana Srivastava Department of Defence Production & Supplies Secretary (Defence Production) ........................................................................................................................... Raj Kumar Singh Spl. Secretary (Defence Production) .................................................................................................................... Ajoy Acharya Joint Secretary (Electronic Systems) .................................................................................................................... Satyajeet Rajan Additional Secretary (Land Systems) ................................................................................................................... V. Soma Sundaran Joint Secretary (Aerospace) . Manoj Saunik Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook 249 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Union Government CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 Indian Defence Who s Who in WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m WHO S WHO IN INDIAN DEFENCE INDIAN DEFENCE Pratibha Devisingh Patil President of India & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces The 12th President of India Pratibha Devisingh Patil is the first woman to have been elected to this august office. Born on December 19 1934 in Nadgaon in Jalgaon district of Maharashtra she assumed office of the President of India on July 25 2007. Her early education was from R.R. Vidyalaya Jalgaon and her Master s in Political Science and Economics was completed from the Mooljee Jetha College Jalgaon. Having studied law from Government Law College in Mumbai she began her law career in the Jalgaon District Court and simultaneously devoted herself to various social activities especially for the upliftment of women. At the age of 27 she successfully contested her first election to the Maharashtra State Legislature from the constituency of Jalgaon. Subsequently for the next four times she was elected MLA from the Edlabad (Muktai Nagar) constituency till 1985. Thereafter she served as a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha from 1985 to 1990 and was later elected a Member of Parliament to the 10th Lok Sabha in the 1991 General Elections from Amravati. Pratibha Patil enjoys the unique distinction of having won every election that she contested. Having represented India at various international fora she attended the International Council on Social Welfare conference at Nairobi and Puerto Rico. In 1985 she was a member of the AICC(I) delegation to Bulgaria and three years later she attended the Commonwealth Presiding Officers Conference in London. Patil led the Indian delegation to the Conference on the Status of Women in Austria and was a delegate at the World Women s Conference in Beijing in September 1995. Dr Manmohan Singh Prime Minister of India A.K. Antony 255 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE A.K. Antony took over as the Union Defence Minister on October 24 2006 marking a return to the Indian Cabinet after a long hiatus of 12 years. Born on December 28 1940 in Cherthala of Alappuzha district in Kerala to Aley Kutty and Arakkaparambil Kurian Pillai he is a law graduate from the University of Kerala. He was married on March 17 1985 to Elizabeth Antony and has two sons. His interest in politics and social work dates back to his young days when he headed the students unions. Having been a member of the Congress Party from the beginning he has held several party posts both at the state and national levels. He has also held numerous positions in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1970 onwards and took charge of the portfolio of Union Cabinet Minister of Civil Supplies Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution from 1993 to 1995. Antony who has been the Chief Minister of Kerala thrice is an astute politician with a spotless image. ASIAN WHO S WHO Minister for Defence INDIAN DEFENCE Dr Manmohan Singh the 15th Prime Minister of India is rightly acclaimed as a thinker and a scholar. Born on September 26 1932 in a village in Punjab province of undivided India Dr Singh completed his matriculation from Punjab University in 1948. His academic career took him to the University of Cambridge in the UK where he earned a first class Honours degree in Economics in 1957 followed by a D.Phil in Economics from Nuffield College at Oxford University in 1962. Dr Singh s academic credentials were burnished by the years he spent on the faculty of Punjab University and the Delhi School of Economics. His brief stint at the UNCTAD Secretariat was prior to his appointment as Secretary General of the South Commission in Geneva between 1987 and 1990. In 1971 Dr Singh served as Economic Advisor in Ministry of Commerce and subsequently took over as the Chief Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Finance in 1972. Among the numerous positions held by Dr Singh are Secretary in the Ministry of Finance Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission Governor of the Reserve Bank of India Advisor to the Prime Minister and Chairman of the University Grants Commission. The turning point in the economic history of independent India was his tenure as the Finance Minister of India from 1991 to 1996. Among the multitude of awards and honours conferred upon Dr Singh in his public career the most prominent are India s second highest civilian honour the Padma Vibhushan (1987) the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award of the Indian Science Congress (1995) the Asia Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993 and 1994) the Euro Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993) the Adam Smith Prize of the University of Cambridge (1956) and the Wright s Prize for Distinguished Performance at St. John s College in Cambridge (1955). Dr Singh has been a member of the Rajya Sabha since 1991 and has served as the Leader of the Opposition from 1998 to 2004. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDIAN DEFENCE Mangapati Pallam Raju Minister of State for Defence WHO S WHO IN INDIAN DEFENCE An alumnus of the Hyderabad Public School Begumpet Mangapati Pallam Raju is an electronics & communications engineering graduate from Andhra University Visakhapatnam and an MBA from Temple University Philadelphia USA. He worked in Philadelphia and Boston in the US and in Oslo Norway in the field of computers and information technology. He has a political lineage with his grandfather the late Mallipudi Pallam Raju being a freedom fighter and his father M.S. Sanjeevi Rao being a Union Minister in the Government of India from 1982 to 1984. He was first elected to the Indian Parliament in 1989 and was the youngest MP in the ninth Lok Sabha. He has served as a Director on the boards of Indian Airlines and Air India during 1994-1997. He is a successful entrepreneur in the field of information technology and was on the boards of a few very successful public limited companies until his induction into the Union Council of Ministers. He has been a very active member of the Indian National Congress and has held several important positions in the state unit and at the national level. At present he is a Member of Parliament (15th Lok Sabha). Pradeep Kumar Defence Secretary Pradeep Kumar took over as Secretary (Defence Production) in the Ministry of Defence on January 1 2008 and as Defence Secretary in August 2009. A Haryana cadre officer of the 1972 batch of the Indian Administrative Service Kumar is a graduate in electrical engineering from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and masters in economics and social studies from the University of Wales UK. Being a veteran in the field of public administration he has held many senior positions at the state and national levels. He served as Director of Industries Principal Secretary Power Irrigation Science and Technology Town and Country Planning and Urban Estates departments in the Government of Haryana. At the national level he has held the appointments of Joint Secretary in the Department of Heavy Industry Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Coal Chairman National Highways Authority of India and Secretary (Disinvestment) in the Ministry of Finance. Pradeep Kumar has served on the boards of a number of leading companies including Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd Maruti Udyog Ltd Andrew Yule Ltd Hindustan Paper Corporation Ltd Coal India Ltd and Nyvelli Lignite Corporation Ltd. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 256 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Research Development & Production With the strategic objective of self-reliance in defence the DDP&S has been endeavouring to indigenise defence equipment wherever technologically feasible and economically viable. In-house R&D activities towards product and process improvements are also receiving a great deal of attention in the ordnance factories. Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook Department of Defence Production & Supplies In the aftermath of the Chinese aggression in 1962 the Department of Defence Production was set up to create a self-reliant defence production base. In November 1965 the Department of Defence Supplies was created to forge linkages between the civil industries and defence production units. In December 1984 the two departments were merged and renamed as Department of Defence Production and Supplies (DDP&S). The DDP&S deals with the indigenisation development and production of defence equipment both in the public and private sectors. 267 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO esearch and development (R&D) particularly in the defence sector has not been proactive in India. Not only has the investments in R&D been miniscule in India as compared to the US UK Germany China Japan it has also been restricted mostly to the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). While advanced countries invest heavily in R&D in private industry India has failed to do so. This has resulted in lack of competitiveness. There is a need to not only involve the private industry by giving them focussed directions but also through provision of requisite infrastructure and necessary funds for R&D. Such voids have resulted not only in indegenous development of state-of-the-art UAVs but even items like engines for helicopters aircraft etc. Lack of focus has also resulted in no computers being manufactured in India and only being assembled with parts coming from mainly China with attendant cyber security hazards. There is a need to correct this fault line of R&D if we are to accelerate the pace of modernisation in keeping with our aim of being a global player. INDIAN DEFENCE R A total of 16 new ordnance factories have been set up since 1962 and currently there are eight Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs) and 41 ordnance factories. These have a wide range of infrastructure for manufacture and maintenance of aircraft warships submarines heavy vehicles missiles electronic devices alloys and special purpose steel. Their capacities have been augmented and modernised by development and induction of new technology to meet the emerging requirements of the armed forces. In addition the capacities of the civil sector are also utilised for defence production through outsourcing joint ventures and commercialisation of new products developed from time to time by defence research establishments. The following organisations directly under the DDP&S are responsible for quality control and technical support Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) Directorate of Standardisation Directorate of Planning and Coordination Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) Ordnance Factory Board In the newly introduced Defence Procurement Procedure-2008 for contracts exceeding Rs 300 crore 30 per cent offset is mandatory. However for mega contracts the offset obligation has been enhanced to 50 per cent. There is also a provision for Offset Banking . Outsourcing of products and services from the Indian defence industry both in the private and public sectors will not only enhance manufacturing capabilities capacity and exports but will also provide opportunities for better integration with the world economy and access to higher levels of technology. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 7 Industry Defence WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Emerging New Technologies About 70 academic institutions 52 national science and technology centres and 250 public private industries have supported the efforts of the DRDO in meeting the stringent technological needs of the country F Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook ormed on January 1 1958 as a fledgling research establishment the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) of India became a department under the Central Government in 1980. Today it is one of the largest science and technology departments of the Indian government with a network of 50 laboratories and establishments spread all over the country. Several complex defence-related projects designed to achieve a high degree of self-reliance are currently being undertaken by the DRDO. It is also pursuing R&D in emerging areas such as computational sciences artificial intelligence and robotics high-energy physics and systems engineering. Survival and support systems ranging from food and shelter to psychology and health care for the personnel of the Indian armed forces are also being developed. About 70 academic institutions 50 national science and technology centres and over 600 public private industries have supported the efforts of the DRDO in meeting the stringent technological needs of the country. Having developed several advanced defence systems DRDO has acquired expertise in a wide spectrum of defence technologies. Areas of core competence in the organisation include System design and integration of complex sensors weapon systems and platforms Development of high-end software packages Development of functional materials Test and evaluation Technology transfer and absorption In addition expertise and infrastructure have been built up for carrying out basic applied research in areas of relevance to defence science and technology quality assurance and safety project and technology management. These are further established under the core competence of different disciplines and laboratories. DRDO is thus fully dedicated to progressive enhancement of selfreliance in defence systems in state-of-the-art technologies and R&D infrastructure of the country with a vision to make India independent of foreign technologies in critical spheres. technical. While the former is responsible for matters related to HR finance and administration the latter is responsible for all technical and scientific issues. DRDO has two societies under it namely Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) to undertake design & development of advanced technology aircraft and Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research (SITAR) for designing digital components for various projects. DRDO has around 28 500 personnel on its rolls which includes 7 500 scientists 10 500 administrative and allied technical staff and the rest are from administrative cadres. Programme Highlights Integrated Guided Missiles Development Programme (IGMDP) The Indian missile programme was initiated in 1983. In keeping with the Indian threat perceptions on the proliferation of missiles in the region the IGMDP was a well thought out multi-pronged approach for India to achieve a very high degree of self-reliance in the vital missile technology area. The tendency of the American-Western alliance to target India with technology embargo regimes was also a compelling factor for India to launch its indigenous programme. The IGMDP originally consisted of the development of four missile systems - Surface-to-Surface Tactical Battlefield Support PRITHVI Missile. - Surface-to-Air Medium Range Missile. AKASH - Surface-to-Air Short Range Missile. TRISHUL - Third Generation Anti-tank Missile. NAG In addition to the above development of the under mentioned missile systems has also been taken up AGNI I II III & V - Surface-to-Surface Intermediate Range series. - Supersonic Cruise Missile. BRAHMOS - Naval version of PRITHVI. DHANUSH - Beyond Visual Range (BVR) Air-to-Air Missile. ASTRA - Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile. LRSAM - Ballistic Missile Defence BMD The MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime) instituted by the US alliance in 1987 forced India to accelerate its own missile technology programme. Despite initial setbacks MTCR actually proved to be a boon to the Indian defence industry. All the critical technologies have been developed indigenously. Organisational Structure The organisation is headed by the Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister who is also Secretary to the Government of India. The DRDO headquarters has two kinds of directorates namely corporate and 289 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 8 R&D WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Defence CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m S P E C I A L F O C U S Indian Army Threats and Challenges Internal security management has been an important component of India s national security apparatus ever since independence. In the past five decades the focus is on the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast the extinguished insurgency in Punjab the dissidence and proxy war in J&K and the burgeoning Naxalite violence. LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook I 299 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE n the era immediately after independence threats to India were mainly external--from hostile nations. Despite the recommendations of various committees instituted by the government of the day the internal security threats were never so acute as to seriously induce the political leadership to reform the internal security apparatus. However as the challenges and threats to the internal security of India grew the Indian Government felt compelled to focus on this dimension of national security. It is now widely acknowledged that there is more to security than purely military factors. Today s definition of security acknowledges political economic environmental social and human among other strands that impact the concept of security. Today it is the concern for security of the lowest common denominator of every society namely the human being or civil security as the Americans term it which has resulted in the development of the concept of human security with focus on the individual and the people. Therefore the definition of security is related to the ability of the state to perform the function of protecting the well-being of its people. Consequent to the Mumbai terror attacks on November 26 2008 the UPA Government went into high drive to implement internal security reforms. The Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram on August 17 2009 at the Conference of Chief Ministers on Internal Security held in New Delhi said Let me recall the three challenges to internal security firstly terrorism secondly insurgency in the Northeastern states and thirdly Left wing extremism or Naxalism. Each one of them shares many characteristics with the other two. At the same time each one of them is significantly different from the other two. We have one instrument to confront and defeat the three challenges and that is the police. In the final analysis it is the policeman and the policewoman who will help us win these battles. To that policeman and policewoman this conference must send out a clear message that the government at every level is duty bound to provide them every kind of support--monetary material and moral. The government s resolve to reform the internal security apparatus of the country was apparent in the Minister s statement. Internal Security Management India s internal security remains a major area of concern. Internal security management has been an important component of India s national security management ever since India became independent in 1947. The Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of India handles India s internal security management mechanism. In the formative years after independence India focussed its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order communal peace and harmony crime control and counter-insurgency which was mainly confined to the Northeast in the early years. But in the past five decades or so besides the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast the focus is also on the extinguished insurgency in Punjab the dissidence and proxy war in Jammu & Kashmir and the burgeoning Naxalite violence which started as a peasant uprising in West Bengal in the late 1960s and has now spread to 20 of India s 29 states with seven states being severely GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 1Homeland Security India s WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m S P E C I A L F O C U S India s Internal Security Measures In view of the repeated terror attacks on the Indian soil and the disjointed actions by the state government and the police following attacks in Mumbai and the public outcry thereafter the government was forced to speedily undertake a number of internal security reviews and adopt measures which could either pre-empt future terror attacks or at least improve the crises management after such attacks occur LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook I 309 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ndia s internal security remains a major concern. In the years following our independence the Indian government focussed its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order communal peace and harmony crime control and counter-insurgency which was mainly confined to the Northeast in the early years. However in the past five decades or so the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast the extinguished insurgency in Punjab the dissidence and proxy war in Jammu & Kashmir the burgeoning Naxalite violence which is currently affecting 20 states (223 districts) of the Indian Union the jehadi terrorism unleashed by our unscrupulous western neighbour poor governance in most states all put together have become serious enough to destabilise the Indian state if allowed to grow unchecked. This realisation seemed to have dawned on a sluggish UPA government after the November 26 2008 terror attacks in Mumbai. In the days following the attacks people came out on the streets though peacefully to protest the inaction on part of the government in facing growing internal threats and challenges. Public reaction to the growing terrorist activities in India should be seen in light of the large number of incidents of terrorist attacks during the year 2008 in different parts of the country. These included the terrorist attack on a CRPF camp in Rampur serial bomb blasts in Jaipur Bengaluru Ahmedabad Delhi Tripura Imphal and Guwahati and the savage attack by terrorists who came from Pakistan via the sea route to Mumbai on November 26 2008. About 166 civilians and police security personnel were killed including 26 foreign nationals and several hundred persons were injured in the November 26 attack. As the public anger became palpable the government was forced to act speedily. India s Home Minister and the Chief Minister of Maharashtra became the first two political casualties. A spate of reforms which were already in the pipeline were announced by the new Home Minister. Meanwhile the perception was growing stronger that India s external and internal security was getting inextricably linked especially on its western borders. A large number of India s internal security problems are connected to Jehadi groups based in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. Pakistan s intelligence agencies and the military are funding training and abetting terror in India and these linkages now stand fully exposed. However despite a restrained but tough stance taken initially the national leadership now seems confused regarding the way forward. If these sponsored terror activities continue unabated the likelihood of a war with Pakistan cannot be ruled out. The succeeding paragraphs give some relevant details of India s internal security reforms and the lack of it in certain areas. Maritime security has not been included as that forms a major input by itself and has to be dealt with separately. Measures to Strengthen the Internal Security Apparatus In view of the repeated terror attacks on the Indian soil and the disjointed actions by the state government and the police following the GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 2 Reforms A Spate of WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m S P E C I A L F O C U S Spreading Anywhere & Everywhere The movement which started from a small village in 1967 has spread over a vast swathe of the country during the last over 40 years. Thirteen states of the country are particularly affected. These include Andhra Pradesh Bihar Chhattisgarh Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Kerala Karnataka Haryana and Tamil Nadu. PRAKASH SINGH 321 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he Naxal movement which erupted violently in the country in 1967 has passed through three distinct phases. The first phase witnessed the formation of the CPI(ML) and its rapid spread over different parts of the country. Expand anywhere and everywhere was Charu Mazumdar s message. This phase ended with the death of Charu Mazumdar and was followed by ideological differences within the party leading to fragmentation of the movement. The second phase began with the formation of the People s War Group in Andhra Pradesh in 1980 under the leadership of Kondapalli Seetharamaiah. The movement with the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh as its epicentre spread over the neighbouring states. This phase also tapered off with the state government mounting well coordinated counter-insurgency operations against the Naxals. The third phase started at the beginning of the 21st century. Its highlight has been the increasing militarisation of the movement with the Naxals establishing their presence over vast swathes of territory. The Ninth Congress of the People s War Group held in 2007 reaffirmed the general line of New Democratic Revolution with agrarian revolution as its axis and protracted people s war as the path of the Indian revolution and resolved to advance the people s war throughout the country further strengthen the people s army deepen the mass base of the party and wage a broad-based militant mass movement against the Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook T Main Features The Prime Minister has described Naxalite movement as the single biggest threat to the internal security of the country. The movement which started from a small village in 1967 has spread over a vast swathe of the country during the last over 40 years. Thirteen states of the country are particularly affected. These include Andhra Pradesh Bihar Chhattisgarh Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Kerala Karnataka Haryana and Tamil Nadu. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO neo-liberal policies of globalisation liberalisation privatisation . Naxal influence has since spread over a huge geographical area. According to the Home Minister s own statement various Naxal groups have pockets of influence in 20 states across the country and over 2 000 police station areas in 223 districts of these states are partially or substantially affected by the menace. He further revealed that the party s politbureau had decided to expand its activities into newer areas on the one hand and intensify its mass resistance in the existing areas on the other. No wonder Naxal violence has been on a high trajectory. There have been significant violent incidents in about 90 districts of 13 states. In 2008 there were a total of 1 591 incidents of Naxal violence resulting in 721 killings. In 2009 there have already been (till August 27) 1 405 incidents of Naxal violence resulting in the death of 580 persons. Casualties among security forces personnel have been quite high. Altogether 231 security forces personnel lost their lives in Naxal violence in 2008 while 270 personnel have already lost their lives this year so far. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 4 Rage WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Naxalite CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m S P E C I A L F O C U S http Plagued with Insurgency The NE has been plagued with insurgency for the past five decades. It started with Naga rebellion signaled by declaration of independence on August 14 1947 and commencement of violence in 1955. Today insurgency is festering in Assam Manipur Tripura and Southern ALP a ceasefire is operative in Nagaland. LT GENERAL (RETD) ARVIND SHARMA 323 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he Northeastern (NE) region of India comprises the states of Assam Arunachal Pradesh (ALP) Meghalaya Nagaland Manipur Mizoram Tripura and Sikkim. Five neighbouring countries viz Nepal Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) of China Bhutan Bangladesh and Myanmar have borders contiguous to these states. Nepal Bhutan and Bangladesh also border West Bengal but the latter is not part of the NE region. China has created massive infrastructure in TAR over the past two decades ostensibly for development of the region. The infrastructure has been tailored to cater to the long-term strategic requirements of China this would give it the capability to exercise the military option. Though today Myanmar and Bangladesh do not pose a threat to India but in a given scenario they can provide collusive support to China. The NE region has abundance of natural resources and is connected to the rest of the country only through the narrow Silliguri corridor it is the bridge to Southeast Asia and our Look East policy for economic cooperation. The NE has been plagued with insurgency for the past five decades. Naga rebellion was signaled by declaration of independence on August 14 1947 and commencement of violence in 1955. The resultant of the rat famine of 1959 an insurgent movement had started in Mizoram but was successfully dealt with by mid-1980s. Insurgency took roots in Manipur in 1964 whereas the Anti Foreigners Agitation in Assam resulted in forma- Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook T External Threat China China had initiated its four modernisations in the late 1970s plans for military modernisation have been successfully implemented. It has also commenced developing blue water capability for its navy. Aiming to achieve global power status by 2050 China has been able to achieve more than 9 per cent annual growth in its GDP notwithstanding the GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO tion of United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) in 1979. Today insurgency is festering in Assam Manipur Tripura and Southern ALP a ceasefire (CF) is operative in Nagaland. A few insignificant insurgent groups exist in Meghalaya but the state has a law and order problem of ethnic variety. Sikkim though a peaceful state has adversarial sleeper cells to its South and a host of problems on its periphery viz. Gorkhaland Bhupali refugees Kamtapur insurgents and a transient democracy in Nepal which can be a potential source of trouble it is thus emerging as an area of concern. Illegal migration into the NE region from Bangladesh continues. Over a period of time it has manifested in various forms providing an opportunity to forces inimical to national security to execute their diabolical plans in the region. NE region thus has immense geo-strategic significance. The challenges to India s security in the NE region are therefore myriad and complex. To meet these challenges it is imperative to have a comprehensive strategy and a policy for tackling problems in each state both external and internal. Besides it requires in-depth knowledge great deliberation well crafted solutions deft implementation and necessary political will to overcome these challenges. It is intended to briefly cover various maladies that are afflicting the region and suggesting solutions to them. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 5 Northeast WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Challenges in the CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m S P E C I A L F O C U S http warbirds warships Challenges Faced in India s Littoral Border Management of coastline including the maritime zone is by itself a formidable task and it becomes even more complex and challenging if the template of terrorism and piracy is superimposed upon it LT GENERAL (RETD) NARESH CHAND Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook I including the maritime zone is by itself a formidable task and it becomes even more complex and challenging if the template of terrorism and piracy is superimposed upon it. 327 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ndia has 15 106 km of land border running through 92 districts in 17 states and a coastline of 7 516 km touching 13 states and Union Territories. The country has 1 197 islands spreading over 2 094 km additional border or coastline. The Ministry of Home Affairs Department of Border Management has a Border Area Development Programme started during the Seventh Five-Year Plan with the twin objective of balanced development of sensitive border areas in the western region through adequate provision of infrastructure facilities and promoting a sense of security amongst the local population. The programme was revamped in the Eighth Five Year Plan and extended to states which have an international border with Bangladesh. The land borders have been continuously under focus due to the hostile attitude of certain neighbouring countries. However the same is not true in the coastal areas. There are some disputed areas in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) but apart from this there are routine problems of smuggling and illegal fishing. Division of responsibility amongst effected agencies is that the Coast Guard functions between 12 and 200 nautical miles (about 20 km to 370 km) which is the EEZ while the marine police keeps a watch inside the 12 nautical miles of territorial waters and the Navy beyond 200 nautical miles of blue water. There is continuous movement of all types of vessels for trade fishing military policing sports and so on. It is understood that on each of the coast of India there are 1 50 000 small fishing boats with no modern means of navigation and communication. Management of such a coastline Post-Kargil The events of 26 11 resulted in deep introspection by the government of India resulting in the setting up of committees to recommend the future course of action so that such an event is not repeated on the Indian soil. Similar brave words and promises have been made earlier also and in fact after every terrorist strike terrorists have still struck at will. Immediately after the Kargil War the Group of Ministers (GoM) working under L.K. Advani made recommendations in the form of a public document Reforming the National Security System in February 2001. Even after eight years its recommendations on coastal security seem to be up to date. The brief details of the recommendations are While the Jammu & Kashmir border is still active Rajasthan Gujarat Maharashtra and the West coast of the country are also being used for the purpose of smuggling arms. The smugglers have acquired high-powered speed boats which can land at uncharted beaches and creeks. The concept of border security has undergone a sea change with the growing vulnerability of the coastline as well as the airspace. In response to strengthening of security along a sensitive land border the transgressor is already on the lookout for soft gaps...along the coast and if need be from the air. Little has been done over the years to understand or even take action in creating an infrastructure for the protection of India s vast coastal areas. The GoM felt that it was desirable to set up a Specialised Marine Police GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 6 Management Coastal WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS section five uuuuuu uuu u u Contents Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Cambodia China Egypt Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Libya 329 329 329 330 330 330 330 330 331 331 331 331 331 332 332 332 332 332 332 333 Malaysia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen 333 333 333 333 333 334 334 334 334 335 335 335 335 335 336 336 336 336 336 336 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Asian Who s Who CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 5 CONTENTS Pub Issartel Industrie 2010_Format 226 x 180 08 06 10 15 26 Page1 The specialist in highly demanding COMPLEX SYSTEMS MECHANICS MACHINING & CONTRACT MANAGEMENT YOU IMAGINE... WE MACHINE Over the last half century we have been present in machining of high technology mechanical hydraulic and pneumatic parts. Technical mastery of complex shaped super alloys is one of our particular strengths. Contract management Thanks to our technical support and human skills we manage manufacturing of complex assemblies globally endorsing technical liability and providing perfect quality up to completion. Machining Inconel Hastelloy Monel Titanium Bases Cobalt bases Cupro-aluminum Cupro-nickel Aluminum alloys All stainless steel grades and Super alloys Duplex. ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE Z.I Buisson BP 40020 42230 Roche-La-Moli re - FRANCE T l. 33 (0)4 77 57 08 21 FAX 33 (0) 4 77 57 13 73 www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m Compiled by SP Guide Publications Team As on March 31 2010 AFGHANISTAN President Hamid Karzai Vice Presidents Mohammad Qasim Fahim Khan and Abdul Karim Khalili Defence Minister General (Retd) Abdul Rahim Wardak Foreign Minister Dr Zalmai Rassoul Chief of General Staff Afghan National Army General Bismillah Mohammadi Khan Commander Afghan National Army Air Corps Major General Mohammad Dawran Ministry of Defence Kabul Afghanistan Tel 93 202300331 93 700275707 ALGERIA President Abdel-aziz Bouteflika Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia Chief of General Staff General Salah Ahmed Gaid Commander of the Army General Ahcene Tafer Commander of the Navy General Mohand Tahar Yala Commander of the Gendarmerie General Ahmed Bousteila Ministry of Defence Avenue des Tagarins Algiers Algeria Tel 213 2611515 National People s Army Headquarters C o Ministry of National Defence Avenue Ali Khoudja Algiers Algeria Tel 213 2634176 213 2631765 213 2611515 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook AUSTRALIA Head of State Queen Elizabeth II (Since January 6 1952) 329 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Governor General Quentin Bryce Prime Minister Kevin Rudd Defence Minister John Phillip Faulkner Secretary to the Department of Defence Dr Ian J Watt Chief of the Defence Forces Air Chief Marshal Allan Grant (Angus) Houston Chief of Army Lt General Ken Gillespie Chief of Navy Vice Admiral Russ Crane Chief of Air Force Air Marshal Mark Binskin Chief Joint Operations Lt General Mark Evans Department of Defence Russel Offices Suite MF149 Parliament House Canberra ACT 2600 Australia Tel 61 2626 59111 Fax 61 26273 4118 Army Headquarters GPO Box 393 Melborne VIC 3001 Australia Tel 61 392825393 Fax 61 392825434 Navy Headquarters Queanbeyan Annex 2 Department of Defence Canberra ACT 2600 Australia Tel 61 262665962 Fax 61 262665851 Air Headquarters Queanbeyan Annex 2 Department of Defence Canberra ACT 2600 Australia Tel 61 262665965 Fax 61 262665851 GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Asian Defence Forces WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Who s Who in CONTENTS section six uuuuuu uuu u u Contents One Two Three Four Five Six GDP & Military Expenditure Central & South Asia East Asia Pacific Rim & Australia West Asia and North Africa Asia-Pacific China Rising Equipment & Hardware Specifications 337 341 365 401 435 441 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Regional Balance CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 6 CONTENTS EJ200 BENCHMARK FOR EXCELLENCE By applying world-leading technology to our customers needs EUROJET is able to o er the very best in engine production. The EJ200 engine has an unprecedented performance record combined with multi-role capability highest availability and low life-cycle costs. EJ200 the engine of choice for single or twin applications. www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m 1 Sr No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Country Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China Egypt India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan GDP & Military Expenditure GDP Current Prices ( Billion) 16.968 156.845 1 192.96 22.358 104.63 1.397 11.453 5 364.87 215.845 1 367.22 670.421 359.97 80.286 199.456 5 272.94 24.884 126.346 991.147 135.062 5.122 GDP based on (PPP) ( Billion) 29.549 252.927 882.422 29.301 256.037 3.785 29.635 9 711.72 496.604 3 862.01 1 027.28 858.652 120.425 214.508 4 267.50 35.279 187.697 1 435.55 140.589 12.746 GDP current prices Per Capita ( ) 572.047 4 417.98 53 862.04 21 096.69 624.016 2 042.17 805.428 3 999.41 2 758.83 1 124.41 2 858.24 4 777.33 2 505.35 26 843.07 41 365.76 4 061.69 8 107.56 GDP based on (PPP) Per Capita ( ) 996.19 7 124.38 39 841.45 27 648.59 1 527.02 5 533.76 2 084.02 7 239.91 6 347.35 3 176.15 4 379.66 11 395.58 3 757.92 28 868.80 33 478.14 5 758.51 12 044.47 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 337 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 20 264.85 37 451.21 940.891 29 350.94 38 983.73 2 341.22 ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY GDP Total Per Capita Based on Current Prices Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m 2 C Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook 341 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE entral and South Asia together account for about one-quarter of the world s population. Both the regions have countries that are mostly underdeveloped and poor. Central Asia lies at the crossroad of Europe and Asia and together with South Asia constitutes one of the most unstable regions of the 21st century. It encompasses the world s largest landmass (3 995 800 sq km) and has vast natural resources including significant reserves of oil and gas. Historically it has acted as a crossroad for the movement of people goods and ideas between Europe Western Asia South Asia and East Asia. On the other hand South Asia is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East. Further India s economic growth and dynamism has made South Asia an attractive destination for foreign investment. Despite the global economic meltdown India s GDP is expected to grow at the rate of 7 per cent and more from 2010 onwards. Central Asia is a region that comprises the five states that belonged to the erstwhile Soviet Union Kazakhstan Kyrgyztan Tajikistan Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It is a region that once used to be called the Centre of the world . Given its abundant energy resources and by virtue of its geographical location it has consistently been in the limelight. In the 19th century it was the theatre of the classic great game which was played out between the Russian and the British empires. Later it became a prized possession of the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the independence of the Central Asian states. The 9 11 events brought further global attention to this region reiterating its geostrategic relevance. Along with this the presence of hydrocarbons has again made this region important. The key players in this region are the US Russia and China. Central Asia is also referred to as the backyard of Russia and China . It has emerged as the focal point of rivalry between the US on one side and Moscow and Beijing on the other side. Post -9 11 Central Asia also emerged as the epicentre of geo-political changes on a global scale. The US became the main economic donor and assumed security responsibility enabling it to establish military presence in the region and set up military bases in four out of the five Central Asian states. Due to intensely competitive ties among countries of the region as well as the key players namely the US Russia and China the American presence now has greatly reduced. It is interesting to note that while each major player tries to accomplish its national interests through their grand strategies the countries of Central Asia are using their own strategies to balance the relationships which seem threatening. Three different strategies have been employed to balance out the major players including strategic partnership non-alignment and a multi-vectored approach . The key to what became known as Kazakhstan s multi-vectored approach is to build strategic partnerships with all three powers. Today this policy has eroded somewhat under pressure from Russia s Eurasec Gazprom and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) but it nonetheless remains in place. Kazakhstan s successful campaign to gain the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) presidency is evidence of a more recent effort to engage Europeans as a fourth element in the balance. The major attraction for key players as also India Japan and the European Union is the vast energy reserves of the Caspian basin. Russia which already enjoys military presence in the region has in conjunction with China sought to counterbalance Washington s influence in the region through the SCO. Russia is also further increasing its troop deployment in the region. The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9 11. Today international terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Additionally Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) continues to foment terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989 and now Pakistan-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India bedevilling relationship between the two countries. The current impasse in their relationship is the result of Mumbai terrorist attacks on November 26 2008 which emanated from Pakistan. The new political dispensation of coalition politics in Pakistan has not stabilised while the growth of Al-Qaeda and Taliban in the western provinces of Pakistan adjacent to Afghanistan namely Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Baluchistan has further complicated the governance by the newly formed government. The war in Afghanistan commenced on October 7 2001 and marked the beginning of the US-led war on international terrorism in the wake of the 9 11 attacks. The purpose of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) was to capture Osama bin Laden destroy the Al-Qaeda and dethrone the Taliban regime. While the operation achieved most of its stated objectives it has failed to establish stability in Afghanistan due to increased warlord activity and the resurgence of the Taliban activity in Afghanistan. Today NATO and the American commanders have to contend with two Taliban forces the Afghan Taliban and the Pakistani ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Central & South Asia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m REGIONAL BALANCE Taliban s Tehrik-e-Taliban (TTP). The group contains members from all of FATA s seven tribal agencies as well as several districts of the NWFP including Swat Bannu Tank Lakki Marwat Dera Ismail Khan Kohistan Buner and Malakand. Current estimates place the total number of operatives between 30 000 and 35 000. The TTP was earlier commanded by Baitullah Mehsud. In August 2009 a missile strike from a US drone reportedly killed Baitullah and Hakimullah Mehsud has been selected as the new leader. TTP is known to provide assistance and fighters to the Afghan Taliban and is also suspected to have caused the assassination of Benazir Bhutto. In early January 2009 Mullah Omar sent a delegation led by former Guantanamo Bay detainee Mullah Abdullah Zakir to persuade leading members of the TTP to put aside differences and aid the Afghan Taliban in combating the American presence in Afghanistan. Baitullah Mehsud the former leader Hafiz Gul Bahadur and Maulavi Nazir agreed in February and formed the Shura Ittehadul Mujahideen (SIM) meaning Council of United Mujahedeen. In a written statement circulated in a one-page pamphlet written in Urdu the three affirmed that they would put aside differences to fight American-led forces. The statement included a declaration of allegiance to both Mullah Omar and Osama bin Laden. The Pakistani government has already stepped up operations against TTP and the US pressure is on Pakistan to keep up the fight. Top representatives of the US government are persuading Pakistan to continue confronting the insurgents within the Pakistan border. On August 10 2009 Stanley McChrystal the newly appointed US Commander in Afghanistan said that the Taliban has gained the upper hand and that the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) is not winning in the eight-year-old war. Calling the Taliban a very aggressive enemy he added that the US strategy in months to come is to stop their momentum and focus on protecting and safeguarding Afghan civilians. ISAF is the name of the NATO-led security and the development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on December 20 2001. As of January 2009 its troops number around 55 100 from 26 NATO 10 partner and two non-NATO non-partner countries including contributions from Canada the United States the United Kingdom Italy France Germany the Netherlands Belgium Spain Poland and most members of the European Union and NATO besides also including Australia New Zealand Azerbaijan Turkey and Singapore. With the US UK and Canada sustaining substantial casualties in intensive combat operations the intensity of the combat faced by contributing nations varies greatly. The South Asian scene has been marred by hostility between nuclear-armed India and Pakistan and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is battling terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir in its north eastern states and intermittently in the rest of the country. Naxalite violence which has affected 20 states of the Indian Union is becoming more and more virulent virtually overwhelming state authority in certain places. In neighbouring Nepal the fall of the Maoist-led government in May 2009 over the sensitive question of CENTRAL & SOUTH ASIA the integration of the Maoist cadres into the Nepalese army and civilmilitary relations has brought about political instability in the country. This situation is likely to continue even though a new government led by UML has been installed. In Sri Lanka with the defeat of LTTE and the demise of Prabhakaran a new chapter has opened. Rehabilitation of the Tamil population will provide long-term peace to this war-torn country. In Bangladesh the massive mandate for change given to the Awami League by the voters presents an opportunity for India and Bangladesh to work towards a better relationship which had stagnated during the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP)-led government. Pakistan having earlier encouraged trained and funded terrorist groups including the Taliban is now plagued by terrorism insurgency and sectarian violence within its territory. Pakistan is passing through an unprecedented political economic and social crisis. The Islamic radical elements pose a threat to stability in Pakistan. Both India and Pakistan face the challenge of dealing with an increasingly Talibanised Pakistan where the institutions of governance and particularly the army are coming under the sway of Taliban ideology. The military operations launched by the Pakistan army in FATA and NWFP under the US pressure have created long-term problems. Nearly two million people have been displaced. Fears have been expressed that indiscriminate use of force by the Pakistani army could trigger civil war in Pakistan. Pakistan remains ambivalent on dealing with militant groups in PoK and particularly the LeT. It has not taken any credible action against the terrorists who perpetrated the Mumbai attacks on November 26 2008. Internal instability of the member states and growing terrorism in the region is a threat to the stability of the region. In this regard the SAARC Council of Ministers meeting in Colombo on February 27-28. 2009 renewed their commitment to strengthen comprehensive cooperation among SAARC member states to combat and eliminate all forms and manifestations of terrorism and affirmed the need to further the legal regime and institute pragmatic cooperation to address the issue effectively. Details pertaining to the countries of the region have been given in the following sequence Central & South Asia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka 342 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m CENTRAL & SOUTH ASIA REGIONAL BALANCE Central & South Asia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 343 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m REGIONAL BALANCE KAZAKHSTAN CENTRAL & SOUTH ASIA KAZAKHSTAN General Information The growth slowed to 2.4 per cent in 2008 however as a result of declining oil prices and a softening world economy. Inflation reached 10 per cent in 2007 and 17 per cent in 2008. In the energy sector the opening of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium in 2001 from western Kazakhstan s Tengiz oilfield to the Black Sea substantially raised export capacity. In 2006 Kazakhstan completed the Atasu-Alashankou portion of an oil pipeline to China that is planned to be extended from the country s Caspian coast eastward to the Chinese border. The country has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector by developing its manufacturing potential. The policy changed the corporate tax code to favour domestic industry as a means to reduce the influence of foreign investment and foreign personnel. The government has engaged in several disputes with foreign oil companies over the terms of production agreements most recently with regard to the Kashagan project in 2007-08. Since 2007 Astana has provided financial support to the banking sector which has been struggling with poor asset quality and large foreign loans. Defence Total Armed Forces Active 49 000 (army 30 000 air 12 000) Terms of Services 24 months Paramilitary forces Presidential Guard 2 000 Internal Security Troops 20 000 State Border Protection Force 9 000 Government Guard 500 Security Environment Kazakhstan has stable relationships with all of its neighbours. Kazakhstan is also a member of the United Nations Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). It is an active participant in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) Partnership for Peace programme. Kazakhstan is also a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States the Economic Cooperation Organization and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). Although Kazakhstan is comparatively safer than other countries in Central Asia supporters of extremist groups such as the Islamic Jihad Union the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Al-Qaeda and the Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement remain active across Central Asia. These groups have expressed anti-US sentiments and may attempt to target US government or private interests in the region including in Kazakhstan. Attacks against foreign interests in Central Asia have occurred and new tactics including the use of suicide bombers have been employed by extremists in neighbouring Uzbekistan. Terrorists do not distinguish between official and civilian targets. Because of increased security at official US facilities terrorists are also targeting soft civilian targets such as residential areas clubs and restaurants places of worship hotels schools outdoor recreation events resorts beaches maritime facilities and aircraft. International disputes Kyrgyzstan is yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan field demarcation of the boundaries with Turkmenistan commenced in 2005 and with Uzbekistan in 2004 demarcation is scheduled to get under way with Russia demarcation with China was completed in 2002 creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion equidistant seabed treaties have been ratified with Azerbaijan and Russia in the Caspian Sea. But no resolution has been made on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states ARMY Strength Area Capital Population Ethnic Divisions Religions Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions 2 724 900 sq km Astana 15 399 437 (July 2009 est.) Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4 per cent Russian 30 per cent Ukrainian 3.7 per cent Uzbek 2.5 per cent German 2.4 per cent Tatar 1.7 per cent Uygur 1.4 per cent other 4.9 per cent (1999 census) Muslim 47 per cent Russian Orthodox 44 per cent Protestant 2 per cent others 7 per cent Kazakh (Qazaq state language) 64.4 per cent Russian (official used in everyday business designated the language of inter-ethnic communication ) 95 per cent (2001 est.) 99.5 per cent Republic authoritarian presidential rule with little power outside the executive branch 18 years of age universal 14 provinces and three cities Overview of the Economy Kazakhstan the largest of the former Soviet republics in territory excluding Russia possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. Kazakhstan s industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources. Kazakhstan enjoyed double digit growth in 2000-01 and 8 per cent or more per year in 2002-07 per cent--thanks largely to its booming energy sector and also to economic reform good harvests and increased foreign investment. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 30 000 344 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m 365 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ast Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia though not strictly a part of the region has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important powers in the region are the United States China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness is also aware that the latter s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan its historical antagonist. Four major issues continue to impact the security environment in East Asia China-Japan relations North Korea Taiwan and international terrorism. Japan s long chain of invasions and war crimes in China between 1894 and 1945 as well as modern Japan s attitude towards its past are major issues affecting the current and future Sino-Japanese relations. Sino-Japanese relations had worsened because of the repeated visits to the Yasukuni Shrine by former Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi. One consequence was a complete freeze in mutual visits at the highest political levels between 2001 and 2006. Even exchanges at other levels were affected. The ice was broken in 2006 when Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited China and the ice began to thaw when Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited Japan in 2007. These two Prime Ministerial visits set the stage for President Hu Jintao s warm-spring visit to Japan between May 6 and 11 2008. On August 30 2009 after fifty-four years of essentially one-party rule the Japanese people voted overwhelmingly to usher in a completely new government and a new way of thinking. The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) which ruled Japan since 1955 was completely rejected. Obtaining only 119 out of 480 seats of the House of Representatives (the lower Diet) the LDP took a second seat to the younger and fresher Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ). The DPJ won 308 seats in the House ensuring that their leader Yukio Hatoyama would become Prime Minister. The DPJ s victory guarantees that much change will come to Japan. In the first few weeks of tenure Prime Minister Hatoyama called for the complete transformation of the traditional government-bureaucracy relationship the need to rework Japan s economic recovery plan and has called for a review of the US troops stationed in Japan. The US has continued to express concern over the growth of China s influence and military power in the Asia-Pacific region. In its annual report to the Congress in 2009 the US Department of Defense note The pace E 3 and scope of China s military transformation has increased in recent years fuelled by acquisition of advanced foreign weapons continued high rates of investment in its domestic defence and science and technology industries and far reaching organisational and doctrinal reforms of the armed forces. China s ability to sustain military power at a distance remains limited but its armed forces continue to develop and field disruptive military technologies including those for anti-access area denial as well as for nuclear space and cyber warfare that are changing regional military balances and that have implications beyond the Asia-Pacific region. Tensions between North Korea and the US resurfaced during 2008 due to disagreements over the six-party talks over the disarmament process. The talks began to break down after the US insisted on more intrusive verification measures than North Korea was prepared to accept. On October 8 2008 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors were forbidden by the North Korean government to conduct further inspections of the site. But two days later the US removed North Korea from the US State Sponsors of Terrorism list and the Yongbyon deactivation process was expected to resume. On April 25 2009 however the North Korean government announced that the country s nuclear facilities had been re-activated and spent fuel reprocessing for arms-grade plutonium has been restored. On May 25 2009 North Korea confirmed to have performed a second successful underground nuclear test. The same day a successful short range missile test was also conducted. The confirmation came little more than an hour after the US Geological Survey reported a magnitude 4.7 seismic disturbance on the proximity of the site of North Korea s first nuclear test conducted in October 2006. This was confirmed by other agencies such as the International Data Center of the Comprehensive Nuclear-TestBan Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) and the Japanese Meteorological Center. Thereafter North Korea began insisting on bilateral discussions with the US which were not accepted by the latter and North Korea was asked to join the six party talks on denuclearising Korean Peninsula which they had quit in April 2008. The US spokesman said that in future they would be guided by what North Korea does not by what North Korea says. US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton while welcoming North Korea s return to the talks said that any improvement of relations would depend on credible actions by the North Koreans. No normalisation of ties was possible with a nuclear North Korea she said. Taiwan poses another threat to peace in East Asia. Unification of Taiwan with the mainland is central to China s thinking and it has not ruled out the use of force. Most Taiwanese however continue to remain opposed to the Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES East Asia Pacific Rim & Australia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m REGIONAL BALANCE idea of merger and occasional statements from their leaders emphasising the island s independent identity further aggravate tensions. The US does not support Taiwanese independence but is committed to supplying arms for its defence. The US has also promised Taiwan aid if China resorts to the use of force. The current President of Taiwan Ma Ying-jeou remains committed to maintaining Taiwan s status quo and the cross-strait policy of letting its people decide the country s future. The president like the majority of the nation supports the idea of no unification no independence no military conflict in order to maintain Taiwan s status quo. Terrorism continues to rear its head in parts of Southeast Asia as seen from the challenges faced in 2008. Indonesia has cracked down on the terrorist modules while Philippine has launched major operations against insurgents in the southern island of Mindanao. The Mindanao Model-- using classic counter-insurgency techniques to achieve counter-terror goals--has been directed against the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) and has helped force its fighters out of their traditional stronghold on Basilan. But it runs the risk of pushing them into the arms of the broader insurgencies in Mindanao the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). Analysts are of the opinion that the US and the Philippines need to revive mechanisms to keep these conflicts apart and refocus energies on peace processes with these groups. The Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) Indonesia s most prominent extremist organisation