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Description: SP's Military Yearbook 2014-2015 - Glimpse

2014Military SP s s i n Yearbook c e 1 9 6 5 2015 42 n d i s sue Finmeccanica and India in the spirit of partnership. jayant baranwal SP military yearbook 110x181_11.indd 1 27 06 12 10.39 editor-in-chief Safran India s Technology Partner Human logo formed by 3 000 new managers at Safran Discovery Day on June 6 2012. More than 60 years of high-tech cooperation in Aerospace Defense Security and Engineering businesses Nearly 1 500 commercial and military Indian aircrafts and helicopters powered and equipped The Group is one of the key technological partners in the prestigious Aadhaar programme in India 2 600 employees in the country the highest number of employees for the group in Asia with an average yearly growth of 30% over the last 10 years Innovation & Talent the engines powering our future. Photo Antoine Denoix Safran TRUSTED PARTNER MODERNISATION. Raytheon s global industrial partnerships help protect lives and infrastructure. From defence and global ISR to air traffic management and civil security we continue to work with our partners to modernise critical systems and promote economic growth. Nowhere is the power of this collaboration more evident than in India where we ve supported our customers efforts to build a safer stronger nation for over 60 years. INNOVATION. COLLABORATION. See how we re enabling success throughout India as a trusted partner. Raytheon.com Keyword India-Mod Connect with us 2014 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved. Customer Success Is Our Mission is a registered trademark of Raytheon Company. 14RT6038_IndiaPayoff_SPsMilitaryYrbk_Feb2014.indd 1 2 21 14 3 43 PM THE OTHER SWISS MOVEMENTS Swiss timepieces are renowned for their inherent quality exquisite detail and careful craftsmanship. Like the PC-12 NG which is one of the most popular turbine-powered business aircraft on the market today. Or our training systems Thousands of military pilots all round the world have earned their wings with one of our proven aircraft. Pilatus Aircraft Ltd Switzerland Phone 41 41 619 61 11 www.pilatus-aircraft.com Ensuring EvEry mission is a succEss With a century of special mission experience Bombardier knows and understands your needs. We recognize the situations and the challenges you face and we understand the solutions you require. Because chances are we ve been there before. That s why you should choose Bombardier because we have a lifetime of knowledge that helps us understand every need and ensures every mission is a success. BomBArdIer SpecIAlIzed AIrcrAfT. experIence you cAn counT on. Bombardier and Bombardier aircraft model names are trademarks of Bombardier Inc. or its subsidiaries. 2013 Bombardier Inc. All rights reserved. specialmission.bombardier.com jayant baranwal editor-in-chief Copyright 2014 SP Guide PubliCationS all rights reserved. the information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be used for any other activity. no part of this book may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means digital electronic mechanical photocopy recording or otherwise without the prior written approval of the editor-in-Chief. For copyright permissions please contact The Editor-in-Chief SP s Military Yearbook a-133 arjun nagar opposite defence Colony new delhi 110003 india. E-mail editor spsmilitaryyearbook.com the publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the furnishing or use of the information associated instructions claims of productivity gains. Founded by Shri SUKhDEO PrASAD BArANWAL in 1965 Published by JAyANT BArANWAL SP Guide PubliCationS new delhi india Corporate Office SP Guide PubliCationS PVt ltd a-133 arjun nagar opposite defence Colony new delhi 110003 india. tel 91 (11) 24644693 24644763 24620130 24658322 Fax 91 (11) 24647093 Designed by SP Guide Publications team iSSn 0076-8782 iSbn 978-93-5174-302-6 Registered with Rni no. (P.) F.2 (S 11) Press 93 E-mails info spsmilitaryyearbook.com order spsmilitaryyearbook.com guidepub vsnl.com Printed in India at Pragati offset Hyderabad Websites www.spguidepublications.com www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com lock on to mbda solutions World leading Missile systeMs MBDA combines technological excellence with industrial cooperation to equip the armed forces with the best operational capabilities regarding missiles and missile systems. www.mbd Photo D. Sarratue a-system s.com Message from R.M. on 50 Years of SP s Minister of Defence inDia am happy to learn that SP Guide Publications is completing 50 years of existence. Since its inception in 1964 SP Guide Publications has played an unmatched and a vital role by serving our armed Forces and their concerns. the publications efforts have been appreciated by all its readers. i hope that SP Guide Publications will continue to serve our armed Forces and the nation in the years to come. i wish the SP Guide Publications the very best in its endeavours. Jai Hind. a.K. antony www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s MIlItary yEarbOOk 2014-2015 42nd issue 9 celebrating 100 years On June 18th 1914 Lawrence Sperry and his mechanic stood on the wings of a Curtiss C-2 biplane demonstrating the world s first autopilot. Today s Honeywell Aerospace can trace its heritage back to that historic day in Paris. For a century Honeywell and its legacy companies have been at the forefront of flight bringing a countless number of inventions to the aerospace industry. Thousands of Honeywell products and services are found on virtually every commercial defense and space aircraft in the world. We look forward to providing innovative aviation solutions over the next 100 years and continuing to integrate technology that makes the possibilities of flight even safer more efficient comfortable higher performing and productive. To learn more about Honeywell s 100 year celebration visit aerospace.honeywell.com 2014 Honeywell International Inc. All rights reserved. Messages on 50 Years of SP s ADMirAL DK JOShi PVSM aVSM YSM nM VSM adC Air ChiEF MArShAL ArUP rAhA PVSM aVSM VM adC Chief of the naval Staff Chief of the air Staff am pleased to learn that the SP Guide Publications will complete fifty years in 2014. in these five decades the SP Guide Publications have emerged as an useful repository of information views and perspectives on matters related to the armed Forces of india including contemporary issues of technology procurement defence industry etc. the SP Guide Publications thus provides relevant and substantive inputs to all those interested in security matters. i wish the publications continued success in their efforts. Shano Varuna. dear Mr Jayant baranwal t is indeed heartening to note that SP Guide Publications is completing 50 years of an inspiring journey. SP Guide Publications has played an instrumental role in promoting public awareness about the indian armed Forces through a vast array of well researched and insightful publications. SP s Aviation and the SP s Military Yearbook in particular are known for their credible and authentic reportage and this has helped SP Guide Publications to carve a special niche for itself amongst the other publication houses. My best wishes to the SP s team as well as all your readers on this landmark occasion. (dK Joshi) admiral Yours sincerely (arup Raha) air Chief Marshal admiral d.K. Joshi retired on February 26 2014 www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s MIlItary yEarbOOk 2014-2015 42nd issue 11 Sikorsky S-70B SEAHAWK helicopter Protecting us whatever may come. One Powerful Idea. Battle-proven technology. State-of-the-art equipment. Anti-submarine and anti-surface mission solutions. The S-70B SEAHAWK variant of the famed Sikorsky BLACK HAWK is the world s most capable maritime helicopter in service today. United Technologies is committed to building a better India today and tomorrow. Messages on 50 Years of SP s LT GENErAL DALBir SiNGh uYSM aVSM VSM adC Air MArShAL r K ShArMA PVSM aVSM VM adC Vice Chief of the army Staff Vice Chief of the air Staff dear Mr Jayant hank you for sending me a copy of SP s Golden Jubilee Publication. SP Guide Publications ever since inception has been providing quality articles on armed Forces and the defence industry to the readers. My compliments to you the editorial team and all those who contributed to make this publication a success. Wishing you the very best and success in all your future endeavours. With warm regards Yours Sincerely (dalbir Singh) lt General dear Shri baranwal t is a pleasure to know that the prestigious SP Guide Publications is completing 50 years of exploring the Global aviation arena. Your publications have been of immense value in knowledge of aerospace and defence sectors. this speaks highly of the hard work and dedication put in by your team members. My heartiest congratulations for providing high quality reading material. i wish SP Guide Publications all success. Sincerely (R K Sharma) air Marshal Air MArShAL S SUKUMAr aVSM VM deputy Chief of air Staff t the outset i want to congratulate you and your team for successfully completing 50 glorious years in the field of Military Publications. Military and aerospace technology is a highly specialised field where information more often than not is always classified. However your publications with their zeal and professionalism have time and again provided in-depth analysis on critical issues and resulted in being a major contributor in enhancing the overall awareness of operators and the public at large. the high standard of your articles read avidly by all stakeholders has resulted in the SP s group publications becoming the lead interface between the industry and the armed Forces and contributing to their synergistic growth. it is commendable that SP s group publications have also contributed immensely as the official media partners of important events like aero india defexpo india etc. i congratulate SP Guide Publications for their yeoman service of more than 50 years and wish them greater glory in the years to come. Jai Hind (S Sukumar) air Marshal air Marshal held this position till February 28 2014 and currently is aoP. www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s MIlItary yEarbOOk 2014-2015 42nd issue 13 Advanced Air Defence. Better decisions better results. Situational awareness Air threat and missile detection Providing superior decision-support information for all mission types Enabling 100% engagement safety through a fully integrated identification chain Theatre and force protection Maximising high fire-power mobility and protection against air attacks Mission planning and execution Promoting an integrated approach to every stage of the critical decision chain Cyber security Delivering cyber-resilient solutions for wide ranging Air Defence missions Thales has developed a range of Advanced Air Defence solutions that leverages all of the technologies innovations solutions services and capabilities that have made us world-leaders in the sector. More importantly it is a step-change that has been shaped by our response to and anticipation of the challenges our customers face in today s environment. Our capabilities include SHIELD Air and Missile Defence Solutions SKYVIEW Command and Control Systems CONTROL Weapon Co-ordination GROUND Air Surveillance Radars RAPID Mobile Integrated Weapon Systems and STAR Missiles. Together with ThalesRaytheonSystems Thales helps key decision makers master complexity and make timely decisions for better outcomes. To find out more about our Advanced Air Defence scan the QR code or visit thalesgroup.com Message for SP s Military Yearbook Minister of Defence inDia am happy to learn that SP Guide Publications is coming out with SP s Military Yearbook 2014-2015. the security situation in our immediate and extended neighbourhood requires vigilance and alertness on the part of our armed Forces. While our armed Forces are fully prepared to meet any kind of challenge it is our endeavour to provide them with the best equipment and material so that they continue to be one of the best armed Forces in the world. i hope that SP s Military Yearbook will continue to provide inputs that help in keeping the morale of our armed Forces high. i wish the SP Guide Publications all success and hope that SP s Military Yearbook will be read and liked widely. Jai Hind. a.K. antony www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s MIlItary yEarbOOk 2014-2015 42nd issue 15 When Results Matter Anyway you look at it you re ahead on all fronts Delivering operational excellence in the most challenging scenarios. Equipping countless customers with total solutions to accomplish diverse missions. Customizing systems that achieve far-reaching goals. Performance-proven time and time again in space air on land and at sea. No matter what when or where. When results matter you can count on IAI. www.iai.co.il WINGS THAT RULE THE SKIES THAT 20 SP s MIlItary yEarbOOk 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com MULTI-LAYERED DEFENSE FOR THE MULTI-THREAT ENVIRONMENT Effective protection against all airborne threats SPYDER FAMILY Mobile and stationery integrated air defense systems against all airborne threats. MIC4AD Modular integrated C4I system commands and controls the operation of both air and missile defense missions. SPYDER-MR SPYDER-SR MIC4AD www.rafael.co.il readers Comments.... the Guide Publications of new delhi have brought out the Military Yearbook. it is useful to have suitably compiled information in one volume. i commend the efforts of the Publishers. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Former Prime Minister of India it (Military Yearbook) is a valuable book. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Former President of India it was good of you to send me a complimentary copy of Military Yearbook (1970)...i have gone through... and found its general get up good and contents useful. Field Marshal S.H.F.J. Manekshaw Former Chief of the Army Staff Indian Army Military Yearbook is indeed a very interesting and useful document and would be of considerable assistance to all the Services personnel whose profession is the science of war. Admiral O.S. Dawson Former Chief of the Naval Staff Indian Navy thank you for your letter dated January 30 2013 forwarding therewith a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2013. the President of india extends his greetings and felicitations for your efforts and wishes you continued success in your future endeavours. Shamima Siddiqui Deputy Press Secretary to The President of india President s Secretariat rashtrapati Bhavan (as on March 13 2013) the Yearbook and am sure it will be one better than the previous one. the efforts put in by you and your team in compiling the Yearbook is noteworthy and highly appreciated. Keep up the good work. Air Marshal r.K. Sharma Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief hQ Eastern Air Command indian Air Force (as on February 12 2013) i am desired by Honourable Finance Minister Shri P. Chidambaram to acknowledge receipt of your letter dated 30.1.2013 enclosing a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2013. M.A. Siddique Private Secretary to Finance Minister (as on February 4 2013) i appreciate the thoughtful gesture of yours. the publication is indeed informative and very high in quality. Convey my compliments to the editorial team for living up to the high standards which is always looked forward to from SP Guide Publications Group. Lt General Narendra Singh Deputy Chief of the Army Staff (P&S) indian Army (as on February 1 2013) as always you have come out with the most erudite compilation of perspectives statistics data and information in SP s Military Yearbook 2013. the publication will certainly provide invaluable inputs for all of us in the business of national security. Please accept my congratulations and also convey my appreciation to your editorial team for this well researched publication. Vice Admiral Anil Chopra Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief hQ Eastern Naval Command indian Navy (as on February 15 2013) thank you very much for sending me a complimentary copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2013. i can see some very interesting articles inside 22 SP s MIlItary yEarbOOk 2014-2015 42nd issue thank you for sending me a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2013. i have gone through it and found it to be very informative giving a good insight into the latest developments in the armed Forces and the defence industry. My compliments to you the editorial team and all those who have been involved in the compilation of the Yearbook. Lt General Dalbir Singh General Officer Commanding-in-Chief and Colonel 5th Gorkha rifles (FF) hQ Eastern Command indian Army (as on March 11 2013) www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com TURN YOUR ARTILLERY INTO PINPOINT WEAPONS singulier et associ s - Photo Getty Images - Flickr Sagem Artillery Solutions Sagem gives your artillery systems the latest sensor to shooter capabilities from optronic target designation to fire control and inertial navigation systems. Our solutions turn your artillery into precision weapons combining high efficiency quick operation and ease of use. More than twenty armies have already opted for these solutions as either original equipment or upgrades. When you choose Sagem s specialized solutions you maximize your firepower. www.sagem-ds.com readers Comments.... thank you for sending me a copy of the SP s Military Yearbook 2013. the book has been very well presented and provides very interesting reading material. My congratulations to you for this excellent new edition. Please convey my compliments also to the editorial team for their commendable effort. Lt General Sanjiv Chachra General Officer Commanding-in-Chief and Colonel of the rajput regiment hQ Western Command indian Army (as on February 14 2013) i can see that the book has comprehensive details as also interesting thoughts to offer. Lt General Philip Campose Director General of Perspective Planning indian Army (as on February 4 2013) thank you so very much for sending me complimentary copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2013. i shall be reverting back after perusing the contents. Lt General Anil Chait General Officer Commanding-in-Chief hQ Central Command indian Army (as on February 17 2013) on behalf of the General officer Commanding-inChief South Western Command i wish to thank you for sending us a compendium titled SP s Military Yearbook 2013 which provides valuable inputs to our indian armed Forces and defence industry to further analyse salient issues for evaluated outcome in context of mil imperatives. the contents are well compiled informative and make excellent reading. our compliments to you and your editorial team for a comprehensive conspectus on all pervasive mil matters circumscribing the national and global domain. Major General S.K. Gadeock Major General General Staff hQ South Western Command indian Army (as on March 15 2013) thank you very much for your thoughtful gesture of sending me a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2013 which is so well compiled. the informative Military Yearbook is being placed in the aad dte library and would surely benefit all pers in the envt. Lt General Kuldip Singh Director General Army Air Defence & Senior Colonel Commandant indian Army (as on February 18 2013) thank you very much for sending me copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2013. the contents and data of the book are indeed very informative and professionally excellent. Major General Gurmit Singh Additional Director General of Military Operations (A) indian Army (as on January 31 2013) thank you very much for the SP s Military Yearbook 2013. My compliments to editorial team for an excellent job done. Lt General N.B. Singh Director General & Senior Colonel Commandant Directorate General of Electronics and Mechanical Engineers indian Army (as on February 15 2013) thank you very much for sending a copy of SP s Military Yearbook 2013. thank you very much for sending me the SP s Military Yearbook 2013. the book makes very interesting reading and is well illustrated. i would be grateful if you could convey my appreciation to your editorial team for putting together a fine edition. rear Admiral Monty Khanna Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff (Foreign Cooperation & intelligence) integrated headquarters Ministry of Defence (Navy) indian Navy (as on February 14 2013) 24 SP s MIlItary yEarbOOk 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com Unique. Ahead of the Art. of the Art. Unique. Ahead of the Art. Unique. Ahead Iran Afghanistan Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir Udhampur Punjab Himachal Pradesh Shimla Uttarakhand Dehradun Delhi Uttar Pradesh Jaipur Lucknow Allahabad Gandhinagar Madhya Pradesh Gujarat Bhopal Chhattisgarh Raipur Nagpur Patna Bihar Jharkhand Ranchi West Bengal Kolkata ARMY Delhi China NAVY AIR FORCE JOINT COMMAND Chandigarh Haryana Rajasthan Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Sikkim Dispur Shillong Agartala Tripura Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar Nagaland Kohima Manipur Imphal Aizawal Mizoram Bhubaneshwar Myanmar Thailand Maharashtra Mumbai Pune Vishakhapatnam Hyderabad Bangladesh ARABIAN SEA Goa Panaji Karnataka Bengaluru Kavarati Lakshadweep Kerala Kochi Andhra Pradesh BAY OF BENGAL Chennai An da m an & Ni co ba r Port Blair Tamil Nadu Is la nd s Thiruvananthapuram Sri Lanka I N D I A N O C E A N Major Indian armed Forces Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 New Delhi (integrated HQ of moD (army) New Delhi (integrated HQ of moD (Navy) New Delhi (integrated HQ of moD (iaF) pune (HQ southern command) army kolkata (HQ eastern command) army chandimandir (HQ western command) army lucknow (HQ central command) army udhampur (HQ Northern command) army shimla (HQ training command) army Jaipur (HQ south-western command) army Vishakhapatnam (HQ eastern Naval command) Navy mumbai (HQ western Naval command) Navy 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 kochi (HQ southern Naval command) Navy New Delhi (HQ western air command) iaF shillong (HQ eastern air command) iaF allahabad (HQ central air command) iaF bengaluru (HQ training command) iaF Gandhinagar (HQ south-western air command) iaF thiruvananthapuram (HQ southern air command) iaF Nagpur (HQ maintenance command) iaF New Delhi (HQ strategic Forces command) port blair (HQ andaman & Nicobar command) New Delhi (HQ integrated Defence staff) 26 SP s MIlItary yEarbOOk 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com Information superiority at sea. Across the full spectrum of operations - from high intensity warfare to maritime security - Selex ES provides systems and equipment to ensure our customers achieve their missions successfully. Our heritage covers integrated combat and fire control systems radar and electro-optical sensors as well as communications simulation and training solutions. Selex ES. The power of one. selex-es.com Defence. Security. Smart systems. Iran Afghanistan Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Shimla Uttarakhand Dehradun China Punjab Chandigarh Haryana Pakistan Rajasthan Jaipur 1 Delhi Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Allahabad Bhutan Nepal Patna Bihar Jharkhand West Bengal Kolkata Sikkim Dispur Shillong Agartala Tripura Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar Nagaland Kohima Manipur Imphal Aizawal Mizoram Gandhinagar Madhya Pradesh Gujarat Ranchi Chhattisgarh Raipur Bhubaneswar Odisha 17 Bhopal 6 22 Myanmar Thailand 20 5 Mumbai Maharashtra Pune Bangladesh 16 18 9 10 Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh 19 8 Vishakhapatnam ARABIAN SEA Goa Panaji 7 BAY OF BENGAL An da m an Karnataka 4 11 2 12 13 3 15 Chennai Bengaluru 14 Kerala Tamil Nadu Kochi Port Blair & Ni co ba r Kavaratti Lakshadweep Is la nd s 21 Thiruvananthapuram Sri Lanka I N D I A N O C E A N DrDO and DPSU Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Defence research and Development organisation (DrDo) New Delhi Hindustan aeronautics ltd bengaluru bharat electronics ltd bengaluru bharat earth movers ltd bengaluru mazagon Dock ltd mumbai Garden reach shipbuilders & engineers ltd kolkata Goa shipyard ltd Goa Hindustan shipyard ltd Visakhapatnam bharat Dynamics ltd Hyderabad mishra Dhatu ltd Hyderabad aeronautical Development agency bengaluru 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 indian space research organisation bengaluru aeronautical Development establishment bengaluru centre for airborne systems bengaluru combat Vehicles research & Development establishment chennai Defence electronics research lab. Hyderabad Defence research and Development est. Gwalior Defence research and Development lab. Hyderabad Naval science & technological laboratory Visakhapatnam integrated test range balasore odisha cochin shipyard ltd kochi kerala ordnance Factories board kolkata 28 SP s MIlItary yEarbOOk 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com WESCAM-SP s Military Yearbook ad 2013_Layout 1 13-02-28 2 25 PM Page 1 PROTECT YOUR VAST BORDERS. SAFEGUARD YOUR PEOPLE AND KEY ASSETS. Use of this U.S. DoD image does not imply or constitute DoD endorsement. MX-20 MX-20D MX-15 L-3 s MX -Series Provides Clarity and Complete Situational Awareness. TM Observe and make critical decisions from outside the threat envelope with high-magnification large-aperture optics High-definition 1080p imaging resolution places more pixels on the target MX-GEO technology automatically keeps the line of sight locked on a target or location of interest MX-10D Image blending uncovers more detail by combining EO and IR images into a single picture To learn more visit www.wescam.com. WESCAM L-3com.com MX-15D MX-10 www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s MIlItary yEarbOOk 2014-2015 42nd issue 29 aDvErtISEr InDEx aIrbUS MIlItary aIrbUS HElICOPtErS aSElSan baE SyStEMS bEECHCraFt bErEtta bHarat DynaMICS bOMbarDIEr COCHIn SHIPyarD DaSSaUlt avIatIOn DrS tECHnOlOGIES FFv OrDnanCE FInCantIErI FInMECCanICa GarDEn rEaCH SHIPbUIlDErS & EnGInEErS GOa SHIPyarD HDW HInDUStan aErOnaUtICS HOnEyWEll IMaGESat ISraEl aErOSPaCE InDUStrIES kbP l-3COM WESCaM lOCkHEED MartIn MaZaGOn DOCk MbDa navantIa nExtEr nOrtHrOP GrUMMan OtO MElara PIlatUS raFaEl raytHEOn rOSObOrOnExPOrt Saab SaFran SaGEM SElEx ES SHInMayWa tElEPHOnICS tExtrOn SyStEMS tHalES UnItED tECHnOlOGIES www.airbusdefenceandspace.com www.airbushelicopters.com www.aselsan.com www.baesystems.com M777 www.beechcraft.com special_missions www.berettadefence.com http bdl.ap.nic.in www.specialmission.bombardier.com www.cochinshipyard.com www.rafale.co.in www.drs.com bms www.saabgroup.com www.fincantieri.com www.finmeccanica.com www.grse.nic.in www.goashipyard.co.in www.thyssenkrupp-marinesystems.com www.hal-india.com http aerospace.honeywell.com www.imagesatintl.com www.iai.co.il www.kbptula.ru www.wescam.com www.lockheedmartin.com missiledefense www.mazagondock.gov.in www.mbda-systems.com www.navantia.es www.nexter-group.fr www.northropgrumman.com isr www.otomelara.it www.pilatus-aircraft.com www.rafael.co.il www.raytheon.com www.rusarm.ru www.saabgroup.com india www.safran-group.com www.sagem-ds.com www.selex-es.com www.shinmaywa.co.jp www.telephonics.com www.textronsystems.com www.thalesgroup.com www.utc.com Contents Section Separator Weapons Equipment & Vehicles Section Separator Asian Who s Who Section Separator 34 Concepts & Perspectives Section Separator 32 18 4 38 Back Cover Book Mark Indian Defence Section Separator 39 Front Cover 41 40 Book Mark 20 10 31 17 16 29 35 36 7 33 37 8 Business Section Separator 2 21 1 Book Mark 19 Facing Inside Front Cover 23 27 25 Technology Section Separator Book Mark 14 12 30 SP s MIlItary yEarbOOk 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com 32 SP s MIlItary yEarbOOk 2014-2015 42nd issue Beretta GLX160 A1 40x46mm LV Benelli M4 12 gauge Beretta PX4 Storm SD .45 ACP www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com Integrated weapon systems firearms ammunition optics tactical equipment Beretta boasts a proud heritage forged by more than 500 years of innovation. Today a new alliance brings our warfighters the most advanced and integrated weapon systems and services ever developed. bdt_adv_226x180.indd 1 05 11 13 12.20 Contents BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONTENTS REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES THE TRUSTED PARTN ER FOR THE AVRO REPLACEMENT PERSONNEL MILITARY PALLETS MEDICAL SUPPLIES SEARCH AND RESCUE PARATROOPS MILITARY VEHICLES M E D I C A L E VA C U A T I O N The C295 is optimised for personnel and cargo transport paratroop airdrop and medical evacuation and is an efficient complement to heavy airlifters. Proven in rough airstrips hot and high conditions. The C295 does what the HS-748 Avro does but with a lot more capability flexibility and reliability After 150 000 accumulated flight hours the C295s higher utilisation rates and availability over similar aircraft mean its proven to be simply more efficient. Therefore it has become the transport solution of choice in 16 countries. For daily transport missions Airbus Military is your trusted partner . join forces for the success of your critical missions Airbus Military Astrium and Cassidian www.airbusdefenceandspace.com COL OUR PAGES MeSSaGeS oN 50 yearS oF SP S MinisterofDefence India AdmiralD.K.Joshi ChiefoftheNavalStaff AirChiefMarshalArupRaha ChiefoftheAirStaff L tGeneralDalbirSingh ViceChiefoftheArmyStaff AirMarshalR.K.Sharma ViceChiefoftheAirStaff AirMarshalS.Sukumar DeputyChiefoftheAirStaff 9 11 13 15 22 24 26 28 45 CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY MeSSaGe FroM MiNiSter oF DeFeNce iNDia For SP S Military yearbook reaDerS coMMeNtS MaPS Major indian armed Forces Headquarters DrDo and DPSU Headquarters eDitorial WeaPoNS eqUiPMeNt & VeHicleS aUtHorS ProFile 49-96 97 Sin t tulo-1 1 www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 33 06 03 2014 12 44 50 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES cont e n t s CONTENTS cont e nt s B LA CK & WhIte PAGeS M777 -- DEPLOYABLE ANYWHERE. Mobile forces require quality systems that are reliable quick and easy to support. The innovative use of titanium and aluminum makes the battle proven M777 half the weight of a conventional 155mm howitzer. As the world s lightest air portable artillery system M777 meets the requirement for reliable rapidly deployable and consistently accurate artillery fire support. 1 coNcePtS & PerSPectiVeS 1. 