has developed a profitable publishing consortium in and around the pesantren (religious school) founded by Abu Bakar Ba asyir and Abdullah Sungkar in Solo. The consortium has become an important vehicle for the dissemination of jihadi thought getting cheap and attractively printed books into mosques bookstores and discussion groups. The publishing venture demonstrates JI s resilience and the extent to which radical ideology has developed roots in Indonesia. On July 17 2009 Jemaah Islamiah was blamed for attacks on the Ritz Carlton Jakarta and the J.W. Marriott hotels in Jakarta. On September 17 2009 Noordin Top was killed in a raid by Indonesian police in Solo Central Java. Top was a recruiter bombmaker and explosives expert for Jemaah Islamiyah. However later on his colleagues in Jemaah Islamiah claimed that Noordin had formed his own splinter cell which was even more violent and militant. He was for a while dubbed the most wanted Islamic militant in Southeast Asia. Indonesia s efforts of counter-terrorism have won international praise and in May 2008 the US government lifted the longstanding travel warning on Indonesia. Myanmar witnessed the violent crushing of protests led by Buddhist monks in late 2007 which has caused even allies of the military government to recognise that change is desperately needed. China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have thrown their support behind the efforts by the UN Secretary-General s special envoy to re-open talks on national reconciliation while the US and others have stepped up their sanctions. But neither incomplete punitive measures nor intermittent talks are likely to bring about major reforms. Myanmar requires a more sustainable process of national reconciliation. The balance of power is still heavily weighted in favour of the army whose top leaders continue to insist that only a strongly centralised military-led state can hold the country together. Myanmar will still face immense challenges in overcoming the debilitating legacy of decades of conflict poverty and institutional failure which fuelled the recent crisis and could well overwhelm future governments as well. Thailand has been rocked by political turmoil since the September 2006 coup against Thaksin Shinawatra who now lives in exile to avoid a jail term for corruption. The kingdom remains deeply divided between his supporters concentrated in rural areas and his foes in the Bangkokbased power cliques of the palace military and bureaucracy. In September 2009 the Internal Security Act was also imposed when at least 26 000 Red Shirts (Thaksin supporters) took to the streets of Bangkok to mark the coup s third anniversary demanding new elections and the resignation of EAST ASIA PACIFIC RIM & AUSTRALIA the current Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva. Since January 2004 there has been heightened tension in four southern provinces namely Yala Pattani Narathiwat and Songkhla where there continues to be violent incidents. More than 3 400 people have reportedly been killed and many more injured including foreigners. Over the past few years there have been several instances of multiple explosions occurring across a range of locations in southern Thailand over one or two days. ASEAN does not have a military dimension it mainly focuses on economic social and cultural aspects. The economic growth of ASEAN countries is however directly linked to the region s law and order situation. In view of the security environment in East Asia it has formed the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) bringing all the major powers into it as dialogue partners. In all there are 24 dialogue partners including the US Russia China Japan India and the EU. Pakistan is the latest entrant. The charter of ASEAN may also be amended in the future to lay greater stress on security including terrorism. In pursuance of its declared global war on terror the US has signed an anti-terror declaration with ASEAN. The document does not make any specific provision for deployment of the US troops but leaves it as a choice for individual countries. India s relations with its extended neighbourhood have received a fillip with the formulation of its Look East policy in early 1990s. Forging comprehensive and mutually beneficial bonds with Southeast Asia has been the cornerstone of this policy. Today this region comprises the most dynamic and progressive economies and its close interaction with India is amply reflected in the free trade agreement that took nearly six years of talks to finalise. This will create a new free trade area of 1.7 billion people and cover 11 countries India and the ten ASEAN states with a combined Gross Domestic Product of 2.3 trillion as of now. The conclusion of negotiations on the trade-in-goods agreement was announced here on August 28 2009 following the latest annual ASEAN-India consultations among economic ministers. The fine text will now be firmed up and the target timeline for signature was during the ASEAN-India summit in Bangkok in December 2009. The dispute over the ownership of Paracel and Spratly Islands to which a number of countries in the region are a party is continuing but it is unlikely to flare up into an open conflict. China has astutely cultivated the grouping by signing ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Cooperation and telling ASEAN that China would like to be the first nuclear power to sign the South East Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty provided some parts of protocol were amended. In July 2005 ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (FTA) took effect with both sides exempting 7 000 commodities from tax and deciding to exempt all commodities by 2010. Details pertaining to economic review security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region have been given in the following sequence Australia Cambodia China Indonesia Japan North Korea South Korea Laos Malaysia Myanmar The Philippines Singapore Taiwan Thailand Vietnam 366 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m EAST ASIA PACIFIC RIM & AUSTRALIA REGIONAL BALANCE East Asia Pacific Rim & Australia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 367 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m REGIONAL BALANCE AUSTRALIA EAST ASIA PACIFIC RIM & AUSTRALIA AUSTRALIA General Information Overview of the Economy Australia has an enviable strong economy with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies. Emphasis on reforms low inflation a housing market boom and growing ties with China have been key factors over the course of the economy s 17 solid years of expansion. Robust business and consumer confidence and high export prices for raw materials and agricultural products fuelled the economy in recent years and particularly in mining states. Drought robust import demand and a strong currency pushed the trade deficit up however while infrastructure bottlenecks and a tight labour market constrained growth in export volumes and stoked inflation through mid-2008. The unwinding of the yen-based carry trade in late 2008 has contributed to a weakening of the Australian dollar. Tight global liquidity has challenged Australia s banking sector which relies heavily on international wholesale markets for funding. The economy remains relatively healthy despite falling export commodity prices. The government plans to counter slowing growth in 2009 with fiscal stimulus efforts. Defence Total Armed Forces Res Foreign Forces Active 54 747 (Army 27 461 Navy 13 230 Air 14 056 ) 19 915 (Army 15 315 Navy 2 000 Air 2 600 ) US Army-27 US Navy-24 USAF-62 USMC-16 New Zealand Air Force--9 Singapore Air--230 Area Capital Coastline Territorial sea Contiguous zone Exclusive economic zone Continental shelf Population Ethnic Divisions Religions 7 741 220 sq km Canberra 25 760 km 12 nm 24 nm 200 nm 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin 21 262 641 (July 2009 est.) White 92 per cent Asian 7 per cent aboriginal and other 1 per cent Catholic 25.8 per cent Anglican 18.7 per cent Uniting Church 5.7 per cent Presbyterian and Reformed 3 per cent Eastern Orthodox 2.7 per cent other Christian 7.9 per cent Buddhist 2.1 per cent Muslim 1.7 per cent other 2.4 per cent unspecified 11.3 per cent none 18.7 per cent (2006 census) English 78.5 per cent Chinese 2.5 per cent Italian 1.6 per cent Greek 1.3 per cent Arabic 1.2 per cent Vietnamese 1 per cent other 8.2 per cent unspecified 5.7 per cent (2006 census) 99 per cent Federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Universal and compulsory over age of 18 Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions Six states two territories Security Environment Terrorism the primary security threat to Australia escalated in the wake of the country s military involvement in Iraq. Closely identified with the US and fully supportive of its war against terror Australia has become a target for overseas-based Islamic militant terrorist groups like the AlQaeda and Indonesia-based Jemaah Islamiya. Paul O Sullivan Director General Australian Security Intelligence office while speaking at the ECU Joondalup Campus in November 2008 said Australia continues to face threats to our security from terrorism espionage and foreign interference. Terrorism by violent jihadists is a significant and immediate threat to Australia and Australian interests. The picture is complicated and continues to evolve. From a global perspective counter-terrorism efforts remain focused on disrupting tightly-knit disciplined groups and networks engaged in violent antiWestern jihad. Al-Qaeda is the vanguard of this movement of violent jihadists and its core leadership group who are operating from a stronghold in the tribal areas of Pakistan retains the capacity and the determination to carry out and sponsor mass-casualty attacks against Western and international targets. As such we are greatly concerned by the deteriorating situation in South Asia and notably in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Details of the country s counter-terrorism policy response are enumerated in two government documents--Transnational Terrorism The Threat to Australia focusing on the international dimensions of the terrorism problem and Protecting Australia Against Terrorism elaborating Australia s national counter-terrorism policy and arrangements. Both the documents can be accessed on the government s national security website Australia has inked several agreements to cooperate in fighting terrorism with some of its neighbours including Indonesia Malaysia Thailand the Philippines and Fiji. With India it has come to an understanding on sharing intelligence and information on terrorist networks and for coordination between law enforcement agencies of the two countries. The Five Power Defence Agreement of which Australia is a member along with Britain Malaysia New Zealand and Singapore has GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 368 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m 4 T Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook 401 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE he term West Asia is coterminous with the Middle East which describes geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than location within Asia. Due to this perceived Eurocentrism international organisations such as the United Nations have replaced Middle East with the term Western Asia. Except for Israel a Jewish country all other states of West Asia and North Africa are Muslim countries. Ethnically most of the Muslim states are Arab and predominantly Sunni. The exceptions are Iraq which is largely dominated by Shia s and Iran which has both non-Arab and Shia populace. This region is the birthplace of three of the world s most widespread religions--Judaism Christianity and Islam. West Asia is an area of unique historical importance. Huge oil deposits which were discovered in the early 20th century have further augmented its strategic importance as the economies of a number of developed countries are critically dependent on its oil. Saudi Arabia is geographically the biggest country in West Asia. It is also the richest as it has the largest oil reserve. Iran Iraq and some of the smaller countries like Kuwait and UAE also have huge oil deposits. Politically most of the states are monarchies sheikhdoms or single party dictatorships and enjoy very little democratic freedom. The Israel-Palestine struggle the Lebanon crises Iraq war and insurgency fundamentalist Islamic militancy sectarian violence and terrorism and Iran s nuclear ambitions pose threats to peace in West Asia. The US is involved in a significant way in clearing up or resolving all of them. The Gaza crisis had worsened the security situation in West Asia. A total blockade of the Gaza Strip came about in mid-2007 when Hamas had taken control of Gaza after a battle with Fatah a few months after Hamas was elected by Palestinians in a democratic vote. Israel and much of the West sees Hamas as a militant terrorist organisation not a political party. Israel fearing lack of security from within Gaza and Egypt fearing militant spill over into Egypt imposed a blockade (that could be regarded as an act of war). As early as March 2008 international humanitarian organisations Amnesty International CARE International UK and Oxfam said the humanitarian situation in the Gaza Strip was more acute than at any time since the beginning of the Israeli occupation in 1967. They urged Israel to lift the blockade characterising it as collective punishment against the 1.5 million residents of the territory. The UN had repeatedly called for a lift of the blockade too. A total ban on exports had left the already fragile economy devastated. Unemployment had soared. The United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) provided basic food aid to about 7 50 000 people in Gaza but in the weeks preceding the Israeli operation these were suspended because the UN ran out of food as Israel closed the crossings into Gaza citing security reasons. Some reports did emerge of food and missiles being brought in through smuggling tunnels from Egypt. A weak ceasefire was negotiated in mid-2008 but the terms were never written down and it broke down. Israeli forces attacked Hamas and other militants in the West Bank prompting the militants in Gaza to fire rockets into Israel. Israeli offensive bombed numerous targets with the stated aim of taking out Hamas. Given that Gaza is a densely populated area their choice of offensive method (air strikes) was bound to result in a lot of civilian casualties. Numerous schools and UN compounds as well as other civilian infrastructure were also hit killing many children women and others. Calls for investigations of war crimes against Israel were made due to the type of weaponry used against civilians including white phosphorous the use of which is illegal in civil areas. Israel generally denied such accusations strongly and pointed to Hamas firing of rockets into Israel as a war crime. The propaganda war spread onto the web as supporters of each side attempted to use social websites as much as they could to raise their views. In the end once journalists were able to get into Gaza they found destruction on a scale far worse than they imagined. The UN warned that rebuilding Gaza would cost millions and take 3 to 5 years under normal circumstances. Humanitarian aid and rebuilding of infrastructure albeit extremely important will not be lasting without a political solution. Lebanon is one of the smallest countries in the Middle East yet it is one of the most politically contested nations in the region largely owing to its proximity to Israel. Countries such as Iran Syria and the United States have each sought to exert their influence over Lebanon where political parties have received support from Tehran and Damascus or the West. The Lebanese voted in a parliamentary election on June 7 2009 just over a year after the country s feuding political factions reached an agreement in Doha the Qatari capital on the formation of a new cabinet. Prior to that deal street battles between supporters of the Hezbollah-led March 8 movement and the West-supported March 14 parliamentary block had raised the spectre of a return to civil war --18 years after a bloody internecine conflict ended. The country is battling to rebuild after Israel launched a 34-day war in 2006 against Hezbollah. ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES West Asia and North Africa WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m REGIONAL BALANCE In September 2009 during congressional hearings Army General Ray Odierno told lawmakers about the situation in Iraq. He said that the US is speeding up its withdrawal of troops from Iraq. The top US commander in Iraq called for strategic patience during the US withdrawal and the transition of responsibilities to Iraq s security forces. He said that the combined and sustained efforts of the US and Iraqi security forces coupled with the efforts of civilian partners had reduced security incidents and attacks of all types to levels on par with the summer of 2003. He said that it was being ensured that risks were not taken where ethno-sectarian violence was able to continue for example over ArabKurd tensions and that external influences such as Al-Qaeda and Iran and others were not permitted to cause violence inside Iraq that would cause the Iraqi political system to fall. Those risks were being avoided. He added that after Iraqi elections in 2010 many more troops would be withdrawn so that by the end of the summer of 2010 there would only be 50 000 American forces in the country and all of them would be trainers instead of combat forces. Terrorism in West Asia promoted by Islamic fundamentalists is another issue which needs resolution. The terrorist attacks are targeted at western countries in general and the US and its Arab allies in particular. There are two basic causes for the fundamentalist terrorist activities. The first is what the Arabs views as unjust US support to Israel and the second the continuing US military presence in the region. The presence of US troops has enabled underground militant Islamic organisations to call for Jehad against the US and recruit youth to their cause. Moderate Arabs are of the view that terrorism will die if the Arab-Israeli problem is resolved and US troops are withdrawn from West Asia. The US on WEST ASIA AND NORTH AFRICA the other hand feels that the war against terrorism will only be won after the changes not only in the nature of the regimes but also in the political and social culture of West Asia. It has therefore been pushing for democracy in these countries the first signs of which are already visible. Egypt has now allowed more than one candidate to contest the presidential elections while Saudi Arabia has agreed to local level elections. In Kuwait women have won full political rights including the right to vote and stand for parliamentary elections. Despite the current difficulties and constraints the US has been and remains by far the most dominant player in West Asia. The reality is that for the foreseeable future no single country on its own or in conjunction with others can challenge the US presence and influence in the region. No country or coalition of countries can force the US to withdraw from the region or compel a change of the US policies in the region. It is only the US domestic political opinion that can bring about a change in the US policy. If the US loses its pivotal position in this strategically important oil rich region its global pre-eminence would be very severely compromised and its ability to keep potential challengers at bay in particular China greatly weakened. Therefore even at the risk of its policies contributing to continuing instability in the region over the next five to 10 years the US will maintain an assertive physical presence in region and support its allies. It would be prudent for other countries to bear this in mind in formulating their policies towards the region. Though low-profile India has enjoyed good relationships with countries of the region. Delhi however needs to be more proactive in nurturing its bilateral relationships in West Asia. 402 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m WEST ASIA AND NORTH AFRICA REGIONAL BALANCE West Asia & North Africa WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 403 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m REGIONAL BALANCE ALGERIA WEST ASIA AND NORTH AFRICA ALGERIA construction of infrastructure hampered by corruption and bureaucratic resistance moves ahead slowly. Defence Total Armed Forces Terms of Service Paramilitary Forces General Information Active 147 000 Res 150 000 Conscription 18 months Gendarmerie- 20 000 National Security Forces 16 000 Republican Guard 1 200 Legitimate Defence Groups est 150 000 Area Capital Coastline Population Ethnic Divisions Religions Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions 2 381 741 sq km Algiers 998 km 34 178 188 (July 2009 est.) Arab-Berbers 99 per cent European 1 per cent Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99 per cent Christian and Jewish 1 per cent Arabic (official) French Berber dialects 69.9 per cent Republic 18 years of age universal 48 provinces Overview of the Economy The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy accounting for roughly 60 per cent of budget revenues 30 per cent of GDP and over 95 per cent of export earnings. Algeria has the eighth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the fourth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 15th in the oil reserves. Sustained high oil prices in recent years have helped improve Algeria s financial and macroeconomic indicators. Algeria is running substantial trade surpluses and building up record foreign exchange reserves. Algeria has decreased its external debt to less than 5 per cent of GDP after repaying its Paris Club and London Club debt in 2006. Real GDP has risen due to higher oil output and increased government spending. The government s continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector however has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards. Structural reform within the economy such as development of the banking sector and the Security Environnent Algeria has no external threats but internally it continues to suffer instability. Building on the goodwill gained by passing the popular Civil Concord general amnesty in 1999 President Abdelaziz Bouteflika appeared to have gained upper hand by 2002 against Islamist insurgency that had destabilised the country in the nineties. He had also begun to nudge out of politics members of the military who were suspected of manipulating Islamist violence and re-election in 2004 was largely due to the perception that he was personally responsible for bringing an end to the Islamist threat in Algeria. However the struggle against Islamist insurgents has continued but only one group--the former Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) now known as the Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)--remains active. Its number is severely depleted with estimates ranging from 250 to 500 members in contrast with the thousands of fighters distributed across at least three groups during the height of the conflict between 1994 and 1996. The police and the military have in addition to reducing their numbers confined the terrorists to the mountainous areas in Boumerdes province where even the French couldn t go when they were fighting the Algerian mujahideen during the War of Independence. The gendarmerie and the military have currently adopted new counter-terrorism methods including deploying units to live in the mountains for extended periods in order to combat AQIM rather than trying to launch forays from regional military bases. Interestingly after using the police the paramilitary forces and the army against Islamist insurgents Algeria is now deploying a new more subtle weapon a branch of Islam associated with contemplation not combat. The government of this North African oil and gas producer is promoting Sufism an Islamic movement that it sees as a gentler alternative to the Salafism espoused by many of the militants behind Algeria s insurgency. Sufism found in many parts of the Muslim world places greater focus on prayer and recitation and its followers have tended to stay out of politics. In Algeria it has a low profile with most mosques closer to Salafism-- though not the violent connotations that it sometimes carries. The Algerian officials have predicted that the last of Algeria s Islamist insurgents will either surrender or be killed within 12 to 18 months. The officials have in the past predicted an end to the insurgency--which has caused instability in the oil and gas exporting country for over 15 years-- but have never previously issued such a precise timetable. Interrogations of the ex-fighters who have surrendered indicated that the remaining insurgents were deeply demoralised. Although its yearly military expenditures are well above the world average Algeria maintains a relatively small active military. More than half of its troop strength consists of conscripts who serve for six months (with an additional year of civic service). Most conscripts serve in the army. Algeria has only a small air force and navy. The former has relatively few high-performance aircraft and the navy consists largely of coastal patrol craft. Paramilitary and police forces outnumber the active-duty military by a substantial margin and years of civil unrest have forced the government to rely on such forces--divided among sev- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 404 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m 6 T ARMY EQUIPMENT his chapter contains specifications of all important military hardware being employed by the countries mentioned below. Equipment (eqpt) having greater commonality within the region and those of comparatively recent origin have been chosen and presented under separate headings for the Army Navy and Air Force. We have listed each type of hardware under the headings of its countries of origin like Russia UK and the US. It would be appreciated that the development of weapon systems is a long-term process. Over the years a composite unit like a tk ship or an ac passes through various phases of development and appears in different versions with varied fitments and op parameters. We have listed these variants but greater details of each version with specific parameters are given in the dedicated publications. We have also relied on such publications in compiling our data. In this volume specifications have been listed in general terms and common features spelt out. Details of sensors and weapon control systems have been omitted as they may vary from craft to craft even within the same class. Army eqpt is listed below in the following order China Type-98 Type-99 Type-90-II Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) Type-62 Type-63 Type-63A Light Tanks (Lt Tks) Armoured Personnel Carriers Infantry Type-90 Type-89 (YW 534) Combat Vehicles (APCs) (ICVs) Type-85 (531H) Type-WZ 501 Type-77 Norinco YW 531 APC Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers Type-83 152mm PLZ45 155mm How NORINCO TYPE 85 122mm How (SP Guns and Hows) Towed Anti-Tank (A Tk) Guns Type-59-1 130mm Fd Gun Guns and Hows Type-66 152mm Gun How Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRLs) Type-90 122mm (40 round) MR System Type-80 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun SP Anti-Aircraft Guns and SAMs System PL-9C Low Altitude (Alt) SAM System (SP AA Guns and SAMs) Chinese Type-56 14.5mm Gun Towed AA Guns Norinco 37mm Type 74 Czech Slovak Republics APCs ICVs SP Guns and Hows SP AA Guns and SAMs Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook Germany MBTs APCs ICVs India MBTs Towed ATk Guns Guns and Hows MRLs Israel MBTs Reconnaissance Vehicles (Recce Vehs) Arjun IFG Mk.2 105mm Pinaka MR System OT-64 C (SKOT-2A) BMP-1 & OT90 APC Merkava Mk3 Sabra MBT RAM family of lt AFVs Leclerc AMX-30 441 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE France MBTs ASIAN WHO S WHO Leopard 2A6 Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2 MBT Condor Fuchs Rheinmetall Landsystem Marder 1A3 ICV INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS Lt Tks APCs ICVs AMX -13 Giat AMX-10P Nexter Systems AMX-10P Marines AMX VCI (ICV) Improved VAB 4x4 version (Wheeled) Panhard PVP Panhard M3 GIAT Mk. F3 155mm SP Gun GIAT 155mm GCT SP Gun Panhard M3 VDA Twin 20mm SP AA Gun System Crotale Low Alt SAM System Shahine Low Alt SAM System AMX-30 twin 30 mm SP AA Gun System TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Equipment & Hardware Specifications WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m REGIONAL BALANCE ARMY EQUIPMENT (Contd.) Soltam L-33 155mm SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows Soltam M-71 155mm Gun How ADAMS Vertical Launch Low Alt SP AA Guns and SAMs SAM System Italy Oto Palmaria 155mm SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows Oto Melara Model 56 105mm Pack How Oto Melara 155mm M109L [SP]How Japan MBTs Recce Vehs APCs ICVs SP Guns and Hows MRLs EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS ARMY South Korea K1 MBTs Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows 155mm KH179 How Spain APCs ICVs BMR-600 Sweden Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows Bofors FH-77 B 155mm Bofors L-40 -70 40mm Auto Towed AA Guns AA Gun Switzerland APCs ICVs Towed AA Guns Type-74 Type-90 Type-87 Type-73 Type-89 Mitsubishi Type SU 60 Type-75 155mm Type-99 155mm Type-75 130mm (30 round) MR System Mowag Piranha Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 and 005 Twin 35mm Auto AA Guns Oerlikon Contraves 20 mm GAI-B01 Auto AA Guns United Kingdom MBTs Russia MBTs T-54 T-55 T-55 (Upgraded) T-62 T-64B T-72 T-80U T-90S PT-76B Lt Tks BRDM-2 PRP-4 Recce Vehs BMP-1 BMP-2 BMP-3 APCs ICVs BMD-1 ACV BTR-50 BTR-80 MT-LB BTR-152VI M 1973 (2S3) 152mm M 1974 SP Guns and Hows (2S1) 122mm (MSTA-S) 152mm Self-Propelled Artillery System 2S19 Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows D-30 122mm Fd Gun M-46 130mm Fd Gun 155mm Gun How D-20 Splav 300mm BM 9A52 MRLs (12 round) Smerch MR System BM-21 122mm (40 round) MR System ZSU-23-4 Quad 23mm SP AA SP AA Guns and SAMs Gun System ZSU-57-2 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System 2K22M Tunguska System SA-6 Gainful Lowto- Med alt SAM System SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System SA-8B SAM System SA-9 Gaskin SAM SA-13 Gopher SAM System SA- 10 Grumble Low to High Alt SAM System ZU-23-2 Twin 23mm Automatic Towed AA Guns S-60 57mm Auto AA Gun (Auto) AA Gun 100mm anti-aircraft gun KS-19 Singapore SP Guns and Hows South Africa APCs ICVs Chieftain Mk 5 Centurion Mk13 Challenger 2 Khalid Vickers MBT Mk3 Alvis Scorpion Lt Tks Alvis Saladin Daimler Ferret Recce Vehs Mk 2 3 Stormer GKN Def Desert APCs ICVs Warrior FV432 SP Abbot 105mm AS90 SP Guns and Hows (Braveheart) 155mm SP Gun Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows 105mm Lt Gun (L 118) 155mm Lightweight How (M 777) United States of America MBTs M-1 Abrams M-48 series M 60 A3 M-41 Sting Ray Lt Tks M-113 A3 APCs ICVs M-107 175mm SP Gun M-109 SP Guns and Hows Series of 155mm SP How M-110 Series of 203mm SP How (8 inch) Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows M-198 155mm How M-42 Twin 40mm SP AA Gun SP AA Guns and SAMs System M-163 Vulcan 20mm SP AA Gun System M-48 A1 Chaparral Low Alt SP SAM System Patriot Msl Single Stage Low to High Altitude SAM System Hawk Single Stage Low to Medium Altitude SAM System System Hawk XXI SL-AMRAAM M-167 Vulcan 20mm AA Gun Towed AA Guns China SSPH-1 Primus Casspir Mk. III Ratel 90 MBTs 1. Type-98 Specifications Crew Weight GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 3 50 000 kg 442 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m REGIONAL BALANCE NAVAL EQUIPMENT Naval equipment is presented in the order as shown below. China Strategic Missile Submarines XIA Class Shang Class Patrol Submarines Kilo Class Ming Class Romeo Class Modified Romeo Class Destroyers Sovremenny Class Luyang Class Luyang II Class Luhai Class Luhu Class Frigates Jiangkai II Class Jiangwei Class Jiangwei II Class Jianghu 1 V Class Jianghu II Class Fast attack Missile Craft Houxin Class Huangfen Hola Class Huchuan India Submarines Kilo Class Foxtrot Class Scorpene Class Air Craft Carrier Destroyers Kashin Class Frigates Godavari Class Bharamputra Class Talwar Class Leander Class Israel Submarines Corvettes Patrol forces Reshef Class Super Dvora Class EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS NAVY Jin Class Han Class Song Class Lada Class Destroyers Sovremenny Class Frigates Corvettes Taran Tul Class South Korea Submarines Destroyers Frigates Corvettes Thailand Air Craft Carriers Frigates Corvettes Kashin Class Krivak Class Nanuchka Class Chang Bogo Class KDX-2 Class Ulsan Class P O Hang Class Luda Class Chakri Naruebet Class Naresuan Class Khamronsin Class Jiangkai Class United Kingdom Leander Class Frigates Salisbury Class Alvand (Vosper Mk. 5) Class Lekiu Class Dhofar (Province) Class Missile Craft Qahir Class Corvettes United States of America Guided Missile Destroyers Frigates Amphibious forces West European Countries Submarines Daphne Class (France) Sishumar Class (Germany) Frigates Madina Class (France) La Fayettes Class (France) Descubierta Class (Spain) Fast Attack Missile Craft Ratcharit Class (Italy) Air Craft Carriers China Houku Gearing Class Adelaide Class Austin Class Shishumar Class Agosta Class (France Spain) Al Riyadh Class (France) Hermes Class Delhi Class Combattante Class (France) Principe De Asturias Class (Spain) Dolphin Class Eilat (SAAR 5) Class Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class North Korea Submarines Sang-O Class Frigates Patrol forces Soju Class Hainan Class Russia Patrol Submarines Romeo Class Najin Class SO1 Class Kilo Class Strategic Missile Submarines Jin Class (Type 094) (SSBN) 8 000 Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) 449.5 36 7.5 (137.0 11.0 2.3) Nuclear 2 PWR 150 MW 2 turbines Main machinery 1 shaft To be announced Speed knots 140 Complement SLBM 12 JL-2 (CSS-NX-5) 3-stage Missiles solid-fuel rocket stellar inertial guidance to over 8 000 km (4 320 n miles) single nuclear warhead of 1 MT or 3-8 MIRV of smaller yield. CEP 300 m approx. 6-21 in (533mm tubes). Torpedoes Decoys ESM. Countermeasures Surface search. Radars 468 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS NAVY REGIONAL BALANCE Attack Submarines Han class (Type 091) (SSN) 4 500 surfaced 5 550 dived Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) 321.5 347.8 (403 onwards) 32.8 24.2 (98 106 10 7.4) Nuclear turbo-electric 1 PWR 90 Main machinery MW 1 shaft 25 dived 12 surfaced Speed knots 75 Complement SSM YJ-801Q (C-801) inertial cruise Missiles active radar homing to 40 km (22 n miles) at 0.9 Mach warhead 165 kg sea-skimmer may be carried. 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes combiTorpedoes nation of Yu-3 (SET-65E) active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt warhead 205 kg and Yu-1 (Type 53-51) to 9.2 km (5 n miles) at 39 kt or 3.7 km (2 n miles) at 51 kt warhead 400 kg. 20 weapons. 36 in lieu of torpedoes. Mines ESM Type 921-A radar warning. Countermeasures Surface search Snoop Tray I-band. Radars Trout Cheek hull-mounted active Sonars passive search and attack medium frequency. DUUX-5 passive ranging and intercept low frequency. Programmes First of this class delayed by problems with the power plant. Although completed in 1974 she was not fully operational until the 1980s. Modernisation The basic Russian ESM equipment was replaced by aFrench design. A French intercept sonar set has been fitted. Structure From 403 onwards the hull has been extended by some 8 m although this was not to accommodate missile tubes as previously reported. SSMs may be fired from the torpedo tubes. Diving depth 300 m (985 ft). Operational In North Sea Fleet based at Jianggezhuang although one reported to have deployed to the new submarine base at Yalang Hainan Island in 2005. 403 and 404 started mid-life refits in 1998 which completed in early 2000. 405 started mid-life refit in 2000 and was reported completed in 2002. Torpedoes are a combination of older straight running and more modern Russian homing types. The first of class 401 was reported to have been decommissioned in 2003 and it is expected that others will follow as the Type 093 enter service China User Shang class (Type 093) (SSN) 6 000 dived Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) 351 36 24.6 (107 11 7.5) Nuclear 2 PWR 150 MW 2 turbines Main machinery 1 shaft 30 dived Speed knots 100 Complement SLCM SSM. Missiles 6-21 in (533mm tubes). Torpedoes Decoys ESM. Countermeasures Surface search. Radars Hull mounted passive active flank Sonars and towed arrays. NAVAL EQUIPMENT (Contd.) Sonars Hull mounted passive active flank and towed arrays. Programmes The first of class is expected to become operational as a submarine in mid-2007 and as a ballistic-missile submarine in about 2008-09 depending on the successful introduction into service of the JL-2 missile. Three further boats are thought to be under construction and are likely to commission at two-year intervals. Structure Details of both the boat and the SLBM are speculative. Likely to be based on the Type 093 SSN design which in turn is believed to be derived from the Russian Victor III design. The dimensions of the hull assume the incorporation of a 30 m missile plug of 12 tubes for the 42 tonne JL-2 missiles. Operational Likely to be based at Jianggezhuang. The long range of the missile may prompt a change in operating concept to a bastion patrol approach. The first of class had begun sea trials by early 2006. China User XIA class (Type 092) (SSBN) 6 500 dived Displacement tonnes Dimensions feet (metres) 393.6 33 26.2 (120 10 8) Nuclear turbo-electric 1 PWR Main machinery 90 MW 1 shaft 22 dived Speed knots 140 Complement SLBM 12 JL-1 (CSS-N-3) inertial guidMissiles ance to 2 150 km (1 160 n miles) warhead single nuclear 250 kT. 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Yu-3 Torpedoes (SET-65E) active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt warhead 205 kg. ESM Type 921-A radar warning. Countermeasures Surface search Snoop Tray I-band. Radars Trout Cheek hull-mounted active Sonars passive search and attack medium frequency. Programmes A second of class was reported launched in 1982 and an unconfirmed report suggests that one of the two was lost in an accident in 1985. Modernisation Started major update in late 1995 at Huludao thought to include fitting improved JL-1A missile with increased range but this has not been confirmed. Structure Diving depth 300 m (985 ft). Operational First test launch of the JL-1 missile took place on April 30 1982 from a submerged pontoon near Huludao(Yellow Sea). Second launched on October 12 1982 from the Golf class trials submarine. The first firing from Xia was in 1985 and was unsuccessful (delaying final acceptance into service of the submarine) and it was not until September 27 1988 that a satisfactory launch took place. Based in the North Sea Fleet at Jianggezhuang. Following a refit which completed in late 1998 was reported to be operational as a submarine in 2003 although firing of a JL-1 missile has not been reported and its status as a ballistic-missile submarine is uncertain. China User 469 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m REGIONAL BALANCE AIR EQUIPMENT Air equipment is given as under in the following order EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS AIR FORCE Brazil Combat Aircraft China Hong-6 Jian-7 Jian-8 Jian Hong-7 Jianjiao-7 Qiang-5 FC-1 J-10 J-11 (locally produced Su-27) Eurofighter Typhoon Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H Dassault Aviation Mirage III Dassault Aviation Mirage F-1C Dassault Aviation Mirage 5 Dassault Aviation Rafale LCA IAI Kfir Mikoyan MiG-21 Mikoyan MiG-23 Mikoyan MiG-25 Mikoyan MiG-27M Mikoyan MiG-29 Mikoyan MiG-31 Sukhoi Su-24 Sukhoi Su-25 Sukhoi Su-27 Sukhoi Su-30MK Sukhoi Su-30MKI MiG-35 JAS-39 Gripen BAE Systems Hawk 200 Series BAE Systems Sea Harrier Boeing F-15A B C D Eagle Boeing F A-18A B C D Hornet Lockheed Martin F-16A B C D Fighting Falcon Northrop F-5E Tiger F-22 Raptor Joint Strike Fighter F-35 Helicopters France BBJ Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules C-130J C-130J-30 Embraer Legacy (VIP) Europe France Germany India Russia India Israel Russia United Kingdom United States of America Sweden United Kingdom United States of America Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma AS 532 Cougar Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil AS 550 AS 555 Fennec Eurocopter SA 360 AS 365 Dauphin SA 365 366 Dauphin II AS 565 Panther Eurocopter SA 316 319 Alouette III Eurocopter SA 330 Puma Eurocopter SA 341 342 Gazelle Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 Advance Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) Kamov Ka-25 Kamov Ka-25 B SH Kamov Ka-31 Mil Mi-6 Mil Mi-8 Mil Mi-17 Mil Mi-24 Mil Mi-25 -35 Mil Mi-26 Westland Sea King Bell 407 Bell AH-1 Cobra Super Cobra Boeing AH-64 Apache Boeing CH-47 Chinook Sikorsky UH-60 SH-60 S-70 Blackhawk S-92 Training Brazil India United Kingdom Embraer EMB-312 Tucano HAL HJT-16 Kiran HAL HPT-32 Deepak HAL HJT-36 Sitara BAE Systems Hawk 100 (two seat version) China PakistanK-8 Karakoram Transport Aircraft Germany Russia Spain Ukraine United Kingdom United States of America Dornier Do-228 Ilyushin IL-18 Ilyushin IL-76 Tupolev Tu-134 Tupolev Tu-154 Yakovlev Yak-40 EADS CASA C-212 EADS CASA CN-235M Antonov An-12 Antonov An-24 Antonov An-26 Antonov An-32 BAE Systems HS-748 Boeing 737-100 200 (VIP) Boeing 737-300 Maritime Reconnaissance France Russia United States of America Dassault Aviation Atlantique 2 Ilyushin IL-38 Tupolev Tu-142 Lockheed Martin P-3C Orion MMA P-8 Poseidon Airborne Early Warning & Control Embraer AEW Brazil Saab 2000 Sweden Boeing E-3 Sentry United States of America Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye Russia Israel IL-76 with Phalcon System 498 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS AIR FORCE REGIONAL BALANCE J-8) J-8E (upgraded J-8A) J-8II (J-8B Finback B) (all-weather dual role version) J-8D (air-to-air refueling capable) F-8IIM (proposed export version) Armament One 23mm twin barrel cannon under fuselage and seven external stations (one centre & 3 either side) for a variety of weapons Mach 2.2 Operating speed 432 nm Combat Radius 1 187 nm Max Range China. User Jian Hong - 7 Westernised designation Type AIR EQUIPMENT (Contd.) CHINA Combat Aircraft Hong 6 Westernised designation Type Design based on Versions Users Jian - 7 Westernised designation Type Jian - 8 NATO reporting name Westernised designation Type 499 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue REGIONAL BALANCE Finback F-8 Single-seat twin-engine air superiority fighter with secondary capability of ground fighter Versions J-8 J-8I (J-8A Finback A) JZ-8 (Reconnaissance variant of basic GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO F-7 Single-seat fighter and close support aircraft MiG-21 F (Soviet) Design based on (i) J-7 I Other versions (ii) F-7A (export version of J-7I exported to Albania Egypt Iraq and Tanzania) (iii) J-7 II (modified and improved version of J-7I also known as J-7B) (iv) F-7 B (upgraded export version based on J-7II with ability to carry air-to-air missiles exported to Bangladesh Iran Jordan Pakistan Zimbabwe) F-7BS (Sri Lanka) (v) J-7 IIA (improved version of J-7 II) (vi) J-7 H (improved version of J-7 II with improved ground attack capability) (vii) F-7 M Airguard (export version of J-7 IIA) (viii) J-7 II M (Chinese version of F-7M) (ix) F-7 P Airbolt (variant of F-7M to meet specific requirements of Pakistan Air Force including ability to carry 4 X air-to-air missiles F-7 MP Airbolt (modified version of F-7 P) (x) J-7C (J-7 III) (design based on MiG-21 MF) (xi) J-7 D (J-7IIIA Improved J-7C version) (xii) J-7E (third generationJ-7 version based on J-7II airframe) (xiii) F-7 MG (export variant of J-7E) (xiv) F-7 PG (variant of F-7 MG modified for Pakistan Air Force) (xv) J 7 FT 7 Tandem two-seat operational trainer based on J-7 II Users China (J-7 II IIA H IIM III IIIA E) Bangladesh (F-7M) Egypt (F-7A B) Iran (F-7M) Myanmar (F-7M) North Korea (F-7) Pakistan (F7P PG) and Sri Lanka (F-7BS) Jianjiao - 7 Westernised designation Type Versions FT-7 Tandem two-seat fighter trainer JJ-7 JJ-7A (FT-7A) J-7 II and MiG-21 US JJ-7B JJ-7N FT-7 (export version of JJ-7) Second cockpit in tandem. Can carry Accommodation dual air-to-air missiles rockets or bombs up to 250 kg. Can also be fitted with 23mm gun in underbelly pack With internal fuel 545 nm With drop Range tanks 787 nm Users Bangladesh (FT-7B) China (JJ-7) Iran (FT-7) Myanmar (FT-7) Pakistan (FT- 7P PG) and Sri Lanka (FT-7). Qiang - 5 NATO reporting name Westernised designation Type Fantan A-5 Single-seat close air support and ground attack aircraft with air-to-air combat capability Q-5 Q-5A Q-5I Q-5IA Q-5II Q-5B QVersions 5III (A-5C (export version for Pakistan Air Force with upgraded avionics. Ordered also by Bangladesh) Q-5M A- 5M Q-5E F 52 1 2o swept back wings Design Armament 23mm cannon in each wing root (internal) and ten attachment points each capable of carrying 250 kg bombs and a mix of other desired bombs missiles. Max capacity 2 000 kg including drop tanks. Max 1.5 Mach level speed 1.12 Mach Speed With maximum payload with after Combat Radius burners off (i) In Lo-Lo-Lo profile 216 nm (ii) In Hi-Lo-Hi profile 324 nm Users Bangladesh (A-5C) China (Q-5) Myanmar (A-5-C -M) and Pakistan (A-5III). INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES B-6 Twin jet strategic bomber tactical or maritime strike and reconnaissance aircraft. Tu-16 Badger (Soviet) H-6A H-6D (maritime roles) H-6E H-6F H-6H H-6 tanker HD-6 (EW) China. B-7 All-weather interdictor and attack aircraft with secondary air-to-air capability JH-7 Versions In same role and configuration class Design as Russian Sukhoi Su-24 Fencer 2 Crew Armament Twin barrel 23mm gun in nose two pylons under each wing plus rail for close range air-to-air missile at each wing tip or sea skimming anti-ship missile Max takeoff weight 27 500 kg Loading Mach 1.7 Max level speed PLA Navy. Users WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m ABBREVIATIONS A Ammunition and Explosives Anti Submarine Mortars Anti Submarine Army Airborne Command and Control Systems AA Air Attache AA Anti-Aircraft AAA Anti-Aircraft Artillery AAD Advanced Aircraft Defence anti-arcraft defence AAM Air-to-Air Missile AAP Annual Acquisition Plan AAPCC Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee AAPCHC Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee AAR Air-to-Air Refuellers AAW Anti-Air Warfare AB Airborne Air Base ABL Airborne Laser ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile Ac ac aircraft ACAS Assistant Chief of the Air Staff ACCCS Artillery Combat Command and Control System ACCP Assistant Controller of Carrier Project ACEMUs Alternating Current Electrical Multiple Units ACIDS Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff ACIDS(PP & FS) Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff (Policy Planning & Force Structures) ACM Advanced Cruise Missile Air Chief Marshal ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Submarines) ACOL Assistant Controller of Logistics ACOP(CP) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Career Planning) ACOP(HRD) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Human Resource Development) ACOP(P&C) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Personnel & Conditions) ACOP Assistant Chief of Personnel Acqn Acquisition ACV Air Cushion Vehicle Armoured Combat Vehicle ACWP&A Assistant Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition AD Air Defence ADA Aeronautical Development Agency ADAMS Air Defence Advanced Mobile System ADC&RS air-defence control and reporting system ADC Aide-de-Camp ADDC Air Defence Direction Centre A&E A S Mortars A S A2C2S Addl FA Addl ADE ADF ADG Avn ADG DV ADG EM ADG Mov ADG Procurement Additional Financial Advisor Additional Aeronautical Development Establishment Australian Defence Force Additional Director General Army Aviation Additional Directorate General Discipline and Vigilance Additional Directorate General Mechanical Engineering Additional Director General Movements AIS AIT AJT ALCM AlGaAs ALH ALP AM AMAS AMD Amn amph AMRAAM AMRs AMTIR ANC ANP ANURAG ANZAC ANZUS AOA AOC AOC-in-C AOM AON AOP AOPVs APAR APC APCs(T) APCs(W) APEC APFSDS appx APSOH AQIM AR&DE ARC AREN ARF ARIS ARM armd ARMREB ARTRAC arty Arty ARV AS ASAT ASC automatic identification system automatic identification technologies Advanced Jet Trainer Air Launched Cruise Missile Aluminium gallium arsenide Advanced Light Helicopter Arunachal Pradesh Acquisition Manager Australian Minesweeping System anti-missile defence Ammunition amphibious amphibian Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile anti-material rifles Amorphous Material Transmitting Infrared Radiation Andaman & Nicobar Command Afghan National Party Advanced Numerical Research and Analysis Group Australian and New Zealand Army Corps Australia-New Zealand-United States Air Officer-in-Charge Administration Angle of Attack Army Ordnance Corps Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Air Officer in Charge Maintenance Acceptance of Necessity Air Officer-in-Charge Personnel Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels Active Phased Array Radar Armoured Personnel Carrier Armoured Personnel Carriers (Tracked) Armoured Personnel Carriers (Wheeled) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation armour-piercing fin stabilised discarding sabot approximately advanced panoramic sonar hull Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb Armament Research and Development Establishment Aviation Research Centre Army Radio Engineering Network ASEAN Regional Forum anti-resonance isolation system Anti-Radiation Radar Missile armoured Armament Research Board Army Training Command artillery Artillery Armoured Recovery Vehicle Additional Secretary Anti-Satellite Army Supply Corps Army Service Corps Additional Directorate General Procurement ADG PS Additional Directorate General Personnel Services ADG Quartering Additional Director General Quartering ADG TA Additional Directorate General Territorial Army ADGES Air Defence Ground Environment System ADGIS Additional Directorate General Information Systems ADGIW Additional Director General Information Warfare ADGMI Assistant Director General Military Intelligence ADGMO Additional Director General Military Operations ADGOL Additional Director General Operational Logistics ADGPI Additional Director General Public Information ADGSI Additional Director General Signal Intelligence adj adjusted ADRDE Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment AEA Airborne Electronic Attack AEC Army Education Corps AESA Active Electronically Scanned Array AEW Airborne Early Warning AEW&C Airborne Early Warning & Control AF Air Force Auxiliary Fleet AFA Air Force Aacdemy AFB Air Force Base Af-Pak Afghanistan-Pakistan AFSPA Armed Forces Special Powers Act AFTA ASEAN Free Trade Area AFV Armoured Fighting Vehicle AG Adjutant General AGM Air-to-Ground Missile AGPL Actual Ground Position Line AH Attack Helicopter AIFV Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle AIP Air Independent Propulsion AIP Approval In Principle 513 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m ABBREVIATIONS Army Static Communication Network Admiral Superintendent Dockyards Association of South East Asian Nations ASEM Asia-Europe Meeting ASG Abu Sayyaf Group ASL Advanced Systems Laboratory ASLAV Australian Light Armoured Vehicle aslt assault ASM Air-to-Surface Missile Anti-Ship Missile ASO Air Staff Office ASPL Akash Self-Propelled Launcher ASTE Aircraft and Systems Testing Establishment ASuW Anti Surface Warfare ASV Anti Surface Vessel armoured security vehicles ASW Anti-Submarine Warfare ATACMS Army Tactical Missile System ATC Air Traffic Control ATE Advanced Technologies and Engineering ATEP advanced technical exploitation programme ATGM Anti-Tank Guided Missile ATGW Anti-Tank Guided Weapon atk attack anti-tank ATL Advanced Tactical Laser ATP Acceptance Test Procedure ATTF All Tripura Tigers Force ATTS Air-Transportable Towed System ATV Advanced Technology Vessel Auto Automatic AUV Autonomous Underwater Vehicles AUW All Up Weight AV Armoured Vehicles AVIC Aviation Industries Corporation avn aviation AVS Committee Ajai Vikram Singh Committee AVSM Ati Vishist Seva Medal AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System ASCON ASD ASEAN BMCS BMD BMS Bn (bn) BNP BOPs BRIC M BRICs BRO BSF BSNL BSS bty BVR BVRAAM BW Bi-Modular Charge System Ballistic Missile Defence Battlefield Management System Battalion Bangladesh National Party Border Out Posts Brazil Russia India China and Mexico Brazil Russia India China Border Roads Organisation Border Security Force Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Battlefield Surveillance System battery Beyond Visual Range Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile Biological Warfare CC(R&D) CCA CCD CCS CCT CCTNS CCTV CDA CDEC CDF CDISS CDO CDP Cdr CDS CE CEC CEMILAC CENTO CEP CEPTAM CERT CFA CFC CFD CFEES CG CG CGAIS CGAS CGDA CGE CGHQ CGRPT CGS CHRI CI CIA CIAT CICP CIDS CIDSS CIFs CIG CII CIJWS C-in-C CINCAN CIP CIR CIS Chief Controller (Research & Development) Central Coordinating Authority Charge Coupled Device Cabinet Committee on Security Combat Capable Trainer Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System Closed Circuit Television Controller of Defence Accounts Custom Duty Exemption Certificate Chief of Defence Force Centre for Defence and International Security Studies Command Diving Officer Committee for Defence Planning Commander Chief of Defence Staff Corps of Engineers Central Military Commission Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification Central Treaty Organisation circular error probable Centre for Personal Talent Management Computer Emergency Response Team-India Competent Financial Authority Combined Forces Commander Computational Fluid Dynamics Centre for Fire Explosive & Environment Safety Coast Guard Commanding General Combined Group Coast Guard Coast Guard Air Inspection Superintendent Coast Guard Air Station Controller General Defence Accounts Central Government Expenditure Coast Guard Headquarters Coast Guard Refit Production Team Chief of the General Staff Coast Guard Ship Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative counter-insurgency Central Intelligence Agency Counter insurgency and Anti-Terrorism Computerised Inventory Control Procedure Chief of Integrated Defence Staff Command Information Decision Support System Counter Insurgency Forces Counter Insurgency Grid Confederation of Indian Industry Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare Commander-in-Chief Commander-in-Chief of the Andaman and Nicobar Command Carriage and Insurance Paid Cargo Integration Review Commonwealth of Independent States C C&R C2 C2RP C2W C3 C3CM C3I C4I C4I2 Control and Reporting Command and Control Command and Control Reconnaissance Post Command and Control Warfare Command Control & Communications Command Control & Communications Countermeasures Command Control Communications and Intelligence Command Control Communications Computers and Intelligence Command Control Communications Computers Information and Intelligence Command Control Communications Computers Information management Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Command Control Communications Computers and Intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance Command Control Communications Computers and (military) Intelligence surveillance target acquisition and reconnaissance Combat Aircraft Complaint Advisory Board Centre for Airborne Systems Computer Aided Engineering Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics calibration Computer Aided Machining captain Central Asian Republics Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training Chief of the Air Staff Close Air Support casualty evacuation category cavalry College of Air Warfare Confidence Building Measures combat Central Committee C4I2SR C4ISR C4ISTAR B BACN BADZ BARC bbr bde BDL BE BEL BEML BFSR BFSR-SR bhp BIMSTEC battlefield air-borne communication node Base Air Defence Zone Bhabha Atomic Research Centre bomber brigade Bharat Dynamics Ltd Budget Estimate Bharat Electronics Ltd Bharat Earth Movers Ltd Battlefield Surveillance Radar Battlefield Surveillance Radar-Short Range brake horsepower Bangladesh India Myanmar Sri Lanka Thailand Economic Cooperation Bureau of Indian Standard Border Management Battle Management Command and Control CA CAB CABS CAE CAIR cal CAM capt CAR CARAT CAS casevac cat cav CAW CBMs cbt CC BIS BM BMC2 514 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m ABBREVIATIONS CISC CISF CISO CIWS CJCS CKD CLGP CLO CLS cm CM CMC CMCs CMD CMDS CMM CMOS CMS CMT CMTV CNC CNC CNO CNO CNP CNS CO CGS Delhi COAS COD CODAD CODOG COGAG COL COM comb comd COMINT comns Comp COMSAT COP COP COS COSC COTS coy CP CPB CPF CPMF CPI (M) CPI (ML) CPI CP-NPA-NDF Chief of Integrated Defence Staff to Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee Central Industrial Security Force Chief Information and Security Officer Close-in Weapon System Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Complete Knocked Down Cannon-Launched Guided Projectile Chief Law Officer capsule launch system Centimetre Cruise Missile Central Military Commission ceramic matrix composites Chairman & Managing Director Counter Measure Dispensing Systems Common Modular Missile Complimentary metal-oxide semi-conductor combat management system Carrier Mortar Tracked Continuous Moldline Technology carrier mortar tracked vehicle Commercial Negotiation Committee Computer Numerical Control Cost Negotiations Committee Chief of Naval Operations computer networks operation comprehensive national power Chief of the Naval Staff Commanding Officer Coast Guard Ship Delhi Chief of the Army Staff Central Ordinance Depot Combined diesel and diesel Combined diesel or gas turbine Combined gas or gas Controller of Logistics Chief of Material combined combination command Communications Intelligence communications Composite communication satellite Chief of Personnel common operational picture Chief of Staff Chiefs of Staff Committee Commercial off the shelf company Central Purchase Charged Particle Beams Central Police Forces Central Paramilitary Forces Communist Party of India (Marxist) Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Consumer Price Index Communist Party of Philippines-New People s Army-National Democratic Front Central Police Organisations Carriage Paid To Central Public Works Department Control and Reporting Centre central research laboratories CROWS CrPC CRPF CRT CRZ CS CSAR CSE CSFO CSIR CSM CSSC CST CSTO CT CTBT CTBTO CTK FLT CTM CTOT CUNPK CVC CVRDE CW CWIN CWP&A CYBERINT common remotely operated weapon station Criminal Procedure Code Central Reserve Police Force Cathode-Ray Tube Compact Revolutionary Zone Centre-State Combat Search and Rescue Core System Evaluation Counter Surface Force Operations Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Communications Support Measures China State Shipbuilding Corporation Comparative Statement of Tenders Collective Security Treaty Organisation counter-terrorist Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation Chetak Flight Communist Terrorist Movement Complete Transfer of Technology Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping Central Vigilance Commission Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment Continuous Wave Cyber Warning and Information Network Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition Cyber Intelligence DCP DD DDG MF DDG DDGMS DDH DDOs DDP DDP DDP&S DDU DE DEAL DEBEL DECS DEE def defn DEO dept DEQ DES DES DESA DESIDOC det DEW DF DFM DFPR DFRL DFS DG(I&S) DG AAD DG CW DG DCW DG Inf DGMF DG PP DG FP DG WE DG DG DG OS DG SP DGAFMS DGAQA DGAR DGCA Directorate of Civilian Personnel Demand Draft Deputy Director General Military Farms Destroyer Guided Missile Deputy Director General Deputy Directorate General Management Studies Destroyer Helicopter Direct Demanding Officers Department of Defence Production Directorate of Data Processing Department of Defence Production & Supplies Delivered Duty Unpaid Directorate of Education Defence Electronics Application Laboratory Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory Director Electronics and Computer Sciences Directorate of Electrical Engineering defence definition Defence Exhibition Organisation department Delivered Ex Quay Delivered Ex-Ship Directorate of Engineering Support Director Ex-Serviceman s Affairs Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre detachment Directorate of Electronic Warfare Directed Energy Weapons Deuterium Floride Directorate of Fleet Maintenance Delegation of Financial Power Regulations Defence Food Research Laboratory Directorate of Flight Safety Director General (Inspection and Safety) Directorate General Army Air Defence Directorate General Ceremonials and Welfare Directorate General Discipline Ceremonials and Welfare Directorate General Infantry Directorate General of Mechanised Forces Directorate General Financial Planning Directorate General Perspective Planning Directorate General Weapons and Equipment Diesel Generator Director General Director General Ordnance Services Director General Seabird Project Directorate General Armed Forces Medical Services Director General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance Director General Assam Rifles Directorate General of Civil Aviation D D (Admin) D (AV) D (FE) D (FM) D (INT) D (Log) D (MAT) D (Med) D(MPRT) D(Ops) D(Pers) DA DAC DADCs DAF DAI DARE DAS DASE DASI DASR DCAS DCF DCMG DCN DCNS DCOAS Director (Administration) Director (Aviation) Director (Fisheries and Environment) Director (Fleet Maintenance) Director (Intelligence) Director (Logistics) Director (Materials) Director (Medical) Director (Manpower Planning Recruitment & Training) Director (Operations) Director (Personnel) Defence Attache Defence Acquisition Council Division Air Defence Centres Delivered At Frontier Director of Administration Inspection Defence Avionics Research Establishment Director of Air Staff Director of Armament System Equipment Directorate of Air Staff Inspection Directorate of Air Staff Requirements Deputy Chief of the Air Staff Discounted Cash Flow Defence Crisis Management Group Defence Communications Network Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff Deputy Chief of the Army Staff CPOs CPT CPWD CRC CRL 515 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m ABBREVIATIONS DGDIA DGDPS DGFI DGFT DGI DGICG DGIS DGMI DGMO DGMP DGMS DGMT DGNAI DGNCC DGND DGOF DGOL&SM DGQA DGR DGS&D DGSD DHD DHQ DIA DIAT DIBER DIHAR DIME DIPAS DIPP DIPR Dir DIR(MM) div DL DLRL DLS DLS DM DMA DMI DMPR DMRC DMRL DMSRDE DMZ Director General Defence Intelligence Agency Director General Defence Planning Staff Director General of Forces I ntelligence Directorate General of Foreign Trade Directorate General of Infantry Director General Indian Coast Guard Directorate General Information Systems Director General Military Intelligence Director General Military Operations Directorate General Manpower Planning Director General Medical Services Directorate General Military Training Director General Naval Armament Inspection Director General National Cadets Corps Director General of Naval Design Director General Ordnance Factories Director General Operational Logistics & Strategic Move Director General of Quality Assurance Director General Resettlement Director General Supplies & Disposal Directorate General Staff Duties Dimasa Halam Dogah District Headquarters Defence Headquarters Defence Intelligence Agency Defence Institute of Advanced Technology Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research Defence Institute of High Altitude Research Dense Inertial Metal Explosive Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion Defence Institute of Psychological Research Director Director (Material Management) division Defence Laboratory Defence Electronics Research Laboratory Director Life Sciences Director Logistic Support Director Missiles Director of Maintenance Administration Director of Maintenance Inspection Directorate of Manpower Planning & Recruitment Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory Defence Material & Store Research & Development Establishment Demilitarised Zone DNA DNAI DNAS DNE DNI DNO DNP DNPF DNRD DNS DNT DOA DOC DOD DODY DOE DOFA DOP DOT DP DP DPA DPB DPC DPJ DPM DPP DPR DPRK DPS DPS DPSA DPSU DQMG DRDE DRDL DRDO DSA DSCA DSE DSEI dse DSIR DSP DSR DSSC DTI DTRL DVE DVE DVI DW DWE Directorate of Naval Architecture Directorate of Naval Armament Inspection Directorate of Naval Air Staff Director of Naval Education Directorate of Naval Intelligence Director of Naval Operations Director Naval Plans Director Non Public Funds Director Naval Research and Development Director Naval Signals Directorate of Naval Training Director of Administration Director of Contracts