1 india s Strategic Partnership with the United States ChintamaniMahapatra 1 2. india s regional Security environment Brigadier(Retd)GurmeetKanwal 5 9 3. indo-Pak relations General(Retd)V.P.Malik 4. Pakistan-china Strategic Nexus 13 M ajorGeneral(Retd) DhruvC.Katoch 5. Post-2014 afghanistan L tGeneral(Retd)P.C.Katoch 17 21 6. Developments in West asia A mbassador(Retd)RanjitGupta 7. Strategic linkages in central asia AmbassadorP.Stobdan 25 8. Military Developments in South east asia Brigadier(Retd)VinodAnand 29 33 9. www.baesystems.com M777 contentious South china Sea DrMonikaChansoria 10. india s internal Security Dimensions L tGeneral(Retd)GautamBanerjee www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com 37 34 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue B LA CK & WhIte PAGeS 11. india s land borders L tGeneral(Retd) VijayOberoi 41 T 110 mm 12. Special Forces in india s Defence Strategy L tGeneral(Retd) P.C.Katoch B rigadier(Retd) ArunSahgal 45 13. india s Nuclear Deterrence 49 TECHNOLOGY THAAD. Aegis. PAC-3. MEADS. A powerful portfolio providing an unparalleled degree of hit-to-kill protection. Deployed across the globe Lockheed Martin-developed missile defense systems have achieved more than 70 successful intercepts in combat and flight testing. By synchronizing systems with C2BMC and providing targets for realistic testing we deliver forces. Lockheed Martin the proven world leader in missile defense. www.lockheedmartin.com missiledefense 14. india s energy Security DrBhupendraKumarSingh 53 15. evolution of Pilotless aircraft A irMarshal(Retd) AnilChopra 57 16. Militarisation of Space LtGeneral(Retd)V.K.Kapoor 61 65 1. LtGeneral(Retd)NareshChand 2. intelligence Surveillance and reconnaissance 71 LtGeneral(Retd)P.C.Katoch AirMarshal(Retd)AnilChopra www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 35 REGIONAL BALANCE 3. cyber Security 75 ASIAN WHO S WHO india s Future Weapon capability 65 effective solutions that protect citizens critical assets and deployed INDIAN DEFENCE 2 tecHNoloGy HEAD ON COMBATING MISSILE THREATS BUSINESS CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES T 180 mm WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES cont e nt s CONTENTS cont e nt s B LA CK & WhIte PAGeS 4. Defence against Stealth technology LtGeneralV.K.Saxena 79 83 85 89 93 5. air Defence Gun ammunition LtGeneralV.K.Saxena 6. Shipbuilding and Modularisation R earAdmiral(Retd)Dr.S.Kulshrestha 7. Disruptive Military technologies LtGeneral(Retd)NareshChand 8. Military Helicopters for india LtGeneral(Retd)B.S.Pawar 36 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com 3 bUSiNeSS 1. B LA CK & WhIte PAGeS 97 97 103 107 111 indian army Modernisation Brigadier(Retd)GurmeetKanwal 2. indian Navy Modernisation V iceAdmiral(Retd)DilipDeshpande AirMarshal(Retd)B.K.Pandey 4. india s Defence budgets 2013-14 and 2014-15 LtGeneral(Retd)V.K.Kapoor Recognizing threats is our instinct 01 41 37 96 7070 Systems Being reactive is our strength Munitions Tomorrow s threats are constantly evolving skilfully hiding and patiently waiting. To face them head on you ll need more than powerful weapons. You ll need a highly reactive partner that can deliver intelligent perfectly adapted solutions with extraordinary quickness and precision. Backed by 3 centuries of experience a robust track record and solid commitment to R&D Nexter is able to offer a comprehensive range of state-of-the-art weapon systems munitions and equipment. Beyond client satisfaction we strive to create systems that are as safe for the environment as they are for you. A winning situation for everyone - your people your business and the planet. Photo credits Aspheri G. Lepp Getty Images - Equipment www.nexter-group.fr nexter_corporate_FU_180-112_2013-07-29.indd 1 29 07 13 14 08 www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 37 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY 3. indian air Force Modernisation CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES cont e nt s CONTENTS cont e n t s B LA CK & WhIte PAGeS 5. Strategic and business environment Brigadier(Retd)RahulBhonsle 117 119 123 127 131 6. Dark Side of offsets MajorGeneral(Retd)MrinalSuman 7. Defence Procurement Procedure of 2013 MajorGeneral(Retd)MrinalSuman 8. Facilitation of Defence offsets LtGeneral(Retd)P.C.Katoch 9. rapid Procurement and indigenisation General(Retd)N.C.Vij Top End Offshore Vessels from India s Leading Shipyard Ship building Diesel Electric Clean Design PSV s Medium to Large AHTS (120 to 200T BP) Conventional PSV s Positioned for Dive Support Seismic vessels Ship RepaiR PSV s Subsea vessels Dive vessels Drill Ships Jack up Rigs All types of Merchant vessels Competent designers 3D Modeling on advanced Tribon Software European designs equipment High quality Hull and Outfitting Highest focus on quality Adherence to Delivery Schedules Experience of Repairs Up-gradation to more than 1200 vessels Shipbuilding 91 484 2380320 Ship Repair 91 484 2363778 www.cochinshipyard.com COCHIN SHIPYARD LIMITED 38 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 39 cont e nt s B LA CK & WhIte PAGeS Global contracts 135 4 iNDiaN DeFeNce 1. 145 145 153 179 209 237 247 267 291 integrated Defence Staff Brigadier(Retd)VinodAnand 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. the indian army the indian Navy the indian air Force indian coast Guard Who s Who in indian Defence indian Defence industry Defence research & Development HoMelaND SecUrity 1. india s Homeland Security LtGeneral(Retd)V.K.Kapoor 299 2. india s internal Security environment LtGeneral(Retd)V.K.Kapoor 311 325 329 3. india s coastal Security LtGeneral(Retd)NareshChand 4. 40 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue the Maoist Menace in india LtGeneral(Retd)P.C.Katoch www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com 5 aSiaN WHo S WHo Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Cambodia People s Republic of China Egypt Indonesia B LA CK & WhIte PAGeS 333 333 333 333 334 334 334 334 334 335 Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos 335 335 335 335 336 336 336 336 336 www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 41 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES cont e nt s CONTENTS cont e nt s B LA CK & WhIte PAGeS 336 336 337 337 337 337 337 338 338 338 338 Lebanon Libya Malaysia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen 339 339 339 339 339 340 340 340 340 340 340 6 reGioNal balaNce 1. 2. GDP & Military expenditure central & South asia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka 42 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 341 341 345 348 350 352 354 356 358 359 361 363 367 369 372 3. east asia Pacific rim & australia Australia Cambodia China Indonesia Japan North Korea (DPRK) South Korea (ROK) Laos Malaysia Myanmar (Formerly Burma) Philippines 375 379 381 383 387 389 392 395 397 399 401 403 www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com B LA CK & WhIte PAGeS 405 407 410 412 415 418 420 423 425 427 4. 5. asia-Pacific environment Brigadier(Retd)RahulBhonsle 451 BUSINESS REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE 6. equipment & Hardware Specifications Army Equipment Naval Equipment Air Equipment 457 457 481 502 DiaGraMS GraPHS Increasing Growth of India s Oil Consumption Increasing Growth of India s Gas Consumption Increasing Growth of India s Coal Consumption Renewable Capacity Addition has Increased Significantly over the 10th and 11th Five Year Plans Defence Budget (Comparison) Distribution of Capital Budget Distribution of Revenue Budget Share of Defence Services in Defence Budget Organisation of Integrated Defence Staff www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com 54 54 55 56 112 113 114 115 146 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 43 TECHNOLOGY West asia and North africa Algeria Egypt Libya Bahrain Iran CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Singapore Taiwan Thailand Vietnam Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Sultanate of Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria United Arab Emirates Republic of Yemen 430 432 434 436 438 439 441 443 445 447 449 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES cont e n t s CONTENTS cont e nt s B LA CK & WhIte PAGeS The outline structure of the Indian National Defence University Diagrammatic Layout of the Army s Chain of Command Organisation of the Indian Army Headquarters Organisation of the Indian Navy Headquarters Organisation of the Indian Air Force Headquarters Organisation of the Indian Coast Guard Headquarters Indian Coast Guard Locations Indian Coast Guard SAR Organisation Summary of the output of the defence industry including ordnance factories and DPSUs during the previous three years Organisation Chart of the Department of Defence Production (DDP) Organisation structure of OFB External functional linkages (OFB comes under Department Of Defence Production) Performance Summary of DPSUs (up to 2012-13) Values of stores assured by DGQA ( in crore) DRDO Ministry of Defence Organisational Structure of DRDO Organisation of Ministry of Home Affairs Organisational Command & Control of Central Police Forces 148 155 157 180 212 239 240 242 268 269 270 270 273 289 292 293 300 310 abbreViatioNS & iNDex 512 44 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com editorial Growing From Strength to Strength The first seeds were sown in 1964 by Shri Sukhdeo Prasad Baranwal when he founded Guide Publications and launched the Military Yearbook in 1965 a truly pioneering publication in the realm of defence information and analysis. From then to now SP Guide Publications has grown into Asia s largest publisher of Aerospace Defence and Security information nurtured by its current Editor-in-Chief and Publisher. SP s Military Yearbook now is a comprehensive reference manual an annual barometer on conceptual issues in the strategic and operational realm military related issues and homeland security. Vision of a Nationalist It was the vision and the desire of a nationalist journalist and author Shri S.P. Baranwal to render service in his own way to the armed forces that saw the birth of the Military Yearbook. This innovative effort by Shri Baranwal was appreciated by the then Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri as well as by the military fraternity. He left behind a rich legacy imbued with his integrity principles and unflinching adherence to truth. The baton passed on to Jayant Baranwal under whom Guide Publications was rechristened as SP Guide Publications by prefixing SP as a tribute to the Founder. It has been a glorious journey spanning 50 years (Golden Jubilee) marked by several milestones. SP s Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal presenting a copy of the SP s Military Yearbook 2013 to Defence Minister A.K. Antony SP s Naval Forces Launched in 2006 SP s Naval Forces is the only magazine dedicated to the Navies from the region. P s AirBuz Launched in 2008 SP s AirBuz is a forwardS looking and resource-rich magazine on civil aviation sector. P s M.A.I. Launched in 2011 SP s M.A.I. (military aeroS space and internal security) is a fortnightly which provides quick updates and analysis on securing a nation. P s ShowNews Published at key aviation and military S events in India and elsewhere SP s ShowNews gives a ringside view to the professional on the move. launch of Niche Magazines SP Guide Publications at regular intervals has added niche magazines to its portfolio and also facilitated in networking the industry and the end-user through different channels thus becoming a comprehensive domain-specific media house. The global reach of all its publications are a testimony to its growing presence and its publications are internationally audited. The magazines are driven by high quality content thanks to its panel of editorial staff some of whom have held high posts in the military and in the industry. P s Aviation Launched in 1998 SP s Aviation focuses on S both military and civil aviation. P s Land Forces Launched in 2004 SP s Land Forces is a S bimonthly magazine exclusively dedicated to Land Forces. Partnering the industry As a responsible publication group we have been partnering with the industry and the military in organising events conferences and other related activities. SP Guide Publications has created a record of sorts by becoming the Key Official Media Partner for successive Aero India and Defexpo exhibitions organised since 2010. www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 45 [ editorial ] the Global CoNtext Global EvEnts The year 2013 was never short of a major world news event. The range extended from North Korea s nuclear ambitions to the bombing of the Boston Marathon to the death of Nelson Mandela which came in early December at the end of a year that had seen two major terror attacks in Africa and one in the US the death of a sitting world leader in Venezuela and the departure of another in Egypt and two disputes over British territory. North Korea had conducted a third controversial nuclear test clearly snubbing international efforts to prevent the detonation and the Syrian regime continued to wage war against the rebels and is widely thought to be responsible for an August chemical attack that killed 1 400 people. An illegal garment factory collapsed in Dhaka in April killing more than 1 100 poorly paid workers and as many as 6 000 people died in November when Typhoon Haiyan devastated parts of the Philippines. It was a controversial year for the Barack Obama Administration in the US with partisan bickering over a bill to fund the US Government leading to its shut down and an unknown US defence worker Edward Snowden leaking a huge trove of secret National Security Agency (NSA) documents. Global sEcurity The post-cold war era brought democracy and the free market to a number of European and Central Asian countries. A side effect of these changes in some of these countries was a flare up of ethnic and territorial conflicts weakening of state power and control as well as failure to prevent the escalation of organised crime. The western political economic and cultural benefits began to take root in the new global environment leading to backlash from the political powers who found it difficult to accept these changes. In a number of countries the mood of the socially dissatisfied strata of the population moved towards social national or religious radicalism. Accordingly issues which had been suppressed in the bipolar world arrangement came to the forefront in international relations. The possibility of conventional war and the emergence of classical military conflicts among states is low in Europe however the same cannot be said for the Asia-Pacific region where territorial border conflicts can still break out. The new threats to national and individual security are rooted in the inadequate socio-economic development of large regions intensified by endemic corruption the spread of radical ideologies and in many countries by a weak state power which permits groups of extremists to spread terrorism on a global scale. The rapidly spreading globalisation has made countries increasingly interdependent due to various economic social and ecological processes and consequently mutual dependence in the field of security has substantially increased. A significant potential threat is posed by issues related to the administration and use of energy resources. The world population and production volumes are growing rapidly thereby increasing energy consumption. An intense competition for the use of the dwindling resources of natural fuel is evident among countries and regions while on the other hand the use of these resources continues to have an increasingly negative impact on ecology. Due to the process of globalisation and the development of information technologies the community and the state are being increasingly affected by newly emerging threat generally referred to as cyber threat . Contemporary modern democracies no longer relate their security to individual capabilities only they pay major attention to collective approach in dealing with security issues. Bilateral and multilateral security cooperation and the development of international security organisations are on the rise. The awareness that threats to security can come from geographically remote regions has increased readiness to engage in regulating crises and conflicts far beyond the borders of the home country. Confronting the new threats requires a complex approach military force alone can resolve but a minor part of the problem. In order to safeguard national and international security it is important that the countries sharing common values and having a similar view of the global situation take concerted actions that include political economic and diplomatic as well as military means and follow a comprehensive approach. cEntral asia Central Asia is also referred to as the backyard of Russia and China It has emerged as the focal point . The cover of Military Yearbook 1965 46 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com [ editorial ] of rivalry between the United States on one side and Moscow and Beijing on the other. Post-9 11 Central Asia also emerged as the epicentre of geopolitical changes on a global scale. The US became the main economic donor and assumed security responsibility enabling it to establish military presence in the region and set up military bases in four out of the five Central Asian states. Due to intensely competitive ties among countries of the region as well as the key players namely the US Russia and China the American presence now has reduced. It is interesting to note that while each major player tries to accomplish its national interests through its own grand strategy the countries of Central Asia are using their own strategies to balance the relationships which seem threatening. Three different strategies have been employed to balance out the major players including strategic partnership non-alignment and a multi-vectored approach The key to what became known as Kazakhstan s . multi-vectored approach is to build strategic partnerships with all three powers. Today this policy has eroded somewhat under pressure from Russia s Eurasec Gazprom and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) but it nonetheless remains in place. south asia The South Asian scene has been marred by constant hostility between nuclear-armed India and Pakistan and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is battling terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir in its north-eastern states and in the rest of the country. Left-wing extremism (LWE) or commonly referred to as Naxalite violence has affected a large number of states of the Indian Union. In terms of geographical spread the worst affected states are Chhattisgarh Jharkhand Odisha and Bihar. The LWE problem also exists in certain pockets in Maharashtra West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The front organisations of LWE are active in many states of India. The CPI (Maoist) continues to remain the most dominant and violent LWE group accounting for more than 80 per cent of the violence and the killings. Pakistan-afGhanistan rEGion The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9 11. Today international terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Additionally Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) continues to foment terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989 and now Pakistan Inter-Services Intelligence-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India establishing their cells within home grown groups bedevilling relationship between the two countries. Terrorist attacks on November 26 2008 in Mumbai which emanated from Pakistan created an impasse in their relationship. However much water has flowed under the bridge since then and a new civilian government under Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is now in power. There are good reasons to believe that Pakistan would be more stable peaceful and more prosperous. With parliamentary elections in India in AprilMay 2014 and the likelihood of a new political dispensation in India the region could look forward to a more stable relationship between the two countries. Price Inland Rs 8 275.00 Foreign (Surface Mail) Stg. 436.00 US 776.00 SP s MYB Cover 2014-2015_Final.indd 1 heritage_220-275_2013-10-11.indd 1 11 10 13 10 36 SP s s i n Military Yearbook c e 1 9 6 5 201442n d i s s ue Yearbook Military 42nd is su e SP s 2015 20142015 Finmeccanica and India in the spirit of partnership. jayant baranwal SP military yearbook 110x181_11.indd 1 27 06 12 10.39 25 04 14 editor-in-chief The cover of the current edition of SP s Military Yearbook 2014-2015 East asia Pacific rim and australia East Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia though not strictly a part of the region has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important powers in the region are the United States China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness is also aware that the latter s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan its historical antagonist. Four major issues continue to impact the security environment in East Asia China-Japan relations Korean Peninsula Taiwan and international terrorism. These issues have been analysed in the SP s Military Yearbook this year. WEst asia The dramatic unfolding of the situation in West Asia over the past two years or so poses a challenge for all countries in terms of a political response. It calls for a quick rethinking of their foreign policy not just from a long-term perspective but also to address the challenges in the short term. The challenges did not appear on the scene without warnings. The world has been dealing with www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 47 [ editorial ] nuclear issues for about a decade. Apart from this the post-9 11 scenario brought forth other issues that added to the dilemma and changed the situation in West Asia--the rise of Shia influence the Iranian nuclear issue tensions between Iran and Arab neighbours tensions between Iran and Israel the Palestine issue and the Arab Spring. More detailed analyses of West Asia is included in the Yearbook. asia-Pacific EnvironmEnt The strategic environment in the Asia-Pacific has seen continuous change and volatility over the past decade or so after US intervention in Afghanistan in 2001 following 9 11 attacks. The past year was no different. The strategic flux in the region is due to a number of factors. Firstly a challenge to the global balance with the rise of China and India threatening the traditional international order dominated by the US West and Russia. Secondly a resurgent Japan increasing economic clout of South Korea and Indonesia waiting in the wings to seek its rightful place in the regional and ipso facto global order has resulted in reverberations of change in the region. Thirdly the United States Asia-Pacific rebalancing has been a cause for turbulence in regional and global geopolitics. Fourthly the trajectory of change is further affected by conflicts such as the raging civil war in Syria which has drawn high level of attention particularly of major powers the United States and Russia. Fifthly China s aggressive posturing to secure what is defined by it unilaterally as core interests caused concerns in its immediate neighbourhood. This was followed by attempts at concord between regional states such as ASEAN and India or Japan and India to maintain a balance through mutual coagulation of interests to keep China s ambitions and aggressive intent under check. A paper on the Asia-Pacific environment has been included for better understanding of the readers. the CoNteNt thiS year SP s Military Yearbook this year carries an exceptional range of interesting articles of highly topical subjects by well known authors including former service chiefs. These articles are included in the chapters on Concepts and Perspectives Business and Technology. The chapter on Concepts and Perspectives contains well analysed articles of military and strategic value on subjects which range from the global to the regional perspectives. They cover the entire area of strategic interest to India s defence planners and industry honchos. In the Business section articles on the dark side of defence offsets new guidelines on defence procurements strategic and business environment in India defence research and development and defence industry and modernisation of each service have been given. In the chapter on Technology interesting articles have been included ranging from India s blueprint for future weapons capability defence against stealth technology in air defence to military helicopters disruptive technologies and cyber security issues among other topics. All other chapters have been updated by excerpts knowledgeable in defence and military related matters. Clarifications Most countries are reluctant to part with information relating to the size and strength of their armed forces and equipment specifications. Sincere efforts have been made to garner information from the most authentic sources for the sP s military yearbook 2014-2015. Despite this it is quite possible variations may crop up in some cases. rticles in this volume contain the personal opinions of the A contributors and do not reflect the views of the publishers or the Indian Government including the Ministry of Defence. Suggestions for improvements will be appreciated and carried out to the extent possible and practically viable. acknowledgements Several distinguished columnists and industry experts on the editorial board worked in unison to make the SP s Military Yearbook 2014-2015 a quality product. It is my pleasure to name SP s team of experts Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Rear Admiral (Retd) S.K. Ramsay Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief 48 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com special colour feature Weapons Equipment & Vehicles BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS THINK NAVAL OPERATIONS Armed with cutting-edge defense helicopter technology. Day & night capable for anti-submarine anti-surface SAR and support-ship borne operations in the harshest naval environments. Ready to support protect detect mark or destroy from shore or ship. EC725 Deploy the best Copyright 2014 SP Guide Publications All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be used for any other activity. No part of this book may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means digital electronic mechanical photocopy recording or otherwise without the prior written approval of the Editor-in-Chief. The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the furnishing or use of the information associated instructions claims of productivity gains. W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T & V E H I CLE S Concept Bharat Dynamics ............................................................................................ 53 Bombardier ..................................................................................................... 55 Dassault Aviation ............................................................................................ 57 Diehl Defence ................................................................................................. 59 FFV Ordnance................................................................................................. 62 Credits Publishers extend special thanks to the companies who have provided the contents and respective photographs for this feature. Also gladly acknowledge their extensive support and co-operation in formulating this feature with maximum possible up-to-date and lively contents. Printed in India at Pragati Offset Hyderabad Israel Aerospace Industries ........................................................................... 66 KBP .................................................................................................................. 68 Lockheed Martin ............................................................................................ 71 Mazagon Dock ................................................................................................ 72 SP GUiDe PUbliCatioNS PVt ltD Corporate Office A-133 Arjun Nagar Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi 110003 India. Phones 91 11 24644693 24644763 24620130 24658322 Fax 91 11 24647093 E-mails info spsmilitaryyearbook.com order spsmilitaryyearbook.com guidepub vsnl.com Websites www.spguidepublications.com www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com Navantia .......................................................................................................... 74 Nexter Systems ............................................................................................... 76 Northrop Grumman ....................................................................................... 78 Rafael ............................................................................................................... 80 Raytheon ......................................................................................................... 82 Rosoboronexport ............................................................................................ 83 Saab ................................................................................................................. 85 Safran............................................................................................................... 87 Selex ES ........................................................................................................... 89 Thales .............................................................................................................. 94 www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 49 REGIONAL BALANCE Telephonics ..................................................................................................... 91 ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE MBDA .............................................................................................................. 73 BUSINESS ImageSat.......................................................................................................... 64 TECHNOLOGY Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief & Publisher SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd New Delhi India Airbus Helicopters.......................................................................................... 