Department of Defence Director of Diving Directorate of Dockyards Director of Education Defence Offset Facilitation Agency Directorate of Personnel Directorate of Tactics Doctrine Organisation and Training Delhi Police Delivery Period Directorate of Pay and Allowances Defence Procurement Board Digital Pulse Compression Departmental Promotion Committee Democratic Party of Japan Defence Procurement Manual Defence Procurement Procedure detailed project reports Democratic People s Republic of Korea Defence Planning Staff Director of Personnel Services deep penetration strike aircraft Defence Public Sector Undertaking Deputy Quarter Master General Defence Research & Development Establishment Defence Research & Development Laboratory Defence Research and Development Organisation Director of Systems Application Draft Supplementary Agreement Defence Security Cooperation Agency Defence and Security Exhibitions Defence Systems and Equipment International director of system evaluation Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Directorate of Ship Production Directorate Staff Requirement Defence Services Staff College Department of Trade and Industry Defence Terrain Research Laboratory Directorate of Value Engineering driver s vision enhancers digital video interface Directorate of Works Directorate of Weapons Equipment E EA EAC EADS EAM EASA EBO ECCM ECM ECO ECS EEZ EFC EIC E-in-C ELINT El-Op EMC EMCON EMD EMI EMS engr EOCM EOFCS EoI EP eqpt ER ERA ERFB ERV ESM ESP est estt ET EU EUMA EurASEC EW EWS excl Electronic Attack Eastern Air Command Expenditure Angle Clearance European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company External Affairs Minister European Aviation Safety Agreement effects-based operations Electronic Counter Counter Measures Electronic Counter Measures Economic Cooperation Organisation Electronics & Computer Sciences Exclusive Economic Zone Expenditure Finance Committee Equipment Induction Cell Engineer-in-Chief Electronic Intelligence Electro-optic Industries Ltd Electro Magnetic Compatibility Emissions Control Earnest Money Deposit Electro Magnetic Interference Electromagnetic spectrum engineer Electro-optical counter measures Electro-optic Fire Control System Expression of Interest Electronic Protection equipment extended range Explosive Reactive Armour Extended Range Full Bore Exchange Rate Variation Electronic Support Measures Engineering Support Package estimate establishment Electro Thermal European Union End Use Monitoring Arrangement Eurasian Economic Community Electronic Warfare Electronic Warfare Support excludes excluding F FA FA(DS) FAA FAC FAS FAS FAST FATA FB FBM FBW FCA FCS FCU fd FDI FE Financial Advisor Financial Adviser (Defence Services) Federal Aviation Administration Fast Attack Craft Forward Air Controller Favourable Air Situation Free Alongside Ship fleet assistance and shipboard training Federally Administrated Tribal Areas Fast Boat fleet ballistic missile Fly-by-Wire Free Carrier Fire Control System Fire Control Unit field Foreign Direct Investment forecast estimates 516 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m ABBREVIATIONS FE FEALAC FEBA FF FFG FGA FGFA FIC FIC FICV Fin F-INSAS FIPB FIS Flg Offr FLIR flt FM FMBT FMC FMCW FMECA FMS FMS FMTC FMUs FOB FOC-in-C FOGA FOMAG FONA FOSM FOST FP FPA FPDA FPGA FPQ FPU FPVs FR FRA FRP FRP FSA FSU ft FTA FTC ftr ftrs FY FYDP Foreign Exchange Forum for East Asia-Latin America Forward Edge of the Battle Area Frigate Frigate Guided Missile Fighter Ground-Attack Fifth Generation Fighter aircraft Future Generation Fighter Aircraft Fast Interception Crafts flight information centres future infantry combat vehicle Finance Future Infantry Soldier as a System Foreign Investment Promotion Board Flying Instructors School Flying Officer Forward Looking Infra Red flight fleet Financial Manager future main battle tank Financial Management Cell Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Failure Mode Effect and Criticality Analysis Flight Management System Foreign Military Sales Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty Fleet Maintenance Units Free On Board Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief Flag Officer Goa Area Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra & Gujarat Area Flag Officer Naval Aviation Flag Officer Submarines Flag Officer Sea Training Financial Planning Focal plane array Five Power Defence Arrangement Field Programmable Gate Array Fixed Price Quotation Formed Police Unit Fast Patrol Vessels Financial Regulation Flight Refuelling Aircraft Fibre Reinforced Polymer Full Rate Production Fluid Supply Assembly Former Soviet Union feet Free Trade Agreement Fast Torpedo Craft fighter fighters financial year Five Year Defence Plan GED Gen GFR GGA GHG GIS GITS II GMDSS GOC-in-C GOI GOM GOST gp GPS GRP GRS GRSE GSB GSD GSL GSLV GSO GSQR GSR GTD GWOT General Engineering Department General General Financial Regulations Gain Generator Assembly Greenhouse Gas Geographical Information System gunner s integrated TOW system Global Maritime Distress and Safety System General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Govt of India Group of Ministers Gost Specifications (Russian) group Global Positioning System Glass Reinforced Plastic gross tonnage Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd General Staff Branch General Staff Department Goa Shipyard Ltd Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Ground Staff Office General Staff Qualitative Requirements General Service Regulations General Trade Department Global War on Terror HuT HVAC HVF hy Hizb-ut-Tahrir Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning System Heavy Vehicles Factory heavy I IA IACCS IAEA IAF IAI IAPTC IBR IBs IBSA ICBM ICG ICV ID IQ IDF IDS IDSA IDSN IED IEDs IEP IFA IFDSS IFF IFG IFS IFV IGA IGMDP IHPTET IIGs IIR IISc IIT IITF IJT ILMS ILT IM IMA IMDP IMF IMI IMINT IMO IMOLS IMMOLS IMU Indian Army Integrated Air Command & Control Systems International Atomic Energy Agency Indian Air Force Israeli Air Force Israel Aircraft Industries International Association of Peacekeeping Training Centres integrally bladed rotor Interceptor Boats India-Brazil-South Africa Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile Indian Coast Guard Infantry Combat Vehicle Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity Indigenous Design Fighter Israel Defence Forces Integrated Defence Staff Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis Integrated Service Digital Network Indigenous Explosive Devices Improvised Explosive Devices Integrated Electric Propulsion Integrated Financial Advisor Integrated Fire Detection & Suppression System Identification Friend or Foe Indian field gun Indian Foreign Service Infantry Fighting Vehicle Inter Governmental Agreement Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology Indian Insurgent Groups Imaging Infra Red Indian Institute of Science Image Intensifier Tubes Indian Institute of Technology India International Trade Fair Intermediate Jet Trainer Integrated Logistics Management System Instructor Led Training Indigenously Manufactured Indian Military Academy Integrated Missile Development Programme International Monetary Fund Israel Military Industries Imagery Intelligence International Maritime Organisation Integrated Maintenance and Logistics System Integrated Material Management Online System Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan H HAA HAF HAL HARM HATSOFF HDW HE HEAT HEL HELLADS helo hel HEMRL HFSWR HHTIs HINDRAF HM HMMWV HOBOS hp hp ton HQ HR HRD hrs HS HUD HuJI HUMINT HUMSA (NG) High Altitude Airship Hellenic Air Force Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd High-speed Anti Radiation Missile Helicopter Academy to Train by Simulation of Flying Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG High Explosive High Explosive Anti-tank High Energy Laser high energy liquid laser area defence system helicopter High Energy Materials Research Laboratory High Frequency Surface Wave Radar hand-held thermal imaging devices Hindu Rights Action Force Home Minister High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle Homing and Bombing System horsepower Horse Power per ton Headquarters human resources human resource department hours Home Secretary Head-Up Display Harkat-ul-Jihad-i-Islam Human Intelligence Hull Mounted Sonar Advanced (Next Generation) G GA GaAs GAETEC GCC GDP GE Group Army Ground Attack gallium arsenide Gallium Arsenide Enabling Technology Centre Gulf Cooperation Council Gross Domestic Product General Electric 517 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m ABBREVIATIONS IN incl INCOTERM indep INDSAR INDU inf INMAS INS INSAS InSb int INTW IOC IOR IORARC IORB IP IP IP IPC IPC IPKF IPMT IPS IPVs IR IRAF IRBM IRBs IRDE IRGC Indian Navy includes including International Commercial Terms independent Indian (Maritime) Search and Rescue Indian National Defence University infantry Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences Inertial Navigation System Indian Naval Ship Indian Small Arms System Indium antimonide intelligence Indian Naval Work Up Team Initial Operational Capability Clearance Indian Ocean Region Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation Indian Ocean Rim Block Industrial Policy integrity pact Intellectual Property Indian Penal Code Inshore Patrol Craft Indian Peace Keeping Force integrated project management teams Integrated Power Systems Inshore Patrol Vessels Infra-red Royal Indian Air Force Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile India Reserve Battalions Instruments Research & Development Establishment Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force infra-red suppression system Information System Indian Standard Internal Secretary internal security Information Sharing and Analysis Centres International Security Assistance Force Integrated Space Cell Interim Self-Governing Authority Inter-Services Intelligence Island M-SAAR Ship Reporting System international ship and port facility security Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Search and Rescue Region Infra Red Search & Tracking System Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis Information Technology Information Technology Act 2008 Indo-Tibetan Border Police ITEC ITM ITU IW Indian technical and Economic Cooperation Institute of Technology Management International Telecommunication Union Information Warfare LAV LAW LC LCA LCAC LCD LCM LCP LCPA LCS LCT LCU LCVP LD LDP LED LEL LEO LeT LFA LFDS LFG LGB LIA LICO LICs LLADS LLADS LLTR LMG LNG LOA LOC log LOI LORADS LORROS LOS LP LPA LPAF LPC LPD LPH LPIR LPP LRC LRDE LRF LRIP LRLAP LRMP LRSAM LRTR LRU LS&HR LSD LSL LSM LSP LSRB LSRVs Light Armoured Vehicle Light Anti-tank Weapon Landing Craft Letter of Credit Landing Craft Assault Light Combat Aircraft Landing Craft Air Cushion Liquid Crystal Display Landing Craft Mechanised Landing Craft Personnel Landing Craft Personnel Aircushion littoral combat ship Landing Craft Tank Landing Craft Utility Landing Craft Vehicles and Personnel Liquidated Damages Liberal Democratic Party Light-emitting diodes Low Energy Laser Low Earth Orbit Lashkar-e-Toiba low frequency active Low Frequency Dunking Sonar light field gun Laser Guided Bomb lead intelligence agency Low Intensity Conflict Operations Low Intensity Conflicts Liquid Laser Area Defence System liquid laser area defence system Low Level Tactical Radar light machine gun Liquefied Natural Gas Laser Optics Assembly Line of Control logistics Letter of Intent Long Range Radar & Display System long-range observation system (how double r) Line of Sight Local Purchase Lao People s Army Lao People s Armed Forces Large Patrol Craft Landing Platform Dock Landing Platform Helicopter Low Probability of Intercept Radar Last Purchase Price line-replaceable components Electronics and Radar Development Establishment Laser Range Finder Low Rate Initial Production long-range land attack projectile long-range maritime patrol Long Range Surface-to-Air-to-Air Missile long-range tracking radar Line Replaceable Unit Life Sciences & Human Resources Landing Ship Dock Landing Ship Logistics Landing Ship Medium Limited Series Production Life Sciences Research Board Light Surveillance & Reconnaissance Vehicles J J&K JADC JAG JSDF JASSM JCOs JDAM JDAM JI JIC JIEDDO JOCOM JOCs JPC JRI JS JSF JSIC JSOW JSQR JSSC JSTARS Jt. JTC JTFI J-UCAS JV JVC Jammu & Kashmir Joint Air Defence Centre Judge Advocate General Japan Air Self-Defence Force Joint Air to Surface Stand off Missile Joint Combat Operations joint direct attack munition Joint Direct Attack Munition Jemaah Islamiyah Joint Intelligence Committee Joint Improvised Explosive Devices Defeat Organisation Joint Operations Committee Joint Operation Centres Joint Planning Committee Joint Receipt Inspection Joint Secretary Joint Strike Fighter Joint Service Intelligence Committee Joint Stand Off Weapon Joint Service Qualitative Requirements Joint Services Staff College Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System Joint Joint Training Committee Joint Task Force on Intelligence Joint Unmanned Combat Air System Joint Venture Joint Venture Company IRIAF IRSS IS IS IS ISACs ISAF ISC ISGA ISI ISLEREP ISPS ISR K KALI KCP kg KGF KIFV KLO km km h KORCOM KRC kt kw KYKL Kilo Ampere Linear Injector Kangleipak Communist Party kilogramme Kolar Gold Fields Korean Infantry Fighting Vehicle Kamtapur Liberation Organisation Kilometre kilometres per hour Korea Command Kargil Review Committee Kilo tonne Kilowatt Kanglei Yowal Kunna Lup ISRO ISRR ISRT ISSA ISSA IT ITA 2008 ITBP L L&D L&T LAAD LAC LACM LADAR LAF LASTEC Learning & Development Larsen & Toubro Latin America Aero and Defence line of actual control land attack cruise missile Laser Detection and Ranging Lebanese Armed Force Laser Science & Technology Laboratory 518 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m ABBREVIATIONS LSS LST(L M) LSV Lt BPVs lt LTAP LTE LTH LTIPP LTPP LTPPFC ltr ltrs LTTE LUH LWE LWT Logistic Support Ships Landing Ship Tank (Large Medium) Landing Ship Vehicles Light Bullet Proof Vehicles light long-term Action Plan Limited Tender Enquiry light-weight towed howitzer Long Term Integrated Perspective Plan Long Term Perspective Plan Long Term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee litre litres Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Light Utility Helicopter Left Wing Extremists Light Weight Torpedo Local Wor-up Team mil mily MILF MILSPECS MINDER MIRACL MIS misc MLRS mm MMCRA MMG MMRCA MND MNLF mob MoD mod MOD D(MC) MODA MODte MOFTU MOPs MOQ Mor MoS mot M0U MP MPA MPAT MPVs MR MR MRBM MRCA MRCC MRD MRL MRLS MRLS MRSAM MRSC MS MSA M-SAR MSC MSDFs MSI msl MSO MSQA MSS mt mt mts MTA MTBF MTBO MTBUR MTCR MTHEL MTI military Moro Islamic Liberation Front Military specifications Miniature Detection Radar Mid Infra-Red Advanced Chemical Laser Management Information System miscellaneous Multiple Launch Rocket System millimetre Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft Medium Machine Gun Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft Ministry of National Defence Moro National Liberation Front mobilisation mobile Ministry of Defence modified modification Ministry Of Defence D (Monitoring of Contracts) Ministry of Defence & Aviation Military Operations Directorate MiG Operational Flying Training Unit Mobile Observation Posts Massive Ordnance Penetrator Minimum Order Quantity Mortar Minister of State motorised motor Memorandum of Understanding Military Police Member of Parliament Maritime Patrol Aircraft Multi-purpose Anti Tank Mine-Protected Vehicles Maritime Reconnaissance Motor-Rifle Multiple Rocket Military Region Medium Range Ballistic Missile Multi-role Combat Aircraft Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre Motorised Rifle Division Multiple Rocket Launcher Manufacturer Recommended List of Spares Multiple Rocket Launcher System medium range surface-to-air missile Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre Military Secretary Mild steel Mine Sweeper Auxiliary Maritime Search and Rescue Mine Sweeper Coastal Maritime Self Defence Forces Mine Sweeper inshore missile Mine Sweeper Ocean Missile System Quality Assurance Missiles & Material Sciences Mega tonne minute minutes Multi-role Transport Aircraft Meantime between failures Minimum Time Before Overhaul Mean Time Between Unit Replacement Missile Technology Control Regime Mobile Tactical High-Energy Laser Moving Target Indicator mtn MTOW MTTR MULTA mw MW MWR MZI mountain Maximum Take off Weight Mean Time To Repair Muslim United Liebration Tigers of Assam Megawatt Megawatt Millimeter Wave Radar Maritime Zones of India N n miles NA NA NADP NAM NATGRID NATO NAY NBC NCC NCOs NCW NDA NDFB NDPG NDU NE NEC NEO NETD NFU NG NGCI NGN NGO NHQ NHRC NIA NIA NLC NLFT NM NMRL NMS NMS NMSARCA NOE NOSDCP NOS-DCP NPC NPOL NPT NPV NREGA nautical miles Naval Attache Not-available Numerical Aperture National Academy of Defence Production Non-Aligned Movement National Database Grid North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Naval Aircraft Yard nuclear biological and chemical National Counterterrorism Centre National Combat Operations network-centric warfare National Democratic Alliance National Democratic Front of Bodoland National Defence Programme Guidelines National Defence University North East network-enabled capability network-enabled operations noise equivalent temparature difference no first use Next Generation Northrop Grumman and Cobham joint venture next generation warfare Non-governmental organisations Naval Headquarters National Human Rights Commission National Investigation Agency National Investigation Agency Naval Logistics Committee National Liberation Force of Tripura Nao Sena Medal Naxalite Management Naval Materials Research Laboratory National Military Strategy New Management Strategy National Maritime SAR Coordinating Authority Nap of the Earth National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan National Police Commission Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Net Present Value National Rural Employment Guarantee Act M M&C M&S m sec MA MA MAC MAC maint MALE MANPADS MARS M-ATV max MBAT MBFSR MBRLS MBT MC MCM MCMV MCT MDA MDL MDSR MEA mech med MEM MES MET MF MFCR MFO MFOs MFR MG MGO MGSIS MHA MHC MHI MHPV MHR MIDHANI Materials and Components Modelling & Simulation metres per second Military Assistant Military Attache Metal Augmented Charge Multi-Agency Centre maintenance Medium Altitude and Long Endurance man-portable air-defence systems Marine Acoustic Research Ship MRAP all-terrain vehicles Maximum Multi-beam array tracking Mobile Battle Field Surveillance Radar Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher System Main Battle Tank Maintenance Command Mine Counter Measures Mine Counter Measures Vessel Mercury Cadmium Telluride Maritime Domain Awareness Mazagon Dock Ltd Movement Detection and Security Radar Ministry of External Affairs mechanised medium Micro-Electro Mechanical Military Engineering Service Maintainability Evaluation Trial Main File multi-function control radar Multinational Force and Observers Muslim Fundamentalist Organisations Multi Function Radars Machine Gun Master General of Ordnance Military Geo-Spatial Information System Ministry of Home Affairs Mine Hunter Coastal Mine Hunter Inshore Mine-Hardened Patrol Vehicle Man Hour Rate Mishra Dhatu Nigam Ltd 519 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m ABBREVIATIONS NS&ACE NSA NSC NSCN(IM) NSCN(K) NSCS NSG NSRY NSS NSTL NTRO Naval Systems & Armament & Combat Engineering National Security Adviser National Security Council National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Issac-Muviah) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) National Security Council Secretariat National Security Guard Nuclear Suppliers Group Naval Ship Repair Yards National Security Strategy National Security System Naval Science & Technological Laboratory National Talent Research Organisation National Technical Research Organisation North West Frontier Province org ORP ORSA ORV OSCC OSCE OSD OSS OTE organised organisation Operational Readiness Platform Operational Research and Systems Analysis Oceanographic Research Vessel Offshore Security Coordination Committee Organisation and Security Cooperation in Europe Officer on Special Duty Office of Strategic Services Open Tender Enquiry POL POV PP&FD PPBP PP&FD PPOC PPP PPS PQ PRA PRC PREPAK Proc PROM PRT PS PSEs PSI PSLV PSO PSO PSOC PSQR PSR PSU Psyops PTA PTS PTTs PV PVSM PWG PXE Petrol Oil and Lubricants Professional Officers Valuation Policy Plans and Force Development Planning and Participatory Budget Programme Policy Planning and Force Development Principal Personal Officers Committee public-private partnership Principal Private Secretary Procurement Quantity Pressure Recovery Assembly People s Republic of China People s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak Procurement Programmable Read Only Memory Pollution Response Team Private Secretary Public Sector Enterprises Proliferation Security Initiative Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Principal Staff Officer project sanction order Principal Supply Officers Committee preliminary services qualitative requirements Preliminary Staff Requirements Public Sector Undertaking Psychological Operations Pilotless Target Aircraft Point Tracker Subsystem Post Task Trainers Prototype Vehicle Param Vishist Seva Medal People s War Group Proof and Experimental Establishment P P&C P&MM P&W PA PA PAC PAC PAF PAP para PBL PBs PC PCB PCC PCDA PCI PCO PCPA PCR PD (Policy & Plans) PD(AV) PD(FM) PD(HRD) PD(MAT) PD(Ops) PDD PDI PDMS pdr pers PGMs PHM PHT PIB PIVADS pl PLA PLAAF PLANAF PM PMF PMOC PNC PNVS PoK Personnel and Conditions Planning & Material Management Pratt and Whitney Price Agreement Production Agency Project Appraisal Committee Proprietary Article Certificate Pakistan Air Force People s Armed Police parachute paratroop Performance Based Logistics Patrol Boats Personal Computer Printed Circuit Board Patrol Craft Coastal Principal Controller Defence Accounts Patrol Craft Inshore Patrol Craft Ocean People s Committee against Police Atrocities Patrol Craft Riverine Principal Director (Policy and Plans) Principal Director (Aviation) Principal Director (Fleet Maintenance) Principal Director (Human Resource Development) Principal Director (Materials) Principal Director (Operations) project definition document Pre Dispatch Delivery Inspection Point Defence Missile Systems pounder personnel Precision Guided Munitions Patrol Hydrofoil (with SSM) Patrol Hydrofoil (with torpedo) Public Investment Board Product Improved Vulcan Air Defence System platoon People s Liberation Army People s Liberation Army Air Force People s Liberation Army Navy Air Force Provost Marshal Paramilitary Forces Principal Maintenance Officers Committee Price Negotiation Committee Pilot Night Vision Systems Pakistan Occupied Kashmir NWFP O O&S O I D LEVEL OASIIS obs OCU ODF OEF OEF OEM OF OFB OFILAJ OFILAM OFILAV OFILDD OFILIS OFILKH OFILKN OFILMK OFs OFT OIC OIF OM ONGC OODA op OPCON OPEC OPLAN Ops Opsec OPV Operating and Support Operator Intermediate Depot Level on aircraft scheduled inspections industrial service observation Operational Conversion Unit Operational Deployment Force Operation Enduring Freedom Ordnance Equipment Group of Factories Original Equipment Manufacturer Ordnance Factory Ordnance Factory Board Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ambajhari Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ambernath Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Avadi Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Dehradun Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ishapore Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Khamaria Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Kanpur Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Medak Ordinance Factories Operational Flight Trainer Organisation of Islamic Conference Operation Iraqi Freedom Office Memorandum Oil and Natural Gas Corporation observe orient decide act operational operational control Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries operational plan operations Operations Security Offshore Patrol Vessel Q QA QFI QMG QRM QRs QR SAM QSR Quality Assurance Qualified Flying Instructor Quarter Master General Quick Reaction Missile Quantitative Requirements Quick reaction surface-to-air missile Qualitative Staff Requirements R R&D ENGRS R&D RAAF RAF RAF RAM RAM RAMICS RAS RAW RBG RC RC Research & Development Establishment (Engineers) Research and Development Royal Australian Air Force Rapid Action Force Royal Air Force Radar Absorbing Material Rolling Airframe Missile Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System Replenishment at Sea Research and Analysis Wing Royal Bhutan Guards Rate Contract Regional Command 520 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m ABBREVIATIONS RCC RCI RCIED RCL RCS RCWS RE ReCAAP recce regt Retd RF RFI RFID RFP RHQ RL RM RMA RMN RNA ROC ROE ROE ROI ROIC ROK ROP ro-ro ROV RPG RPG rpm RPV RR RR RSTA RUF RUR RWR RWS Revolutionary Command Council Regional Communication Centres Research Centre Imarat Remotely Controlled Improvised Explosive Devices Recoilless Launcher Radar Cross Section Remote Control Weapon System Revised Estimate Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery reconnaissance regiment Retired Radio Frequency Request for Information radio-frequency identification Request for Proposal Regimental Regional Headquarters Rocket Launcher Resources & Management Raksha Mantri (Minister of Defence) Revolution in Military Affairs Royal Malaysian Navy Royal Nepal Army Republic of China Rosoboron Export Rules of Engagement region of interest readout integrated circuit Republic of Korea Road Opening Party roll-on roll-off Remotely Operated Vehicle Riffle Propelled Grenade Rocket-Propelled Grenade Revolutions per Minute Remotely Piloted Vehicle Rashtriya Rifles Rolls-Royce reconnaissance surveillance and target acquisition Revolutionary United Front Raksha Udyog Ratna Radar Warning Receiver remote weapon stations SARDP SARS SASE SASO SATCOM SBG SBI SBL SBM SCAP SCAPCC SCAPHCC SCD SCO SCOC SDB SDBs SDC SDF SDLF SDR SDR SEAD Secy SES SEZ SF SFC SFC SFTS SFW SG SHBO SHQ SI SIDs SIGINT sigs SIM SIPRI SITAR Special Area Road Development Programme Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment Senior Air Staff Officer Satellite Communications Smooth Bore Gun State Bank of India Space Based Laser single buoy moorings Services Capital Acquisition Plan Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee Services Capital Acquisition Plan Higher Categorisation Committee Standing Committee on Defence Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Standard Conditions of Contract Small Diameter Bomb Seaward Defence Boats Supreme Defence Council Self Defence Forces Shaft Driven Lift Fan Software Defined Radio software driven Strategic Defence Review Suppression of Enemy Air Defence Secretary Surface Effects Ship special economic zone Special Forces specific fuel consumption Strategic Forces Command Special Forces Training School Sensor Fused Weapon Speical Group Special Helicopter Borne Operations Service Headquarters Services Interaction Signal Intelligence Directorates Signals Intelligence signals Shura Ittehadul Mujahideen Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research Semi Knocked Down Stand-Off Land Attack Missile surface launched advanced medium-range air-to-air missile Sea Lite Beam Director Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile Surface Launcher Ballistic Missile Sub-marine Launcher Cruise Missile Sea Lines of Communication Sena Medal Submarines Storage Module Device Small and Medium Enterprises Standard Manhour Senior Maintenance Staff Officer Special Maintenance Tools Supply Order special operations forces SOFA SOP SP Arty Sp Hels SP sp sup SPA SPAAG SPC SPG SPS SPSG sqn SQR SR SRAM SRBM SRE SRG SRR SRU SS SSB SSB SSBN SSC SSHC SSI SSK SSM SSN STAP STARS STE STEA stk STO STOBAR STOL STOVL STP STRI surv SWAC sy SYSM Status of Forces Agreement Standard Operating Procedures Self Propelled Artillery Support Helicopters Self-Propelled support supply Supreme People s Assembly Self-Propelled Anti Aircraft Gun Stores Procurement Committee Self-Propelled Gun Stratospheric Platform System Southern Philippines Secessionist Groups squadron Services Qualitative Requirements Short Refit Sideways Random Access Memory Short Range Ballistic Missile Security related expenditure scheme Special Ranger Groups Search and Rescue Region Shop Replaceable Unit Special Secretary Sashastra Seema Bal Special Service Bureau ship sub-mercible ballistic nuclear diesel submarine coastal Solid State Heat Capacity Small Scale Industries diesel submarine ASW Surface-to-Surface Missile Nuclear-Fuelled Submarine short-term Action Plan Surveillance Target Attack Radar System Single Tender Enquiry Special Test Equipment Strategic & Technical Environment Assessment strike Short Take-Off short take-off but arrested recovery Short Take-off and Landing short take-off verticle landing specialized technical panels Simulation Training and Instrumentation surveillance South Western Air Command security Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal S SA TO RM SA SA SAAM SAARC SAC SACLOS SAG SAGE SAM Bdes SAM SAPTA SAR Scientific Advisor To Raksha Mantri Scientific Advisor South Africa Supplementary Agreement Surface-to-Air Anti-Missile South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Southern Area Command semi-automatic command-to-light-ofsight Special Action Group Scientific Analysis Group Semi-Automatic Ground Environment Surface to Air Missile Brigades Surface-to-Air Missile South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement Search and Rescue Synthetic Aperture Radar SKD SLAM SL-AMRAAM SLBD SLBM SLBM SLCM SLOCs SM SM SMD SMEs SMH SMSO SMT SO SOF T t TA tac TacC3I TACDE TAR TBA TBRL TC TCA tonne Territorial Army Transport Aircraft tactical Tactical Command Control Communications and Information Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment Tibet Autonomous Region Tactical Battle Area Terminal Ballistic Research Laboratory Technical Committee Technical Collaboration Agreement 521 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m ABBREVIATIONS TCDL TCS TD TE TEC temp THEL TI TIALD TIFA TIFCS TISAS TIZ tk tkr TLPS TM TMC TNC TNC TOC TOOC TOT TOTE TOW missile TPC tps tpt tptn TR Bdes TRV TS TST TT TTL TTLS TTP TU TUAV TVC TVM TVN Tactical Common Datalink tactical communications system Technology Demonstrator Tender Enquiry Technical Evaluation Committee temporary Tactical High Energy Laser Thermal Imager Thermal Imaging Airborne Laser Designator Trade and Investment Framework Agreement Tank Integrated Fire Control System Thermal Imaging Stand Alone Sights Territorial Interest Zone tank tanker Thunderbolt Lifecycle Programme Support Technical Manager Trinamool Congress Technical Negotiations Committee Tender Negotiation Committee Technical Oversight Committee Technical Offer Opening Committee Transfer of Technology Table of Tools and Equipment Tube-launched Optically-tracked Wire-guided missile Tender Purchase Committee troops transport transportation Tank Brigades torpedo recovery vehicle Training Ship Thermal sight Time Sensitive Targets Target towing Total Technical Life torpedo tube launch system Taliban s Tehrik-e-Pakistan Transport Unit Tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle Thrust Vector Control Track-via-missile thrust-vectoring nozzles UCAR UCAV UCPDC UDD UFH UGC UGS UGV UHQ UK ULFA UMV UN UNDOF UNIFIL UNIKOM UNLF UNMEE UNMOGIP UNMONUC UNPAs UNPKF UNPROFOR UNRWA UNSC UNSCR UNTSO UPA URV USAF USD USMC USN USSR UTD utl UUVs UW UWB UYSM Unmanned Combat Armed Rotorcraft Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle Uniform Customs & Practices For Documentary Credits United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship ultra-lightweight field howitzer University Grants Commission Unattended Ground Sensors Unmanned Ground Vehicle Unified Headquaters United Kingdom United Liberation Front of Assam Unit Maintenance Vehicle United Nations United Nations Disengagement Observer Force United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission United National Liberation Front UN Mission in Ethiopia-Eritrea United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan UN Mission in Congo United Nations Protection Areas United Nations Peace Keeping Force United Nations Protection Force United Nations Relief and Works Agency United Nations Security Council United Nations Security Council Resolution United Nations Truce Supervision Organisation United Progressive Alliance Unit Repair Vehicle United States Air Force US Dollar United States Marine Corps United States Navy Union of Soviet Socialist Republic Unit Training Device utility Unarmed Underwater Vehicles Underwater Ultra wideband Uttam Yudh Seva Medal VCAS VCDS VCNS VCOAS veh VHF VIS-X VLCC VLS VM VOIP VOx VPs VR VRDE VSM VSSC VTO VTUAV Vice Chief of the Air Staff Vice Chief of Defence Staff Vice Chief of the Naval Staff Vice Chief of the Army Staff vehicle Very High Frequency vehicular intercom systems very large crude carrier vertical launch system Vayusena Medal Voice over Internet Protocol Vanadium Oxide vital points Virtual Reality Vehicles Research and Development Establishment Vishist Seva Medal Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre Vertical Take-Off Vertical Take-off UAV W WAC WCMD WE WE wg WiMAX WLR WMD WPI wpn WSOI WTO WTT WV&V WWR WZC Western Air Command Western Area Command Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser War Establishment Weapons and Equipment wing Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access Weapon Locating Radar Weapons of Mass Destruction Wholesale Price Index weapon Weapons Systems ORSA & Infrastructure World Trade Organisation Weapons and Tactics Trainer Weapons Vehicles and Equipment War Wastage Reserves War Zone Campaign U UAC UAE UAV UBGLs United Aircraft Corporation United Arab Emirates Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Unmanned Air Vehicle under-barrel grenade launchers Y YSM Yudh Seva Medal V V STOL VAs Vertical Short Take Off and Landing vital areas Z ZnS ZnSe Zinc blende structure Zinc Selenide 522 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX 26 11 2008 Mumbai 2s12 2s3 15 41 56 62 66 117 122 131 178 199 315 327 328 357 437 346 351 345 350 351 400 405 409 430 442 457 112 185 5 6 11 13 17 31 59 60 318 341 432 33 Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) aerospace --power --technology and warfare Aerospatiale 274 289 294 295 295 43 6 223 284 409 487 490 491 494 495 496 497 407 491 352 6 11 44 59 325 348 373 329 316 346 169 352 3 181 222 306 315 357 40 368 373 11 1 13 115 130 131 432 2 4 8 13 17 20 36 44 115 130 341 342 346 347 353 436 5 176 406 8 296 270 385 385 385 385 385 385 284 187 289 290 120 289 290 437 289 290 289 290 385 468 493 126 144 158 498 510 262 300 302 331 331 412 432 296 385 385 --and Strike Fighters Air Defence Control and Reporting System (ADC&RS) Air Defence Direction Centres (ADDCs) Air Defence Ground Environment (ADGES) Air Force Academy (AFA) Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) air search air space management Air Squadron air traffic control (ATCs) Airborne Early Warning and Control Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) AIM-9 Sidewinder air cushion vehicles air defence (AD) 385 248 67 90 98 99 111 126 195 216 221 2 284 293 225 30 115 178 236 235 37 217 224 292 496 161 328 41 498 99 512 14 26 27 126 216 217 220 222 229 236 275 75 24 Indian Mountain Gun 75 24 Pack How E-2 9 11 Aerospatiale SA-342 Gazelle Afghan National Police (ANP) Afghanistan --defence forces --drug mafia poppy cultivation --economy --India relations development aid --maritime conflicts --security environment --Soviet intervention --strategic vacuum --terrorism --US and NATO forces military intervention A A-31 FP A-50 T-50 AA-10 Alamo AA-11 Archer AAV-7A1 Abbas Mahmud Abdul-Aziz Al Al-Sheikh Grand Mufti Sheikh Abdullah II King of Jordan Abhay Class Abu Bakar Ba asyir Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) Abu Zaby AC-130 ACC Acharya Ajoy Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) acupuncture warfare Adams SAM Adelaide (Oliver Hazard Perry) class Frigate Aditya Class advanced combat aircraft Advanced Induction Motors Advanced jet trainer (AJT) Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group (Anurag) Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL) Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL) advanced-computer control system advanced light helicopter (ALH) 83 498 385 234 383 414 431 234 351 359 383 388 414 385 396 416 428 332 418 ) 206 358 366 366 391 431 91 318 319 249 252 269 122 229 293 175 23 442 492 212 358 223 79 126 217 295 295 91 56 120 211 126 195 203 204 205 207 211 216 232 240 247 248 327 Africa --European Union strategic partnership Agarwal R.C. Aggarwal Ashok K. AGM-130 AGM-142 Popeye AGM-65A Maverick AGM-84 Harpoon AGM-84-H SLAMMER AGM-88 HARM Agni ballistic missiles Agni II Agni III Agni IV Agni V AGOR Agosta Class Submarine AgustaWestland EH-101 AH-64 Apache Ahluwalia Lt general V.K. Ahmad A.E. Ahmadi-Moghaddam General Ismail Ahmadi-Nezad Mahmud Ahmed Dr Zakwan AIM-120B C5 AMRAAM AIM-7 Sparrow Advani L.K. Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE) 295 217 487 8 497 91 30 278 120 225 233 34 289 292 air-to-Air refuellers (AAR) 223 air-to-surface missiles (ASMS) 27 air-to-Surface weapons 234 35 Ajai Vikram Singh (AVS) Committee 178 Ajeya 112 183 Ajgaonkar Air Vice Marshal D.V. 219 Ajman 431 AK-47 322 406 Akahoshi Admiral Keiji 332 Akash SAM 126 115 222 284 289 Akash 290 Akatsiya (SP Gun-How) 457 Akayev Askar 346 Akbar Malik Siraj 362 Akihito 331 Aksai Chin 130 Akula (Bars) class 202 Akula II 120 437 Al Fujayrah 431 Al Riyadh (Modified La Fayette) class Frigate 494 Al Riyadh Class 468 AL-31 83 AL-31FP 82 83 AL-41 F 83 Alcock Ashdown Gujarat Ltd 196 210 Airbus and Boeing Aircraft and System Testing Establishment (ASTE) Aircraft Carriers aircraft self defence Airland Battle doctrine Airports Authority of India (AAI) air-to-air missile 523 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX Algeria --War of Independence ALH Civil Variant ALH 195 ALH.Mk.III ALH.Mk.IV Ali Brig General Muhammad Nasser Ahmad Alion Science and technology Al-Jazeera Al-Khalid All Tripura Tigers Force (ATTF) ALMAZ Almaz Baeriev A-60 Almaz-Antey Alouette III SA 315B Lama ALP Alpha Jet Al-Qaeda 404 05 409 404 274 274 274 274 336 140 426 112 326 225 90 90 232 324 326 407 1 4 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 31 43 316 341 344 361 368 397 402 404 418 428 433 34 404 280 426 332 95 489 442 463 442 462 3 331 411 2005 418 401 94 208 9 492 93 95 349 441 447 426 441 447 441 447 446 7 441 426 441 449 125 498 506 498 506 498 506 125 216 498 506 161 163 181 192 266 191 192 213 216 390 8 321 322 199 306 101 132 249 349 anti-aircraft and anti-tank missiles anti-aircraft defence (AAD) anti-ballistic missile (ABM) programme anti-material rifles (AMRs) anti-missile defence (AMD) anti-missile warfare Anti-Radar Missiles anti-resonance isolation system (ARIS) Anti-Satellite (ASAT) anti-shipping strike anti-submarine warfare (ASW) 407 114 15 121 121 112 113 99 118 223 235 232 91 195 77 78 99 118 119 120 122 195 211 12 195 113 178 284 498 506 228 30 56 111 249 252 255 294 328 11 369 226 165 423 8 76 130 415 8 402 402 79 115 437 112 177 183 287 292 441 451 Army Service Corps (ASC) Army Static Switcjed Communication Network (ASCON) Arroyo Gloria Macapagal ARS Arsenal AK-74 (Bulgaria) Arthashastra artificial intelligence artillery combat command and control system (ACCCS) artillery command control and communications system (ACCCS) Arty Arun Prakash Arunachal Pradesh 182 115 178 334 385 178 51 69 72 113 115 292 178 184 118 57 62 130 175 216 305 307 308 311 323 355 507 235 385 235 442 464 92 366 393 366 366 160 431 331 8 361 8 6 36 39 435 302 62 114 127 304 307 8 317 318 319 304 307 308 323 28 493 8 11 200 357 366 391 393 436 289 292 178 427 385 342 251 266 486 84 385 469 70 437 306 389 390 78 153 468 2 39 342 366 368 70 393 436 37 370 369 Anti-submarine Warfare School anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) Antonov Antonov AN-32 Antony A.K. ANZUS Treaty AoA indicator AON Aoun Michel APEC application software Arabian Sea Arabs --Israeli problem --Kurd tensions Aramid area radio engineering network (AREN) Arihant Arjun main battle tank (MBT) Armament Research & Development Establishment (AR&DE) Armaris Armed Forces Integration Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) Armitage Richard Armoured Fighting Vehicles (AFVs) armoured personnel carriers (APCs) Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) Alternating Current Electrical Multiple Units (ACEMUs) Al-Thani Amir Hamad Bin Khalifa Altynbayev General Mukhtar aluminium gallium arsenide (ALGaAs) Alvand (Vosper Mk 5) class frigate Alvis Saladin Alvis Scorpion Amin Major General Anwar Hamad AML-90 Recce Amman hotel bombings Amnesty International Amorphous Material Transmitting Infrared Radiation (AMTIR) Amphibious forces Amplifier and signal processor Amu Darya AMX VCI (ICV) AMX-10P Marines AMX-13 Lt Tks AMX-30 AMX-30 Lt Tks AMX-30 MBT AMX-30 SP AA An-12 An-24 An-26 An-32 Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC) Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andeean Community Andhra Pradesh Androth Angola annual acquisition plan (AAP) Ansari M. Hamid AS 555 Fennec AS-10 Karen AS-332 AS-7 Kerry AS 90 (Braveheart) ASAT system ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Cooperation ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Aselsan Ash Shariqah Ashkenazi Gabi Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Asian Development Bank Asian financial crisis Asia-Pacific Asok Kumar G. Assam Rifles 295 196 68 161 180 1 314 13 441 451 26 114 369 371 374 375 377 378 379 382 384 386 388 390 392 394 396 398 400 405 407 409 411 413 415 417 419 421 423 425 426 428 430 432 434 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 450 1 453 455 460 461 463 465 182 70 182 Assam Assassin s Mace Programme Assegaai Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) ASTRA ASTROIDS ASTROS II ASW Atasu-Alashankou Athawale Air Marshal P.V. Atlas Elektronik ATREX ATS attack submarines ATV Aulakh NPS Aung San Suu Kyi Austal Austin Class Australia Army Education Corps (AEC) Army Intranet Army Ordnance Corps (AOC) --Air Force --Army --Australian Defence Force 524 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX (ADF) --Australian Minesweeping System (AMAS) --Australian Security Intelligence --strategic dilemma --US relations automated command and control automated decision support system (DSS) automated networked systems automated operational information system Automatic Fire Detection and Suppression System Automatic Grenade Launcher (AGS-30) Automatic Identification System (AIS) Automatic NBC System Aviation Industries Corporation (AVIC) Aviation Research Centre (ARC) Avinash Chander Awami League Azerbaijan 369 438 122 368 437 8 369 115 72 115 318 320 71 71 292 189 199 292 27 310 318 319 295 342 342 344 Sri Lanka Thailand Economic (BIMSTEC) Banh General Tea Bannu Bansal U.K. BAP-100 Barak I Barak Next Generation Barak SAM Barak Ehud Barak-M Barbora Air Marshal P.K. Barua Paresh Barua Raju Base Air Defence Zone (BADZ) Batalik Batiullah Battleffield Surveillance Radar-Short Range (BFSR-SR) battlefield automation battlefield management system (BMS) battlefield surveillance radars (BFSRs) battlefield surveillance system (BSS) Bay of Bengal Beazley Kim Beech 200T Beechcraft 1900 C Maritime Surv Beijing 390 330 342 300 302 235 121 122 205 331 196 218 251 259 67 354 236 216 342 293 180 70 71 76 92 115 178 180 319 320 115 70 115 178 320 390 40 405 407 14 16 21 23 55 58 124 130 255 342 509 509 116 385 278 119 336 349 270 219 225 289 292 92 303 251 265 293 269 284 236 269 280 82 113 114 121 122 236 269 278 80 293 166 250 173 250 258 251 262 306 316 323 344 355 6 356 342 Bhutto Zulfiqar Ali Biden Joseph R. (Jr.) Bihar Binoy Kumar Binskin Air Marshall Mark Black Sea BLG-66 Beluga Blitzkrieg BM-21 MR system BM-21 RL BM-21 BMD-1 ICV BMP-1 APC BMP-2 ICV BMP-3 ICV BMR-600 Boeing 55 15 353 304 310 315 321 249 252 269 329 344 235 30 66 458 185 442 456 184 284 442 446 455 6 456 456 442 460 1 137 141 142 146 148 150 153 154 155 156 157 159 275 498 503 504 506 510 512 506 506 216 230 498 512 503 503 480 490 115 442 461 54 112 115 184 209 213 442 461 489 491 496 497 238 296 327 305 308 161 301 328 305 306 357 274 304 305 310 313 319 324 354 306 332 329 329 404 192 203 113 119 121 196 201 204 220 289 292 2 5 6 7 8 9 10 27 229 507 7 9 184 442 455 488 79 56 251 266 329 456 456 B B-1 bomber B-737-300 (VIP) Babur BAE 748 (VIP) BAE systems 91 385 113 385 137 138 141 143 144 145 146 147 149 151 152 153 217 498 503 506 511 275 218 426 410 411 346 249 56 59 66 77 79 121 130 382 90 289 292 60 413 75 334 2 36 37 130 175 176 216 305 316 323 324 325 326 327 344 353 54 356 370 393 354 354 370 393 2 131 175 76 216 305 316 323 23 325 327 356 323 324 26 Boeing-737-100 200 (VIP) Boeing-737-300 Boing-737 ELINT Boeing Business Jet Boeing E-3 Sentry Boeing F-15A B C D Eagle Boeing F-A -18A B C D Hornet Bofors 57mm gun Bofors Bonus PGM Bofors FH-77 towed AA gun Bofors Howitzer Bofors L-40 70 AA gun Bombardier Boopathy G. Border Area Development Programme border fencing Border Guarding Force (BGF) border management (BM) Border Out Posts (BOPs) Border Roads Organisation (BRO) Border Security Force (BSF) Bosnia Bouphavanh Bousone Bousteila General Ahmed Bouteflika Abdel-aziz Brahmaputra Class BrahMos BAeHAL Software Ltd Bahadur Air Vice Marshal M. Bahrain 410 11 --and United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Bakiyev Kurmanbek Bal Arun Kumar ballistic missiles Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) Banco Delta Asia Bandar Abbas Bandwidth on Demand Bangit Lt General Delfin Bangladesh Belgium Bell 407 Bell AH-1 Cobra Super Cobra Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. Bell-212CCT BEL-Multitonnee Bengaluru Berdimuhamedow Gurbanguly Beri Sudhir Kumar Bewoor Air Vice Marshal K.G. Beyond Visual Range (BVR) Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile (BVRAAM) Bhaba Atomic Research Centre (BARC) Bhamathi B. Bhangu Air Marshal P.S. Bharani Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) Brazil --equipment and hardware Brazil Russia India China (BRICs) BRDM-2 Bremer Vulcan British Aircraft Carrier Project Brown Amendment Browne Air Marshal N.A.K. Bryce Quentin BTR-152VI BTR-50 --Bangladesh National Party (BNP) --equipment --foreign relations --India relations Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Bhardwaj Lt General D. Bhardwaj Lt General P.C. Bhasin Vice Admiral S. Bhatia Ranjit Kumar Bhutan --equipment and hardware Bhutto Benazir --illegal migration from Bangladesh India Myanmar 525 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX BTR-80A BUK-M1 Bulgaria Bulk Encryption Unit Burma Air Marshal J.N. Bush George W. 456 7 115 178 109 218 251 1 12 13 14 15 18 20 36 59 60 357 411 101 102 104 105 107 110 134 --budget allocations --modernisation --reforms Central Police Organisation (CPO) Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) Centre for Airborne Systems (CABS) Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics (CAIR) Centre for Development of Telematics Centre for Fire Explosive & Environment Safety (CFEES) Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification (CEMILAC) Centre for Personal Talent Management (CEPTAM) Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping (CUNPK) centre-state synergy Centurion Mk13 Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) Cessna 150 Aircraft Cessna 170 Aircraft Cessna 172 Aircraft Cessna 177 Aircraft Cessna 180 Aircraft Cessna 185 Aircraft Cessna 207 Aircraft Cessna 208B Aircraft Cessna 310P Aircraft Cessna 401 Aircraft Cessna 402 Aircraft Cessna 402B Aircraft Cessna 421 Aircraft Cessna U 206 Aircraft CH-47 Chinook Chachra Major General Sanjiv Chairman Chief of Staff Committee (CISC) Chakri Narubet class Aircraft Carrier Challenger Challenger 2 Chan Chung Sing Lt General Chanakya Chandra Air Marshal J. Chandramouli C. Chandrasekharan S. Chandrasekharan K.M. Chang Bogo class Submarine Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) Chatterjee Upamanyu Chaudhary Anita Chaudhary Dileep Rai Singh Chechanya Cheetah chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) Chemical Weapons Convention 312 313 311 62 132 304 305 309 313 317 356 295 295 121 295 295 295 176 61 442 462 84 398 392 429 392 390 413 378 415 429 378 378 388 371 417 385 488 498 510 249 253 163 165 468 487 88 238 442 462 335 51 219 300 249 252 328 468 485 155 249 300 302 300 303 31 116 216 232 275 358 90 91 92 47 --Armed Forces --Australia relations --cyber warfare capability --Chinese Communist Party (CCP) --Civil War --Cultural Revolution --defence capability Chic-4 design Chidambaram P. Chief of Air Staff (CAS) Chief of Army Staff (COAS) Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) Chief of Naval Staff (CNS) Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) Chieftain Mk Chile China Chetak Chew Men Leong Rear Admiral Chhattisgarh 116 120 195 211 216 232 248 275 335 310 313 315 321 326 55 62 299 300 301 308 221 2 111 170 172 173 179 82 68 70 128 161 163 167 223 199 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 5 113 12 19 20 31 40 41 43 48 49 52 112 316 342 347 355 366 379 382 390 393 395 25 28 438 71 74 11 92 35 11 21 24 37 90 91 116 267 280 281 365 2 5 6 8 10 35 37 8 129 370 372 374 435 441 442 6 468 79 499 80 511 2 3 29 39 52 57 8 113 119 123 124 127 181 305 307 308 316 323 4 356 437 323 25 356 73 111 130 1 305 307 34 128 235 267 286 373 124 55 56 38 373 435 40 22 66 67 89 27 436 37 323 11 13 15 16 23 26 49 56 67 438. See also Arunachal Pradesh buy and make Indian C C-130 Hercules Transport Aircraft C-130H C-130J C-130J C-130J-30 C-130J Super Hercules C-131 Class C-141 Class C-17 C-212 C-63 Class Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) CACI International Inc. Cambodia Camcopter 5.1 Canada capability building capability definition document (CDD) capability development capability upgradation capacity building capital budget capital expenditure CARE International Carrier Command Post Tracked (CCPT-BMP II) Carrier Mortar Tracked Vehicle (CMTV) Carthage Caspian Pipeline Consortium Caspian Sea Casspir Mk casualty evacuation Catapult Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) CDO Technologies CENTCOM Central Air Command Central Asia 55 506 30 385 405 220 507 125 248 248 125 505 248 53 122 128 161 167 199 322 328 141 154 156 160 35 306 366 370 71 407 342 393 97 100 118 104 437 181 127 8 97 98 182 63 401 292 114 40 344 344 349 357 442 460 172 184 5 96 140 426 216 341 344 346 348 349 351 357 361 373 349 19 20 199 304 306 7 310 356 56 22 24 25 66 310 304 5 --global power --equipment and hardware --India relations --infiltration in Northeast --security threat to India --territorial dispute --war (1962) --Japan relation --military modernization --Pakistan alliance --Pakistan-North Korea proliferation nexus --strategic challenge in Asia-Pacific --revolution in military affairs (RMA) --space warfare --strategic partnership an evolving strategy --Tibet issue --United States relation Central Asia Gas Pipeline Central Asian Republics Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Central Military Commission (CMC) Central Paramilitary Forces (CPF) central police forces 526 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) Chinese Hegu Class Chinese Romeo Chinese Type-56 Towed AA Chong-Pin Lee Chopra Air Vice Marshal A. Chopra Air Vice Marshal R. Chopra Vice Admiral Anil Choudhury Shankar Roy Christopher Dr S. Chun Jee AORH Chung Un-chan C-I circular error probable (CEP) Civil Aviation Ministry of Civil Trade and Exports Class Delhi (Project 15) class patrol submarine Clausewitz climate change Clinton Hillary CMDS CN-235M Coastal Defence coastal management coastal security coastal surveillance capabilities Cochin Shipyard ltd Cold War 27 488 407 407 446 23 219 219 250 254 266 328 170 295 385 335 366 34 223 270 203 470 54 6 8 10 11 13 16 38 122 372 384 8 12 13 15 56 59 381 382 284 385 506 328 327 8 41 131 200 131 210 196 1 2 5 7 11 12 14 32 40 48 196 435 438 351 224 224 195 498 209 496 292 79 121 196 493 (C4I2) command control communications computers information and intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (C4I2SR) command control communications computers and (military) intelligence surveillance target acquisition and reconnaissance (C4ISTAR) command information and decision support system (CIDSS) Command Integrated Network (CIN) command and mission effectiveness commercial negotiation committee (CNC) Commercial off-the-Shelf (COTS) Technology Committee of Concerned Citizens Common Display System (CDS) Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) communication networks communication satellite (COMSAT) communication system communication technologies Communications School communications computers intelligence operations surveillance and reconnaissance (C2ISR) Communist Party of Bhutan Communist Party of China (CPC) Communist Party of India (Maoist) CPI (Maoist) Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPI (M) Communist Party of Nepal Communist Terrorist Movement (CTM) Comprehensive National Power (CNP) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) compression technologies Computer Emergency Response Team-India (CERT-In) Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Condor Conference on Disarmament (2009) confidence-building measures (CBMs) Constitution of India container security initiative (CSI) 70 Control & Reporting Centres (CRCs) Controller and Auditor General (CAG) convergence technology Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) Copenhagen Climate Summit Corps of Engineers (CE) Corps of Signals Corvettes cost effectiveness Cost-Exchange Ratio Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Council of United Mujahideen Council on Foreign Relations Counter Surface Force Operations (CSFO) counter-bombardment capability counter-guerrilla warfare counter-insurgency (CI) 236 64 75 393 2 10 182 172 207 468 479 485 487 488 489 491 161 86 64 342 12 216 113 310 98 113 114 177 178 262 304 307 310 312 315 20 325 366 170 317 318 319 320 318 319 320 34 56 62 74 98 130 178 220 312 368 411 252 329 407 62 311 163 165 449 95 80 68 85 70 85 88 115 127 86 87 23 31 43 67 71 73 74 223 365 87 87 383 446 115 121 238 75 132 115 178. 178 69 103 195 75 322 230 311 5 6 233 234 235 236 345 34 73 27 115 223 168 195 Counter-Insurgency Forces (CIF) Counter-Insurgency Grid (CIG) Counter-Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School (CIJWS) counter-terrorism Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) College of Air Warfare College of Defence Management College of Naval Warfare in Karanja Mumbai Combat Aircraft combat data systems Combat Improved Ajeya (CIA) Tank combat information centres combat management system (CMS) Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment (CVRDE) Combattante II G Class Fast Track Craft-Missile COMCOS COMCOS (East) COMCOS (West) Cominform command and control (C2) command control and communication (C3) command control communication and information (C3I) systems command control communications computers information and intelligence 26 33 34 91 98 355 21 92 315 322 315 316 322 391 165 324 3 4 13 48 50 365 382 72 87 8 280 450 50 412 301 317 41 292 295 468 496 97 195 195 195 11 70 71 73 111 317 66 439 Cowshish Amit Crane Vice Admiral Russ Crestitalia Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS) Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) Crisis Management Centre Cross budgeting team Crotale Low Alt SAM System cryogenic cooling CVN 21 New generation Aircraft Carrier cyber command cyber crime cyber security --national strategy to secure Cyber Security Awareness and Training Programme Cyber warfare (CW) cyber warning and information network (CWIN) Cyberspace Security Response System Czech Republic --army equipment and hardware D D-20 Gun How D-30 Fd Gun Daewoo Daimler Ferret MK 2 3 Dalai Lama 458 442 458 486 442 463 2 58 130 307 91 122 527 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX Daman Damascus Dandkaranya Region Dantewada Daphne Class submarine DARIN DARIN-3 DARPA Das Dr J. Narayana Das N.R. Dash-8 Q-Series Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H data management technology Datar Anil M. Datta I.N. David vs Goliath Dawran Major General Mohammad DDG-1000 Debroy Bibek deep penetration strike aircraft (DPSA) defence management Defence Accounting Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) 328 401 429 30 322 315 493 274 220 91 250 307 238 226 27 132 295 270 23 329 77 79 311 123 161 63 64 101 102 104 106 108 109 133 134 163 164 178 287 288 296 Defence Institute of Quality Assurance Bangalore Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) Defence Laboratory (DL) defence management Defence Material & Store Research & Development Establishment (DMSRDE) Defence Material Organisation (DMO) Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Defence Ministry of (MoD) 286 161 163 166 296 64 --proposed restructuring plan Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) Defence Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) Defence Systems and Equipment International (DSE) Defence Technology Commission Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) Defense Security Cooperation Agency Delhi Class Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) Delhi Police (DP) Denel NTW-20 14.5 Deng Xiao Ping Deputy Chief of Army Staff (DCOAS) Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (DCIDS) Dera Ismail Khan Derby Beyond Visual Range Destroyers detailed project reports (DPR) Dewan Vice Admiral D.K. Dhafra Air Base Dhanush Dharam Vira Dhawan Sunil Kumar Dhofar (Province) Class Dhowan Vice Admiral R.K. Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) 294 296 121 147 288 (should be DSEI) 294 297 155 468 307 313 189 25 28 178 162 165 263 291 342 120 472 5 484 486 105 193 251 258 432 289 290 1 311 302 468 193 251 260 126 211 216 232 274 275 310 498 508 73 84 212 95 95 325 270 300 303 190 89 90 91 92 93 328 161 324 325 268 290 267 286 64 274 171 178 171 267 269 286 287 288 296 159 296 37 52 53 64 70 71 76 101 105 107 09 110 112 113 114 116 128 133 134 135 161 163 165 166 167 178 182 195 223 224 274 280 286 294 313 54 135 106 287 164 67 166 161 67 161 223 54 161 163 165 75 76 132 134 181 224 182 101 06 109 134 181 224 267 222 24 133 285 286 87 267 268 286 88 269 70 102 106 108 109 110 135 287 103 109 133 267 286 287 102 110 165 296 296 Defence and Security Exhibitions Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE) Defence Bio-Engineering And Electro Medical Laboratory (DEBEL) defence budget --allocations --decline --reforms defence capability Defence Communication Network (DCN) defence communications equipment Defence Crisis Management Group (DCMG) Defence Electronics Application Laboratory (DEAL) Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DERL) Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) defence expenditure Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL) defence industry Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT) Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research (DIBER) Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) Defence Institute of Psychological Research (DIPR) Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS) Defence Modernisation Fund Defence Offset Facilitation Agency (DOFA) Defence Planning Council defence planning process --jointmanship Defence Planning Staff (DPS) Defence Procurement Board (DPB) Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) --2006 (DPP-2006) --2008 (DPP-2008) --2009 (DPP-2009) defence production Defence Production Department of (DDP) Defence Production & Supplies Department of (DDP&S) --Allied Organisations --research and development activities Defence Production Board (Def Prod Board) Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs) Defence Research & Development Board (DRDB) Defence Research & Development Establishment (DRDE) Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) 296 63 68 97 100 133 163 127 8 161 3 86 220 70 72 115 178 180 278 163 296 296 267 287 8 63 64 97 296 267 89 296 296 296 296 296 64 91 92 98 102 103 104 107 108 109 110 112 113 114 115 119 121 122 127 134 223 267 274 284 286 287 289 93 Digital Battlefield digital engine control system Digital Navigation System digital video interface (DVI) digital video interface Dimasa Halam Dogah (DHD) Dimri Sashi Dhar Diptivilasa D. DIRCM System direct energy weapons (DEW) Director General Coast Guard Director General Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS) Director General of Forces Intelligence (DGFI) Director General Ordnance Factories (DGOF) Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) Directorate General of Information Systems (DGIS) Directorate General of Mechanised Forces (DGMF) Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) 528 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX Directorate of Planning and Coordination Directorate of Standardisation disaster relief disaster rescue Diu Diving School Diving support ship Diving tenders (YDT) Djebel Chenona FS D 228-212 aircraft Dokdo class Dolphin class Submarine Doppler nay attack system Dornier-228-101 Dornier DO-228 Dornier Maritime Surveillance DRS Technologies drug trafficking and smuggling Dubayy Dushanbe Dutt Vikram Dev DynCorp International Dzhaksybekov Adilbek electronic warfare (EW) 267 286 7 267 269 286 37 38 7 8 328 195 213 213 405 216 275 439 479 80 226 195 210 248 228 505 120 143 169 435 431 348 302 157 332 23 70 74 113 121 192 196 216 278 292 488 178 F-125 F-135 F-136 F-155 F-15K F-16 F-16 A B C D F-22 Raptor fighters F-22 F-27 F-35 Lightening II F-35 F-35A F-35B F-35C F-405 F-4E F-4EJ Phantoms F-5B F-5E Tiger F-5E F-AB Laser Bomb Units Falcon 900 Far East Fast Attack Craft (FACs) Fast Attack Craft Tarmugli Fast Attack Missiles Craft 79 82 83 82 494 385 82 124 504 438 504 82 83 405 82 83 504 82 82 82 385 385 438 385 498 505 385 235 405 2 196 195 468 478 9 481 482 483 490 496 497 328 496 97 422 332 329 27 124 500 341 2 357 361 353 210 307 112 275 81 84 56 368 63 64 166 196 145 147 93 112 177 496 113 112 331 225 199 50 368 393 192 194 195 195 284 E E-2 Hawkeye EADS CASA early warning system East Africa East Asia 498 512 505 6 293 317 192 2 6 8 341 353 365 366 373 376 381 395 397 438 8 40 41 369 393 216 344 120 203 204 205 211 226 227 236 344 2 4 123 507 275 33 406 08 418 468 480 1 237 250 291 158 160 331 195 73 89 91 90 292 122 23 178 217 East Asia-Latin America Cooperation (EALAC) East Coast of Africa East Timor Eastern Air Command Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement EC725 ECM Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) economic growth Ecreuil AS 550 Ecuador effect-based operations (EBO) Egypt Eilat (SAAR 5) Class (FSGHM) EL M-2083 Tethered Aerostat Radar System Elangovan G. Elbit Systems Limited Eldeen Lt General Abd El Aziz Electrical Engineering School electromagnetic (EM) radiation electromagnetic weapons Electro-Mechanical Drive Units electronic chart display information system (ECDIS) electronic intelligence system (ELINT) Electronic Support Measure (ESM) electronic warfare system (EWS) Electronics and Radar Development Establishments (LRDE) electro-optical counter measures (EOCM) Elettronica SpA and Elbit Systems Inc. Elizabeth II Queen ELOP ELT 572 EMB-312 Tucano Embraer Legacy Emerson Electric Emmali Rahmon 336Ma Ying-Jeou Enan Lt General Sami Hafez End Use Monitoring Arrangement (EUMA) energy security engine lubrication systems Enhanced Interoperability environmental degradation equipment and hardware specifications Army Naval Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC) Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council Eurocopter Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma Eurocopter AS 350 Dauphin II Eurocopter AS 350 Eurocopter AS 365 Dauphin Eurocopter AS 565 Panther Eurocopter SA 360 Eurocopter SA-316 Eurocopter SA-319 Alouette III Eurocopter SA-330 Puma Eurocopter SA-341 342 Gazelle Eurofighter Typhoon Euromissile European Aviation Safety Agreement (EASA) European Union (EU) Evans Lt General Mark Evidence Act (1871) exclusive economic zones (EEZs) explosive reactive armour (ERA) Extended Range Barak (ER-SAM) External Affairs Ministry (MEA) 297 91 92 190 329 284 190 498 510 126 229 487 335 330 14 41 83 74 7 435 442 67 468 512 351 344 116 120 508 507 507 507 507 507 507 508 508 508 508 500 284 275 5 6 7 8 10 27 342 366 393 329 311 40 121 191 327 488 188 292 119 205 37 165 167 306 F F A-18E F F100 110 F119 F119-PW100 F-124 F-125 82 82 82 83 82 79 220 Fast Interception Crafts (FIC) Fast Track Missile Crafts Fatah al-Islam Fatikhovich Zhaksilikov Faulkner John Phillip FBC-1 FC-1 Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) Feingold Russ Ferranti Blue Box Fertilisers and Chemicals Travancore Limited FH-77B Fifth Generation Combat Aircraft (FGFA) fighter aircraft engines fighter jets Fiji Finance Commission Finance Ministry of (MoF) Fincantieri Finmeccanica Fire Control System (FCS) fire-control radars Firefinder system firepower asymmetries Firouzabadi Major General Hassan Fishbed Fisheries