50 CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES C on t en t s WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS airbuS HeliCoPterS 2 014 marks a new era in the history of Eurocopter as it becomes rebranded as Airbus Helicopters. The company joins Airbus and Airbus Defence & Space within the new Airbus Group the global leader in aerospace defense and related services. This rebranding works hand in hand with our ongoing transformation which is now bolstered by the Airbus brand s strong foundation in innovation quality and industrial excellence said Guillaume Faury President of Airbus Helicopters. Both of these together will serve our ambition of setting the industry standard in terms of safety mission capability and performance for our operators around the world. Airbus Helicopters will benefit from and enrich the Airbus brand as it develops manufactures markets and supports a diversified and highly capable rotorcraft product line. Today Airbus Helicopters offers the widest range of helicopters to meet the differing needs of customers around the world and also boasts the widest network of subsidiaries and partnerships to provide proximity support and services. This will be particularly beneficial as Airbus Helicopters looks to build on its 50-year relationship with India. In particular there have been requirements from the Indian Army Air Force Navy as well as the Indian Coast Guard that calls for a range of highly competent fleet with proven capability which Airbus Helicopters is certainly well-placed to provide. EC725 is already a combat proven multi-role helicopter and has seen combat service worldwide in Lebanon Afghanistan and more recently in Africa. The EC725 has been operated from ships and ashore. eC725 a combat-proven multi-role helicopter designed for the most demanding missions The EC725 has been proposed by Airbus Helicopters as the most adaptable and cost-effective solution to respond to the Indian Navy s requirement for 123 Naval Multi Role Helicopters (NMRH). This programme is under the Buy & Make category requiring an important transfer of technology package leading to the indigenous manufacturing of the NMRH by the Indian defence industry. The proposed multi-role configuration provides maximum flexibility and utility for operations in the following mission scenarios ASW ASuW Special Operations Commando Operations Amphibious Assault Troop Carrier ELINT SAR External Cargo Carrying Casualty Evacuation Communication duties and CSAR. The EC725 is the most recent addition to the COUGAR family which itself has grown from the vast GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 50 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com bharat DyNaMiCS company in the next 3 to 4 years. www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 53 REGIONAL BALANCE S.N. Mantha (CMD) BDL being a production agency has a long association with the DRDO spreading over few decades for the development of advanced weapon systems like Akash Surface to Air Missiles Nag ATGM etc. The Indian Armed Forces have now placed production orders upon successful development. During its association BDL has been acquainted with all the critical technologies and hence it has no issues in handling these requirements. BDL follows the system of Strategic Business Unit concept and has a thrust for indigenization as a self reliance tool. BDL has drawn the expansion plans in such a way that the divisions handle the bulk of procurement production planning and take division level decisions towards delivery of product. Corporate Office helps them in achieving the goals and thus the work is equitably divided between Corporate and Divisions. Hence this is not a tall order in achieving organizational goals. BDL has acquired lands in Amravati and Ibrahimpatnam for setting up units. Could you tell us something more about these units CMD Amravati Unit in Maharashtra would be the fourth manufacturing unit of the company spread over an area of about 530 acres. BDL plans to produce Very Short Range Air Defence Missile (VSHORAD) at this new unit. The foundation stone for the unit was laid by Her Excellency Smt Pratibha Devisingh Patil the then Hon ble President of India during December 2011. The fifth unit is being set up at Ibrahimpatnam in Andhra Pradesh. The Company plans to set up a Surface to Air Missile Defence Project here. The unit is spread over an area of about 630 acres. The foundation stone was laid by the then Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh Kiran Kumar Reddy. GET is your vision for the future READ BDL What YOUR COPY TO growth of CMD I am foreseeing BDL to become a billion dollar IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BDL primarily started with the manufacture of anti-tank missiles like French SS11B1 followed by French Milan - 2 and Russian Konkurs. This was followed by missiles which are part of IGMDP like Prithvi and Akash. BDL also plans to take on under water weapons and other high-end weapons systems. Don t you think that this is a tall order for one organization to handle CMD The financial year 2013-14 was a milestone in the history of BDL as the Company achieved an all time high turnover of 1 830 crore (provisional). BDL achieved 70 per cent growth in sales over previous year and there was all round growth in all products being supplied to the user. BDL has also paid its highest ever interim dividend of 58.00 crore for the financial year to the Government of India. BUSINESS interview of S.N. Mantha Chairman and Managing Director bharat Dymanics limited How has been your company s performance during the last financial year TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS boMbardier B ombardier with transportation and aerospace divisions is the world s only manufacturer of planes and trains. Bombardier Aerospace remains one of the most formidable manufacturers of aircraft and related services across each of the business commercial and specialized aircraft markets. Its rich heritage of entrepreneurship and innovation stems from the consolidation of over a century of aviation success stories from Short Brothers Learjet de Havilland and CanadairTM. Bombardier Aerospace has introduced 28 new aircraft models to meet constantly escalating market demands since 1989. Among its varied product offering is the Bombardier 415 aircraft the world s most advanced purposedesigned amphibious firefighting aircraft and its ability to facilitate the missionized adaptation of any of the aircraft in its fleet for specialized aircraft applications. Bombardier s diversified selection of airframes are well suited to civilian aviation applications Government procurement objectives from the specialized aircraft market due to their well-established performance metrics cost effectiveness and reliability. Aircraft dispatch rates exceeding 99 per cent across its globally deployed fleet regardless of aircraft vintage are common. This is an enviable record routinely deemed out of reach by most of the world s militaries. repurposing civilian designed platforms From one of the widest most reliable high performance product lines in aviation today Bombardier s Specialized & Amphibious Aircraft (SAA) Group retains the necessary expertise to recommend and further facilitate the incremental development of the ideal platform to tailor the specific needs of more than a dozen specialized mission applications. Today over How did we get there Bombardier has a long history of fielding new disruptive technology solutions and products by focusing www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 55 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO Bombardier 415 MP can operate not only in the traditional sea-going search and rescue (SAR) role but also in providing capability to civil authorities in disaster relief scenarios on the continuing advancement of core technologies and by embarking on major demonstration projects. Examples of most recent and ongoing major demonstration projects include the proprietary development and fielding of automatic fibre placement for composite fuselages the more electric aircraft project and environmental research and proof of concept an increasingly important field. Bombardier is actively engaged in environmental research in its pursuit to significantly reduce carbon and noise footprints. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES bombardier specialized & amphibious aircraft Group WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS DaSSault aviation Recent events in Afghanistan Mali and Libya have demonstrated that the Rafale omnirole fighter was ideally suited for long-term deployments far from its traditional support infrastructures. In accordance with stringent French Air Force and French Navy requirements the Rafale was conceived with ease of maintenance in mind and every effort was made to facilitate repairs and servicing. www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 57 REGIONAL BALANCE Dassault Aviation engineers came up with innovative solutions to ensure that the Rafale would prove extremely reliable and that it could be maintained in a quick and efficient manner. To name just a few the airframe is extremely strong with numerous access panels for easy replacement of components. The entire aircraft is monitored in real-time by a Health and Usage Monitoring System integrated into the mission computer. The userfriendly integrated testability system enables far more accurate diagnostics of any potential problem which might arise and considerably shortens troubleshooting and repair times while simultaneously reducing the amount of ground facilities needed. The modular avionics concept means that printed circuits boards can then easily be changed instead of replacing complex expensive LRUs. This modularity allows a considerable reduction in spare parts inventory and the concept extends to the engines the mission computer and the radar processor. The new fighter is capable of operat- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO Rafale s modular avionics concept means that printed circuits boards can then easily be changed instead of replacing complex expensive LRUs ing from crowded carrier decks where maintenance is less easy than on large air bases. As a result corrosion protection and resistance to shocks are excellent and electromagnetic compatibility has been extensively tested for demanding carrier operations. Even the Air Force variants benefit from the rugged airframe as there is a high degree of commonality between the Rafale C B and the Rafale M. The Snecma M88 engine comprises 21 modules interchangeable without a need for balancing and re-calibration. Module exchange allows rapid engine repair and minimises spares holdings. Some of these modules can even be changed without removing the engine from the Rafale airframe and a M88 can be replaced in under an hour. After maintenance there is no need to check the turbofan in a test bench before it is installed back on the aircraft. INDIAN DEFENCE ease of use BUSINESS rafale eaSy to Service TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS DieHl DeFeNCe Ground-based air Defence www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 59 REGIONAL BALANCE T oday population centers facilities and objects such as camps of international forces in war and crisis areas are exposed to air threats particularly medium-range missiles unmanned air vehicles rockets and grenades. Ground-based air defence units contribute to safeguarding airspace as well as protecting the population and soldiers in action. iriS-t SlM Modern air Defence Missile System GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Based on the new IRIS-T SL (surface-launched) missile Diehl Defence offers armed forces an entire air defence missile system as a modern and costeffective solution. The highly mobile and all-terrain capable medium-range IRIS-T SLM (Surface ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS FFV ordNaNCe F FV Ordnance part of the global defence and security company Saab is for decades one of the world s leading suppliers of man-portable support weapons. To reach and maintain this commanding position requires continuous and result-oriented engineering and product development. Being at the cutting edge of technology both technically and in time that can be translated into appropriate products when the situation changes and military tactical requirements arise provides the perfect approach. FFV Ordnance has for many years been at the forefront of development of technology in the fields of internal and external ballistics ignition systems and terminal warhead effects. This is and has been FFV Ordnance s model for success. New times new requirements Changing times result in new requirements. In the field of weapons and ammunition and especially for manportable weapon systems users demand improved and different effects increased product safety as well as weapons that are lighter and easier to carry. FFV Ordnance is continuously working on fulfilling these new requirements. The war on terrorism has partly moved into builtup areas which require weapon systems that are light and easy to carry and have a good effect on various types of targets not just on armoured vehicles. But combat is also conducted outside built-up areas and in terrain inaccessible to vehicles so the requirement for The well-proven market-leading CarlGustaf M3 meets all the requirements of being a multi-role robust light weapon that is easy to use in both in day and night operations. weapons with long combat ranges and various types of warheads remains or is even increased. Combat in built-up areas FFV Ordnance now has more than 30 years of experience with man-portable weapons intended for use by units engaged in urban warfare. LAW AT4CS HEAT is a further development of the LAW AT4 HEAT or the M136 as it is known in the United States. LAW AT4CS HEAT has a warhead with increased behind armour effect that is sought after primarily for engagement of light-armoured vehicles. The enemy not only operates from armoured vehicles but also takes cover in and operates from buildings. Therefore a light man-portable weapon with good effect behind walls is needed in order to combat enemy forces in buildings or simply to create a new entrance into a house. As a response to the increased need for urban GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 62 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com iMageSat unique satellite-based imagery services T he availability of intelligence information previously being the privilege of the few offers government and military users major advantages. High resolution space imagery provided on-line by commercial services is providing military users and government agencies an access to high quality imagery products offering unprecedented intelligence and situational understanding. The market is dominated by commercially operated government supported U.S. based providers supplying a significant part of the imagery consumed by the U.S. military in parallel to serving foreign government and commercial clients. Given the limited ownership of such services by international customers timely delivery of imagery is prone to delays particularly in times of emergency when they are committed to their national services while demand for imagery exceeds availability. The Israeli operated ImageSat International is offering a different approach providing government users a reliable and dependable yet affordable satellite based high-resolution imagery. ImageSat is offering its services competitively efficiently and unrestricted. Based on the technology developed for Israel s Ofeq series of military reconnaissance satellites built by Israel Aerospace Industries ImageSat International has deployed two EROS series satellites carrying the high resolution space camera payload developed by Elbit ElOp. The first began operation in the year 2000 with the second launched in April 2006. Slightly heavier and similar in appearance to EROS A the EROS B Eros-B Bushehr active nuclear power plant Iran GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE satellite offer superior capabilities including a larger camera of CCD TDI type (Charge Coupled Device Time Delay Integration) with standard panchromatic resolution of 0.70 m at an altitude of about 500 km a larger on-board recorder much improved pointing accuracy and a faster data communication link. The two EROS satellites are operating simultaneously practically doubling revisit frequency enabling customers to better monitor designated areas. 64 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com iSrael aeroSPaCe induStrieS Israel aerospace Industries ltd. (IaI) is a globally recognized leader in the defense and commercial markets. Joseph Weiss President & CEO Rafi Maor Chairman of the Board established 1953 line of business Defense and Commercial Products & Services Development Manufacture Overhaul Upgrading Repair and Maintenance of Aircraft and AerospaceEquipment Electronic Systems Avionics Suites Advanced Radars Tactical Weaponry & Law Enforcement Systems Training and Simulation Systems Network and Situation Awareness Systems IAI is a world leader in totally integrated UAS solutions with more than 1 000 000 operational hours of intelligence and targeting missions Financial Figures IAI s 2013 sales totaled 3.6 billion 80% of these salesareforexport. IAI s backlog as of December 2013 reached 10 billion. IAI s2013netprofit 75million. Core areas of activity Space From its own launchers and satellites to ground services IAIofferscustomersaffordablesolutionsand partnerships with industry leaders in space exploration.IAIdevelopsandmanufacturessatellitesforvari- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ouspurposessuchasLowEarthOrbit(LEO)observation satellites (Ofeq Eros Opsat) Synthetic Aperture Radar(TECSAR)andcommunicationsatellitessuchas theAmosseries(GEO). Theater Defense IAI develops and manufactures advanced air defense systems including the Barak 8 system.IAI sArrowWeaponSystemagainstTactical BallisticMissiles(ATBMs)isknownastheworld sleading ATBM system. This multi-layer system representing outstanding visionary and technological achievements such as the Green Pine missile detection and fire and control radar as well as other interoperable solutions isthecornerstoneofIsrael sdefensesystem. MRO & Civil Aircraft Conversion IAI is an expert one-stop-shop for commercial aircraft conversion maintenance repair and overhaul with engineering equipment and facilities to deliver rapid turnaround at competitiveprices. Commercial Aircraft IAI s design engineering and 66 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com kbP HigH PreciSion WeaPonS roStec combat module for armored Vehicles upgrade T he light-weight category combat vehicles (IFV airborne assault vehicles APC) are able to determine the combat potential of a country s armed forces due to their application versatility. Infantry fighting vehicles (BMP-1 BMP-2 BMP-3) and airborne assault vehicles (BMD-3 BMD-4) are the most common hardware of land forces and airborne troops. Currently a huge fleet of such combat vehicles is in service both with the Russian army as well as abroad. These vehicles have been produced for several decades and presently their weapon systems do not meet modern requirements. However their life cycle is quite long and reaches 30-40 years. Many countries keep on upgrading the main fleet of their combat vehicles. In Russia a BMP-2 mechanical module was selected as a basis for designing a uniform combat module weighing below 3 tons and intended for modernization of a range of combat vehicles. Russian infantry fighting vehicle BMP-2 being the main combat vehicle of multiple countries land forces was adopted for service in 1980 and used to exceed most of its foreign counterparts in terms of combat capabilities. Nowadays BMP-2 still basically meets the modern requirements.But the analysis of current state and development tendencies of weapons and fire control systems shows that BMP-2 weapon system is falling behind the modern level in a number of parameters. The firepower of a combat vehicle is determined by its weapon system thus the increase of combat BMD-3 airborne combat vehicle GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE efficiency may be achieved by weapon system modernization. BMP-2 has a high weapon system upgradepotential. The challenge of increasing the firepower of existing BMPs providing their superiority over other modern vehicles has been successfully met by KBP Instrument Design Bureau. The upgrade was implemented on a serially produced BMP-2 turret with 2A42 automatic cannon. The weight of add-on equipment installed does not exceed 500 kg including around 260 kg of extra ammunition 30 mm grenades and ATGM. The results of upgradeof BMP-2 with new B05Ya01 combat module are as followed 68 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com lockheed Martin L www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 71 REGIONAL BALANCE ockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control (LMMFC) is one of five business areas of Lockheed Martin Corporation and comprises about one fifth of its sales and revenue. LMMFC is known around the world as a supplier of innovative highly effective air and missile defense systems targeting systems and sensors ground vehicles and other high technology products. The Modernized Target Acquisition Designation Sight Pilot Night Vision Sensor (M-TADS PNVS) system for Apache helicopters is one example of the company s leadership in the sensor market. The M-TADS PNVS system provides Apache attack helicopter pilots with long-range precision engagement and pilotage capabilities for mission success and flight safety in day night and adverse weather missions. First fielded in 2005 M-TADS PNVS revolutionized the U.S. Army s capabilities by providing Apache pilots greater clarity and definition to identify targets and provide situational awareness to ground troops outside the detection range of enemy forces. The system is in service in 13 countries and has achieved more than 1 million flight hours. In the area of tactical missiles Javelin which is produced under a partnership between Lockheed Martin and Raytheon is known as the world s most versatile and lethal one-man-portable anti-tank guided missile and surveillance weapon system. Javelin has been adopted by armed forces around the world and has been approved for sales to a number of countries including India. Several LMMFC products have not only military Javelin which is produced under a partnership between Lockheed Martin and Raytheon is known as the world s most versatile and lethal one-manportable anti-tank guided missile and surveillance weapon system GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE applications but non-defense applications as well. One example of a sensor capability in both defense and non-defense markets is Gyrocam. Gyrocam sensor systems deliver an elevated unobstructed 360-degree surveillance advantage to military law enforcement and commercial customers. Coupled with secure data link capabilities these systems share mission critical information to enhance situational awareness. In Air and Missile Defense Lockheed Martin s PAC-3 Missile and Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) weapon systems provides customers with layered protection against both in-atmosphere and exo-atmospheric threats. The hit-to-kill PAC-3 Missile is the world s most advanced capable and powerful terminal air defense missile. The THAAD system is designed to defend ground-based troops allied forces population centers and critical infrastructure against short and medium-range ballistic missiles. PAC-3 is proven in combat and the effectiveness of THAAD has been verified through extensive testing. About 40 percent of LMMFC s business is international and the company engages in many industrial partnerships around the world. ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES lockheed martin s missiles and Fire control business area specializes in precision systems with proven performance WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS MazaGon DoCk liMiteD India s leading shipyard I t was in 1774 a small dry dock Mazagon Dock Limited was built to service ships of the British East India Company. From small beginnings the repair yard has come a long way becoming India s leading defence shipyard. Sailing further it has embarked upon a massive modernisation programme for its future projects. MDL is currently constructing three warships of the Kolkata Class (P15A). The three destroyers Kolkata Kochi and Chennai are at an advanced stage of construction and would be delivered to the Indian Navy within the next two years. MDL has an order of four more destroyers code named P-15B. Stealth frigate INS Shivalik shore supply vessels (OSV) to the Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC). MDL was the first shipyard to have built ships for exports to Singapore Iran United Kingdom Mozambique and France. Presently it is executing a project of building two multipurpose support vessels to Mexico. Modernisation programmes The modernisation includes a 300 ton Goliath crane a wet basin a module workshop and cradle assembly shop. The phase-I of the project is expected to be ready by end 2014 and change the way India builds ships. MDL in collaboration with DCNS of France is engaged in construction of six submarines of the Scorpene Class which will enhance the underwater punch of the Indian Navy. With this the shipyard will join an elite club of nations possessing this unique capability. Strong foundations MDL has strong foundations starting with the first modern warship the Leander Class frigate INS Nilgiris in 1972. Its design was obtained from the British Admiralty and the frigate built in collaboration with Vickers Ltd. and Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd. of UK. Subsequently MDL delivered five frigates in this class to the Navy. The Navy later evolved a design for a new generation frigate christened Godavari class the ships being INS Godavari INS Ganga and INS Gomati. MDL has constructed two corvettes the INS Khukri and INS Kuthar. It also built four missile boats INS Vibhuti INS Vipul INS Nashak and INS Prabal besides two SSK Class submarines INS Shalki and INS Shankul under a transfer of technology from HDW of Germany thus becoming the first Indian shipyard to build submarines. Coast Guard requirements MDL has also constructed offshore patrol vessels for the Indian Coast Guard (ICG) besides INS Vikram INS Vijaya INS Veera INS Varuna INS Vajra INS Vivek and INS Vigraha. It has also delivered seven off- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 72 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com MbDa I. Chapuis M www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 73 REGIONAL BALANCE BDA is unique in the guided missile sector in its ability to meet the missile system requirements of all three operational domains air land and sea. This offers benefits to customers keen to maximise supply and servicing logistics as well as missile system modularity. MBDA weapons such as MICA and Meteor combined with precision ground strike weapons such as the multi-target Dual Mode Brimstone and the long range SCALP Storm Shadow are capable of ensuring air dominance long into the future. The IAF s Mirage 2000 fleet is being upgraded and will feature MBDA s MICA missile with its IR and RF seeker variants to deal with short to beyond visual range air combat. India s Jaguar bombers also stand to have their battle capability significantly enhanced by MBDA s ASRAAM missiles. The threat of air attack is increasing. Low cost cruise missiles manned and un-manned aircraft and the appearance of new ranges of ballistic missiles are threats that MBDA is best qualified to counter. Here the Company leads with its range of ground and naval based air defence systems using Mistral MICA and Aster missiles. MBDA s Aster recently achieved Europe s first successful ballistic missile target intercept further proof of the Company s unmatched skills. Mistral with its unmatched success rate of over 96% during all firings has been selected by forces around the world and has been offered to the Indian armed forces to meet their VSHORAD requirement. Coastal and blue water operations require an effec- MMP System GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE tive anti-ship capability. MBDA is already supplying the Indian Navy s new Scorpene submarines with its Exocet SM39 missile system. Similarly other versions of the world-famous Exocet family are being proposed along with Marte for a number of Indian maritime aircraft requirements (both fixed and rotary wing). The concept of partnership with Indian industry is key to MBDA s strategy. In fact MBDA s links with Indian industry go back some 40 years thanks to its partnership with BDL currently manufacturing the MILAN missile under license for the Indian Army. Discussions are also under way for the potential codevelopment of a 5th generation anti-tank missile based on the MMP that has recently been ordered by France. Working with HAL integration of the Mistral ATAM system on the Dhruv helicopter is well advanced and MBDA is also proposing its PARS 3 LR system for the same helicopter s land attack mission. As well as working with the DRDO MBDA is actively constructing ties at all levels within the country. ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS NavaNtia N avantia the Spanish shipbuilder 100% owned by the Spanish Government is a world reference in the design construction and integration of stateof-the-art war ships as well as ship repairs & modernizations. It is also engaged in the design and manufacture of Integrated Platform Management Systems Fire Control Systems Command and Control systems Propulsion Plants and through life support for all its products. Even though its main line of activity is in the naval field Navantia designs and manufactures systems for the Army and the Air Force. Navantia has enough experience in building the most technologically advanced ships like frigates amphibious ships patrol vessels and submarines. In the last years it has supplied ships for 5 different navies Norway Australia Spain India and Venezuela. It has also been selected in Turkey as the designer for the LPD program. This experience together with a continuous commitment to innovation the use of the latest technologies and with a highly qualified work force makes Navantia one of the most competitive companies in the world. Navantia is a reference in surface warships having been able to integrate the AEGIS LM system in a much smaller platform. It has designed and built the F-100 Alvaro de Baz n class frigates (5 units) for the Spanish Navy and the F-310 Fridtjof Nansen class (5 units) in service at the Royal Norwegian Navy. The Australian Warfare Destroyer currently under construction is Cantabria in Melbourne. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE another Navantia design also based in Navantia F-100 frigate. At present the challenge is the F-110 the future Spanish Frigate that will have to perform new capacities and missions in a changing and challenging international scenario. The new frigate is being designed incorporating the latest innovations and developments for further crew reductions. The F-310 class frigates are considered one of the most successful programmes the company has executed with total customer satisfaction. One of the clues is the product itself the F-310 frigates ships of excellent quality and capability for operating with other NATO vessels. In words of General Karlsen Director of the Norwegian Defense Logistics Organization (NDLO) referred to F-314 Thor Heyerdahl last of the series this ship is the most advanced of the series and Navantia has completely fulfilled the requirements of the Norwegian Navy As well Navantia has won a . contract for the life cycle support of these frigates an 74 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com NeXter SySteMS setting the trend on 21st century artillery systems D uring Defexpo 2014 Nexter Systems has unveiled for the first time a new Indian version of its CAESAR 155 mounted gun system. Nexter has teamed up with Larsen & Toubro and Ashok Leyland Defence to propose this system to soldiers of the Indian Army for the MGS (Mounted Gun System) program. Based on the 6x6 Super Stallion chassis from Ashok Leyland with its higher payload which improves the CAESAR was deployed in Afghanistan Lebanon and Mali with the French Army GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE modularity of the Indian CAESAR to fulfill specific requirements of the Indian Army. During July 2011 the two companies signed an other Consortium Agreement and announced the formation of Nexter Systems led consortium for 155 mm Towed Gun System (TGS) program for Indian Army. Under the proposal Nexter will field TRAJAN 155 mm 52-calibre weapon system which used the same 155mm 52cal artillery than the CAESAR . 