Department Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) Five Power Defence Agreement Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief (FOC-in-C) Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST) FLAME 529 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernisation (FRAM) flight management system (FMS) Flying Instructors School (FIS) focal plan arrays (FPAs) foreign direct investment (FDI) Foreign Military Sales (FMS) foreign policy Formed Police Unit (FPU) Four Groups Fourth Generation Aircrafts Foxtrot Class France General Dynamics 491 229 230 217 94 95 106 129 131 132 136 98 12 52 307 5 10 274 202 6 14 40 64 89 95 112 166 188 196 202 222 227 233 236 284 342 379 420 426 446 500 507 511 1907 386 79 78 405 407 409 411 413 428 430 432 438 439 475 8 483 4 486 7 488 489 91 492 3 494 6 407 450 432 222 223 70 113 180 442 464 global security global strategic context globalisation 0 9 10 2 9 2 8 9 10 219 329 95 40 48 354 12 302 298 331 41 119 196 269 282 3 297 302 406 416 430 441 491 278 151 GLONASS Gnat Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) Godavari Class Godrej & Boyce Goel Dr P.S. Goel Rashmi Gogoi Air Marshal A.K. Golan Heights Golden Triangle Goldwater Nichols Act Gonzales Norberto B. Gopalpur Gormo-Lhasa oil pipeline Gorshkov Admiral Goshawk Goyal A.K. Great Depression Greatship Global Services Ltd Singapore green house gas (GHG) emissions Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Grotius Hugo Ground Support Laser Weapons Group of Ministers (GoM) 78 112 137 138 140 144 146 148 151 154 155 156 209 119 209 278 287 112 70 2 178 73 218 132 44 480 10 30 40 66 81 89 95 112 166 178 195 267 342 449 50 505 165 178 318 319 249 253 250 261 447 448 9 441 448 334 56 329 442 6 416 420 426 428 2 26 77 96 113 114 225 229 230 232 233 274 292 14 52 1 2 6 8 32 40 52 306 321 225 215 196 269 283 4 120 203 135 298 300 303 218 430 52 192 66 334 199 324 195 210 120 300 303 8 282 15 366 40 91 53 128 161 165 166 167 327 Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) Grover Air Cmde P.C. GSAT-7A satellite GSG-9 GSh-23 6 GSh-301 Guangzhou Guided Missile Destroyers Gujarat 308 328 --communal riots Gulf of Aden Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Gulf War (1991) Gulfstream IV Gulfstream V Guo Boxiong General Gupta Ashok Kumar Gupta Balraj Gupta D.M. Gupta Dheeraj Gupta K.G. Gvozdika (M 1974- SP Gun-How) Gwadar Port Gyanesh Kumar Gyatso Tsangyan 404 219 220 306 226 226 228 395 491 312 3 41 199 200 437 38 8 426 22 25 52 65 67 91 115 426 405 405 330 252 295 270 252 270 457 36 130 324 254 269 130 General Electric General Staff Equipment Policy Committee General Staff Qualitative Requirement (GSQR) geographical information system (GIS) geo-political issues George Air Vice Marshal M. geospatial technology geostationary earth satellite German type 212 Germany --equipment and hardware Franco-Siamese Treaty FREMM frequency modulated carrier wave (FMCW) Frigates FSU Komar Fuchs Fujairah Future Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) Future Infantry Soldier as System (F-INSAS) FV432 --equipment and hardware GFAST Ghatak Platoons Ghose Ranjan Kumar Ghosh Lt General S.R. GIAT AMX-10P GIAT GCT (SP Gun) GIAT Mk (SP Gun and How) Gilani Syed Yousuf Raza Gilani Yousaf Raza Gillespie Lt General Ken GKN Def Desert Warrior global financial crisis Global Nuclear Security summit global positioning systems (GPS) H H-181 class Hafez Mohamed Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafiz Major General Abdul Hainan class (Large Patrol Craft) Hainggyi HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd Hales Hamas Hambantota Hamilton Sunstrand Han class (Strategic missile submarine) Handa Lt General S.N. hand-held thermal imaging devices (HHITs) Hariri Rafiq Hariri Saad Harkat-ul-Jihad-i-Islam (HuJI) Harpoon Harpy Harris Corporation Hastak R.S. Hatoyama Yukio Hawai Sepoys Hawk Hawk-100 Hawk-132 Hawk-200 Hawk-21 Hawk AJT Hawk MK67 Hawk Single Stage Low to Medium Alt SAM 248 330 330 483 390 275 275 159 406 416 430 324 82 468 469 250 113 422 332 422 354 385 385 149 297 8 365 438 215 220 498 511 126 217 503 115 220 385 442 467 G G-4 G-7 G-8 G-20 Gagneja Air Vice Marshal S.K. Gaid General Salah Ahmed Gallium arsenide (GaAs) Gandhi Indira --Mujibur Rahman Accord Gandhi Rajiv Gangadharan Neela Ganju Ashwagosha Gantz Major General Anwar Hamad Garden Reach Ship Builders Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited (GRSE) Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) Gautam R.D. Gaza Strip GCT SP Gun Gearing (Fram I) Class Guided Missile Destroyer GE-Bell General Atomics 530 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX Hawk XXI Hawker 800RA Hawker 800XP HDW 1500 He Nong Duc Manh Head-up Display (HUD) HEAT heavy water (D2O) Heckler Hekmatyar Gulbuddin Helicopter Academy to Train by Simulation of Flying (HATSOFF) helicopters 507 8 Hermes Class Herons Herstal F-2000 (Belgium) Herzegovina Hetz (Saar 4.5) class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class Hezbollah Hibako General Yoshifumi High Energy Laser (HEL) applications high energy liquid laser area defence System (HELLADS) High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) High Power Microwave (HPM) Systems High Speed Anti-Radiation Missiles (HARM) Hindu Rights Action Force (HINDRAF) Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) 442 385 385 195 336 225 226 227 274 188 56 178 18 275 211 12 498 202 468 126 233 187 306 481 468 43 401 412 13 416 422 423 430 332 90 91 91 297 91 505 388 119 123 125 126 211 217 220 222 224 25 227 232 269 274 77 319 59 30 346 126 498 510 126 498 510 332 62 167 299 301 3 308 311 312 318 319 327 328 299 308 138 141 498 499 165 36 40 424 432 468 478 329 478 79 248 494 212 498 511 506 7 --cyberspace security --equipment and hardware HS-748 Avro HS-748 ELINT HTT-40 Hu Jintao Huangfen (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Huchuan Class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Hudong Zhonghua Shipyard hull mounted panoramic sonar (HUMSA) Hull Mounted Sonar (New Generation)-HUMSA (NG) human intelligence (HUMINT) human resource (HR) human resource development (HRD) human resource management human trafficking humanitarian assistance and disaster relief Hunter Hutbay HVF Avadi hydrogen bomb Hydrographic School Hyundai 216 216 126 25 56 57 330 365 439 479 479 439 477 122 205 292 318 67 71 294 286 223 4 435 37 8 200 215 199 292 56 195 486 132 178 215 20 221 2 274 284 290 394 437 220 225 37 123 6 216 217 312 313 3 53 98 99 132 169 78 179 82 274 290 292 304 306 314 437 183 7 451 2 111 16 181 182 41 199 274 282 283 287 328 318 319 68 166 224 225 231 195 29 30 34 35 38 40 42 98 99 113 117 22 178 191 8 199 200 274 282 292 328 437 494 194 95 192 94 192 3 35 37 38 40 41 52 41 35 37 38 41 67 117 118 121 130 200 424 262 304. See also Sri Lanka 311 278 223 274 348 119 41 192 366 368 376 8 394 377 8 275 304 305 6 310 313 356 235 236 171 2 114 184 114 132 178 --budget allocation --equipment catalogue --modernisation --Training Command India Reserve Battalions (IRBs) Indian Armed Forces --modernisation Indian Army (IA) --equipment catalogue --specifications --modernisation plans Indian Coast Guard (ICG) Indian Military Academy (IMA) Indian National Defence University (INDU) Indian Naval Ship (INS) Indian Naval Work up Team (INWT) Indian Navy (IN) I IAI Kfir IAR-316 (SA-316) Alouette III IFG Mk.2 IL-103 IL-38 IL-76 aircraft IL-76MD IL-76TD IL-78 Ilavazhagan Dr G. Ilyushin IL-18 Ilyushin IL-76MD Ilyushin IL-76TD (AWACS Version) Ilyushin IL-78 M (Tanker Version of IL-76MD) Ilyushin L-38 image processing IMI Galil 5.56 178 import substitution improvised explosive devise (IEDs) INAS 303 INCAT-HAL Aerostuctures Ltd INCOM Independent Parachute Brigade Group India 501 385 441 451 385 195 211 90 125 216 17 405 405 216 405 296 498 505 229 498 229 229 511 95 63 315 316 317 318 319 322 407 120 275 225 170 2 5 7 19 39 42 236 344 356 9 370 85 8 358 441 451 2 479 82 498 501 508 34 37 64 98 9 115 116 126 --maintenance and logistic support --organisation --personnel Indian Ocean Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) Indian Ocean Region (IOR) Hiroshima Hitler Hizb-ut-Tahrir (HuT) HJT-16 Kiran HJT-36 Sitara Hokazono General Ken ichiro Home Affairs Ministry (MHA) Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IORARC) Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) Indian Penal Code (IPC) Indian Railways Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) indigenous aircraft carrier (IAC) Indonesia --equipment and hardware Indo-Russian Aviation Limited Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force (ITBP) Indra-I II Infantry infantry battalions infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) Infantry Soldier as System (INSAS) Infantry Batallions Homeland security Honeywell Technology Solutions Inc. (HTSI) Hong 6 Horizon Core Technology group Hormuz Strait Houku Class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Houston Air Chief Marshall Allan Grant Houxin class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) (PTG) Hovercraft Howaldtswerke HPT-32 Deepak HS-748 Indian Air Force (IAF) 531 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX information and communication technology (ICT) information assurance cum cyber security Information Dominance information security information sharing information sharing and analysis centres (ISACs) information systems (IS) Information Technology (IT) Information Technology Act 2008 (ITA 2008) information warfare (IW) INFOTECH HAL Ltd infrared imaging systems Infrared Laser and Sensor Technology infrared optical system infrared photon detectors infra-red suppression system (IRSS) infrastructure creation and development --in border regions INS Amba INS Bangaram INS Bitra INS Chapal Chatak and Chamak INS Chilka INS Dronacharya INS Garuda INS Hamla INS Himgiri INS Kadamba INS Kalveri INS Makar Meen and Mithun INS Nistar INS Satavahana INS Shivaji INS Subhadra INS Suvarna INS Udaygiri INS Valsura INS Vikramaditya INS Viraat INS Zamorin Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis (IDSA) Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS) Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis (ISSA) Institute of Technology Management (ITM) Instruments Research & Development Establishment (IRDE) Insurgency in North-east and Punjab 65 122 70 72 74 71 69 86 199 87 70 12 65 66 72 86 113 278 286 87 23 70 74 113 120 275 94 190 94 94 119 164 170 1 180 182 437 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 196 195 195 195 195 195 197 207 292 197 207 292 195 195 119 195 196 203 210 119 192 196 312 297 165 297 297 297 57 61 62 97 176 179 299 301 304 305 435 83 International Compact with Iraq international Cooperation in Defence Production international forces International Monetary Fund (IMF) disks Integrated Air Command & Control Systems (IACCS) integrated communications networks Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) Integrated Electric Propulsion (IEP) Integrated Electronic Warfare Programme Samyukta Integrated Fire Detection & Suppression System (IFDSS) Integrated Guided Missiles Development Programme (IGMDP) Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Integrated Material Management Online System (IMMOLS) network Integrated Perspective Planning Integrated Power Systems (IPS) integrated project management terms (IPMT) integrated security system Integrated Space Cell (ISC) integrated surveillance system Integrated Test Range (ITR) Integrated Tri-Ser vice Perspective Planning Integrates Defence Staff (IDS) integrity pact (IP) intelligence and precision force Intelligence Bureau (IB) intelligence systems & apparatus Intelligence Task Force Intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) intercepter boats (IBs) Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) Internal Security (IS) 82 236 76 161 67 181 223 224 79 292 292 international relations (IR) International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) international ship and port facility security (ISPS) International Strategic Security Cooperation and Dialogue International Telecommunication Union (ITU) international terrorism Internet Protocol (IP) Network Technologies inter-service technical intelligence Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) Pakistan IR detectors Iran --nuclear programme --International Compact with Iraq Iraq 5 6 10 12 37 52 192 258 19 342 41 163 43 1 7 56 75 163 316 324 325 326 95 2 6 19 20 36 37 40 60 412 14 412 414 60 115 402 414 15 428 430 432 22 32 332 401 404 415 418 428 402 424 418 344 344 413 210 196 292 482 8 11 14 27 48 49 64 89 95 112 115 119 122 126 131 178 233 284 401 402 406 407 412 13 416 17 418 422 23 430 437 417 479 82 498 501 43 401 412 13 416 422 423 430 401 416 418 442 137 138 149 251 265 284 289 82 217 164 79 103 104 105 108 109 110 132 223 178 297 164 53 101 128 105 66 128 163 245 66 161 192 62 74 248 65 66 67 217 220 274 74 161 299 301 304 5 307 8 309 10 312 13 304 366 18 19 342 352 275 --United States War (2003) Isakov General Ismail Islam --extremism --fundamentalists Islamic Action Front (IAF) Islamic Jihad Union Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Islander Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) Israel Aircraft Industries (RAMTA) Israel --equipment and hardware --Hezbollah --Palestine conflict --peace agreement Italy 196 342 army equipment and hardware ITT Corporation IVECO Latin America Iyer Air Marshal V.R. Internal Security Academy Internal Security Act Internal Security Assistance Force (ISAF) International Aerospace Manufacturing Pvt Ltd International Association of Peacekeeping Training centres (IAPTC) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 176 3 48 49 59 357 365 382 412 414 287 5 10 12 5 6 9 10 406 414 J J-10 124 J-11 (Su27SK) J57 Jafari Major General Mohammad Ali Jaguars 439 124 500 81 331 123 125 195 216 Integral starter generators and Electric Actuators integrally bladed rotor (IBR) 532 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX 217 220 227 265 274 275 359 425 463 300 303 298 Joint Operations Committee (JOCOM) Joint Planning Committee (JPC) Joint Task Force on Intelligence (JTFI) Joint Training Committee (JTC) Jordan --equipment and hardware Jordanian Air Force Jordanian Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZ) Joshi Shobhana Joshi Vice Admiral D.K. JS Myoko Jyoti Class 163 163 310 163 414 415 418 19 428 430 419 418 418 253 250 266 438 212 Katyusha rocket Kaushal M.B. Kaveri Class Kazakhstan KDX-2 class Destroyer KDX-III Kelkar Committee Keltron Kerry-Lugar legislation Kevlar KF-16C D KH179 How Khalid Khalifa bin-Zayed al-Nahyan Sheikh al-Khalifa General Sheikh Duaij bin Salman al-Khalifa Hamad bin isa al-Khalifa Lt General Sheikh Salman bin Hamad al-Khalifa Sheikh Mohammed Bin Mubarak al-Khalifa Sheikh Salman bin Hamad Khalili Abdul Karim Khamronsin class Corvette Khan Dr A.Q. Khan General Bismillah Mohammadi Khan Moahmmad Qasim Fahim Khanna Lt General Pradeep Khanna Nagal Lt General Pradeep Kharonsin Class Khmer Rouge Khukri class (Project 25) Khullar S.K. Khushab Kiev Class Kilo Ampere Linear Injector (KALI) Kilo class Kim Jong II Kim Yong Chun Vice Marshall Kim Yong II Kim Tae Young Kiran MK 1&2 Kissinger Henry Kitazawa Toshimi Kizu County Klub missiles Koch G 36 Kochar Air Marshal G.S. Kochi Kohistan Koizumi Junichiro Kolar Gold Fields (KGF) Kolay Sukumar Kolkata Class Komratov Rear Admiral Ratmir Kongsberg Defense Corporation Kongsberg Gruppen Konkurs KOPYO 90 302 202 292 341 342 344 45 349 50 351 357 486 439 102 108 134 135 122 14 15 79 385 460 442 462 336 330 330 330 330 330 329 488 89 38 55 329 329 251 251 261 468 316 207 302 55 203 92 27 201 405 413 468 470 333 333 333 335 210 224 274 2 5 331 59 119 120 121 205 178 251 265 119 195 200 328 328 342 365 280 270 119 196 332 139 143 142 151 188 284 225 Jain K.C. Jain R.K. Jalashwa (Austin) Class (Amphibious Transport Dock) Jammu & Kashmir (JK) 119 209 492 3 2 4 30 52 56 57 61 97 131 170 1 175 176 180 216 299 304 308 309 324 327 342 2 5 6 8 10 11 Japan 13 39 40 41 49 60 89 267 357 366 378 382 393 424 436 438 379 380 438 --Air Self Defence Force --Democratic Party of Japan (DJP) 365 39 357 366 --economy 267 379 80 442 --equipment and hardware 452 3 60 89 382 424 --foreign relations policy 49 --India relations --Liberal Democratic Party 365 (LDP) 379 --Liberal Democratic Party --National Defence Programme 379 438 Guidelines (NDPG) 393 --regional cooperation 6 --Russia relations 41 --shipbuilding 11 13 436 --US relations 365 --war crime in China 82 503 JAS-39 250 260 Jaswal Lt General B.S. 284 JATO booster Jawad Rear Admiral Muhammad 331 335 393 Jayakumar S. 432 Jebel Ali 366 368 377 391 Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) 56 JF-17 fighter 126 439 JF-17 Thunder 438 JF-35 27 JH-7 124 JH-7 7A 300 303 Jha Lokesh 310 313 315 321 Jharkhand 498 499 Jian 7 498 499 Jian 8 499 Jian Hong 6 477 Jianghu I V class frigate 477 Jianghu II class frigate 475 6 Jiangkai I class frigate 476 Jiangkai II class frigate 56 476 7 Jiangwei-class frigates 500 Jianji 10 468 Jiankai Class Jin Class (Strategic missile 468 submarine) Jindalee Operational Radar 370 Network Joint Air to Surface Stand-off 505 Missile (JASSM) Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) 318 164 joint military strategy 41 328 joint operation centres (JOCs) K K 1A1 K0-1 K-13 AA-2 Atoll K-8 Karakoram KA-31AEW KA-32 Kailsh Mansarovar Yatra Kakodkar Anil Kalia Air Vice Marshal V.N. Kalsi N.S. Kalvari Class Kamov Ka-25 B SH Kamov Ka-25 Kamov Ka-31 Kampuchea Kamtapur Liberation Organisation (KLO) Kan Naoto Kanglei Yowal Kunna Lup (KYKL) Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP) Kanupp reactor Kao Hua-chu Kaplan Robert D. Kapoor J.C. Kapoor Nita Karaikal Karakoram Range Kargil conflict 460 385 233 498 511 119 196 385 306 49 218 300 202 498 508 498 508 498 509 192 355 331 326 326 56 335 35 38 295 252 199 56 130 41 43 46 52 53 112 113 123 128 161 165 166 182 215 16 305 327 8 53 66 128 161 165 166 167. See also Pakistan United States 351 321 218 29 351 250 195 196 199 17 18 329 342 468 484 115 --post-Kargil Kargil Review Committee (KRC) Karimov Karnataka Karnik Air Marshal A.S. Karshi-Khanbad airbase Karwal Lt General R.K. Karwar Karzai Hamid Kashagan Kashin Class Kassam 406 Katoch Prakash 533 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX 207 439 60 188 43 52 67 115 306 140 450 41 295 468 484 5 442 459 385 250 306 219 175 250 437 415 113 01 402 411 420 21 424 426 --equipment and hardware 421 Kvadrat 115 KXD-2 Class 468 Kyong Buk 487 Kyoto Protocol 10 341 342 344 Kyrgyzstan 345 6 347 348 351 357 --army equipment and hardware 346 Kora class Korea Command (KORCOM) Korean War Kornet E Kosovo Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) Krishna Godavari Basin Krishnan P.S. Krivak Class frigate KS-19 KT-1 Kukreja Air Marshall Dheeraj Kumaon Mandal Vikas Nigam Kumar Air Vice Marshal S. Kumar Lt General S.S. Kunming military exercise Kurds Kuwait Lavasa Ashok law enforcement 62 --at sea lead intelligence agency (LIA) League of Arab States Leander class frigate (Krishna) Leaopard 2 MBT Learjet series Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) Lebanon --civil war Leclerc Lee Hsein Loong Lee Kuan Yew Lee Myung Bak Lee Sang-Eui General Lee Kae Hoon left wing extremism Lei Yu Chi Lekiu class Frigate (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Leopard 2A6EX Levite Ariel Liang Guanglie General liberalisation of economy Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Libya light combat aircraft (LCA) 300 38 308 406 195 206 210 468 489 450 238 422 40 43 401 412 416 422 3 430 422 432 441 446 335 5 439 335 335 335 130 131 2 312 335 490 449 50 32 330 306 321 316 322 342 408 10 119 120 126 196 217 220 222 274 292 274 91 319 112 114 120 275 112 274 21 22 24 41 31 175 6 181 182 216 324 52 53 111 113 131 176 182 215 16 304 305 75 82 284 96 230 225 8 77 78 79 335 27 78 120 125 137 139 140 143 144 145 147 148 149 151 152 153 154 157 160 504 506 7 195 London International Conference Long Range Maritime Patrol (LRMP) Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LRSAM ) Long Range Tracking Radar (LRTR) Long-Term Integrated Perspective Plan (LTIPP) Long-Term Perspective Plan (LTPP) Look East Policy Lop Nor test range Los Alamos Laboratories Low Altitude (Alt) SAM system Low Energy Laser (LEL) Systems Low frequency active (LFA) Low Frequency Dunking Sonar (LFDS) low intensity conflicts (LIC) Low Level Tactical Radars (LLTRs) Low-Level Transportable Radars (LLTR) Low Probability Interception Radar (LPIR) Lowry Computer Products LR-SAM LSP LST (large) LTPP Formulation Committee (LTPPFC) Luda Class Luhai class destroyer Luthra Air Vice Marshal S.C. Luyang I class destroyer Luyang II class destroyer LVTP-7 Lynx Mk-99 18 40 196 289 292 121 104 108 164 165 166 132 133 164 323 357 366 55 28 441 91 78 292 29 34 41 66 98 169 70 181 236 126 78 141 119 274 208 164 468 472 474 475 219 473 4 44 385 385 L L-100-30 L-3 Communication L-40 70 L-70 gun system La Fayette class Frigate Lada class (Project 677) Submarine Ladakh Laden Osama bin Lahud Emile Lakki Marwat Lakshadweep Lalit Kumar Dr Lamba Lt General A.S. Lamba Rear Admiral Sunil land attack cruise missile (LACMs) land systems land warfare Land Warrior programme landing platform decks (LPDs) Landing Ships Tank (LSTs) Lao People s Armed Forces (LPAF) Lao People s Army (LPA) Laos 366 385 86 Larsen & Toubro Laser Guided Bombs Laser Science & Technology Laboratory (LASTEC) laser-guided bombs laser-guided weapon system Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) Latin America Latin America Aero and Defence (LAAD) 405 139 142 147 158 159 186 114 15 495 96 484 175 216 308 342 433 422 342 191 216 297 251 262 251 26 113 292 29 34 114 41 196 386 386 113 122 135 234 297 227 113 15 31 316 357 8 275 288 Light Combat Helicopter Light Emitting Diode (LED) light field gun (LFG) light machine gun (LMG) Light Utility Helicopter (LUH) light-weight towed howitzer (LTH) Limited Series Production limited war Lind William S. Line of Actual Control (LAC) line of control (LoC) M M-1 Abrams MBT M-107 SP Gun M-107 SPAA and How M-109 series M-11 missiles M-110 SPAA and How M-113 A3 APC M-160 M-163 Vulcan SP AA and SAM M-167 Vulcan AA Gun M-198 Towed A Tk M-31M M-37M M-41 Lt Tks M-42 Twin SPAA and How M-46 Fd Gun M-47 M-48 A1 Chaparral Low Alt SP SAM M-48 series M-60 A3 MBT 442 466 384 400 413 417 442 466 442 466 56 442 466 442 465 6 185 442 467 442 467 442 466 187 187 442 442 466 458 385 442 467 442 465 396 398 407 411 417 419 425 428 line-of-sight (LOS) communications line-replaceable components (LRCs) Liquid Laser Area Defence System (LLADS) Liquid Crystal (LCD) technology Liquid Crystal Multi-function Display Lisbon Treaty Littoral combat ship (LCS) Liu Chao-shiuan Liu Huaqing Lockheed Martin Logistics & Management School 534 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX M-60A1 M-60A3 MBT M-777 (39 calibre Howitzer) Ma Ying-Teou Macao Mach-3 MacMahon Line Madhoosudanan Air Marshal P. Madhya Pradesh Madina class Frigate Magic II Mahabharata Mahadevan Vice Admiral G. Mahalingam V.S. main battle tank (MBTs) 434 465 413 442 465 98 112 366 60 123 307 (Should be MacMahon) 219 321 495 227 233 89 193 251 295 26 183 4 292 369 371 374 379 382 384 386 390 394 396 398 400 405 407 409 411 413 417 419 421 423 425 426 428 430 432 434 441 442 4 446 7 449 450 451 452 454 458 460 461 462 464 297 334 331 124 36 107 10 300 302 437 3 35 38 40 118 192 377 296 41 113 366 368 377 387 8 391 392 393 394 399 410 489 490 equipment and hardware 388 36 38 41 195 216 275 297 331 414 188 718 390 296 304 307 308 311 323 326 90 145 316 21 55 67 301 310 314 315 20 342 India (MCCI) Maoist insurgency --countering 317 20 Mapagu Lt General Reynaldo Marine Acoustic Research Ship (MARS) Marine Engineering Training and Naval College of Engineering marine police maritime --challenges --Doctrine --domain awareness (MDA) --management --operations centres --reconnaissance (MR) --search and rescue (M-SAR) --security --Strategy Maritime Capability Perspective Plan (MCPP) Maritime Helicopter Support Co. Maritime Warfare Training School Kochi Maritime Zones of India (MZI) Mark III Marom Admiral Eli Masimov Karim 332 Matheswaran Air Vice Marshal M. Mathews Air Marshal K.J. Mathur Major General P. Mathur R.K. Matra Durandal Bomb Mauritius Maykeev Lt General Murat Mazagaon Dock Ltd (MDL) Mazar-e-Sharif Mazdock Modernisation Project Mazumdar Charu McChrystal Stanley Me 262 mean time between failure (MTBF) meantime between overhauls (MTBO) Medium Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMCRA) medium range surface-to-air missile (MRSAM) Meerut communal riots Meghalaya Mehsud Baitullah Mehsud Hakimullah Mehta Admiral Sureesh Mekong-Ganga project Menon Lt General Prakash Mercosur mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) Merkava Mk3 322 167 301 310 312 314 315 17 334 209 195 199 39 42 66 118 41 118 161 71 118 195 498 248 191 8 199 118 118 153 195 121 178 331 Meteorological Department MFI fighter Mi-17 IV Mi-17 Mi-25 Mi-26 Mi-35 Mi-35 35P Mi-8 MICA micro scanning micro-electro-mechanical systems microwave systems Microwave Tube R&D Centre (MTRDC) Middle East 278 83 220 216 216 216 216 216 217 115 95 92 90 297 8 36 43 44 56 191 401 406 418 422 424 432 269 120 383 216 225 216 124 125 371 498 215 225 125 216 225 30 123 124 216 226 383 498 501 225 123 405 225 26 225 405 123 126 405 431 498 501 226 501 123 125 216 220 216 498 125 216 220 226 498 501 226 405 119 120 196 210 216 405 498 501 125 498 502 230 1 509 509 509 231 231 509 498 509 230 32 498 509 114 188 284 56 3 4 73 6 65 337 40 25 8 69 72 3 172 MIDHANI Mid-life upgrades (MLUs) MiG-19 MiG-21 Bison MiG-21 FL MiG-21 Mig-21 MiG-21Bis. See MiG-21 Bison MiG-21BS MiG-21FL MF Bis MiG-23 MiG-23BN (Flogger-H) MiG-23BN MiG-23BN MF MiG-23MF (Flogger-B) MiG-23MF MS U MiG-25 MiG-27 M MiG-27 MiG-27M MiG-29 MiG-29A B MiG-29C UB MIG-29K Mig-29M MiG-29UBT MiG-31 MiG-35 Mil Mi-17 Mil Mi-24 Mil Mi-25 -35 MIL Mi-25 Mi-35 Mil Mi-26 Mil Mi-6 MiL Mi-8 MILAN Milhollin Gary military --capability --communications --doctrine --expenditure --modernisation --operations --technology Military Engineering Service (MES) Maini Anil Kumar Majid General Tariq Majid Lt General Ali Ghaidan Major Air Chief Marshal F.H. Makaran Coast make (high tech) Maken Ajay Malabar Malacca Straits Malakand 342 Malakondaih Dr G. Malaysia 218 218 19 251 298 252 235 41 275 332 118 195 269 282 19 282 315 321 17 342 352 353 81 94 83 233 292 220 222 115 304 216 307 308 311 323 342 342 117 200 390 250 8 95 441 451 Maldives Malik G.S. al-Maliki-al Nouri Malyutka management information system (MIS) Man-aung Mandal Dr M.K. Manipur insurgency Man-portable air-defence systems (MANPADS) ManTech International Corporation Mao Tse Tung Mao Zedong Maoism Maoist Communist Centre of 535 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX Military Operations Directorate MIM-23 B MIM-32 A Mindanao mine counter-measures (MCM) mine warfare Minesweepers (266 ME) Ming class patrol submarine Minicoy Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Mirage 2000 Mirage 2000H Mirage 5 Mirage 50 Mirage F-1C Mirage III MIRV Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited Mishra P.K. Mishra Sanjeev missile missile systems --defence system --technology Missile & Gunnery School Missile System Quality Assurance (MSQA) Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) Mitchell George Mitra Anuradha Mitsubishi Type SU 60 Mittal Air Vice Marshal R. MIzan Zainal Abidin Sultan Mizoram MK 5 MMA P8 Posedidon mobile ballistic missile systems Mobile Observation Posts (MOPs) mobile weapon systems Modified Romeo Class patrol submarine Mohab Mamish Vice Admiral Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Mohanty Lt General J.K. Mohapatra Lt General P. Mohenjo-Daro money-laundering Mongolia MONUC (Congo) Moorthy Dr A.L. Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) Motorised Rifle Division (MRD) Mourad Rais FSU Koni Mousavi Lt Commander General Seyed Abdolrahim Mowag Piranha III Mowag Piranha Mozambique MR-SAM 164 467 467 366 78 122 208 470 199 278 123 124 125 216 220 407 498 500 501 501 498 500 498 500 27 285 253 300 115 121 2 132 381 195 286 120 289 416 253 442 452 453 454 219 333 216 307 308 311 323 461 196 498 512 26 236 132 471 2 330 336 251 250 35 435 393 176 296 366 391 366 391 348 405 331 461 442 306 126 MSTA-S Self-propelled Artillery System (2S19) MT-LB Multipurpose Tracked Vehicle Mubarak Mohamed Husni Mubeen General Md Abdul Mufriji-al Abd al-Qadir Mujahideen Mujawwar Ali Muhammad Mujibur Rahman Sheikh Mukerji Air Marshall S. Mukherjee Pranab Mukherji Air Marshal L.S. Mukul Air Marshall S.C. Multi Function Radars (MFR) Multi-Agency Centre (MAC) Multifunction phased Array Radar-Rajendra multifunctional control radar (MFCR) multilateralism multimode combat support systems multiple rocket launchers (MRLs) 457 457 330 406 330 331 17 404 336 324 354 266 118 251 250 258 78 62 310 293 121 52 180 371 405 407 409 411 413 417 421 423 427 428 430 432 434 441 442 445 451 454 454 458 482 71 5 282 74 76 278 216 297 302 193 251 332 251 12 13 14 15 124 357 406 418 325 325 36 37 41 175 191 216 316 323 324 356 366 386 389 90 390 215 250 257 174 250 Nair Lt General G.M. 468 483 Najin Class Frigate 64 NAL 306 Namibia 175 250 Nanda Lt General A.K. 395 Nanjing Nanuchka III (Veter) (Project 1234.1) class Corvett 274 Nap of the Earth (NOE) 219 Narang Air Vice Marshal V.K. 295 Narang S.C. 291 Narayana Das J. 328 Narayanan M.K. 297 Narayanan S. Anantha 296 Narendra Kumar Dr 468 488 Naresuan Class Frigates 406 Nasser Gamal Abdel 249 Nath Neelam 300 303 Nath Ray Pratap National Centre for Training in Search Rescue & Disaster 305 Response National Codification Bureau 286 for India 163 National Command Post National Command Control Communication and Intelligence 199 328 Network National Counter-terrorism 62 166 310 Centre (NCTC) 318 319 320 National Crime Record 318 Bureau (NCRB) 88 National Cyber Security Strategy National Cyber Threat and Vulnerability Mitigation 87 Programme National Database Grid 62 318 319 (NATGRID) National Defence Academy 318 319 (NDA) 224 National Defence College National Defence University 161 163 165 (NDU) National Democratic Alliance 11 12 14 (NDA) National Democratic Front of 324 355 Bodoland (NDFB) National Human Rights 312 Commission (NHRC) 68 National Information Grid 310 National Intelligence Grid National Investigation Agency 62 310 318 (NIA) National Liberation Force of 326 Tripura (NLFT) National Police Commission 311 (NPC) National Police Reforms 61 Commission National Rural Employment 317 Guarantee Act (NREGA) National Security Commission 311 (NSC) 318 National Security Council (NSC) National Security Council 163 Secretariat (NSCS) multiple surveillance resources multipolarisation Multipurpose Support Vessel multi-technology multi-vendor environment Multitonnee UK Muntho Dhalo Murlidharan Dr. R. Murlidharan M. Murlidharan Vice Admiral M.P. Murr Elias Murughan Rear Admiral P. Musharraf Pervez Muslim Brotherhood Movement Muslim Fundamentalist Organisations (MFOs) Muslim United Liebration Tigers of Assam (MULTA) Myanmar (formerly Burma) --equipment and hardware Mystere N Nag Naga People s Convention Nagal Lt General B.S. Nagaland insurgency Nagraj Smita Nahr al-Barid Palestinian refugee camp Naik Air Chief Marshal P.V. 114 284 289 290 325 250 307 311 323 325 326 252 422 125 218 221 2 536 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX National Security Guard (NSG) National Security Strategy (NSS) National Security System National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isaac-Muviah) (NSCN-IM) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) NSCN-K National Talent Research Organisation (NTRO) National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) National War-gaming Centre (NWC) Naval Academy Naval Air Technical School Naval Aircraft Yard (NAY) Naval Higher Command Course Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL) Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL) Naval Ship Repair Yard (NSRY) naval systems navigation Navigation & Direction School Navistar Defense LLC NAVWASS Naxalism 304 306 310 313 318 128 166 308 Nexter (France) Nguyen Sinh Hung Nguyen Tan Dung Nguyen Van Hien Admiral NH90 NICD Niger Nigeria night capability Night Intruder Nishant Nisr Nizampatnam no first use (NFU) Nobusuke Kishi Nohwar Air Marshal K.K. Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) non-governmental organizations (NGOs) Noordin Top Norinco Type 74 Norinco Type 85 Norinco YW 531 APC NORINCO 26 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) 112 148 441 447 336 336 336 120 306 409 40 319 385 292 407 199 3 37 40 379 251 265 406 5 8 311 366 446 445 444 441 6 11 13 18 19 20 115 181 225 6 228 229 230 231 234 341 2 346 8 351 2 411 286 nuclear biological and chemical (NBC) Nuke delivery systems Numerical Aperture (NA) Nuri al-Maliki Nvala Academy Nyyazow 75 67 94 415 196 349 322 325 326 325 326 310 318 87 223 224 195 195 195 200 297 122 297 494 297 196 292 223 195 145 147 155 274 61 127 131 181 299 301 309 310 311 313 14 321 22 356 250 291 295 332 357 330 287 318 58 331 11 47 335 2 130 323 324 344 359 60 360 316 218 219 251 331 416 417 430 O O Sullivan Paul Obama Barrack 368 1 2 4 6 8 11 12 13 14 15 16 19 20 36 49 56 352 353 373 406 415 416 430 436 439 52 402 415 442 461 442 461 68 267 106 65 194 412 438 416 424 25 426 428 425 424 342 40 176 275 40 341 411 414 426 317 426 328 319 40 260 439 100 163 164 30 439 268 271 2 270 268 134 178 267 268 269 270 287 292 427 341 344 344 102 103 104 310 315 321 126 --Codification System --Partnership for Peace programme North Korea (DPRK) Nayak Dr K.D. Nazarbayev Nursultan A. Nazif Ahmed Mohammed National Counter-terrorism Centre (NCC) NCOs Academy Neena Gopal Nehoshtan Major General Ido Nehru Jawaharlal Neo Kian Hong Nepal --equipment and hardware Nepal Maoist insurgency Neri Air Marshal Joseph Netanyahu Binyamin net-centric operations (NCO) capability Netherlands network centric 178 342 67 68 69 72 73 74 75 76 78 111 192 200 75 --communications 72 76 --hardware 180 --joint service compatibility 67 69 72 73 74 --warfare (NCW) 75 99 115 118 120 221 2 223 Network Enabled Capability (NEC) 73 74 342 368 69 New Zealand 383 393 Next Generation Networks (NGN) 75 344 2 38 59 60 366 379 381 3 395 438 471 479 --army equipment and hardware 382 365 --first nuclear test 468 482 4 --naval equipment 381 2 --nuclear weapon programme 439 --second nuclear test North West Frontier Province 342 (NWFP) 30 57 61 2 170 Northeastern states insurgency 175 6 180 182 192 236 259 260 299 301 304 7 309 311 323 6 17 Northern Alliance 171 Northern Army Command 31 Northern Ireland 90 137 139 142 Northrop Grumman Skyguard 143 144 145 147 150 151 152 155 160 505 202 Novator SS-N-15 Starfish 189 NTW-20 14.5 37 59 nuclear deterrence 1 4 6 47 nuclear disarmament Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 2 3 4 12 13 (NPT) 47 48 50 59 60 357 412 1 nuclear proliferation Nuclear Suppliers Group 3 48 49 356 357 (NSG) observe orient decide act (OODA) Odierno General Ray Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 Oerlikon-Contraves-20 offensive capability offset banking offset policy Ogarkov Marshall Nikolai Oil & Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) Oil Stabilisation Fund Okinawa military base Olmert Uhud Oman Sultanate of --equipment and hardware Oman-Iran political relations Omar Mullah ONGC Videsh ONUCI (Ivory Coast) Open System Architecture Mission Computer Operation Cactus Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) Operation Green Hunt Operation Iraqi Freedom Operation Rakshak Operation Sadbhavana Operation Sukoon Operation Vijay operational control (OPCON) Operational Directive Operational Shock OPLAN 5029 Ordnance factories --modernisation Ordnance Factories Organisation Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) original equipment manufacturer (OEM) Orissa OSA-AK 537 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX Oshkosh Corporation Oshkosh Defense OT-64 C (SKOT-2A) OT-90 APC OTHT link Oto Melara 56 Oto Melara Palmaria Ouragan outsourcing programmes Ouyahia Ahmed Oxfam 139 146 149 152 153 155 156 142 143 144 154 441 446 441 446 494 442 452 442 452 215 275 329 401 Panikkar K.M. Papua New Guinea Paracel Paramilitary Forces (PMF) Parivartan Parmar Lt General N.K. Partial Test Ban Treaty Pashtun Patil Pratibha Devisingh Patnaik Lalit Mohan Patriot Msl (PAC-1) Single Stage Low to High Alt SAM system Patriot Msl Single Stage Low to High Altitude SAM Patrol and coastal combatants 35 393 366 62 316 20 118 250 47 48 17 18 19 249 255 348 296 467 442 404 405 407 411 413 414 415 419 421 423 424 425 428 430 432 434 437 417 468 470 481 2 251 206 299 126 112 315 21 24 25 26 27 31 36 37 65 66 67 180 324 326 355 395 124 200 326 322 331 161 40 130 420 432 164 164 126 220 229 228 366 368 391 2 392 Platform System Technologies PLZ45 Po Hang class Corvette Pokhran II Poland Policy Planning and Force Development (PP&FD) Pollnochny C&D Class LSM Pondicherry Class Pourdastan Brig General Ahmad Reza Powell Colin power conflicts politics power projection capability Prabhakaran V. Pradeep Kumar Prahalada Dr Pratt & Whitney Praveen Kumar precision attack capability precision response precision-guided munitions (PGMs) preliminary services qualitative requirements (PSQR) Pressler Amendment Pressler Larry price negotiation committee (PNC) Principal Maintenance Officers Committee (PMOC) Principal Personal Officers Committee (PPOC) Principal Supply Officers Committee (PSOC) Principe De Asturias class Aircraft Carrier Princpe De Asturias Class Prithvi II Prithvi private sector participation in defence production privatisation project appraisal committee (PAC) project definition document (PDD) Project Kranti project management project sanction order (PSO) Project Sea 1390 proliferation security initiative (PSI) Proof and Experimental Establishment (PXE) proxy war 79 445 468 487 48 49 195 342 163 164 208 208 331 12 13 7 36 41 342 249 252 256 250 291 82 140 144 148 253 67 76 111 115 179 180 223 104 105 108 56 56 100 164 163 164 497 468 290 188 284 289 290 161 321 356 104 115 104 05 109 109 180 64 110 492 38 41 369 393 298 30 62 97 169 179 81 299 307 309 362. See also China. Pakistan Jammu and Kshmir North-east 455 442 455 P P-12 15 P-15A P-16A P-18 P-19 P-3 Orion P-3C surveillance PAC-3 Padaki Dr V.C. Padmanabhaiah Committee PAK-FA Pakistan 235 196 195 236 236 385 498 511 12 438 439 296 311 83 220 222 223 1 2 3 8 12 15 29 30 31 36 38 40 46 48 49 52 53 56 57 73 97 111 112 113 115 116 119 123 124 127 130 131 169 175 176 180 181 215 224 245 259 261 309 316 324 325 326 342 344 381 437 124 439 14 37 342 357 439 511 4 356 7 55 216 262 305 439 Patrol Class submarines 483 4 Patrol Forces Pattanayak Rear Admiral R.K. PAUK II Class peasant uprising Pechora Pegasus People s Committee against Police Atrocities (PCPA) People s Liberation Army (PLA) --Air Force (PAF) --Army --conflict within --equipment and hardware --India relations insurgency --War (1971) --Kamra airbase --Navy 439 --strategic significance for Asia-Pacific --United States strategy 439 4 13 14 17 20 37 439. See also China United States Jammu and Kashmir 32 56 113 131 180 309 348 416 406 430 41 249 252 256 122 494 270 253 441 449 441 448 441 448 Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK) Palestinian conflict Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palk Bay Pallam Raju M.M. Panchendriya Panda K.P. Pandey S.C. Panhard M3 VDA Twin (SP AA Gun) Panhard M3 Panhard PVP --Air Force (PLAAF) --Navy (PLA-Navy) People s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) Pepople s War Group (PWG) Peres Shimon performance budgeting Persian Gulf Perspective Planning Directorate perspective planning process Phalcon Phazotron NO10 Philippines --equipment and hardware --New People s Army-National Democratic Front (CPP-NPA-NDF) Philips Phizo AZ Pike Jaw Sonar Pillai A.S. Pillai Gopal K. Pillai Rear Admiral S. Pinaka MBRL weapon system piracy PL-9C Low Alt SAM System Planning and Participatory Budget Programme (PPBP) Planning Commission planning process effectiveness Plasan 391 490 325 471 472 482 250 291 300 302 251 113 185 441 451 3 7 40 2 117 129 192 199 245 306327 394 424 433 435 437 445 164 311 322 163 141 PRP-4 PT-76B Lt Tks PT-76B Public Sector Undertakings 538 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX (PSUs) public-private partnership (PPP) Pulsed Energy Projectile Pyongyong 306 307 74 76 133 91 59 Rao P.V. Narasimha Rao T. Mohana Rao V. Bhujanga Rapid Action Force (RAF) rapid response mechanism Rashtriya Rifles (RR) Rassoul Dr Zalmai RAST helo recovery system Ratan Air Vice Marshal N. Ratcharit class Fast Track Craft-Missile Ratel 90 Ratnagiri Ray S.K. Rayleigh scattering Raytheon Company 11 12 297 297 304 199 113 127 170 71 313 318 319 356 329 492 219 497 442 460 199 298 93 94 115 138 140 143 146 147 149 150 152 154 156 157 159 333 95 441 442 447 450 451 453 455 456 457 463 172 192 216 114 114 111 115 298 35 40 366 5 10 305 52 169 90 11 292 292 102 104 120 126 135 70 102 103 104 112 115 134 135 14 16 26 71 72 91 97 108 110 135 267 RF-5A Rheinmetall Landsystem Marder 1A3 ICV Rheinmetall Nitrochemie Rhino Project Ribeiro Committee Rice Condoleezza Rifai Samir Ritz Carlton Jakarta Rizvi Safi A. RMB rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) Rockwell Collins Rohini MPR (Medium Power Radar) Rohini Rolls Royce Rolls Royce AE3007AIP Rolls Royce MT30 Rolls Royce Pegasus Rolls Royce Wr-21 Romeo (Project 033) class Submarine Romeo Class patrol submarine Rosoboronexport ROTEM South Korea Roy Air Vice Marshal P.K. Royal Air Force of Oman Royal Bhutan Guards (RBG) Royal Bhutanese Army Royal Thai Navy Rudd Kevin Rumaithi-al Hamad Mohammed Thani Rumsfeld Donald H. Russia 385 450 112 143 177 311 12 332 366 301 10 407 145 236 126 236 82 146 153 220 275 229 79 210 79 482 468 471 113 274 75 281 219 437 355 316 488 329 336 13 66 5 6 7 8 9 10 14 20 27 30 60 64 74 79 83 89 90 91 92 113 115 120 126 195 196 227 344 347 382 393 432 434 441 74 442 454 5 484 5 505 508 511 305 292 Q Qaboos Bin Said al Said Sultan of Oman Qadhafi Moammar Qadi-al Nayef Qahir Class Qatar --equipment and hardware Qayyum Abdul Qiang 5 Qiao Liang Quality Assurance of Imported Equipment Quality Management Systems Quick Reaction Missiles (QRM) quick reaction surface-to-air missile (QSA-AK) 333 424 407 332 468 426 7 428 426 7 56 499 31 286 286 126 115 Razak Mohamed Najib bin Tun Abdul readout integrated circuit (ROIC) Recce Vehs R R-23-R AA-7 Apex R-530 D R-550 Magic I R-60 AA-8 Aphid R-60 R-73 Ra s al Khaymah Rabena Lt General Oscar H Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Rai A. Rais Hamidou (FSU Nanuchka II) FSG Rajagopalan B. Rajan Satyajeet Rajendra Rajguru Air Vice Marshal S.P. Rajnish Kumar Rajput Class Raju A.R. Raksha Udyog Ratnas Ram Pratap Lt General RAM Rama Nathan Sellapan Ramachandran Mullapally Ramachandru T. Ramadan Class Ramayana Ramesh Kumar RAM-V-1 (Open) RAM-V-2 (Closed) Randhawa Air Marshal T.S. Rao Dr A. Shubhananda Rao Dr K.U. Bhaskar Rao Dr P. Rao Dr R. Sreehari Rao Dr V. Bhujanga Rao H.V. Srinivasa Rao Krishna M.V. Rao Lt General K.R. Rao Nirupama 234 227 233 234 225 227 431 334 137 302 405 298 249 253 269 293 219 249 120 203 302 134 250 441 451 335 300 301 254 269 407 89 253 451 451 251 297 296 294 250 297 297 308 250 57 reconnaissance --and attrition --and support battalions reconnaissance surveillance and target acquisition (RSTA) Recruitment & Assessment Centre (RAC) Red Sea Red Shirts regional cooperation Regional Response Centres regional security concerns Relay Mirror Experiment religious fundamentalism Remote Control Weapon System (RCWS) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) request for information (RFI) request for proposals (RFP) Research & Development (R&D) --cyber warfare capability --equipment and hardware Rustamji K.F. RUSTOM Research & Development Establishment (Engineers) R&DE (ENGRS) Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) Research Centre Imarat (RCI) Reshef (Saar 4) class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Retrofit Revankar Dr U.K. revenue budget revenue expenditure Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) RF-4C S S-60 Auto AA S-92A (VIP) SA-10 Grumble Low-to-High Alt SAM SA-13 SA-13 Gopher SAM SA-16 SA-3B Pechora SA-6 Gainful Low-to Mediumalt SAM SA-7 SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM SA-8B SA-8B Osa-AK SA-8B SAM 469 385 459 187 459 187 234 459 186 442 459 186 234 459 298 163 310 318 298 481 284 296 98 100 63 100 22 23 24 65 68 89 128 385 539 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX SA-9 Gaskin SAM Saab Saab 2000 SAARC Council of Ministers Sabah Oliver Hazard Perry Class Sabharwal Lt General Mukesh Sabra MBT Sabu Lt General C.K.Suchindra Sada Kant Sadat Anwar El Saddam Hussein Safavi Major General Seyed Yahya Rahim Sagar Prahari Bal Sagardhwani Class Sagarika Sahay Vishvajit Sahgal Arun Sahyadri Saignason Lt General Choummaly sail training ships (AXS) Varuna and Tarangini Saito Admiral Takashi Sajjil Sakhalin Salafism Saleh Ali Abdullah Salehi General Ataollah Salisbury class Frigate Samnang Lt General Soeung Samsung (South Korea SAMTEL HAL Display System Ltd Samyukta Sana a Water Basin Project Sandhayak Class Sang-O class Submarine Sanjeeva Kumar Santhanam K. Santoso General Djoko Saran Lt General Chea SARAS Saraswat Dr V.K. Sarayrah-al General Khaled Jamil Saryu SAS UK Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) 356 satellite communication systems Satellite Datalink Integration satellite surveillance and networking Satha Lt General Ses Vong Satish Kumar Dr Satpura Satyam Computer Ltd Saudi Arabia 459 159 498 512 342 411 174 250 441 451 251 261 300 303 406 414 415 420 331 122 192 200 328 198 209 437 249 253 112 196 205 332 198 210 331 413 40 404 336 434 331 489 330 112 275 292 434 209 482 249 252 49 331 330 64 92 250 252 295 332 196 306 304 308 310 313 Sayyari Rear Admiral Habibollah Schilka Schmidt Helmut Science Applications International Corporation Scientific Analysis Group (SAG) Scorpene class Scorpion Scud missiles SDB MK-3 class SDB MK-5 SDB T54 SDB T58 SDB T-60 sea control capability Sea Eagle missile Sea Harrier Sea King sea lanes of communication (SLOCs) Sea Systems Command Seahawk Seaking 42C Seaking 42S Search and Rescue (SAR) Searcher-1 Searcher II Seaward defence forces security threats and challenges 331 114 15 186 458 5 151 157 298 195 196 202 413 115 207 08 208 195 198 198 67 227 195 210 488 503 211 39 40 376 79 488 119 120 21 178 195 211 223 238 115 115 126 232 33 198 41 61 62 97 129 30 177 299. See also insurgency terrorism Pakistan Northeast 250 291 250 147 442 457 458 69 250 291 188 222 330 410 134 71 78 200 227 101 132 Shah-Safi Brig General Hassan Shakti Shambaugh David Shang class (Strategic missile submarine) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Shankush Shark Gill (Skat MGK 503) Sharma Air Vice Marshal G.P. Sharma Air Vice Marshal R.K. Sharma Air Vice Marshal S.K. Sharma Arun Sharma Dharmendra Sharma G.V. Venugopal Sharma Lt General Vinay Sharma Shashikant Shashi Bhushan Sherwood-Randall Elizabeth Shillong Accord (1975) Shinawatra Thaksin Ship Submercible Ballistic Nuclear (SSBN) shipbuilding Shipping Corporation of India Shishumar class Submarine Shivalik Class Shodash Major General Hussein Ahmad Short Take off Vertical Landing (STOVL) Short Take-off but Arrested Recovery (STOBAR) Short-Range Ballistic Missiles (SRBMs) Shura Ittehadul Mujahideen (SIM) Siachen Glacier Siddique M.A. SIG SG 551 (Switzerland) Signal Intelligence (SIGNIT) Signal Intelligence directorates (SIDs) Sihamoni Norodom Sikkim --merger with India Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Siliguri Corridor Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class Sindhukesari Sindhuraj Sindhuratna Sindhuvir Singal Anil Kumar Singapore --equipment and hardware 60 Singapore Technologies Singh Air Vice Marshal A.K. Singh Air Vice Marshal Daljit Singh Air Vice Marshal Devinder Singh Air Vice Marshal J. Singh Air Vice Marshal N.B. Singh Air Vice Marshall P. Singh Anil Kumar Singh Arun 331 274 21 469 341 344 347 404 202 218 218 219 302 300 303 300 303 175 249 252 300 32 325 366 120 41 119 213 201 468 493 94 205 332 82 119 21 22 24 26 342 176 301 178 120 163 330 175 176 308 323 57 148 153 355 201 201 201 201 201 252 2 41 200 342 366 368 437 393 4 442 459 112 178 219 218 218 219 218 249 253 270 161 192 200 324 233 117 330 298 196 205 135 17 36 37 401 402 420 426 427 29 432 434 428 9. See also Saddam Hussein United States 249 253 269 494 298 --equipment and hardware Saunik Manoj Sawari II programme Saxena Dr P.K. Sekhar Dr K. Sekhon Lt General A.S. SELEX Galileo Self-Propelled Artillery System (2S19) self-synchronisation Selvamurthy Dr W. Semi-Automatic Command to-Line-of-Sight (SACLOS) Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) Sen Samdech Hun Senezeh Sengupta Prabir sensor exploitation Sensor Grid Sepecat Jaguar Services Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee (SCAPCC) Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee (SCAPHCC) Services Qualitative Requirements (SQR) Seychelles SFF Shadab-3 Shaft Driven Lift Fan (SDLF) Shahine Low Alt SAM System 101 165 101 104 105 165 101 102 03 135 36 37 41 195 318 413 82 441 449 540 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX Singh Dr Shashi Bala Singh Dr. A.K. Singh General V.K. Singh Jaswant Singh Jatinderbir Singh Kashmir Singh Lt General Bikram Singh Lt General Chetinder Singh Lt General J.P. Singh Lt General J.P. Singh Lt General Tejinder Singh Manmohan Singh N.K. Singh Prakash Singh Raj Kumar Singh Rajendra Singh V.K. Singh Vice Admiral Anup single buoy moorings (SBMs) Sinha Vice Admiral Shekhar Sino. See China Sir Creek Sittwe Sivakumar P. Skandan K. Skardu SL-AMRAAM SLRs SM-3 SM-6 Smerch 9K58 Multiple Launch Rocket System Smerch MRL Smoke Grenade Discharger smuggling Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) So 1 class (Large Patrol Craft) Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research (SITAR) Sofradir Software Defined Radios (SDRs) Soju class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Sokha Lt General Sao Soliman Field Marshal Mohamed Hussien Tantawi Solomon Islands Soltam Soltam L-33 Soltam M-71 Soma Sundaram V. Somali Somalia Sonar USHUS Sonars Song Class patrol submarine Sophea General Mess Sorabjee Soli South Africa --army equipment and hardware South America 296 295 250 257 393 249 253 300 303 251 262 250 174 250 259 250 3 4 12 16 49 61 131 224 249 255 311 61 311 249 252 269 254 179 82 251 262 41 250 41 324 295 300 303 113 442 322 439 439 185 113 442 451 458 292 7 327. See also piracy 275 298 468 483 289 95 71 75 98 483 330 330 369 112 442 451 452 249 253 3 41 433 31 40 42 199 434 437 201 78 201 278 292 469 480 494 468 470 330 311 2 6 8 9 10 113 442 40 South Asia 3 15 130 316 341 342 364 368 424 439 40 192 387 391 395 399 8 35 180 200 274 316 323 366 393 366 2 8 11 13 60 12 195 357 366 381 382 383 5 393 424 436 438 439 384 385 460 485 7 369 195 216 391 11 2 4 11 18 39 40 47 65 123 341 345 409 484 27 472 3 442 464 441 442 444 448 451 452 453 454 457 459 464 466 91 223 91 126 27 223 342 442 460 1 505 306 324 40 318 319 306 327 286 81 55 442 458 366 115 126 220 222 291 2 36 37 38 41 130 175 192 216 304 342 344 393 301 305 249 304 114 284 316 442 156 ST-68 ST-68U UM Staff Equipment Policy Committee Standardisation Committee Standing Committee on Defence (SCD) State Counter Terrorism Centre (SCTC) state police forces --modernisation --politicisation Steyer A3 (Austria) Sting Ray Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) strategic and business environment China factor Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment (STEA) Strategic Defence Review (SDR) Strategic Forces Command (SFC) Strategic missiles submarines Stromer Su-24E Su-24M Mk Su-27 Su-30K Su-30MKA Su-30MK I Subhash Chandra submarines 235 236 103 287 53 63 95 165 166 167 318 319 320 312 310 178 442 465 423 3 4 51 129 36 130 1 163 163 161 163 165 468 9 442 405 405 27 82 124 217 405 220 249 252 417 468 470 479 81 482 4 485 6 493 4 201 480 195 120 437 161 219 295 310 249 331 377 331 207 275 498 502 498 502 502 82 124 125 217 227 28 498 502 332 422 334 196 196 23 31 196 250 291 297 366 385 422 South China Sea South Common Market South-east Asia South East Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty South Korea --equipment and hardware South Pacific Island South. FOST Southern Air Command Southern Philippines Secessionist Groups (SPSGs) Soviet Communist Party Soviet Union Sovremenny (Sarych) class (Project 956 956A) Frigates Sovremenny Y class SP Abbot SP Guns and Hows Space Based Laser Strike Weapons Space Command space debris clearance space-based surveillance & reconnaissance space-enabled warfare Spain --equipment and hardware Special Action Group (SAG) Special Area Road Development Programme (SARDP) special economic zones (SEZs) Special Forces Training School (SFTS) Special Ranger Group (SRG) Specialised Marine Police specialist technical panels (STP) specific fuel consumption (SFC) Spector Leonard S. Splav Spratly Islands Spyder Sreehari Rao R. Sri Lanka Sub-Marine Launched Cruise Missile (SLCM) Submarine Training School Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBM) Subrahmanyam K. Subramanian Air Vice Marshal S. Subramanyam P.S. Subsidiary-Multi-Agency Centre (SMAC) Sudan Preeti Sufaat Air Marshal Imam Suharto Suhartono Admiral Agus Sukanya class Sukhoi Design Bureau Sukhoi Su-25 Sukhoi Su-27 Sukhoi Su-30K Sukhoi Su-30MKI Suleiman Michel Suleman Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar Sumedha Sumitra Sun Tzu Sunayana Sundaram S.S. Sungkar Abdullah Sunjin AG Sunnis Srinivasan N. Srivastava Raman Srivastava Vandana Srivastava Vikram SS11B1 SSG SSPH-1 Primus ST Aerospace 541 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX Super 530 D Super DVORA MK II classes (Fast Attack Craft-Gun) Super Sea Sprite Super Sea Sprite SH-2G supply chain management support tankers Suresh Kumar S. sur face launched advanced medium range air-to-air missile (SL-AMRAAM) surface-to-air missile (SAM) system surface-to-surface missiles surface-to-surface ballistic missiles surface-to-surface cruise missiles surveillance --capability --and intelligence --and night vision --and reconnaissance --radars Survey Ships (AGSH) survival and support systems Sushil Vice Admiral K.N. Swat Sweden --equipment and hardware Swiftships Switzerland --army equipment and hardware Symantec India 2009 Security and Storage Syria --equipment and hardware 233 208 482 407 407 64 213 300 303 Tactical Air Combat Development Establishment (TACDE) Tactical Battle Area (TBA) Tactical Command Control Communication and Information (TacC3I) Tactical Communications System (TCS) 217 307 169 179 181 299 301 306 309 10 313 315 318 322 327 342 366 368 402 428 430 435. See also Afghanistan Pakistan Taliban 89 140 41 192 366 368 487 8 498 270 146 111 93 6 177 494 83 70 115 16 178 115 26 122 124 220 222 290 234 121 290 196 93 96 120 1 192 223 319 320 328 114 115 41 180 66 114 209 289 251 262 342 442 461 511 407 442 461 442 85 401 415 422 429 30 430 1 T T-38 Talon T-50 T-50l T-54 55 MBT 385 385 27 183 371 382 386 400 405 407 409 413 317 423 434 442 454 442 382 400 405 407 409 413 430 434 442 454 442 454 5 390 405 409 413 415 430 434 442 455 390 405 409 413 434 442 455 112 183 183 442 455 112 98 111 12 177 183 287 442 451 455 T-55 (Upgraded) T-62 MBT T-64B MBT T-72 T-72 MBT T-72 M1 (Ajeya) T-72S T-80U T-80 UD T-90 (Bhishma) T-90S 67 70 75 76 109 115 tactical high energy laser (THEL) 90 91 Taepodong-2 missile 59 Tafer General Ahcene 329 26 27 366 391 Taiwan 395 6 --army equipment and hardware 396. See also China 20 341 342 344 Tajikistan 347 8 357 --army equipment and hardware 348 Talabani Jala 331 1 3 4 13 14 Taliban 15 17 18 19 20 43 115 131 181 316 341 42 348 352 357 361. See also Afghanistan United States Taliban s Tehrik-e-Taliban (TTP) 342 119 192 195 196 Talwar Class 205 Teg Tarkash and Trikhand 196 Tamil Nadu 2 321 Tamilmani K. 295 Taneja Rear Admiral B.R. 249 253 Tanguska 115 186 Tank Integrated Fire Control System (TIFCS) 112 TARANG 225 Tarantul Class 206 485 Tarwanah 56 Tata Group 134 135 TATRA 113 Tavor TAR 21 178 Tawang 2 57 130 324 Technical Evaluation Committee (TEC) 102 103 technical obsolescence 164 Technical Oversight Committee (TOC) 103 Technological Dimensions of Warfare 73 74 Technology Demonstrator (TD-1) 274 Technology Induction Paradigm 75 Tehran 401 412 432 Tehrik-e-Taliban (TTP) 342 125 196 274 292 Tejas 501 Teledyne technologies 159 Tenaji-al Rear Admiral Ahmed Mohammed Al Sabab 336 Tengiz oilfield 344 TEREX Corporation of USA 281 Terminal Ballistic Research Laboratory (TBRL) 298 Territorial Interest Zone (TIZ) 121 44 62 97 111 terrorism 124 127 129 31 Tesla Nikola Textron Marine & Land Systems Thailand --equipment and hardware Thakur Sushil Thales Raytheon Thamburaj Lt Gen Noble thermal imaging (TI) Thermal Imaging Standalone Sights (TISAS) Thomson-CSF Thrust-vectoring nozzles (TVNs) Tiangong-I 436 Tibet Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) Tiger Tillangchang Timperlake Timsah TIR Class Toisutta Lt General George Tonk Lt General V.S. Tor M-1 Torpedo recovery vessel (YPT) Toubro Ltd TOW-2 ATGW TOW-2A ATGW TPE 331-12 Garrett Engines trainer aircraft transfer of technology (ToT) transformation process transnational crimes transport ships Tri Services Strategic Forces Command Tribal Autonomous District Council (TTADC) Trinamool Congress (TMC) Trinkat Class Triplett Tripura insurgency --Tripura National Front (TNF) 52 57 58 130 323 324. See also China Dalai Lama 407 195 23 407 209 331 173 250 259 115 213 134 135 407 417 428 275 126 102 103 106 134 135 70 71 7 435 213 181 326 315 208 23 307 308 311 323 326 326. See also Bangladesh China Northeast 163 284 289 48 300 302 195 37 38 120 195 196 442 458 212 498 505 511 211 12 274 Tri-Service Disaster Management Response Committee Trishul Trivedi V.C. Trivedi Vishwapati TRV 71 tsunami Tu-142 Transport Aircraft Tunguska Tupolev Tu-142 Turbiprop Maritime Patrol Aircraft Turbomeca 542 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX Turbomeca Artouste IIIB Turgeman Major General Sami Turkey Turkmenistan --equipment and hardware Tyagi Air Marshal N.V. Type-1500 submarines Type-45 Type-54 (MG) Type-54 Type-56 (Norinco) Type-59 Type-59 (MBT) Type-59-1 Type-59-1 (Towed A Tk) Type-62 Type-63 Type-63 A Type-64 B Type-66 (Gun How) Type-66 (Towed A Tk) Type-72 Type-73 Type-74 (MBT) Type-74 (Norinco) Type-74 (Towed AA) Type-75 (SP and How) Type-77 APC Type-80 SP AA Type-80 Twin SP AA gun system Type-83 Type-83 (SP and How) Type-85 II Type-85 III Type-85 APC Type-85 (YW 531H) Type-87 Type-89 Type-89 Type-89 (YW 534) Type-90 Type-90-II Type-90 MRL Type-98 Type-99 Type-99 A 2 Type-99 (SP and How) Type-SU 60 Type-WZ 501 IFC 232 331 342 341 342 344 349 50 351 350 218 251 258 260 494 79 444 26 371 441 26 371 441 445 445 371 441 443 371 441 443 441 443 442 441 445 442 442 453 441 442 452 446 446 442 453 4 441 444 445 441 445 407 441 444 26 26 444 441 444 442 453 442 453 APC 444 441 444 441 443 452 3 26 441 443 445 374 441 442 441 442 443 443 454 442 441 444 unit repair vehicles (UMV) United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) United Arab Emirates (UAE) and United States Trade and Investment Framework Agreement United Kingdom (UK) --equipment and hardware 292 125 275 401 426 428 431 32 49 437 --India Business Council (USIBC) --Instrument of Accession --and international forces regrouping --Iraq Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) --Joint Forces Command --maritime power --Middle East Force --military strategy --Navy --North-Korea relations --Nuclear Posture Review --superpower in decline --against Taiwanese independence --and West Asia and North America 357 8 5 6 7 9 414 415 66 36 40 411 8 41 77 78 79 196 59 60 365 382 2 435 436 440 366 401 402 407 409 411 415 420 423 426 430 432 434 224 27 45 75 93 114 115 118 121 122 126 195 196 232 33 267 292 319 115 176 152 78 78 7 11 225 226 India cooperation 215 341 342 344 346 347 348 350 1 351 --export --foreign relations policy --terrorism --and West Asia and North America United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) United National Liberation Front (UNLF) United Nations (UN) 431 128 166 306 379 89 267 441 442 461 503 506 509 511 95 195 217 227 6 47 342 368 43 401 409 420 426 432 180 316 322 323 325 6 354 355 326 23 42 43 48 91 306 352 379 401 406 408 409 U UAPA UH-60 UH-60 L (VIP) UH-60 SH-60 S-70 Blackhawk UK Shipyards Ukraine --equipment and hardware Ulsan class Frigate Umkhonto Umm al Qaywayn undersea warfare Unified Cyber Command Uniflex Cables unit maintenance vehicles (UMV) 310 385 407 510 489 112 505 6 468 486 7 493 431 122 74 122 292 --Development Programme (UNDP) 386 --Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) 176 430 --Environment Programme 2009 434 --General Assembly 47 49 --Interim Force in Lebabon (UNIFIL) 176 422 --Missions Congo 306 --Peace keeping missions 176 180 304 306 --Peace Keeping Force (UNPKF) 52 --Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) 401 --Security Council (UNSC) 2 6 11 20 49 58 379 412 424 --Resolution (UNSCR) 422 United Progressive Alliance (UPA) 14 166 299 309 312 356 United States of America (US) 5 6 7 10 18 19 43 60 90 91 95 130 132 235 267 289 306 316 342 347 351 406 412 --Active Denial System 91 --Afghanistan-Pakistan strategy 4 13 14 17 20 37 --Air Force (USAF) 91 222 432 --Armed Forces 65economy 1 --Army 30 31 --Carrier Battle Group 67 --Cambodia Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) 370 1 13 16 23 26 --China relations 49 56 67 438 --Department of Defense 66 --Defense Intelligence Agency 413 --and East Asia and Pacific Rim 366 368 369 381 382 393 --equipment and hardware 442 464 5 503 506 7 509 511 512 --Global war on terror (GWOT) 4 124 433 1 4 9 11 16 47 --India relations University Grants Commission (UGC) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) UNMIS (Sudan) URS Corporation USS Freedom USS Independence Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) Uzbekistan --equipment and hardware V V-22 Osprey VAB 4x4 (Wheeled) Vadinagar Vahidi Ahmad Vajpayee Atal Bihari Vampire Vanadium Oxide (VOx) Varadarajan S. Varunastra Vashist Air Marshal R.K. Vasudeva Dr S.K. Ved Prakash Veer Class Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (VRDE) Vejjajiva Abhisit Venezuela Venugopalan Verma Admiral Nirmal K. 91 441 448 199 331 12 49 357 215 95 297 292 219 250 291 303 206 298 366 8 40 P. 296 18 119 199 200 250 257 328 543 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m INDEX Verma Air Marshal N. Verma Naveen Vessel and Air Traffic Management Systems VHF UHF communication systems Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS) Vickers MBT Mk3 Vietnam --war Vijayaraghavan Dr R. Vinh Vice Admiral Sao Visakhapatnam Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) Volachit Boun-Gnang Vosper Thornycroft Province class vote bank politics 219 300 303 328 226 227 161 163 442 462 366 370 392 21 25 26 296 330 328 437 75 332 489 324 West Africa West Asia and North Africa West Bank West Bengal Western Air Command Westland Sea King MK47 wide area network (WAN) Wipro World Bank World Food Programme World War II Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) World Trade Centre (WTC) World Trade Organisation (WTO) --Agreement on Textiles and Clothing --Doha Round Wu Sheng Li Wyle 36 401 34 416 299 321 323 324 325 216 407 509 75 135 5 6 9 36 386 406 434 381 7 10 11 29 30 34 307 378 75 31 345 409 427 370 8 401 422 200 148 Yangon massacre (1988) Yantar Shipyard Yanzi Yemen Republic of YF-100 Yongbyon YPT (Torpedo Recovery Vessel) Yudhoyono Susilo Bambang Yurka MSC Yusgiantoro Purnomo 390 195 59 40 42 428 433 34 81 59 213 331 407 331 Z Zaben-al Major General Dari Rajeb Nofal Zadetkyi Zahir Shah king of Afghanistan Zahir Uddin Ahmed Rear Admiral Zakaria Fareed Zakir Mullah Abdullah Zangger Committee Zardari Asif Ali Zdhanov Zebari General Babaker Shawkat B. Zemin Jiang Zhanzakov Captain Zhandarbek Zhuk-27 Zia-ur-Rahman Air Marshal Shah Mohammed Zillur Rahman ZIYUAN 1and 2 Zoellick Robert ZSU-23-2 Towed AA Gun ZSU-23-4 SP AA ZSU-23-4 Quad SP AA ZSU-57-2 SP AA ZU 23-2 Zulfiqar 332 390 17 330 5 49 342 48 334 11 331 66 332 228 330 330 27 36 459 196 442 458 442 458 186 413 W W-88 Wajed Sheikh Haseena Wang Xiangsul Wangchuk Penden War Zone campaign (WZC) Wardak General Abdul Rahim Warrior ICV (Tracked) warship building capacity Watt Dr Ian J WD386 V-8 weapon locating radars (WLRs) Weapon Systems ORSA & Infrastructure (WSOI) weapon technology weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) Wen Jiabao Wen-ho Lee 28 330 354 31 355 22 329 463 4 119 329 443 113 293 480 165 65 10 44 56 169 393 435 439 58 330 372 28 X XIA class (Strategic missile submarine) Xinjiang Xinkiang XM8 (USA) Xu Caihou General Xu Qiliang General 469 130 438 52 178 330 330 Y Yadav A.K. Yadava Lt General K.S. Yakovlev Yak-40 YAL-1A Airborne Laser (ABL) Yala General Mohand Tahar Yang Tien-Hsiao 300 303 308 505 90 329 335 544 SP s MILITARY YEARBOOK 2009-2010 39th Year of Issue D a s s a u l t A v i a t i o n S n e c m a T h a l e s What will protect India st in the 21 century In matter of national defence there can be no substitute for complete trust in the source no compromise on the reliability and the availability of the aircraft and its technologies. For over half a century we have proudly been supporting India s air defence mission. Today we look forward to keeping the privilege of serving India for the next 50 years with the world s most advanced latest generation aircraft Rafale. The OMNIROLE fighter