76 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com northroP gruMMan Northrop Grumman s e-2D advanced Hawkeye B uilt on a legacy of providing uncompromising airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) capability Northrop Grumman s E-2D Advanced Hawkeye was designed to provide the enhanced capabilities required to meet emerging threats and improved mission effectiveness from both shore bases as well as from the decks of today s modern aircraft carriers. The E-2D s upgraded systems and capabilities provide long-range detection and tracking of very small and maneuverable targets and provide a seamless stream of information between the key assets of the fleet. Features include completely redesigned aircraft systems the state-of-the-art AN APY-9 radar and a new glass cockpit. All E-2D s are newly manufactured aircraft based on a proven airframe design which is capable of both long-range shore operations and carrier-based operations. Evolving the mission sensors with new technologies and capabilities affordably brought a new state-of-the-art system without having the challenge of designing a new platform. The APY-9 radar exclusive to the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye provides a transformational leap in radar technology allowing the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye to see greater numbers of smaller targets at a greater range than currently fielded radar systems. The APY-9 was specifically designed for Cruise Missile Defense and to protect the U.S. Navy s most important asset the Carrier Battle Group. This state-of-the-art radar provides the most technologically advanced airborne Northrop Grumman s E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Wellpositioned to support India s present and evolving defence requirements with world-class AEW&C capabilities GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE early warning and command and control capability in the world with the ability to collect data and supply information to naval and joint forces well ahead of engagement. With its distinctive rotodome design the E-2 Hawkeye provides critically important continuous 360-degree air and surface surveillance allowing the operator to focus on select areas of interest vastly improving situational awareness. The new rotodome allows for three modes of operation including an electronically scanned mode. As new threats have emerged over the past fifty years the E-2 has undergone several configuration upgrades to provide the enhanced situational awareness and improved mission effectiveness all nations require for today s missions as well as those of tomorrow. The E-2D is a uniquely integrated system for the defense of any nation and highly interoperable with coalition partners. With its network-centric capability the E-2D will help nations with maritime surveil- 78 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com raFael the perfect partner for India s Defense Needs expertise in a Wide range of Defense Solutions Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd designs develops manufactures and supplies a wide range of hightech defense systems for air land sea and space applications. Tailored to its customer s specific needs Rafael provides state-of-the-art yet cost-effective systems and weapons in the fields of Missiles air defense naval systems target acquisition EW C4ISR communication networks data links electro-optic payloads add-on armor combat vehicle upgrading mine field breaching border and coastal protection systems breaching munitions and much more. Iron Dome Defense against short range artillery rockets rafael the Company Rafael was established as part of Israel s Ministry of Defense more than 50 years ago and was incorporated in 2002. Currently 7% of its sales are invested in R&D. Rafael s know-how is embedded in almost all Israel Defense Forces (IDF) systems in operation today. The company has a special relationship with the IDF developing products according to the soldiers specific requirements in the field. Rafael has also formed partnerships with civilian counterparts to develop commercial applications based on its proprietary technology. Rafael has created partnerships with companies in GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 80 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com raytheon raytheon brings a full suite of civil and military offerings to India R aytheon Company the technology and innovation leader specializing in defense security and civil markets across the world offers a full range of solutions tailored to customers needs. With a history of innovation spanning 92 years Raytheon provides state-of-the-art electronics mission systems integration and other capabilities in the areas of sensing effects and command control communications and intelligence systems as well as a broad range of mission support services for diverse and evolving global battlefields. Raytheon s 60 year old partnership with India is now poised to see holistic on-going initiatives for India s Military Defence Homeland Security and Civil and Air Traffic Control Management programs. The Indian Navy s broad-area maritime and littoral operations capabilities stand to be enhanced with MK54 Lightweight Torpedo Raytheon s next generation anti-submarine warfare weapon and the APY 10 (I) radar. Integrated in Boeing s P8I aircraft three of which have already been delivered to the Indian armed forces the MK 54 along with APY 10 (I) will deliver the whole detect-to-engage capability to attack underwater targets regardless of water depth. To support India s focus on developing indigenous capabilities Raytheon is exploring co-production and co-development opportunities in a number of areas and has established strong ties with a number of organizations such as TATA Power SED Grintex Larsen & Tourbo and Precision Electronics among others. Javelin is the world s most versatile and lethal one-manportable anti-tank guided munition and surveillance weapon system GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE The Javelin weapon system is being offered to the Government of India by the United States Government as a comprehensive co-production co-development program that would include unprecedented technology transfer and manufacturing technologies of the existing Javelin Missile and Command Launch Unit (CLU) as well as joint development of next generation Javelin missile and targeting system technologies. Raytheon has also partnered with ISRO and AAI to develop the GPS-aided Geo Augmented Navigation system (GAGAN) one of the most advanced air navigation systems in the world that will help increase efficiency and capacity in India s air space catapulting India into an elite league. Committed to provide the best Raytheon is actively engaged in looking at potential proven Air Defence solutions for the Indian Air Force s LLQRM program and for the Indian Army s SRSAM and QRSAM programs. With customer success as our mission Raytheon remains committed to working with India to help build a safer stronger nation. 82 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com roSoboronexPort russia and india strategic partnership F www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 83 REGIONAL BALANCE or decades Russia has been India s key partner playing a crucial role in the formation and strengthening of its national armed forces. A majority of Indian aircraft helicopters tanks artillery systems are of Russian origin and or design. One can name the Sukhoi Su-30MKI multipurpose combat aircraft Mi-17 multipurpose helicopters Mi-26 heavy lifters Mi-35 gunships T-72 T-90 family main battle tanks Smerch 300-mm MLRS BMP-1 2 infantry fighting Commissioning of aircraft carrier INS Vikramditya became a milestone in the bilateral relationship. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE vehicles Tunguska SPAAG among the many. Needless to say that Russia has supplied the lion share of the Indian Navy combatants. Since the first naval contract in 1965 Russian shipyards have built over 70 warships for India. Eventually India became the first nation to receive the tailor-made ships. Commissioning of the aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya (Project 11430) became a milestone in the bilateral relationship. The aircraft carrier recently ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Saab S Saab air land Naval and Civil Security Portfolio Our portfolio covers the air land naval surface underwater coastal and civil security domains. The products include Fighter Aircrafts Avionics and Vetronic solutions Ground Based Air Defence Systems Radars Air Naval and Land C4I solutions for Troop Protection Tactical Weapons Missile Systems Self-Protection and EW systems ESM COMINT and Laser Warning Systems Naval Fire Control systems Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Rotary Wing UAVs that can also be deployed from naval platforms AUVs ROVs for underwater and deep sea operations Signature Management Training and Logistics solutions and support weapons. Saab s Gripen is a competitive single-engine fighter system currently in service in five countries. Sweden has now ordered the next generation Gripen and Indian Air Force Hindustan Advanced Light Helicopter Dhruv with Saab IDAS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 85 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE a co-operation agreement was concluded between Sweden and Switzerland. The Brazilian government has also selected Gripen. Our civil security offering is focused on monitoring and situational control as well as ensuring efficient flows with an emphasis on airports and air travel ports and shipping and emergency response planning. Saab is also a supplier to leading international aircraft manufactures including Boeing and Airbus. We supply mainly lightweight high-strength aerostructures avionics and operating systems structural and system integration and support solutions. Our current offering to our Indian customers includes C4I Electronic Warfare (Self Protection Systems) COMINT Signature Management Missile & Weapon Systems Aeronautical Platforms Radars Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles Maritime & Civil Security and Training & Simulation Systems. Some of these are highlighted on the next page ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE aab is a global defence and security company founded in Sweden in 1937. Saab has been a trusted supplier to the Indian armed forces since the 1970s when India acquired the Carl Gustaf Anti Tank defence system from Saab. Saab India Technologies Private Limited a fully owned subsidiary of Saab AB Sweden was established in 2011. Saab s thinking edge approach to continuously update and bridge technological challenges has driven and developed Saab into a broad-based Swedish innovation powerhouse that is one of the world s most cost-effective high-tech defence and security company. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES a strong offering for india s military requirements WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Safran S www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 87 REGIONAL BALANCE afran is a leading international high-technology group with three core businesses Aerospace (propulsion and equipment) Defence and Security. Operating worldwide the Group has 66 200 employees and generated sales of 14.7 billion euros in 2013. The Group invests in Research & Development to meet the requirements of changing markets including expenditures of 1.8 billion euros in 2013. Working alone or in partnership Safran holds world or European leadership positions in its core markets. The Group comprises the following companies Aircelle Herakles Hispano-Suiza Labinal MessierBugatti-Dowty Morpho Sagem Snecma Techspace Aero Turbomeca. Aerospace Safran develops produces and markets engines and propulsion systems for civil and military airplanes and helicopters ballistic missiles launch vehicles and satellites. It also provides a wide range of systems and equipment for civil and military airplanes and helicopters. Defence Operating in the optronic inertial guidance electronics and safety-critical software markets Safran offers today s armed forces a complete range of optronic navigation and optical systems and equipment for use in the air on land and at sea. Security As a pioneer in identification and detection systems and a major player in smart cards and e-documents Safran offers state-of-the-art solutions to meet the evolving security requirements of individuals businesses and governments. FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) for CFM56-5 CFM56-7 CF6 engines Safran in india Safran has been associated with India over 60 years and is committed to be an integral part of India s growth and development in the aerospace defence and security industry. With 2600 employees it has the highest number of employees for the company in Asia. Over decades of association with India Safran has become a trusted partner addressing India s vital Aerospace Defence and Security concerns. Working with cutting edge technology and through industrial co-operation Safran collaborates with Indian companies to achieve the long-term goal of creating an indigenous self-sustaining aerospace defence and security industry. About 70 per cent of the aircraft in the Indian commercial aviation sector use or incorporate technology made by Safran. The company has a 100 per cent market share for Messier-Bugatti-Dowty (Safran) GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES a leading international high-technology group WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS SeleX eS S We aspire to be the most trusted supplier of technological excellence in electronic systems and solutions for a safer smarter more secure society -- Fabrizio Giulianini Chief Executive Officer Selex eS organisation and Capabilities Selex ES as a customer focussed organisation is structured into three major Divisions to enable its business- www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 89 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO elex ES is a trans-national sensors informationmanagement and systems-integration business delivering the high technology needs of defence space security infrastructure commerce and public service. With a worldwide workforce of over 17 000 and revenues in excess of 3.5 billion we are entrusted by our customers and partners to deliver electronic systems and solutions for a safer smarter and more secure society. In leveraging our collective strengths and capitalising on the synergies across major business areas we have created an agile information-centred electronic systems enterprise that exploits world-class systems ICT and smart services to deliver robust high-integrity mission-critical solutions across sectors and domains. What s more our integrated and customer-focused organisation establishes a foundation for growth and allows us to respond optimally to the needs of a dynamic and increasingly transversal market at a global level. Drakomicro uas from Selex Galileo es to focus on the specific needs in the respective User communities. A representative sample of the products and capabilities of each Division follows Air & Space Systems Division (ASSD) The Airborne and Space Systems Division of Selex ES brings together the full wealth of our airborne capability including unmanned air systems integrated mission systems radar electronic warfare systems avionics aerial targets and simulation systems and space sensors payloads and instruments. Our sensors and mission systems help armed forces to detect protect and survive. We are the only European company with the capability to deliver a full end-to-end UAS solution embracing platform sensors mission system and ground control - for tactical ISTAR applications. And we have developed a unique and scalable architecture that is agnostic to air vehicles and sensors alike. Similarly INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS telePhonicS corPoration cutting-edge radar surveillance and communication solutions S ince its founding in 1933 Telephonics Corporation has evolved from an audio headset manufacturer into a global technology innovator specializing in cutting-edge radar surveillance and communications solutions. As a trusted provider to the defense aerospace and commercial markets Telephonics products have been successfully deployed in a robust range of applications found in the air on the sea or on the ground. Organized into three business segments Telephonics Communications and Integrated Systems Radar Systems and Systems Engineering Group (SEG) provide a broad range of service capabilities for fixed or rotary-wing aircraft as well as ground and sea applications. Communications and Integrated Systems specializes in aircraft communications wireless and audio products air traffic management systems homeland security and custom application specific integrated circuits. Telephonics Radar Systems is known worldwide for its diverse maritime surveillance radar and Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) interrogator technology. Telephonics Systems Engineering Group focuses on air and missile defense threat analysis combat systems engineering analysis and radar systems engineering and software development. Telephonics RDR-1700B Radar System radar and identification Friend or Foe Solutions Designed by experienced radar specialists with a deep understanding of harsh and ever-changing seafaring environments Telephonics maritime radar systems www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 91 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE have been field proven globally and are able to detect track and classify numerous threats. The company s maritime surveillance systems are a critical component of Naval and Coast Guard operations due to the radar system s long-range high-resolution imaging capabilities. The most unique feature is the radar family s ability to consolidate a myriad of data together into a single high-fidelity situational awareness and tracking tool. Highly flexible radar surveillance systems such as the APS-143 and RDR-1700B operate in the X-band frequency and offer Synthetic Aperture Radar Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR ISAR) imaging weather detection and Automatic Identification System (AIS) overlay capabilities which assists with identifying and locating vessels at sea. Additional features include Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) mode and SHARCTM (Scalable Hierarchy Advanced Radar Control) ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS thaleS Global technology leader in the aerospace transportation and Defence & security markets W henever critical decisions need to be made Thales has a role to play. In all its markets -- aerospace space ground transportation defence and security -- Thales solutions help customers to make the right decisions at the right time and act accordingly. World-class technology the combined expertise of 65 000 employees operations in 56 countries and a commitment to long-term service quality and continuous improvement have made Thales a key player in keeping the public safe and secure guarding vital infrastructure and protecting the national security interests of countries around the globe. Combat equipment Lightweight multiple launcher STARSTREAK Security With the emergence of new types of threats such as terrorism organised crime trafficking and cyber-attacks defence organisations alone cannot contain the risks. This convergence between defence and security is driving demand for new solutions and technologies that enable organisations to share existing information and communication systems while protecting their networks and infrastructures from attack. Integrated and resilient solutions Building on its experience in the defence sector Thales develops integrated resilient solutions to help governments local authorities and civil operators to protect citizens sensitive data and infrastructure with a particular focus on urban security airport security border surveillance infrastructure security and cyber security. Defence Thales is a long-standing partner of defence forces worldwide working with them to provide the best possible protection in the field and helping them operate more effectively and more efficiently. Thales supports the armed forces in accomplishing their missions in the traditional defence environments -- air land sea and space -- and the emerging environments of urban operations and cyber warfare. Delivering optimum performance From system design to through-life support and personnel training Thales provides a range of services to ensure that the solutions it provides deliver optimum performance over the long term. thales in india GET YOUR operating inTO READ Today COPY India since 1953. Thales has been the company employs over 300 employees in its offices IN COMPLETE in Delhi Mumbai Chennai Cochin Vishakhapatnam 94 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com authors profile air Marshal (retd) anil Chopra Air Marshal Anil Chopra is a highly decorated National Defence Academy Air Force officer who joined the fighter stream of the Indian Air Force (IAF) in 1973. He is a qualified Flying Instructor and Test Pilot who was among the first pilots to train on Mirage 2000 in France. He commanded a Mirage Squadron two operational airbases and the IAF s flight test centre Aircraft Systems and Testing Establishment (ASTE). He was the Team Leader of MiG-21 upgrade programme in Russia for over four years. He has held prestigious staff and command assignments. His last assignment was the human resource head of IAF as Air Officer Personnel at Air HQ. He is currently on a four-year assignment as a member of the Armed Forces Tribunal. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 57 75 change. He is a Deputy Director (Energy) at the Confederation of Indian Industry New Delhi. He is a member of the International Association of Energy Economics USA. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 53 lt General (retd) b.S. Pawar An alumnus of Rashtriya Indian Military College and National Defence Academy Lt General (Retd) B.S. Pawar was commissioned into artillery in June 1968. During a career spanning four decades the officer has held a number of prestigious command and staff appointments. He has the distinction of commanding the largest artillery brigade in J&K in a counterinsurgency environment. He was Major General Artillery Western Command during Operation Parakram. He also headed the Army Aviation Corps and was instrumental in the operationalisation of the advanced light helicopter during his tenure. A die-hard aviator and a flying instructor he has over 4 000 hours of flying to his credit and has flown five different types of aircraft. He is a recipient of PVSM and AVSM. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 93 brigadier (retd) arun Sahgal Brigadier Arun Sahgal PhD (Retd) is Director Forum for Strategic Initiative a policy related think tank focusing on policy initiatives in national security diplomacy and Track II Dialogues. His earlier assignments include founder Director of the Office of Net Assessment Indian Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) created to undertake long-term strategic assessments and Head of the Center for Strategic Studies and Simulation USI of India and Senior Fellow at the IDSA New Delhi. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 49 Chintamani Mahapatra Chintamani Mahapatra is currently Tagore Chair Professor at the Yunnan University China. He holds the regular post of a professor at the School of International Studies Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi. Professor Mahapatra is a visiting fellow with a number of universities and think tanks. He is a Visiting Faculty at the National Defence College New Delhi Army War College Mhow College of Naval Warfare Mumbai College of Air Warfare Indian Society of International Law and Diplomacy Foreign Service Institute of Ministry of External Affairs Lal Bahadur Shastri Academy of Administration (civil services training centre) Mussoorie and several academic staff colleges around India. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 01 air Marshal (retd) b.k. Pandey Air Marshal B.K. Pandey retired from the IAF after serving the organisation for nearly 40 years. During his career he held a number of important command and staff appointments the last being that of AOCin-C Training Command of the IAF. Currently he is an Editor with the SP Guide Publications and is a resident of Bengaluru n ARTICLE ON PAGE 107 209 267 291 Dr bhupendra kumar Singh He was a full time Consultant (Energy Security) at the Ministry of External Affairs Government of India where he helped the government adopt an Integrated Energy Policy contributed in the formulation of India s National Action Plan on Climate Change formulated India s external policy on energy and climate Major General (retd) Dhruv C. katoch An alumnus of Sherwood College Nainital the National Defence Academy Khadakwasla and the National Defence College New Delhi Major General Dhruv C. Katoch was commissioned in the Dogra Regiment on March 31 1972. Besides the National Defence College the General is a graduate of the Defence Services Staff College Wellington www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 97 [ authors profile ] and the Higher Command Course Mhow. He has vast experience in subconventional conflict having taken part in the Indian Peacekeeping (IPKF) operations in Sri Lanka as also operations against terrorists and insurgents in Jammu and Kashmir and various states of Northeast India. He has commanded a Sector in Mizoram and a Division in Arunachal Pradesh. Currently he is the Director Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) New Delhi which is the Indian Army s premier think tank on land warfare. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 13 Dr Monika Chansoria Dr Monika Chansoria is currently a Senior Fellow in France and is a Visiting Professor and Associate Director of Studies (Directeur d tudes associ ) at the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l Homme Paris. In addition she is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) New Delhi. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 33 Vice admiral (retd) Dilip Deshpande Having obtained bachelor s degree in Mechanical Engineering from University College of Engineering Bengaluru in 1970 Vice Admiral Dilip Deshpande was commissioned in the Indian Navy in the Engineering Branch in 1969. He has served in various operational command staff and industrial appointments and at Naval Headquarters in both Marine Engineering and Naval Aviation. On promotion to Flag rank he served as Chief Staff Officer (Technical) in both the Western and Eastern Commands and headed the Naval Dockyard at Visakhapatnam. As Controller of Warship Production and Acquisition he was responsible for design construction and acquisition of various warships and submarines from shipyards in India Russia and Italy. He retired in 2009 as Chief of Materiel. He is in receipt of PVSM AVSM and VSM. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 103 Major General (retd) Mrinal Suman Major General Suman heads the Defence Technical Assessment and Advisory Service (DTAAS) of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). As the first Technical Manager (Land Systems) he was closely associated with the evolution and promulgation of the new defence procurement mechanism in which his expertise is well known. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 119 123 lt General (retd) Naresh Chand He is a former Director General Army Air Defence member of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme Member Secretary of the first National Radar Council. He has served with the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and was also a consultant with the Bharat Electronics Ltd. He was also involved in writing the history of the Regiment of Artillery history of the Corps of Army Air Defence publishing the first coffee-table book for the Regiment of Artillery and the Corps of Army Air Defence. At present he is the Technical Group Editor with SP Guide Publications. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 65 89 325 lt General (retd) Gautam banerjee Lt General (Retd) Gautam Banerjee has participated in all operations undertaken by the Indian Army since 1971. Besides serving in many crucial command staff and instructional appointments he was the Chief Engineer of the Western Command General Officer Commanding of the Madhya Bharat Area and the Chief of Staff Central Army Command. Before superannuating after 40 years of distinguished service he was the Commandant of the Officers Training Academy Chennai. He has been a prolific student of military strategy leadership and futuristic warfare and his writings are acknowledged as thought provoking. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 37 General (retd) N.C. Vij General N.C. Vij was the 21st Army Chief of the Indian Army from December 2002 to January 2005. His tenure as the Army Chief was widely acclaimed for a bold and imaginative strategy of erecting a 670-km-long fence all along the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir. On superannuation from the Indian Army he was appointed as founder Vice Chairman of the National Disaster Management Authority on September 28 2005 with the status of a Union Cabinet Minister for tenure of five years. He is presently a Distinguished Fellow in the Vivekananda International Foundation a renowned think tank in Delhi. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 131 brigadier (retd) Gurmeet kanwal Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal is a well-known military and strategic analyst who commanded an infantry brigade on the L0C with Pakistan. He has been a Military Observer in the United Nations Mission UNTAG in Namibia. He has authored several books and was till recently the Director Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) New Delhi. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 05 97 ambassador P. Stobdan Ambassador (Professor) P. Stobdan is a distinguished academician diplomat author and foreign policy national security analyst. He is a student of Asian affairs and closely follows developments in China Central Asia and High Asia. He has written extensively on a wide range of security-related subjects in 98 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com [ authors profile ] a number of professional journals on strategic affairs. Ambassador Stobdan is a leading columnist for the Indian Express and other national newspapers. He served in Central Asia twice. His last diplomatic assignment was in Bishkek where he served as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of India to Kyrgyzstan. His latest book Central Asia Democracy Instability and Strategic Game in Kyrgyzstan was released recently. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 25 ments ordnance factories and finally rose to become the Director General of Naval Armament Inspection (DGNAI) at the Integrated Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence (Navy). As DGNAI he was directly responsible for timely availability of reliable and safe naval armament to the operational fleet of the Indian Navy. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 85 lt General (retd) P.C. katoch Lt General P.C. Katoch superannuated as Director General Information Systems of the Indian Army. A third generation army officer he commanded Strike Corps in the South Western Theatre. He has served as Defence Attach in Japan with accreditation to Republic of Korea. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 17 45 71 127 329 rear admiral (retd) Sushil ramsay Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay retired after serving in the Indian Navy for 38 years. He provided extensive strategic directions and operational expertise towards capacity-building in logistics defence expenditure administrative reforms and restructuring of Services Headquarters. He has been Naval Attach in the Embassy of India in Moscow. He is currently Senior Editorial Advisor of SP s Naval Forces and Technical Editor of SP s Military Yearbook. n brigadier (retd) rahul bhonsle Brigadier (Retd) Rahul Bhonsle has three decades of experience in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism in India and abroad. He had hands-on experience in military modernisation and training during his service period heading a number of tactical and technical innovation projects at the operational level. Post retirement since 2006 he has combined his military expertise with extensive study of future trends and coordinated a number of projects for Directorate of Net Assessment Integrated Defence Staff Centre for the Joint Warfare Studies and Centre for Land Warfare Studies. He is at present Director of Security-Risks a South Asian security risk and knowledge management consultancy. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 117 451 lt General (retd) V.k. kapoor Lt General V.K. Kapoor was commissioned on February 9 1964. He is a specialist in armoured and mechanised warfare and in the art of war-gaming. Prior to superannuating he was the Commandant of the Army War College at Mhow. He has written more than 120 articles for magazines and journals on strategic and military issues. He is currently the Editor of SP s Land Forces and Technical Editor of SP s Military Yearbook. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 61 111 153 299 311 lt General V.k. Saxena Lt General V.K. Saxena is an alumnus of Defence Services Staff College College of Defence Management and the coveted National Defence College. He is a silver-gunner and the first ever winner of the Director General of Artillery Trophy for standing first on the Long Gunnery Staff Course. He has had a wide exposure to varied command and staff assignments. He is currently the Commandant of the prestigious Army Air Defence College at Gopalpur Odisha. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 79 83 ambassador (retd) ranjit Gupta Ambassador (Retd) Ranjit Gupta is a retired Indian Foreign Service officer. He has been India s Ambassador to Yemen (North) Venezuela Oman Thailand and Spain and finally head of the non-official office in Taiwan. He is currently a member of the National Security Advisory Board and is leading a Joint Research Project with the Gulf Research Centre Dubai and on India GCC Relations on behalf of the Ministry of External Affairs. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 21 General (retd) V.P. Malik General V.P. Malik was Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army from October 1 1997 to September 30 2000 and the Chairman COSC from January 1 1999 to September 30 2000. He planned coordinated and oversaw execution of the Operation Vijay to successfully defeat Pakistan s attempted intrusion in the Kargil sector in 1999. After retirement he was a member of the National Security Advisory Board for two years. He writes frequently for newspapers and magazines. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 09 rear admiral (retd) Dr S. kulshrestha Rear Admiral (Retd) Dr S. Kulshrestha is a postgraduate from Jodhpur University who joined Indian Navy in the year 1975 and was awarded the Sword of Honour in 1976 for being the best Naval Officer during initial training. He specialised in Quality Assurance of Naval Armament and adorned various key appointments in the Navy DRDO establish- www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 99 [ authors profile ] brigadier (retd) Vinod anand Brigadier Vinod Anand was Brigadier General Staff Joint Operations at Army Training Command in his last assignment. He is a post-graduate in defence and strategic studies. He was a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses and is currently a senior fellow with the Vivekananda International Foundation. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 29 145 lt General (retd) Vijay oberoi Commissioned in 1961 he is an International Fellow at the Army War College US. He has been GOC-in-C of Army Training Command and Western Command. Despite losing one leg in 1965 war he retired as the VCOAS in 2001. He was Founder Director of the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) and is a prolific writer. n ARTICLE ON PAGE 41 100 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com Contents One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen India s Strategic Partnership with the United States India s Regional Security Environment Indo-Pak Relations Pakistan-China Strategic Nexus Post-2014 Afghanistan Developments in West Asia Strategic Linkages in Central Asia Military Developments in South East Asia Contentious South China Sea India s Internal Security Dimensions India s Land Borders Special Forces in India s Defence Strategy India s Nuclear Deterrence India s Energy Security Evolution of Pilotless Aircraft Militarisation of Space 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Concepts & Perspectives CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section one 1 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Yet to find a mission that it didn t conquer. King Air 350ER. Critical missions deserve high-performance aircraft and there is no aircraft better suited for today s special missions than the King Air 350ER. Whether you re providing air ambulance services surveillance reconnaissance aerial survey flight inspection just plain cargo or an aircraft that can be quickly reconfigured nothing compares. The King Air 350ER is rugged versatile reliable and easily reconfigured for special missions. For more info contact 1.800.949.6640 Beechcraft.com special_missions 2013 Beechcraft Corporation. All rights reserved. Beechcraft is a registered trademark of Beechcraft Corporation. 1 india S StrategiC PartnerShiP with the united StateS MeaSured iMProveMentS & bright ProSPeCtS a wide convergence of strategic interests between the two countries has cemented the strategic partnership making it almost irreversible. short-run obstacles in the relationship hit the headlines and create an image of standstill in the relationship. but in matters of trade investment technology transfer arms sale purchase and broader understanding on critical security issues indo-us relationship has shown signs of maturity. I Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 1 REGIONAL BALANCE ndo-US strategic partnership ChintaMani in last one year did not move forward nor did it move backward or stood standstill. External challenges and domestic preoccupations notwithstanding efforts were made by New Delhi and Washington D.C. to address difficulties and hurdles to prevent the short-term issues from derailing the long-term partnership. When Barack Obama assumed the office of President in 2009 there were doubts over the continuity of robust strategic partnership with India pursued by his predecessor George W. Bush. But doubts were dispelled and the partnership was taken to a new level by President Obama during his first term in office. Despite the economic recession Indo-US trade registered a positive growth. So was the case with American investment in India. What was novel was good growth in Indian investment in the United States. President Obama described Indo-US relationship as an indispensable partnership of the 21st century and promised to support India s membership in the UN Security Council Nuclear Suppliers Group Australia Group Wassenar Arrangement and the Missile Technology Control Regime. His predecessor s National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice announced American support to India s rise a global player and Obama s Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta declared that India would be a linchpin in the Administration s new strategy on the Indo-Pacific region. However by the time Barack Obama began his second term analysts had begun to describe Indo-US relations as the one that has reached a plateau and stuck out there. There was no forward movement as President Obama was overly preoccupied with domestic political fights and with firefighting abroad particularly in the Middle East. The implementation of the civil nuclear cooperation agreement continued to be delayed. The Obama MahaPatra restoring the Momentum Months after Obama began his second term in office a spate of visits were planned to revive the momentum in the bilateral relations and ward off any impression of strategic partnership being put in the cold-storage. US Secretary of State John Kerry s visit to India was followed by Vice President Joe Biden s and then Prime Minister GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO Administration s announcement in 2011 to withdraw US troops from Afghanistan had caused worries in New Delhi. While the inability of the US firms to get the contract to sell medium multi-role combat aircraft to India had disappointed Washington New Delhi was under pressure to reduce its energy imports from Iran due to severe US sanctions. Same can be said about India as well. Indian Government s inability to institute further economic reforms lack of consensus over big economic items such as opening the retail market to foreign companies and domestic political polarisation on several issues in the midst of downturn in economic performance hardly provided the base for further boost of ties with the United States. Although bilateral trade and investment continued to rise in absolute numbers and Indian investment in the United States too witnessed a rising trend slow US economic recovery and slower Indian economic reforms kept economic ties between the two countries lacklustre. The visa policy of the Obama Administration that adversely affected the Indian information technology (IT) companies and professionals Obama s oft repeated remarks blaming India and China for rising food and commodity prices in the international market and his warning to the American people that they would have to perform better than Asians including Indians in educational institutions coloured Indo-US strategic partnership in less than positive lights. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES pib WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 2 india S regional SeCurity environMent eMerging ChallengeS the conflict situations prevailing around india s borders have led to regional instability and an uncertain security environment in the south asian region that is neither conducive to unhindered economic development nor contributes to human security naxalwar.wordpress.com Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 5 REGIONAL BALANCE The continuing conflict in Afghanistan poses perhaps the most serious threat to peace and stability in the South Asian region. In 2011 President Barack Obama had approved plans to draw down 10 000 US troops from Afghanistan during that year and another 23 000 in 2012. The withdrawal of the remaining combat troops is to be completed by 2014. A small number of troops is likely to be left behind at Kabul Bagram and Kandahar to provide training and logistics support and to continue the drone war against hardcore terrorists inimical to US interests. The present security situation in Afghanistan can be described as a stalemate at both the strategic and tactical levels. The fledg- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO afghanistan INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS A perceptible trend brigadier (retd) in the geopolitical environment in South Asia is that India and most of its neighbours are increasingly taking their bearings from strategic developments along a wider canvas rather than focusing only on the local arena. The strategic isolation traditionally enjoyed by South Asia is steadily disappearing. This has wider ramifications for India s security calculus in that India needs to prepare for a larger number of challenges and concerns from diverse sources in keeping with its larger security interests. With its growing economy flourishing trade and large diaspora India s strategic concerns extend along the arc from the Horn of Africa through the Persian Gulf the northern Indian Ocean and the Strait of Malacca up to the littoral of the South China Sea and from West Asia through the Central Asian Republics (CARs) Iran and Afghanistan to southern China. Instability in any of the ArabIslamic countries the CARs or the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries has a major impact on India s internal security and economy. As South Asia is the second most unstable region in the world after West Asia India s external security environment continues to remain in a state of flux. Recently instability on the line of actual control (LAC) with China and on the line of control (LoC) with Pakistan has served to remind the world that long unresolved territorial disputes continue to destabilise the South Asian region. While the probability of a local border war in the Indian context is extremely low in the short-term its possibility cannot be completely ruled out as it can be triggered by a major incident on the LAC or LoC. India s overall strategic environment is marked by the collusive nuclear weapons-cum-missile-cum-military hardware development programme of China North Korea and Pakistan the strident gurMeet kanwal march of Islamist fundamentalism the diabolical nexus between narcotics trafficking and terrorism the proliferation of small arms the instability inherent in the rule of despotic regimes and a host of other vitiating factors. Afghanistan s endless conflict now heading towards what may turn out to be fullfledged civil war its tense relations with Iran and the Central Asian Republics Pakistan s struggle against the remnants of Al-Qaeda and the Taliban the emerging fissiparous tendencies in Balochistan and Pakhtoonkhwa the rise of jihadi fundamentalism and creeping Talibanisation and its gradual slide towards becoming an economically failed state Sri Lanka s inability to find a lasting solution to the Tamilian challenge Bangladesh s emergence as the new hub of Islamist fundamentalist terrorism and its struggle for economic upliftment to subsistence levels the Maoist insurgency in Nepal and its negative impact on Nepal s fledgling democracy the simmering discontent in Tibet and Xingjian and a low-key revolt against China s repressive regime and the Myanmar people s nascent movement for democracy are all symptomatic of an unstable and uncertain security environment in the South Asian region. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 3 indo-Pak relationS the new PolitiCal era so far there is little to indicate that under nawaz sharif pakistan s reliance on cross-border terrorism as a tool of state policy is likely to change. unless india perceives a visible change in this regard a healthy scepticism over prospects for improved india-pakistan relations would be in order. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 9 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS I n June 2013 when Nawaz Sharif 2013. The pithy statement made after the general (retd) v.P. Malik returned to power in Pakistan meeting was We agreed to sustain the after a gap of 14 years and promceasefire Shorn of the usual rhetoric their . ised resumption of the Lahore summit spirit and its dec- joint statement mentioned agreement on staging two flag meetings laration he raised hopes of an improved political and at the LoC . economically cooperative era in Indo-Pakistan relations. But can we expect any thing more at this (military) level when In international relations and strategic issues however it is not the the jehadis have a free run in Pakistan and the Pakistan Army itself political rhetoric but the situation on the ground that matters. Five violates ceasefire to support their infiltration and violent activities months later the situation on the ground made his summit meeting Will Pakistan Army remove jehadi infiltration launch pads along with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh a spectacular non-starter. the LoC and share information on attempts to cross the LoC This The promise of a new beginning and cooperation in Indo-Pakistan initiative can produce results only when Pakistan acknowledges the relations showed up as a mirage. That mirage continues as I write existence and activities of non-state actors its responsibility for this paper. controlling them and also stops Border Action Teams activities on the LoC. That is highly improbable because cross-border infiltrathe new york Summit tions and ceasefire violations are a manifestation of and emanate For India cross-border terrorism and ceasefire violations on the from the politico-military nexus in Pakistan. line of control (LoC) have become the most important IndoIn his UN General Assembly speech Nawaz Sharif also emphaPakistan issue currently. Year 2013 saw the worst bout of ceasefire sised Kashmir and his desire to focus on this issue. Elsewhere he violations and skirmishes in last 10 years 200 in the year with over described Kashmir as the jugular vein of Pakistan. The statement on 100 incidents taking place ever since Nawaz Sharif took over as Kashmir was more expansive than that made by Pakistani leaders in the Prime Minister in June 2013. People in India not only blame recent years. That exposed the argument that he needed to pander Pakistan for the surge in these activities but also their own govern- to domestic lobbies in Pakistan. On terrorism he equated India and ment for the tame diplomatic and military responses. Pakistan in terms of answerability for such actions. Nawaz Sharif returned from the summit with his niyat undernew york Meeting mined and status diminished. He managed to strengthen arguWhen the two Prime Ministers met on the sidelines of the UN ments of those who were against the Indo-Pakistan dialogue. He General Assembly in New York on September 29 2013 within gave them a chance to harp on his deceitful behaviour in the past three days of the Samba terror incident and an ongoing major including that in the Kargil episode. Pakistani infiltration attempt in Keran they agreed to let the In December 2013 Nawaz Sharif as quoted by the Pakistani Directors General of Military Operations (DGMOs) of India and media and later denied by Nawaz Sharif s office told the Azad Pakistan find a mechanism for reducing tensions on the LoC and Jammu & Kashmir Council that Kashmir is a flashpoint and can to ensure sanctity of the ceasefire agreement. It took three months trigger a fourth war between the two nuclear powers at anytime. to organise such a meeting at the Wagah border on December 24 The statement provoked a sharp reaction from Indian Prime TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES pib WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 4 PakiStan-China StrategiC nexuS india S ConCernS & need for regular Monitoring pakistan s military build-up is primarily india-centric and is shaped by its relationship with the united states and unstinted support from china. pakistan s growing defence cooperation with china and support from the united states has been a major factor contributing to the modernisation of pakistan s military. wikipedia Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 13 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS M o d e r n diplomatic parlance reinforced Major general (retd) dhruv C. katoCh bil ateral the special nature of the relations rel ations between Pakistan and China. between China and Pakistan officially began The primary objective of Pakistan s foreign policy has been in 1951. This took on a strategic content in to preserve Pakistan s territorial integrity and security which the 1960s but the relationship has seen many have been in jeopardy since the state s inception. In recent years fluctuations since then. Over the last decade however Pakistan s Pakistan s foreign policy has steadily transformed from one that strategic partnership with China has become increasingly impor- was limited in regional scope largely towards the Middle East tant to its future security stability and prosperity. This is borne out and South Asia to a policy that is moving towards developing and by the statement of the then Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari strengthening relations with China Iran Central Asia and Russia. in early 2009 that the Pakistan-China relationship is much more The changing priorities behind Pakistan s strategic interests have than a strategic confluence of interests between the two countries emphasised the need to secure new sources of energy new markets . Again in February 2010 Pakistan s Foreign Minister Makhdoom for its products services and labour a favourable balance of power Shah Mahmood Qureshi said before an audience at the Shanghai in the region a way to contain and limit India s expanding regional Institute of International Studies that Pakistan-China relationship influence and the necessity to retain an amicable relationship with has three constituents strategic partnership economic coop- the US-China is central to Pakistan s foreign policy objectives. eration and people-to-people contacts. In this calculus the security In Pakistan s security calculus India remains the principal and dimension has been the strongest but now the two sides are mak- perhaps only external threat. China views India s rise as a potential ing conscious efforts to underpin this relationship with strength- threat to its own domination of the region and so has focused its ened economic cooperation and deepened cultural interaction at efforts in keeping Indian influence confined to South Asia. This the level of the people. convergence of interests finds expression in the strategic nature of More recently Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif s five-day official the Pakistan-China relationship. The turn of the century has seen a visit to China from July 3-8 2013 his first trip abroad after taking noticeable strengthening of this relationship with Chinese investoffice as Prime Minister which followed less than two months after ment and support in the nuclear military and economic domain. that of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang to Pakistan on his first overseas It could be argued that China is using Pakistan to conduct a proxy visit testifies to the continuing vitality of the close ties between the war against India. two countries. During both these visits proposals for the expannuclear Cooperation sion of bilateral economic cooperation dominated the agenda but underlying the proposals was a common understanding of the Pakistan has a small nuclear power programme with 725 MWe strategic nature of these ties and a congruity of interests in pursu- capacity. At present Pakistan has four nuclear generation plants ing certain common strategic goals. The reference by the Chinese Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP-I) (137 MW) Chashma President Xi Jinping during the above visit of Nawaz Sharif to China Nuclear Power Plant (CHASNUPP-I) (325 MW) CHASNUPP-II (300 of the two countries as brothers a term rarely used in Chinese MW) and Khushab Nuclear Facility (50 MW). Its nuclear weapons TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 5 PoSt-2014 afghaniStan SPeCulationS over the uS Military PreSenCe the hurried manner in which the united states helped build the afghan security forces handed over responsibility to them without letting them stabilise and withdrawing coinciding with or immediately after 2014 elections are clear indications that they don t care what happens to the region thereafter Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 17 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS T he world s attention Afghanistan. For the same reason that lt general (retd) P.C. katoCh is focused on Syria the Afghan Peace Process Roadmap to today but so has it been 2015 was deliberately leaked whose third on Afghanistan more since 2009 when the United step of offering Taliban non-elected positions at various levels in States announced withdrawal in 2014. Post-2014 government including Governors virtually gives the Taliban comAfghanistan has been a subject of intense specula- plete control of Pashtun dominated areas along the Afghanistantion with three major uncertainties besides a host of others the Pakistan border after the 2014 elections leaving Pakistan with United States Pakistan and Taliban. While the North Atlantic Treaty an extended Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). Robert Organisation (NATO) deployment in Afghanistan officially ends H. Kaplan in his book The Revenge of Geography writes An in 2014 it is not clear what quantum of forces the United States Afghanistan that falls to Taliban sway threatens to create a sucplans to leave behind and with what tasking. The clich endgame cession of radicalised Islamic societies from the Indian-Pakistani Afghanistan is actually a misnomer. The game is not going to end. border to Central Asia. This would effect in a greater Pakistan givIt is never ending and Afghanistan is not going to cease either. The ing Pakistan s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) the ability to create a vital questions such as what will be the level of stability or insta- clandestine empire composed of the likes of Jalaluddin Haqqani bility in Afghanistan post-2014 what fits into the plans of the US Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and the Lashkar-e-Toiba. exceptionalism and in what manner does Pakistan want to conChris Sands wrote in Kabul s Global Post on February 20 tinue her spoilsport gaming for this has ramifications for the entire 2013 Even before the last troops pull out parts of Afghanistan region. Of course global and regional powers will continue to roll have already descended into ethnic violence and civil conflict... the dice in their own national interests. ethnic violence and civil conflict has already become a reality There is plenty of speculation about what will be the residual in the southern province of Uruzgan...destroying houses raping strength of the US forces in Afghanistan 6 000 to 10 000 to the zero women and murdering dozens of civilians...insurgents militias option latter in line with the no boots on ground policy as the US and warlords-turned-politicians are all trying to fill the gap left claims in Syria. But the US boots on ground are very much present in behind creating a situation that could easily come to resemble the Syria by proxy Al-Qaeda Pakistan Taliban etc denied by the United decade before the US invaded...Northern Alliance is remobilising States Secretary of State John Kerry and labelled as lies by Russian in case internationally supported talks with the Taliban see them President Vladimir Putin. The US has realised that Al-Qaeda- return to power. With a very small signal a civil war could start. All Haqqanis-Taliban are as elusive as the US policies and that neither the people are armed. the Soviets nor the United States could win sub-conventional wars The United States move to talk to the Taliban is acknowledged in Vietnam and Afghanistan. The US was defeated twice in Vietnam by analysts as America s defeat in Afghanistan and desperation and Afghanistan. What appears certain is the US subcontracting of the loser. Though Taliban s office the Islamic Emirates of of Afghanistan to Pakistan an eventuality which is being increas- Afghanistan in Doha has been shut down and being shifted ingly talked about by Afghans and not very different from former elsewhere under a different name the Taliban stance is unlikely American diplomat Robert Blackwill s recommendation to divide to change. The recent attack on the US Consulate in Herat and TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES pib WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 6 develoPMentS in weSt aSia PolitiCal dynaMiCS of the arab world until normal relations between the united states and iran are restored there cannot be any sustained harmony in the Gulf region and west asia. However prospects for this today are brighter than they have ever been in the past 30 years. this is probably the most promising development in the west asian region in the past three years. wikipedia Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 21 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS T he turmoil that These last two factors have seriaMbaSSador (retd) ranjit guPta started in the Arab ous security consequences for all Arab world at the end of countries indeed for all countries that 2010 was hastily and rather inappropriately dubbed have significant Muslim populations and important stakes in their the Arab Spring Long ruling dictators were over- relationships with the Arab world. They have eclipsed political Islam . thrown in four countries Tunisia Egypt Libya and which should be considered natural in Islamic countries and it is Yemen. Protests were crushed in Bahrain though under the surface only through it that radical Islam can be kept at bay and sectarian tension continues to simmer Syria is in the throes of a devastating divisiveness within Islam overcome. Both radical Islam and sectaricivil war it will take a very long time for normalcy to return to Libya anism within Islam and between Islam and other religions must be and Yemen clashes between Islamic extremists and the govern- contested very strongly through concerted international efforts. ment have become a weekly phenomenon in Egypt only Tunisia The non-state actors -- various Islamist militant groups and seems to be on the road to success. Qatar was the solitary Arab in particular Al-Qaeda-affiliated groups who are not controlled country where no protests took place. The Arab world was probably by any particular state -- have acquired enormous destabilising better off before the so-called Arab Spring . potential much more than regimes and states being antithetical towards each other. Their agenda is the imposition of Sharia as the Consequences of the arab Spring guiding principle of rule in all Arab countries. This will greatly comHopes for the advent of democracy or even for meaningful politi- plicate possibilities of solutions to problems in and between Arab cal reform have been dashed and perhaps ruled out for another countries which even otherwise were difficult to arrive at. Al-Qaeda decade. The single major consequence has been the enormously has established significant presence in the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt enhanced salience of the religion factor in the political dynamics Iraq Libya Somalia Syria and Yemen. of the Arab world both within individual countries and between For the immediate short term the evolving geopolitics of countries. This factor has manifested itself in four dimensions West Asia will be greatly influenced by the acrimonious stand-off nFirst the rise of political Islam though neither in the vanguard between Saudi Arabia and Iran personifying a vigorous Sunni nor even active participants the Arab Spring enabled the emer- response to what is perceived as a pernicious Shia threat. It was gence of the long banned exiled and persecuted Islamic parties first manifested in Bahrain is now playing out in Syria and Lebanon to come out into the open. Their underground organisational could become the next battlefield. networks were activated and they were thus much better placed egypt to take advantage of newly emerging political opportunities. nSecondly the recrudescence of sectarian Islam in a viciously After Hosni Mubarak s removal the Army ruled directly for one year violent form. through the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF). People nThirdly the resurgence of radical Islam. were back in Tahrir Square demonstrating against them and finally nFourthly the rapid proliferation of heavily armed Al-Qaeda forced the army to organise elections. The winner not surprisingly linked extremist Islamist militant groups across the Arab world. was the Muslim Brotherhood. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 7 StrategiC linkageS in Central aSia PolitiCal trendS and regional ConfliCtS with the exception of kyrgyzstan the politics in other states remain unpredictable. none of the ageing presidents of kazakhstan tajikistan and uzbekistan appear to have clear succession plans despite some surreptitious intrigues among members of the ruling elite. usaF Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 25 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS C entral Asian states have drome had compelled Nazarbayev to drop aMbaSSador P. Stobdan been undergoing an arduous the referendum extending his rule until and complex nation-building 2020. Instead he preferred to hold an early process which is far from complete. The shortcom- presidential election. However post-December 2011 Zhanaozen ings include their inability to move out of the past events Nazarbayev removed his influential son-in-law Timur Soviet era political and economic structures. The lead- Kulibayev from power and scheduled parliamentary elections in ers of Kazakhstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan had January 2012. This was critical to strengthen at least the Parliament strongly resisted political change and have successfully adopted body. Uzbekistan is unlikely to see any change until Islam Karimov internal political mechanisms with varying style to stay in power. leaves office. But the post-Karimov Uzbekistan is likely to be Among them the former President of Kyrgyzstan Askar Akayev was marked by significant instability because of the presence of a strong the only leader who initially embraced political and economic political Islam. Turkmenistan s Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov reforms but later on he too began to develop authoritarian ten- has though shown some liberal attitude and called exiled opposidencies and stopped sharing power with his opponents. During tion leaders to participate in the 2012 elections. But in essence he the last two decades Kyrgyzstan went through a very difficult too is likely to follow the course of his late predecessor. Tajikistan political transition. The major test has been the transition from a continues to remain locked in a difficult combination of poverty Soviet Republic to a parliamentary democracy though since 2005 authoritarianism and Islamic extremism that keeps the country it had witnessed two major uprisings something not known in the prone to instability. Kyrgyzstan has switched to a parliamentary former Soviet republics. democracy and the institution of democracy and the rule of law On the other extreme was the Turkmen President Saparmurat remain underdeveloped. A shaky experiment in coalition governAtayevich Niyazov who served as President for life until his death ment is in place there are also many unresolved issues including in 2006 was the most repressive dictators. President Karimov of the ethnic rifts in the south. However for the time being none of Uzbekistan too retained his power for over two decades now. He the ruling Presidents are likely to face any real opposition though does not want to demolish the old house until he is able to build the basic politico-economic characteristics of these countries are a new one. Similarly Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev also no different from those in West Asia. Moreover unlike in the West managed to survive by shrewdly manipulating the internal politics Asian case both Russia and China will firmly insulate the Central and devising internal means to gain political legitimacy. Asian regimes from failing viz Uzbekistan after 2005 Andijan crisis Kazakhstan after 2011 Zhanaozen events. Even the Kyrgyz crises Political trends were contained affectively and not allowed to cross a threshold. With the exception of Kyrgyzstan the politics in other states remain radical islam unpredictable. None of the ageing Presidents of Kazakhstan Tajikistan and Uzbekistan appears to have clear succession plans Behind the secular settings a major shift to a far more religious patdespite some surreptitious intrigues among members of the ruling tern of society is underway in the region. Islamic forces are getting elite. To some extent the Kyrgyz uprising and the Arab Spring syn- stronger in Tajikistan and southern Kyrgyzstan (Osh & Batken). To TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 8 Military develoPMentS in South eaSt aSia the PolitiCo-StrategiC Milieu Future course of military events would largely depend upon how the us-china us-asean and china-asean relationships evolve. while india has also been strengthening its politico-military relationships with the asean it is unlikely that it will proactively get itself involved in a possible military conflict in the south china sea. us navy Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 29 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS M ilitary developeration with outside powers like the brigadier (retd) vinod anand ments in South United States and others. And fourthly East Asia or for that the South East Asian countries through matter anywhere else cannot be seen in isola- multi-lateral structures like the Association of South East Asian tion from the political strategic and economic Nations (ASEAN) are also attempting to engage China to address contexts. Events that are taking place in South their security concerns. East Asia are also a subset of what is happening in Asia in particular China s assertion in South east asia and at the global level in general. While there has been an ongoing shift of economic power to Asia it is also quite apparent that most of While the recent events in South China Sea (SCS) indicate that the conflict spots of the world are in Asia. Rapid rise of China and its China has become more assertive about its claims with Vietnam fast-tracked militarisation has created its own geostrategic dynam- and the Philippines yet these are not the only countries affected by ics not only in Asia and South East Asia but also has caused rever- China s irredentist tendencies. Beijing has through its cartographic berations at the global level. According to a report by the London- propaganda shown Natuna island of Indonesia that contains gas based International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) released in fields as part of China through an official map. Even some of the March 2013 Asia overtook European members of the North Atlantic Malaysian gas fields off the shore of Sarawak are claimed by the Treaty Organisation (NATO) in terms of nominal military spending Chinese. Spratly chain of islands besides being claimed by Vietnam for the first time last. The South East Asian nations have not only to and China are also claimed by other SCS littoral nations. The dispute between China and the Philippines about respond to festering internal security challenges as the process of nation building is as yet not complete in most of the countries they Scarborough Shoal has not abated since early April 2012 when a Philippine Navy surveillance plane spotted eight Chinese fishing also have to deal with external threat perceptions. Looking at the politico-strategic milieu in the South East Asian vessels docked at Scarborough Shoal. The Philippine Navy desregion four broad trends that have impact on military develop- patched a ship to arrest the Chinese fishermen but were prevented ments can be discerned. First trend is that after having integrated by two Chinese Marine Surveillance ships. There were protests by the South East economies and strengthening People s Liberation both countries and finally by July 2012 China erected a barrier to the Army China has now become more assertive in its sovereignty entrance of the Shoal. Chinese surveillance ships have prevented claims that adversely impact a number of South East Asian nations. Filipinos from fishing in the area. The dispute has soured the relaSecond trend is that the United States fearing loss of its power and tionship between the two countries. China has also raised the status of Sansha County in Hainan influence in the Asia-Pacific and South East Asia has been attempt. ing to stage a comeback through its pivot to Asia or rebalance to province to that of Prefecture In earlier years when China National Asia strategy which has political military and economic compo- People s Congress had passed a law to make Sansha as a county nents. Thirdly South East Asian countries especially those who to administer its claims in the South China Sea it had led to antiare at the receiving end of China s assertive policies are attempting China protests in Vietnam. In addition a military garrison has also to balance China through political security and defence coop- been established in Sansha city in July 2012 with the charter of TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 9 ContentiouS South China Sea ChallengeS galore aS China riSeS the consequential strategic upheaval taking place in asia in tandem with the growing power of the people s republic of china needs to be viewed especially in the backdrop of recent chinese politico-strategic assertiveness witnessed on multiple fronts including the south china sea wikipedia Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 33 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS T he South China Sea has long dr Monika been a source of tension and potential conflict in the AsiaPacific region. The disputes on who has the better claim to territorial sovereignty over the disputed islands can only be resolved if the claimants can agree to settle them through direct negotiations or if all the claimants agree to some form of binding third party dispute settlement. Neither of these prospects is likely. This is why many observers believe that the only viable option is to set aside the sovereignty disputes and pursue joint development and other cooperative arrangements. Discussions on setting aside the disputes and joint development are hindered by the fact that there is significant ambiguity on the maritime claims of the claimants. This is so despite the fact that all of the claimants (with the exception of Taiwan) are parties to the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) the international legal framework that governs claims to ocean space. Two groups of islands are under contention which China claims possession of in entirety--the Paracel Islands contested by China Taiwan and Vietnam and the Spratly Islands under dispute between China and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) members--Brunei Malaysia the Philippines and Vietnam. China asserts its sovereignty over sections of the 1.2 million square miles of the South China Sea. Known for containing valuable and unexploited reserves of oil and natural gas the South China Sea is home to fishing grounds as well. As these nations vie for their share in the South China Sea it stands to pose as a symbol of realist power play as far as achieving goals in national interest for all contending nations are concerned. In 2009 China sent a letter to the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon saying that it had indisputable sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea and the adjacent waters and enjoys sovereign rights and jurisdiction over the relevant waters as well ChanSoria as the seabed and subsoil thereof Attached . to the letter was a map showing the extent of China s claim in the South China Sea marked by a nine-dash line stretching as far south as James Shoal just 80 km from Bintulu in the Malaysian state of Sarawak and about 1 800 km from the Chinese mainland. A Xinhua news agency report in April 2012 described the shoal as the southernmost point of China s territory China s use of its nine-dash claim to support . its sovereignty claims in the South China Sea and its references to historic rights in waters inside this imprecisely defined line have provoked controversy and given South East Asian claimants the opportunity to argue that China is not acting in conformity with the UNCLOS and international law. The fact that China s gradual rise to power has ushered in benefits even for the ASEAN member-states cannot be denied. However an equally reinforcing reality of Beijing making strident efforts to augment that political economic and military influence in the region more so to resolve the outstanding maritime territorial disputes in its favour can also not be annulled altogether. China reaffirms that it would commit itself to becoming a force for peace and stability in South East Asia--maintaining and enhancing relations with ASEAN so as to achieve its regional objectives appears to be assuming prime importance in the Chinese policymaking process. There is a growing sense of apprehension and unease especially among nations within Asia that with its rapidly expanding military reach and prowess coupled with higher stages of economic growth the military spending power of the People s Republic of China is only bound to increase--thus furthering its intent to chip away at claims of other nations through mechanisms of coercive diplomacy. Therefore even if the ASEAN nations advocate active engagement with China the possibility of ongoing economic engagement and collaboration in the regional security architecture will not TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 10 india S internal SeCurity diMenSionS Managing SeCeSSioniSt inSurgenCy with nearly one-fifth of its population finding themselves in the category of poor and the entire citizenry vociferous in its sense of democratic entitlements economic development must be fundamental to india s internal stability 4.bp.blogspot.com Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book threat 1 Suasion of Secessionist Call Right at the beginning of India s independent journey came the secessionist movement under the Naga banner. It was a movement seeded by religious-ethnic mischief sustained by propagation of lies and instigated by inimical neighbours. The resultant insurgency has continued for most part of our post-independent existence finally coming to rule the State of Nagalim under a pseudo government that operates openly in contravention to the constitution. Later similar insurgencies broke out in most of India s North-eastern states. In the 1960s the states of Mizoram and Manipur became victims of the same formula the insurgency in Manipur continues still. In hindsight emergence of such widespread secessionism divisiveness innate India has a long tradition of being politically divided by schisms of caste religion region language and even individual ego. Thus whenever the central powers be it the Maurya Gupta their seven great successor dynasties the Mughal or the Maratha empires -- have dithered divisive elements have risen to trigger disintegration of the realm. Incessant inter-state feuds induced by plain stupidity would invariably follow. Soon some external powers would be invited to meddle in the banal hope that the marauder having www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 37 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE T he primary function of a state is defined by maintenance of a secure environment for the citizens as well as the governing establishment to exercise their rights and responsibilities. A nation s internal situation therefore is a function of efficacy of its governing system and its societal consciousness. The determinants in this context therefore may be specified by firstly the entire gamut of governance in cultivating social justice economic well-being and firm administration and secondly the positivity of response it evokes from those governed. Hailed as a society that strides towards a sublimate dispensation a realm of effective internal security is imperative for India to seek her destiny deserved. It may therefore be a good venture to watch for the maladies that might derail the nation s journey to stardom. But before that a bit of soul-search may be in order. BUSINESS Four dangers to a State are that lt general (retd) which is of external origin and internal abetment that which is of internal origin and external abetment that which is of external origin and external abetment and that which is of internal origin and internal abetment. --Chanakya gautaM banerjee had his fill would leave the land for the host to satiate his ambitions. Arguably therefore we seem to nurture an instinct for divisiveness even if it is to invite misery upon ourselves. It is equally true that in spite of many fault lines and missed opportunities the post-independent nation has found accomplishments which are remarkable by any standard. Thus even against a fourfold increase in population destitution has declined and most citizens enjoy secure life. Most importantly India has been able to rebuild her indigenous institutions even if imperfect yet which the British had destroyed root and branch. These achievements have contributed in fostering a secure society. However there are also signs ominous albeit faint yet which if not addressed in all sagacity may some day cause the nation to scatter under its self-inflicted pulls. No doubt that would be the greatest misfortune to befall us Indians besides being a global anti-climax. Let us examine as to what could be those pulls that threaten our nationhood. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 11 india S land borderS threatS and iMPliCationS concerns of neighbours need to be settled by negotiations economic cooperation as well as resolving issues on the basis of give and take. at the same time it is incumbent on the government to maintain a modernised military so that if an adversary resorts to the use of force the country is able to meet it with confidence. bsf.nic.in Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 41 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS A ny consideration of n Discord amongst ethnic religious lt general (retd) vijay oberoi the land borders of a and linguistic groups resulting in interlarge country like India nal turbulence. needs to start by a look at the region particularly nUncontrolled population explosion leading to poverty illiteracy disease environmental degradation and unplanned the peculiarities of geography. The regional secuurbanisation. This is compounded by demographic shifts both rity environment must also be considered. within nations and across borders. India is a vast country that has land borders with six countries but the small border with Afghanistan is only notional at present nNuclearisation of the region and nuclear proliferation. as Pakistan is in illegal possession of the area known earlier as nArms and drug trafficking and a growing nexus between crime and politics. the Northern Areas and now named as Gilgit-Baltistan. It is also The other factors influencing the security environment in South important to look briefly at the historical context so that the perAsia are paucity of energy sources especially oil inadequate harspective is clear. During the colonial era the British Indian Empire in South Asia nessing of the abundant water resources the impact of the growing stretched from portions of Afghanistan in the West to Burma (now potential of China the war on terrorism the spread of fundamenMyanmar) in the East although Afghanistan Burma and Sri Lanka talism and the social upheaval in practically all countries due to (then Ceylon) were strictly not part of the Indian empire. When the rising expectations of their people. The security-related issues of the South Asian region have the British colonial era ended India had been partitioned and Myanmar and Sri Lanka had become independent nations. South both external and internal dimensions. Major internal conflicts Asia then consisted of India Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Sri Lanka continue in all states of the region like the simmering disconand Maldives. Bangladesh was later added when it emerged as a tent among the Tamil population of Sri Lanka even though the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) has been eliminated in new nation in 1972. military operations the political instability in Nepal on account of Security environment of South asia the lack of assimilation of the Maoists in the political process and The South Asian region is historically a conflict-prone region on the continuing threat of violence by the Islamic fundamentalism account of the following in Bangladesh at present muted after the change of government nLegacy of colonialism the bloody partition of India in 1947 and the fissiparous rebellions in at least two states of Pakistan viz. the breakup of Pakistan in 1971. Balochistan and Sindh in addition to the massive flare-up of ternTendency to dishonour treaties demarcating boundaries settled rorism throughout the country and the continuing policy of stateduring the British Empire and the use of military force to realign sponsored terrorism and fundamentalism which the Pakistani borders. Army is loath to give up and finally the plethora of insurgencies in nThe intolerant attitude of the superpowers during the Cold India. We also need to add a footnote which is the likely spillover War towards those states that sought to pursue independent effect of the pull-out of western forces from Afghanistan in 2014 on policies. many countries of South Asia. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 12 SPeCial forCeS in india S defenCe Strategy unfoCuSed and underutiliSed we must create macro conditions for proactive employment of special Forces through measures like a national vision. an integrated special Forces set up with institutionalised support elements must come up on priority with handling and employment of special Forces entrusted to hardcore professionals. india must integrate its special Forces fully into its defence strategy. I Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 45 REGIONAL BALANCE ncreased terror attacks in with India and Afghanistan will raise lt general (retd) P.C. katoCh Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) demands for it to get back to barracks cross-border raids ceasefire losing all the power and money that it breaches and Pakistani obduracy indicate a violent wields today. Ironically Pakistani military has continuous backing future. The Afghanistan-Pakistan region will likely wit- of the US despite about 4 900 US-led coalition personnel killed in ness increased instabiliy post-2014 Afghanistan the Afghanistan majority through proxies emanating from Pakistan. It repercussions of which will affect India adversely. As chances should be quite clear in India that we have to fight our own wars. of conventional conflict recede most militaries are using their It is not without reason that Ashley Tellis of Carnegie Foundation Special Forces in a proactive manner in furtherence of their says India being continuously subjected to terror actually suits national objectives. Ironically 66 years after independence India many... India is a sponge that absorbs global terror. Richard Olson has neither defined its national security strategy nor has outlined the US Ambassador to Pakistan has stated that Pakistan has given its national security objectives. Resultantly the tasking of our up its quest for strategic depth in Afghanistan. But then where is intelligence agencies remains unfocused and our Special Forces the requirement to yearn what one is getting automatically on a potential remains underutilised. platter--more and more areas of Afghanistan particularly south and east Afghanistan are likely to be under Taliban control postMagnifying threat 2014. Robert H. Kaplan wrote in his book The Revenge of Geography Chronicled in Pakistan is the fact that China advised Pakistan in An Afghanistan that falls to Taliban sway threatens to create a sucearly 1960s to create a militia to fight a prolonged war in India s cession of radicalised Islamic societies from the Indian-Pakistani backyard these are the jihadis we see today. By 1992-93 armed border to Central Asia. This would effect in a greater Pakistan givmodules of Pakistani jihadis were identified pan-India in about 10 ing Pakistan s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) the ability to create a states including Assam West Bengal Bihar Uttar Pradesh Delhi clandestine empire composed of the likes of Jallaluddin Haqqani Rajasthan Gujarat Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh and Kerala and Gulbuddin Hekmetyar and the Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT)--able to they had already established firm links with and were undertak- confront India in the manner that Hezbollah and Hamas confront ing joint training in terrorist camps inside Bangladesh ironically Israel. If this is not strategic depth what is in connivance with Bangladesh security forces. Pakistani terrorChina spawned Nepal s Maoists movement simultaneous to ism and efforts to destabilise India require no elaboration. With establishing and supporting similar organisations in Burma (now the private business-corporate-industrial complex of Pakistani Myanmar) Cambodia Japan and Peru has developed links with military pegged at 20.7 billion in 2007 the military s stranglehold Al-Qaeda and Taliban a decade back to negate support to Uighur over Pakistan is unlikely to abate in a rush current democratic separatists in Xinjiang provides tacit support to Pakistan s antieuphoria notwithstanding. Pakistan s Army Chief Ashfaq Kayani India jihad and has been arming and supporting insurgencies has already cautioned Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to go slow within India. China has been providing training military advisors on the friendship bit with India. Pakistani military fears that peace and arms including shoulder fired air defence missiles (QW-1 GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES pib WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 13 india S nuClear deterrenCe in the baCkdroP of Current realitieS in the neighbourhood insofar as the india-china nuclear matrix is concerned it is not merely a function of the nuclear capabilities of both sides but contextualised within the overall threat matrix from china including its collusion with pakistan. Fundamental to the evolving strategic relationship is the perception of nuclear deterrence in the overall construct of strategic challenge from china. DrDo R Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 49 REGIONAL BALANCE ecent media reports allowing China to coerce India through brigadier (retd) arun Sahgal highlighted the meetborder intrusions and aggressive posing of the political turing leveraging its asymmetric conexecutive of India s nuclear command authority as ventional capabilities. part of a nuclear exercise undertaken by the India s It is in this backdrop the paper takes a closer look at the shifts Strategic Forces Command. The reports highlighted in doctrinal thinking of China and Pakistan and examines India s the political executive undertaking a comprehensive review of nuclear response. India s nuclear posture including the status of nuclear weapons and Pakistani Capability development and doctrinal thinking delivery systems. The fact that such information was passed on to the media in a sense highlights the concerns of political leadership Pakistan s doctrinal thinking and capability development are over developments in nuclear domain in neighbourhood countries. attuned to undermining India s favourable conventional asymNuclear signalling clearly point to Pakistan assiduously work- metry through feverish nuclear weapons development and posturing to increase its fissile material stockpile while simultaneously ing of shallow thresholds. This they claim is a response to India s indicating lowering of thresholds by introduction of nuclear tipped attempts at exploiting conventional superiority through pre-empshort-range tactical missiles euphemistically called tactical nuclear tive massive and punitive retaliation by creating space for Limited . weapons (TNW). It has also stepped up production of nuclear War under Nuclear Overhang Such thoughts also posited in the weapons and missile vectors. As per informed reports it is known backdrop of massive retaliation should Pakistan attempt nuclear to possess 100-110 nuclear weapons and approximately 200 bal- brinkmanship and coercion. India s proactive doctrine and military modernisation is seen by listic missiles of all types. China too is signalling modernisation of its nuclear arsenal by Pakistan as attempts at leveraging growing conventional asymmetry shifting from liquid to solid fuel missiles and developing multiple thereby reinforcing stability instability paradox. For Pakistan India s warhead capabilities as indicated by the recent test of DF-41 mis- conventional doctrine provides the following strategic challenges sile. Doctrinally it has complicated the issue by not specifically nIndia can launch pre-emptive offensive at short notice with credible element of surprise. The growing Indian intelligence mentioning its adherence to no first use (NFU) in the latest white surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) and non-contact capapaper unleashing a debate on its no first use stance. bilities provide such operational advantage. These shifts in capability and doctrinal thinking have a great impact on regional stability and efficacy of deterrence equations. In nIAF with its growing superiority both in numbers and quality can create a favourable air situation through effective counterChina-India-Pakistan triad India s nuclear concerns emanate from air campaign including strategic and operational interdiction. China-Pakistan nuclear dyad pitched against India. From Indian perspective impact of this nexus is huge it front ends Pakistan nTechnological developments such as ballistic missile defence (BMD) over a period of time are seen as negating Pakistan s with its doctrine of nuclear war-fighting as a surrogate to contain ballistic and cruise missile capability and first strike option. India and ensure regional strategic balance while simultaneously GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 14 india S energy SeCurity Changing ParadigM improving energy efficiency and conservation is one of the most cost-effective ways of enhancing energy security and addressing climate change. india has formulated energy conservation act of 2001 which envisages energy efficiency standard for nine energy intensive industries. wikipedia india s energy Scenario India has only 0.7 per cent of the world s total oil reserves with a reserve production (R P) ratio of 30 years. While it produces 38.9 million tonnes it consumes 155.5 million tonnes or 3.9 per cent of the total global consumption making India the world s fourth largest oil consumer. Currently the country is importing 75 per cent of its total oil consumption which is further expected to increase to 90 per cent by 2025. Gas reserves stand at 1.5 trillion cubic metres (0.8 per cent of the world s proven reserves) with an R P ratio of 28.5 years. While India s production of gas is 50.9 billion cubic metres (bcm) its consumption is 61.9 bcm. India s gas demand is set to touch 280 million metric standard cubic metres per day (MMSCMD) by 2011-12. At consumption levels of 280 MMSCMD gas would account for 14 per cent of India s energy mix by the end of year 2012 from the current level of 11 per cent. Liquefied natural gas imports at 39.32 million standard cubic metres per day constituted 25.5 per cent of the total consumption of the fuel in the country in 2011-12. This share according to the Petroleum Ministry s latest estimates will rise to 41 per cent in the current fiscal and to 50 per cent in the next. In 2012-13 domestic Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 53 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS I ndia is diverse in its energy dr bhuPendra endowments and requirements. As its development process increases its need for a clean and stable supply of energy at sustainable prices will rise accordingly. Declining oil reserves uncertainties in future oil supply fluctuations in oil prices in the global market and growing concern for climate change however complicate its prospects for development. Therefore India s energy security emanates from the growing imbalance between the demand for energy and its supply from indigenous sources resulting in increased import dependence. kuMar Singh natural gas production is estimated to be around 104 MMSCMD down from 114.90 MMSCMD in the previous fiscal. In the current year LNG imports will jump to 73 MMSCMD and are projected to further rise to 105 MMSCMD in 2013-14 equaling the domestic gas production of that year. In 2014-15 imports at 115 MMSCMD will surpass domestic production of 113 MMSCMD. India s total coal reserves are around 60 600 million tonnes In 2011 total coal production was 222.4 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) or 5.8 per cent of the world s total while consumption was 296.6 Mtoe or 7.9 per cent of the world s total. Thus India is the world s third largest coal consumer. As far as the power sector is concerned India s total installed power generation capacity is about 207 gigawatt (GW). Coal dominates the energy mix with 56.92 per cent of the capacity added so far followed by hydro with 18.98 per cent and renewable energy sources with 12.07 per cent. It is estimated that almost 40 per cent of the total population in the country does not have access to electricity. India s power supply demand has grown at the average rate of 8-10 per cent over the last 10 years and currently the country is facing a very significant peak hour power deficit as high as 10-12 GW or 10 per cent. Thermal power plants (coal and gas) alone accounts for 66.63 per cent of the existing installed capacity and it has contributed to about two-third of the incremental capacity addition during 2006-11. In the Eleventh Five Year Plan bulk of the new capacity has come from coal-fired power plants and this trend is likely to continue in the Twelfth FiveYear Plan for which 50 GW of capacity addition is projected to be coal based. The Centre has targeted capacity addition of 1 00 000 MW each in the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) and Thirteenth Five Year Plan (2017-22). However the acute coal shortage being faced in the country has cast a shadow on these plans. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 15 evolution of PilotleSS airCraft aeroSPaCe StrategieS in uav era uavs are today used by more than 50 countries with many making their own. the united states is the leader with over 7 500 operational uavs which is more than the combined strength of the rest of the world. the proliferation and success of uavs have caused some to question the future relevance of manned aircraft systems. this has been more so due to defence budget cuts and competing demands for scarce resources. usaF T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 57 REGIONAL BALANCE he well acceptand attended employability dynamics air MarShal (retd) anil ChoPra ed predecessors of and also the overall cost considerably. unmanned aircraft Also it allowed phenomenal increase were the World War II German V-bombs. Pilotless in endurance. Both the surveillance and targeting capability was aircraft of various forms were also tested during now available at very low cost. Collateral damage on the ground the war but the state of technology at the time did after an attack vis- -vis manned aircraft still remains high. The not support a meaningful operational mission for them. Initial term UAV soon evolved to names such as Drone remotely piloted drones were more for training ground based or airborne gunners vehicle (RPV) remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) or even UAS. The and had no operational role. As autopilot and navigation technol- Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and International Civil ogy advanced and flawless communication links were in place Aviation Organisation (ICAO) prefer retention of the word aircraft the use of unmanned aircraft became more prevalent. Shooting so that same regulations could be applicable. More and more down of the United States U-2 spy plane by Russians and the operators are now switching to the term RPA. much publicised arrest of the pilot Gary Powers caused acute uav recent evolution embarrassment to the American public and unfolded the full scale development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) programme. UAVs UAV consists of the air vehicle (controlled autonomously or by a saw fledgling action in Vietnam. Israel pioneered the use of UAVs remote controller) sensors payloads command and control data for real-time surveillance electronic warfare and decoys during links the operator station as well as the ground support equipment Bekka valley operation in 1982. Americans made extensive use required for launch recovery operations and maintenance. Till of UAVs in Bosnia. The US industry worked closely with Israeli now deployed mostly for military and special operations they are Aerospace Industries Mallat Division to develop the Pioneer UAV gradually having more civil applications such as policing and firefor the US Navy for use in the 1991 Gulf War. UAVs shot into fame fighting. Armed UAVs or unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) during Iraq war over a decade ago and their successful operational such as the General Atomics Predator with AGM-114 Hellfire airemployment in Afghanistan gave them a permanent place in the to-ground missiles have pushed the envelope to a new level. The sky. The use of unmanned aircraft for intelligence surveillance Predator is remotely piloted via satellites by pilots located as far and reconnaissance (ISR) has resulted in the addition of sophis- as 12 000 km away. On the other hand the Global Hawk operates ticated payloads to the unmanned aerial vehicles. Combined with virtually autonomously giving live feedback and only needs a com. command and control capability and a means for transmitting mand to take-off and land Man in the loop (piloted) and man data video the vehicle became a potent platform. Varying in size on the loop (supervised) systems are the two options. Advances from a few ounce micro-UAV to that of an airliner unmanned in technology are enabling more capabilities and small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are fulfilling a variety of missions beyond ISR. aircraft systems (SUAS) are being deployed on the battlefield. UAV Removing the pilot out of a combat air vehicle reduced weight of roles have expanded to areas including electronic warfare strike human support and interface systems the human risk element missions suppression and or destruction of enemy air defence GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 16 MilitariSation of SPaCe iMPliCationS for india militarisation of space in simple terms means use of space in support of ground sea and air operations of the armed forces and refers to developing assets to be based in space with supporting ground infrastructure for military uses such as early warning communications command and control position navigation and timing and monitoring Space would dominate and shape milithe location of the target. lt general (retd) v.k. kaPoor tary strategy of the 21st century. Today s In the late 1970s and through the military planners see space as a high 1980s the Soviet Union and the United ground vital part of the military equation. States theorised designed and in some cases even tested an aston--Frank Barnaby in his book Future War ishing variety of bizarre and exotic weaponry designed for warfare in outer space. Space-based missiles were not a target due to the ilitary space technology has now devel- Outer Space Treaty (OST) which banned the use testing or storage oped from its early stages to exploit the new of nuclear weapons outside the earth s atmosphere. The systems medium of space to the point where space- proposed ranged from measures as simple as ground and spacebased military systems are gradually replac- based anti-missiles to rail guns space-based lasers orbital mines ing their ground-based counterparts in many and other such futuristic weaponry. Deployment of these systems areas. These space-based systems can accom- was seriously considered in the mid-1980s under the banner of the plish their missions more efficiently and more economically. Thus Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) which was also popularly known while the concept of space as another dimension in which war will as Star Wars. If the Cold War had continued then many of these be fought is relatively new it is now recognised as a medium which systems could have been deployed must be controlled and manipulated to achieve success in any Militarisation of Space future war. Strategic analysts are convinced that the outcome of the future wars will be determined by the efficiency and smartness with Space today is heavily militarised but not weaponised. Space which space resources are protected and utilised. Thus the time weaponisation is generally understood as the placement in orbit has now come to decide on a fresh blueprint for fighting future wars of space-based devices with destructive capacity. Militarisation of space in simple terms means use of space in support of ground and to include the realm of space in this new blueprint. sea and air operations of the armed forces and refers to developing historical Perspective assets to be based in space with supporting ground infrastructure Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space i.e. outside for military uses such as early warning communications command the atmosphere. Space warfare should therefore include ground- and control position navigation and timing (PNT) and monitoring. to-space warfare such as attacking satellites from the earth as well It helps improve military command control and communications as space-to-space warfare like satellites attacking satellites. Some strategic and battlefield surveillance and weapons targeting. The argue that it does not include the use of satellites for espionage space is considered a sanctuary only insofar that no weapons are surveillance or military communications. However these activities deployed there. The United States now feels that the time has come constitute military utilisation of space and may well become a part to act under the provisions of Article 51 of the UN Charter which of space warfare. Ideally the term space warfare should include any implies A state could also use military force to defend itself against conflict that uses the space as a theatre of operations regardless of hostile actions. This when coupled with Article III of the OST Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 61 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE M BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Dia WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Contents One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight India s Future Weapon Capability Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Cyber Security Defence Against Stealth Technology Air Defence Gun Ammunition Shipbuilding and Modularisation Disruptive Military Technologies Military Helicopters for India 65 71 75 79 83 85 89 93 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Technology CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section two 2 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Airborne Maritime Littoral and Land Surveillance Integrated IFF GMTI and SHARCTM imaging displays help operators find the smallest of targets in the worst maritime conditions. APS-143C(V)3 AN APS-153(V) RDR-1700B www.telephonics.com 38860 38769 1 india S Future WeaPon CaPability the roadMaP & CaPability requireMentS a total of 23 technologies have been identified which will be the foundation of future armed forces system developments. the technologies include battlefield transparency command and control architecture communication systems smart radios information dominance electronic warfare nanotechnology mems artificial intelligence and robotics cbrN defence unmanned systems miniaturisation advanced weapon systems emp weapons weapon guidance space-based radars stealth digital systems adaptive antenna saGw sensors and sensor fusion. T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 65 REGIONAL BALANCE he armed forces longrequires large investments in money lt General (retd) nareSh Chand term integrated pertop quality human capital and time. spective plan (LTIPP) The roadmap first gives out the gencovers a period of 15 years and is the master policy eral technologies followed by specific requirements of land sea and document out of which flows five-year plans which aerospace warfare requirements visualised for the next 15 years. translate the LTIPP into an action plan and run The capability requirements flow out of the technology requireconcurrently with the national five-year plan. The five-year plan ments and follow a similar format. is then converted into Annual Acquisition Plan as the fund allotkey technology requirements ment depends on the annual budget. The Defence Research and Development Organisation s (DRDO) regular grouse is that the A total of 23 technologies have been identified which will be the qualitative requirements project a fusion of all present and future foundation of future armed forces system developments. All these technologies without giving them a lead time to acquire those technologies are actually technical disciplines fields for which thus causing unduly long gestation periods of development. The technologies have to be developed. These are common techarmed forces counter is that due to long gestation period they nologies required for the Army Navy and Air Force which in turn have to include future weapon developments in their projections should drive research and development in these fields. Work is on otherwise the weapons when developed will be obsolete. India for their development worldwide and India will take some time to is at least a couple of decades behind in weapon technology to catch up. The technologies include battlefield transparency comthe United States Europe and Russia. Both views are partly right. mand and control architecture communication systems smart With the public-private concept catching up in the defence weap- radios information dominance electronic warfare nanotechnolons development and manufacturing arena private industries ogy micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) artificial intelalso want to be privy to the future technologies and armament ligence and robotics chemical biological radiological and nuclear capability plans. An attempt was made by the armed forces dur- (CBRN) defence unmanned systems miniaturisation advanced ing 2002-03 to make projections for future weapon requirements weapon systems electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) weapons weapon and connected technologies but the report did not see the light of guidance space-based radars stealth digital systems adaptive the day. The reason could be that it was made unilaterally by the antenna signatures surface-to-air guided weapons (SAGW) senarmed forces without consulting the DRDO. The latest Technology sors and sensor fusion. Some highlights are Perspective and Capability Roadmap (TPCR) has been issued by nSmart devices supporting long-term evaluation (4G) and mobile satellite terminals with systems and applications supthe Integrated Defence Staff in April 2013 which attempts to bridge porting indigenous global positioning system (GPS) would give this information gap and covers a 15-year period. It must be clearly a battle-winning advantage. understood that development of future technologies for defence GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES pib WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 2 intelliGenCe SurveillanCe and reConnaiSSanCe the eSSential ForCe MultiPlier while the indian army Navy and air Force are enhancing respective isr capabilities in terms of military s network-centric warfare (Ncw) capabilities we have not progressed much beyond taking sporadic baby steps. tri-service synergy is lacking in a big way. the Navy and air Force have progressed with regard to intra-service Ncw capabilities but the army will take another decade-and-a-half to two decades to build required capacity. sp Guide pubns I Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 71 REGIONAL BALANCE ntelligence surveillance Reliance on TECHINT alone is whollt General (retd) P.C. katoCh and reconnaissance (ISR) is ly inadequate. The Americans realised the coordinated and integrated this when the Central Intelligenc Agency acquisition processing and provision of timely accurate (CIA) was taken completely by surprise with Pokhran II nuclear relevant coherent and assured information and intel- explosions. That is the reason their Special Forces and proxies ligence to support commander s conduct of activities. have been operating inside in Iran for the past eight years. We are Land sea air and space platforms have critical ISR roles in sup- unwisely spending crores of rupees on TECHINT while spending porting operations in general. ISR encompasses multiple activities relatively nothing on HUMINT. This is the root cause of our inabilrelated to the planning and operation of systems that collect pro- ity to strategise and cope with irregular and asymmetric threats cess and disseminate data in support of current and future military both national and transnational. This has not only affected covert operations. By massing ISR assets allowing a period of immersion intelligence gathering but also counter-intelligence. We do not developing layering and cross cueing of sensors an improved clar- even exploit open source intelligence. Within the country while ity and depth of knowledge can be established. the media encourages the citizen journalist concept the establishment has no such concept--the feasibility of billion eyes on the intelligence ground concept have hardly been explored. Hence inadequate The sources of intelligence are multifaceted that encompass human intelligence even in the case of the Maoist insurgency has created intelligence (HUMINT) technical intelligence (TECHINT) signal the biggest fault line in India. Not having a national security strategy intelligence (SIGINT) open source intelligence (OSINT) etc--all and national security objective have contributed in lack of an intelcumulating into all source intelligence. The advantages of HUMINT ligence acquisition plan. To top this we are also hampered with very at the strategic operational and tactical levels are not very well under- poor mapping even of our own territory. stood in India. It is well known that when I.K. Gujral was the Prime Intelligence is the final product of information and informaMinister the government had banned deployment of HUMINT sourc- tion is an operational asset the strategic value of which has been es trans-border. Ironically successive governments did not reverse increasing by the day. At the national level the Multi Agency Centre this decision and so HUMINT has been moribund in India ever since (MAC) National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) and the National giving automatic advantage to our adversaries. Even the Defence Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) are efforts to synergise intelIntelligence Agency (DIA) which has a mandate to operate trans- ligence even though NCTC has not earned consensus because of border human sources is denied permission to do so and directed to genuine fears of the states that the Centre is misusing its powers. rely solely on TECHINT. Army s fledgling Technical Support Division It is an established fact that the side which has information advan(TSD) unit that has been in the news recently and reportedly was tage has more chances of coming out the winner. In military terms focused on HUMINT too has been shut down a year-and-a-half back. acquisition of intelligence or information will depend on a plethora GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 3 Cyber SeCurity threatS & oFFenSive deFenSive aCtionS cyber warfare includes a host of activities that can be summed up as hacking computer networks for espionage and sabotage. Defence from a cyber-attack today is no less important than from a hard-kill weapon. militaries across the world are exploring ways to achieve superiority in cyberspace by investing time resources and money like never before. us army E Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 75 REGIONAL BALANCE spionage is an activipreparing for silent wars are Russia air MarShal (retd) anil ChoPra ty which nations have Israel and North Korea. Iran claims to practised during war have the world s second largest cyber and peace since ancient times. It is well docu- Army. Israel faces over 1 00 000 cyber attacks a day. mented in the Indian epic Mahabharata and the One of the subjects discussed between the US President Barack Art of War an ancient Chinese military treatise Obama and the Chinese President Xi Jinping during the latter s visit written by famous Chinese General and strategist Sun Tzu in 500 to the United States in June 2013 was cyber security. China s cyber BC which is still relevant. During the last century espionage has targets against the United States included aerospace programmes become more glamorous with agents like Mata Hari and 007 space shuttle design command control communications comJames Bond hitting the celluloid. Unlike manuscripts of the past puters intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) data all information nowadays resides on computers and Internet has nuclear weapon and cruise missile designs. Americans finally effectively connected them all. Stealing important information coined a new cyber threat related term advanced persistent threat from computers has become a full-time espionage activity. Also (APT). The word advanced means top of the line capability peryou could deny the information to your enemy by destroying or cor- sistent means it is not a one-time activity and threat means they rupting the information on enemy s computer a term now called have a clear purpose to steal or destroy. A report released by a US hacking The United States has been snooping on the whole world cyber security company Mandiant in mid-February 2013 focused . including their best friends in Europe. The Edward Joseph Snowden on the activities of the People s Liberation Army (PLA) Unit 61398 affair and WikiLeaks have embarrassed many countries. After the which has been very active in cyber espionage and cyber attacks. Chinese cyber attack on Google s computer systems in December The unit is located in Pudong area of Shanghai. Pudong also hap2009 China has been classified as a major cyber threat which is also pens to be the location of the main undersea cable between China of concern to India. and the United States. From the level of threat this Chinese unit has been designated as APT1. APT1 has reportedly stolen hunWorld under Cyber attack dreds of terabytes of data from at least 141 organisations though an Cyber warfare includes a host of activities that can be summed extensive network of computers spread across the world. China of up as hacking computer networks for espionage and sabotage. course most vehemently rejects the report. When they went public Defence from a cyber attack today is no less important than from Mandiant felt there was more to gain by exposing APT1 than by a hard-kill weapon. The European Union has set up European keeping it in wraps. Network and Information Security Agency the UK has a cyber the Cyber threat security operations centre and China has a 50 000 special force engaged in cyber warfare operating from a Shanghai facility and has Cyber warfare is the biggest threat to national security which will clear mandate to win future cyber wars. All are specially trained and render even the intercontinental ballistic missiles insignificant most are proficient in English language. Other countries actively as a security threat said former Indian President and eminent GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 4 deFenCe aGainSt Stealth teChnoloGy CuttinG-edGe teChnoloGieS & ideaS to deteCt loW-obServableS Governments around the world are pouring investment into stealth aircraft but it remains to be seen if these costly paragons of modern military hardware will end up undone by the evolution of comparatively modest radar systems defense.gov www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 79 REGIONAL BALANCE A story of continuous growth German Horton HO 229 marked the arrival of the first attempt at designing a stealth aircraft in the closing years of World War II. Since then stealth technology has become an integral aspect of development of all weapon platforms. Lockheed Martin s F-22 Raptor and F-35 Lightening II of the US Chengdu J-20 Mighty Dragon and Shenyang J-31 Falcon Eagle of China and Sukhoi T-50 of Russia currently hold the front end of the manned stealth threat. Besides this it is interesting to see the vast proliferation of stealth technologies in the fast evolving world of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their combatised version the unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs). Boeing with its X-45 Bird of Prey demonstrator Sharp Sword and Wind Blade from Shenyang Aircraft Corporation China Dassault s nEUROn and EADS Barracuda technology demonstrator Lockheed Martin s RQ-3 Dark Star and RQ 171 Sentinel and Mikoyan s MiG Skat are very visible names in the evolving world of stealthy UAVs and UCAVs. Impressive march of stealth technologies over time There were days in the 1940s when stealth made its humble beginning by covering all wooden structures of the aircraft with Cellon material Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE the Challenge -- a brief Profile BUSINESS W hile the leading lt General nations of the world are pouring in millions of dollars to do better in achieving that perfect invisible platform the humble air defence warrior is dabbling with enabling radar technologies (some recalled from yesteryears) to find the proverbial needle in the opaque haystack Experts opine that . at the moment both ends burn strongly i.e. the surge to harness cutting-edge technologies in stealth among leading nations is as strong and active as the drive to try innovative ideas to detect low-observables. v.k. Saxena to reduce reflectivity. Since Cellon degraded rapidly in direct sunlight the next experimentation was to bond the wooden skin of the aircraft with carbon impregnated plywood resins with an aim to absorb radar waves. Thereafter came the era of coating aircraft skins with a vast variety of radar absorbing materials (RAM). The initial ones were so heavy due to iron content that they made the aircraft unwieldy or even too heavy to fly. The march of technology over time provided di-electric composites and metal fibre containing ferrite isotopes for RAM. Other innovative paints consisted of depositing pyramid like colonies which do not absorb but deflect the radar energy in the maze of RAM reducing the resultant radar cross section (RCS) manifold. As time passed ablative paints appeared on aircraft surfaces with an ability to conduct incident radiations over aircraft skins thus cooling down any electro-magnetic hot spots. This was followed up by Chameleon or smart-skin technologies enabling an aircraft to change its appearance to mimic its background. Close to recent times the plasma driven stealth solutions have appeared wherein incident radar signatures are received and absorbed scattered by plasma capable of absorbing scattering a wide range of radar frequencies angles polarisations and power densities. Other areas of innovative stealthy solutions being researched for the sixth-generation aircraft is propulsion subsystem shaping wherein fluidic nozzles for thrust vectoring in aircraft engines produce much lower RCS due to de-cluttered designs with minimal moving parts. Another contemporary stealthy solution (on board F-22) is planform alignment It uses small number . of surface orientation in the shape of aircraft structures in order to achieve same angle alignment all along the outer surface of aircraft. This allows the aircraft to return radar signatures in a very specific direction away from the radar emitter rather than returning a diffused signal which can be detected by anti-stealth multi-static type of radars. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 5 air deFenCe Gun aMMunition Future trendS and uPGradationS the air defence guns are here to stay as the last line of terminal deterrence to an attacker that manages to penetrate through all the rings of air defence deployed around a vulnerable point or area thales Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book air defence Guns The result of a quick survey of air defence weapon systems held by other countries around the world whether they are towed or selfpropelled brings out the following No country has ever discarded its air defence guns The towed and self-propelled guns of the 1950s and 1960s are still around albeit with many a qualitative upgradations and product improvements. Gun upgrades The upgrades over a period of time have traditionally included the replacement of legacy sights with electro-optical fire control system (EOFCS) complete with its gyro-stabilised day camera high definition night camera (with forward looking infrared optics) eye-safe laser-range finder and a digital fire control computer almost making the gun a stand-alone firing unit. Besides this the erstwhile technical or hydro-mechanical drives have given way to fully-electrical drives with the power supply source on www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 83 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS W hat Matters The lt General clich --it s the man behind the gun which matters--could be further qualified by adding that it is the quality and lethality of the ammunition which will decide how much the man behind the gun would actually matter in firing his gun to its optimum capability. The Last Line of Defence The school of thought that the days of the air defence guns are numbered in favour of a missile-centric defence has taken a beating many times over but has survived. Wondered why Because the air defence guns are here to stay as the last line of terminal deterrence to an attacker that manages to penetrate through all the rings of air defence deployed around a vulnerable point or area. This resplendent unjammable and surefooted boom of fire in the terminal end game of do-or-die is worth its own weight in gold in unnerving the attacker and building a degree of caution on him. v.k. Saxena board for emergency lay as well as charging the DC batteries. In addition some other auto parallax control equipment and devices for auto application as well as auto-updation of rate and quantum of aim have also found their way on board air defence guns over time. In one odd design there has also been an attempt to mount a tracking radar on-board the gun mount. The other major qualitative improvement has been a gun-missile very short-range air defence systems (VSHORAD) mix on same different platforms. In this option several permutations are being tried out viz keeping the gun and missile independently operable or slave to the same cueing source i.e. radar solutions or radar cum-EO solutions etc. The buzzwords being the ease and quickness of initial lay and the accuracy of follow-on track leading to high kill effectiveness. Calibre While the calibres have gradually come down from 100mm85mm-76mm-57mm-40mm-35mm-30mm-23mm-20mm there is no standard fit. While Sweden Italy and Singapore boast of their 40mm guns Rheinmettal is up and ahead with its 35mm. While Germany Greece and Italy perfect their 30mm Russia Poland Finland and Belgium are going strong with 23mm. This in no way belittles the French the US Israel and Korea spitting fire with 20mm. The whole game of calibres is a function of rates of fire vs lethality and accuracy of firing of the round. As a bottom line all calibres are alive today that goes from 20mm to 76mm and more. Improved gun capability Riding on the wings of contemporary technology the air defence guns are aiming for higher ranges higher velocities higher rates of fire and higher accuracies. This is being achieved by going multi-barrel with gas operation and positive link systems. Smart re-engineering is providing faster ramming and ejection leading to higher rates of fire. This has been achieved through shortening of the ramming route made possible through new designs and smarter operation of moving parts. In addition hydro-pneumatic brushless motions are ensuring controlled run out and smart minimum movement of auto feed devices. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 6 ShiPbuildinG and ModulariSation buildinG CoMPlex SubSySteMS For varied MiSSionS there may be a need to look into newer design methods like systems engineering design approach designing for survivability and axiomatic design principles etc rather than adhering to the telescopic iterative methodology in use in india. the indian defence shipyards need to switch over to modular construction at all levels to ensure timely and cost-effective deliveries. pib mumbai N Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 85 REGIONAL BALANCE aval ship rear adMiral (retd) design is unique in itself because of its complexity long service life of the ships and the very few numbers that may be required. The warship is a homogeneous weapon system comprising of numerous complex subsystems integrated accurately within it and it is required to carry out various missions across the oceans of the world in a hostile environment for prolonged durations in a service life spanning decades. During its life it has to be capable of matching upgrades in technology by the adversaries as well as in the industry and have the capability to carry out essential repairs unassisted at sea. The crew has to be trained to perfection and the machines maintained to designed specifications for the ship to operate in the face of the enemy. The complete life cycle of a warship comprises of conceptual design phase followed by system design production phase tests and evaluation delivery operational life (more than 35-40 years) periodic maintenance modernisation and final decommissioning. The history of merchant and warship structural design is replete with instances of commonality and variance. In middle ages merchant ships used to carry light guns and engage in warfare whereas in the 16th century specially reinforced warships used to carry heavy guns even though both the merchant ships and warships were built in the same shipyards. Technology was largely a common factor and the shipyards had no difficulty in switching from manufacturing of one to the other. During the late 18th century warship technologies were used to construct armed merchant ships and in the early 19th century some of the innovations by the British East India Company were adapted in warship construction by the admiralty. In the late 19th century Royal Navy heralded the age of structural design using engineering fundamentals and calcula- dr S. kulShreStha imperative design Features required for a Warship The most important design feature that distinguishes a man of war from a merchant man is its ability to withstand weapon attacks and remain effective. Special design features depending upon the role of the warship achieve reduction of vulnerability and enhance its survivability. This is achieved by introduction of protective hard- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO tions. This led to many countries encouraging naval architecture studies for naval designers while the merchant marine lacked the same initiative. The naval design bureaus had capacities to carry out complex and voluminous calculations. During the following decades this knowledge was efficiently applied to construction of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers ultra-large container ships and other specialised ships. Further developments in computer-aided design (CAD) tools structural analyses methods and probabilistic analysis have ensured a large degree of commonality in designs of naval and merchant ships. Despite the convergence in structural designs navies continued to refine the design of warships based on specific role and the experience gained during wars and extended operations in the cold war post-cold war era. However scale modelling trials using many of the commercial software techniques replaced the full-scale sea trials this led to development of special steels and specifications for reduction in battle damage of warships. Difference in operations and maintenance of merchant and naval ships also led to differences in constructional design specifications. In many countries today the navies provide the performance criteria and the design and construction is carried out by commercial shipyards. The adaptation of commercial design and construction standards to incorporate traditional naval specifications is resulting in mutually beneficial and acceptable regimes. INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 7 diSruPtive Military teChnoloGieS eMerGinG & Future MaChinery Disruptive technology is an innovative idea which can modernise or degrade current security related systems structures processes and personnel. it is not necessary that in all cases disruptive technology replaces the current technology immediately but classically enters the field in a very small way then overtakes the current technology and may finally replace it like valves in electronics have been replaced by solid state devices. defense.gov T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 89 REGIONAL BALANCE he term disruptive warfighter. Asymmetrical advantage lt General (retd) nareSh Chand technology (DT) was is especially effective when opposing coined around 1995 forces are of unequal power like the by Clayton M. Christensen who was a Professor US-Vietnam or Russia-Afghanistan conflict. The use of improvised in Harvard Business School. Disruptive technol- explosive devices is one such example which gives an asymmetrical ogy is synonymous with disruptive innovation advantage to its user makes the opponent go on the defensive and . Innovation can be of various types like sustaining evolutionary make it deploy huge resources to counter them. There is also great disruptive and so on. Disruptive innovation is out of the box think- potential in disruptive technologies to be applied in transforming ing which may overtake an existing market. The typewriter being tactics innovatively to take the teeth out from opponent who has replaced by a personal computer a landline being replaced by a a modern military machine. Thus to remain ahead of the changmobile phone or a video cassette recorder (VCR) by a digital versa- ing technology scenario defence forces must constantly develop tile video disc (DVD) player are some of the common examples of disruptive technology to their advantage and to the opponents disruptive technology. The concept of disruptive technology has a disadvantage. history of identifying radical changes in the study of innovation by Evolution of warfare through the ages has been based on evoeconomists to develop new methods of management of policies in lution of new weapons sensors and delivery systems which have an organisation. deeply affected tactics. Replacement of horses by tanks and use of air power are two prominent examples of the recent military histoeffect on Military of disruptive technologies ry. Night vision systems have radically changed the concept of warDisruptive technology could be defined as an innovative idea which fare by removing the tactical advantage of darkness. Information can modernise or degrade current security related systems struc- technology data processing when coupled with communications tures processes and personnel. It is not necessary that in all cases has evolved into command control communications computers disruptive technology replaces the current technology immediately intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. but classically enters the field in a very small way then overtakes C4ISR has literally revolutionised the dissemination of information the current technology and may finally replace it like valves in and decision-making process of commanders in the battlefield. electronics have been replaced by solid state devices. Satellites and emerging and Future Military disruptive technologies unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have almost replaced manned aerial reconnaissance and UAVs may replace fighter aircraft in the The Weapon System Technology Information Analysis Center of near future. Thus it is necessary to identify what all future technolo- the US Department of Defense has been carrying out extensive gies when applied to military have the potential to be disruptive research and studies on disruptive technology which can provide and then develop them to be used to own advantage or develop the asymmetrical edge to the US military in future wars. Some of the methods to counter them when required. Applied effectively disruptive technology have already emerged and matured to a great disruptive technologies give an asymmetrical advantage to the degree of development evolution. They are as under GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 8 Military heliCoPterS For india to oPerate in CoMPlex battleField environMent the operational diversities of the indian armed forces coupled with a variety of terrain underline the need for state-of-the-art helicopters. the armed forces are looking to induct as many as 900 helicopters in the coming decade ranging from attack- armed- and high-altitude reconnaissance to medium- and heavy-lift including VVip variants. sp Guide pubns T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 93 REGIONAL BALANCE he Vietnam War also ones. However they are mostly old and lt General (retd) b.S. PaWar referred to as the helicopvintage and few in numbers far from the ters war formed the test quantity required. The light observation bed for validating the concepts of air mobility and helicopters (Chetak and Cheetah) held with the Army Navy and Air assault. The helicopter was universally employed for Force have outlived their utility and need immediate replacement. various missions including attack air assault aerial Though joint trials for their replacement (Army and Air Force) were resupply reconnaissance and command and control the most completed more than a year back the Ministry of Defence (MoD) common being transportation of troops stores as utility or cargo is dithering on the final decision due to the ongoing investigahelicopters. Actual integration of assault and armed helicopters tion into the alleged kickbacks bribes related to the acquisition of evolved during the Vietnam War leading to the concept of organic AgustaWestland VVIP helicopters though one fails to see the contactical mobility. nection. In the light utility category the Hindustan Aeronautics Today s military helicopters play an integral part in the land sea Limited (HAL) manufactured advanced light helicopter (ALH) is and air operations of modern armies and have the potential to pro- already in service with the Army Air Force and Coast Guard. The vide the field force commander tremendous flexibility throughout the Navy has not found those suitable for ship-borne operations. The spectrum of conflict. The ever increasing demand for use of military ALH is an all-weather night capable twin-engine machine with helicopters in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorist operations state-of-the-art avionics and glass cockpit. It has recently been also makes a case for their requirement with the security forces. Hence test evaluated for high-altitude performance with the fitment of a there is a requirement of holding different class of helicopters ranging more powerful engine Shakti (being produced jointly by HAL with from surveillance and observation to heavy-lift and specialised roles as the French Turbomeca) which will facilitate its operations in high per the operational requirement of a country s armed forces. altitudes and especially on the Siachen Glacier. In the mediumThe operational diversities of the Indian armed forces coupled lift category the Air Force holds the MI-8 and the MI-17 Russian with a variety of terrain (from sea level to Siachen Glacier) under- helicopters. While the MI-8 is obsolete and requires immediate line the need for state-of-the-art helicopters capable of operating replacement the MI-17 fleet needs some refurbishing upgradation both by day and night in a complex battlefield environment of as well as additional inductions for which the process is already the future. As per reports the armed forces are looking to induct under way. The Navy s situation in this segment is no better with the as many as 900 helicopters in the coming decade ranging from Russian Kamov-28 becoming obsolete. In the heavy-lift category attack- armed- and high-altitude reconnaissance to medium- and there is nothing worthwhile in the inventory barring a few Russian heavy-lift including VVIP variants. Mi-26 helicopters whose high-altitude capability is poor--trials for induction of this class of helicopters have been held. The weakest Present Status link is in the holding of specialised helicopters especially the attack At present the Indian military holds in its inventory approximately helicopters. The Mi-25 Mi-35 held is vintage and require replace600 helicopters of all types and class including some specialised ment on priority. Even the Sea King anti-submarine warfare heli- GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Indian Army Modernisation Indian Navy Modernisation Indian Air Force Modernisation India s Defence Budgets 2013-14 and 2014-15 Strategic and Business Environment Dark Side of Offsets Defence Procurement Procedure of 2013 Facilitation of Defence Offsets Rapid Procurement and Indigenisation Global Contracts 97 103 107 111 117 119 123 127 131 135 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE Contents BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Business CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section three 3 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 1 inDian arMy MoDerniSation arMy MoDerniSation PlanS MuSt aDDreSS CritiCal oPerational HollowneSS Genuine deterrence comes only from the capability to launch and sustain major offensive operations into the adversary s territory. Hence government approval for the raising of a mountain strike corps to carry the next war into tibet is a step in the right direction. D Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 97 REGIONAL BALANCE efence planning brigaDier (retD) in India has been marked by kneejerk reactions to emerging situations and haphazard single service growth. The absence of a clearly enunciated national security strategy poor civilmilitary relations the failure to commit funds for modernisation on a long-term basis and suboptimal inter-service prioritisation have handicapped defence planning. With projected expenditure of 100 billion on military modernisation over the next 10 years it is now being realised that force structures must be configured on a tri-service long-term basis to meet future threats and challenges. In early 2012 the 15-year long-term integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) 2012-27 and the five-year Defence Plan 2012-17 were accorded in-principle approval by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) chaired by the Defence Minister. Consequent to this clearance which covers the 12th 13th and 14th Defence Plans an unclassified version of the LTIPP will be made public by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in the form of Technology Perspective Capability Road Map (TPCRM) to enable the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs) and the Indian defence industry to plan their long-term research and development. It has clearly emerged that in the long-term as long as the territorial dispute remains unresolved China poses the most potent military threat to India. Given the nuclear missile and military hardware nexus between China and Pakistan future conventional conflict in South Asia will be a two-front war. Therefore India s military strategy of dissuasion against China must be gradually upgraded to deterrence. Genuine deterrence comes only from the capability to launch and sustain major offensive operations into the adversary s territory. Hence gurMeet kanwal government approval for the raising of a Mountain Strike Corps to carry the next war into Tibet is a step in the right direction. This corps will comprise two infantry divisions three independent armoured brigades three independent artillery brigades an air defence brigade an engineer brigade and ancillary support units. Since manoeuvre is not possible due to the restrictions imposed by the difficult mountainous terrain firepower capabilities need to be enhanced by an order of magnitude especially in terms of precisionguided munitions (PGMs). This will involve substantial upgradation of ground-based (artillery guns rockets and missiles) and aerially-delivered (fighter-bomber aircraft and attack helicopter) firepower. PGMs are also required in much larger numbers than are held at present and unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) need to be added to the army s arsenal. Only then will it be possible to achieve future military objectives including the destruction of the adversary s war machinery. During the year 2013 both China and Pakistan have been relatively more assertive on the line of actual control (LAC) and the line of control (LoC) respectively. This is borne out by the DBO incident in April-May 2013 in Ladakh and several large-scale infiltration attempts by the Pakistan Army and ISI-sponsored terrorists on the LoC including a brazen attack on an army garrison at Samba near Jammu. Clearly there is likely to be more trouble in the years ahead. Unfortunately not only are there many shortcomings in defence preparedness as revealed in former Chief of the Army Staff General V.K. Singh s letter to the Prime Minister the army s modernisation drive is virtually at a standstill. GET YOUR COPY TO READ army s Modernisation Dilemma With personnel strength of approximately 1.1 million soldiers IN COMPLETE the Indian Army has made a huge contribution towards keeping ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES pib WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 2 inDian naVy MoDerniSation integrating PlatForMS anD SySteMS to Make tHe inDian naVy network-CentriC in all DiMenSionS the process of modernisation of the navy does not end with mere acquisition of the hardware. all major acquisitions need to be supplemented by a critical look at all aspects of naval management structures and processes. the obvious one is the build-up of associated infrastructure operational maintenance and logistic. indian navy I Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 103 REGIONAL BALANCE t was over a year ago similar climes the efforts that were ViCe aDMiral (retD) DiliP DeSHPanDe that with considerable required to be put in can be very encouragement and well understood and appreciated. some gentle prodding from an erstwhile colleague I venAs far as the carrier is concerned I know for sure that we have a tured to put some of my thoughts on the subject on paper. vessel with a hull that is practically new and should last for a long What went into the piece was less of any creative thought time. The outfitting during refit also has been done with mostly new or writing and more of an outpouring of wishes accumulated over materials and equipment a lot of care and under the watchful eyes 39 years of service in the Indian Navy. Honest self-appraisal of the of our critical overseeing team. paper did not produce any confidence about its acceptance for One does wonder however about the time taken to resolve the publication. So it was not a small surprise that it actually got pub- issue of the furnace lining of the onboard boilers. It delayed delivlished. However much greater was the surprise at being asked to ery by a year. Hopefully she will not require a similar renewal for a write on the theme again for the next issue long time to come. Also and here one can say with a fair degree of The first thought was to simply review the old paper and see certainty our dockyards will not take as long. what needed updating. However that thought had to be banished The complement of fighter aircraft has already been received as one has not been in the active circuit and further away one is and the squadron has been commissioned in Goa. A shore-based beyond the retirement date further away one is from reality. Also facility consisting of ski jump and arrestor system come up in Goa nothing could have happened in just one year to merit a review of would help the pilots practise operations ashore on lines similar to one s thoughts and ideas...or could it have the Mirror Airfield Dummy Deck Landing System (MADDLS) of the Plenty seems to have happened in the year that has gone by Sea Hawk Vikrant days. It is presumed that the rest of the aviation some of which one has become aware through the ubiquitous complement would also be available. The role that the AEW and media and the rest from repetitive e-mails forwarded by well mean- ASW helicopters perform is too well understood to need elaboraing erstwhile colleagues. tion. Now starts the period of training and work up in earnest of One can consider the one major acquisition and the other one this acquisition. Presumably at an appropriate stage the LCA (Navy) major loss suffered by the service for some pointers. That is because integration with INS Vikramaditya would also be undertaken. This both have a bearing on modernisation. will make them available for INS Vikramaditya and also for INS Getting INS Vikramaditya out of the literally and figuratively Vikrant when she gets ready for commissioning. frozen Sevmash Shipyard was a major achievement. Having seen Considering the long life enjoyed by our aircraft carriers it both the capabilities and limitations in Severodvinsk in various would be difficult but interesting to try to imagine what aircraft aspects at different times and also having participated in the acquisi- Vikramaditya and Vikrant will operate when they are middle aged tion of the largest aircraft (TU-142) operated by the Indian Navy from or gracefully old. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 3 inDian air ForCe MoDerniSation MoDerniSation anD CaPability enHanCeMent MuSt be ViSible aCroSS tHe CaPability SPeCtruM the iaF is currently embarked on comprehensive capital-intensive modernisation drive that is focused on all-round development of capability as opposed to re-equipping the force based merely on perceived threats. us army I Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 107 REGIONAL BALANCE n the wake of a rapidly growgiven India s aspirations the need for a air MarSHal (retD) b.k. PanDey ing economy there is little strong and comprehensive aerospace doubt that India is begincapability is inescapable. ning to emerge as a regional power and hopefully with Stated in simple terms the nation s air force must possess the enlightened political leadership supported by committed capability to project power effectively in the region for which it military and bureaucratic establishments the nation will must have combat aircraft with adequate reach lethal firepower succeed in fulfilling its aspirations to emerge as a leader with cred- through modern stand-off precision-guided munitions and stealth ibility in the comity of nations and in due course attain the status characteristics. It must have strategic airlift aircraft with the capaof a superpower. bility to move and deploy large forces by air over long distances The growing status of the nation however is accompanied by tactical transport aircraft to operate over shorter distances and enhanced responsibilities. As a regional power the nation must pos- support surface forces in battle as well as a fleet of helicopters to sess the capability of decisive military intervention to safeguard her provide mobility and lethal firepower in the tactical battle area. national security interests in areas that transcend our geographical Two things follow from this one being that the nation must possess boundaries extending from the Persian Gulf to the Strait of Malacca. multi-layered air defence system to protect its offensive operations As a superpower in the future India may be called upon to meet capability and the other that development of aerospace power must with commitments in distant lands outside the region wherein the not only cater to perceived threats but more importantly must be Indian armed forces may be required to provide speedy response to capability-based to respond to a wide variety of threats existing man-made or natural calamities and provide humanitarian assis- likely to arise in the future or unforeseen. tance employ military forces to restore order or to ensure peace and transformation of the indian air Force stability or sometimes just to project national power. While economic strength is the main pillar of national power the The IAF is currently embarked on comprehensive capital-intensive military capability of a nation must be enhanced in tandem to secure modernisation drive that is focused on all-round development of its economic status and provide the environment for its further capability as opposed to re-equipping the force based merely on growth. This philosophy was echoed in October 2007 by Air Chief perceived threats. In the words of Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. Browne Marshal Fali H. Major the then Chief of the Air Staff Indian Air Force former Chief of the Air Staff the IAF is currently engaged in an (IAF) on the occasion of its platinum jubilee celebrations when he unprecedented phase of modernisation and capability enhancesaid The emerging geopolitical and security scenario requires our ment which can be witnessed across the capability spectrum. The nation to possess comprehensive military capability characterised effort by the IAF at modernisation has essentially been at transforby flexibility and speed of response mobility and transportability mation from a subcontinental tactical air force to an intercontinenof all forms of national power long reach precision targeting mini- tal strategic aerospace power to cope with the vastly enhanced roles mum collateral damage and reduced visibility. Aerospace power fits and responsibilities and to fulfil national aspirations as well as to the bill perfectly. The 21st century belongs to aerospace power and be prepared to take on the challenges of the evolving geopolitical GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 4 inDia S DeFenCe buDgetS 2013-14 anD 2014-15 buDget alloCationS MuSt Cater For MaintenanCe anD MoDerniSation requireMentS lack of military capability is also likely to weaken our national resolve to safeguard our national interests because neither politically nor diplomatically will we be able to act firmly if we are militarily weak. T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 111 REGIONAL BALANCE he Budget 2013-14 prebility is also likely to weaken our nationlt general (retD) V.k. kaPoor sented to the Parliament al resolve to safeguard our national on February 28 2013 by interests because neither politically nor the Finance Minister P. Chidambaram had increased diplomatically will we be able to act firmly if we are militarily weak. the defence budget to 2 03 672 crore (about 34 bilIt can be broadly concluded from the figures shown in the table lion) for 2013-14 marking a hike of 5.3 per cent of here that the share of the defence budget in the GDP has decreased previous year s budget estimate (BE) of 1 93 407.29 crores (about from 1.9 in 2012-13 to 1.79 in 2013-14. Moreover what is quite evi 32.23 billion) which did not even cater for the inflation. If the dent is the fact the revenue expenditure has been decreased and revised estimates are taken into account then the increase amount- this would have undoubtedly impacted upon the transportation ed to 14 per cent over the previous year s revised allocation. The (fuel) courses abroad and overall training of the three services. unspoken and hidden aspect was that the capital budget quite often It is obvious that the negligible growth of the defence budget had remained underutilised or was cut by the Finance Ministry halfway been influenced primarily because of the poor economic state of into the year. For instance in December 2012 Finance Minister the country. Chidambaram had cut the defence capital outlay by 10 000 crore Service-wise Share in the total budget of 2013-14 (abut 1.66 billion). The budget in 2013-14 was accompanied by the Finance Minister s statement promising more funds. This is the The Army with an approximate budget of 99 707.80 crore (about usual rhetoric which every finance minister makes after declaring 16.61 billion) accounted for 48.96 per cent of the latest defence the allocations for the defence budget. This budgetary allocation budget the Air Force with 57 502.90 crore (about 9.58 billion) marked a reduction in GDP ratio from 1.90 in 2012-13 to 1.79 per accounted for 28.23 per cent the Navy with 36 343.5 crore (about 6.06 billion) accounted for 17.84 per cent while the Defence cent in 2013-14. The fact that 2013-14 budget was uninspiring is obvious Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) with 10 610.20 because the defence services were and are still involved in a major crore (about 1.77 billion) accounted for 5.21 per cent and the modernisation process with several acquisitions in the pipeline Ordnance Factories with minus 508.70 crore (about 85 million) besides upgradation of infrastructure in the Northeast along the amounted to minus 0.24 per cent. It was obvious that the Air Force border with China. The modernistion of all three services is way had increased its share in the total defence allocation (from 24.9 behind schedule adversely affecting the operational capabilities of per cent to 28.2 per cent). The Navy s share had decreased the most the three services. The five per cent increase in the overall defence (by 1.4 percentage points) whereas the Army s and DRDO s shares budget apart from being meagre when seen in the light of the 20 had declined by 1.3 and 0.3 percentage points respectively. During per cent fall in the value of the rupee and lacklustre performance of 2013-14 Air Force was the only service which had seen an increase the Defence Ministry in ensuring timely procurements of requisite in both the revenue expenditure and capital expenditure. For the weapons and other systems had raised the concern of all strategic Army there was fall in the capital budget of 1 294.35 crore (about and military analysts about national security. Lack of military capa- 216 million) as compared to the BE figure of previous year. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES pib WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 5 StrategiC anD buSineSS enVironMent tHe way ForwarD iS More inVeStMent in inDia PartiCularly in tHe DeFenCe inDuStry Given the trend of polycentrism evident in global affairs with structural rather than legacy congruencies india will thus continue to play a major international and regional role in 2014 and beyond and will remain a consultative partner for the p 5 1 and other major nation states. I Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book global Confidence in india growth Story A strong underpinning of the India growth story is evident in 2013. Given international relations follow a path of a long- term appreciation of potential India remained a favourite destination for global leaders. Thus there was summit level interaction with all the P-5 nations -- the United States Russia China France and Germany. With some key states as China there were two summits during a single year one held in May during the visit of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang to New Delhi and in October with Indian Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh in Beijing. Premier Li Keqiang s first foreign visit was to India making a strong statement of importance to the southern neigbhour despite the fractious boundary issue. This spells for solidity of SinoIndian relations in the near future. Amongst other major economies summit level interaction was held with Germany amongst other European Union states Japan Indonesia and South Korea while bilateral on the side lines of major international and regional meets were held with other BRICS states Defence Cooperation It is now a well established fact that India is the most sought after defence partner in the world. Thus in 2013 Indian armed forces conducted training exercises with all the P-5 militaries including China. The Hand -in-Hand series of exercises between the Indian Army and China s People s Liberation Army was resumed after a hiatus of five years. In addition there were high level engagements with a variety of foreign partners including Japan Spain Australia Thailand Singapore and Nigeria amongst others. India Russia military techni- www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 117 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE ndia s strategic and brigaDier (retD) business environment (SBE) in 2014 portends a positive trajectory. A number of factors such as the country s confirmed status as a major player in global polity post-elections possibility of political stability strengthened economy overcoming the shadow of twin debts fiscal and current account improved procurement procedures and huge demand from the military are likely to be major drivers for growth. The path of modernisation is well set through indigenisation joint ventures public-private and indigenous-foreign partnerships in the long term. This provides ample opportunity to global defence majors for investment in the Indian defence sector. raHul bHonSle as Brazil and South Africa. Indian and Pakistan Prime Ministers met in New York on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly which led to a rapprochement of sorts on the line of control which saw a series of incidents of breach of ceasefire during the year reaching an all-time high of 200. The meeting of the Directors General of Military Operations in December indicated support to existing confidence-building neasures (CBMs) which will be hopefully carried through in the 2014 leading to greater stability in South Asia. India s commitment to Afghanistan a country that is undergoing seminal changes in the coming years with the pull out by the International Security Assistance Forces (ISAF) by end of 2014 indicates the emergence of a responsible international and regional actor. The positive role played by India in the political transition through elections in South Asia during 2013-14 Maldives Nepal and Bangladesh also indicates influence that it wields in the region. Given the trend of polycentrism evident in global affairs with structural rather than legacy congruencies India will thus continue to play a major international and regional role in 2014 and beyond and will remain a consultative partner for the P 5 1 and other major nation states. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES pib WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 6 sp Guide pubns Dark SiDe oF oFFSetS oFFSet ContraCtS MuSt be in tHe PubliC DoMain offsets can generally be termed as formal arrangements of trade with in-built contractual obligations wherein a foreign seller undertakes specified programmes with a view to compensate the buyer as regards his procurement expenditure and outflow of resources. in other words the seller undertakes measures to generate benefits for the economy of the buyer country. A Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 119 REGIONAL BALANCE lthough most fully completed and the accrual of MaJor general (retD) Mrinal SuMan economists view envisaged benefits validated. them as marketOffsets can generally be distorting and the World Trade Organisation con- termed as formal arrangements of trade with inbuilt contracsiders them to be detrimental to free trade prac- tual obligations wherein a foreign seller undertakes specified protices offsets are here to stay. In the case of defence grammes with a view to compensate the buyer as regards his procontracts offsets have become an integral part of the world trade. curement expenditure and outflow of resources. In other words the More than 130 countries are demanding offsets in one form or the seller undertakes measures to generate benefits for the economy of other giving rise to a flourishing worldwide offset industry. the buyer country. Offsets can also be called as trade arrangements Increasing popularity of offsets can be attributed to three real with reciprocity clauses to provide some sort of relief to the buyer to perceived reasons. First offsets help buyer nations to counter hos- help him pay for the purchases. The negotiated package consists of tile public opposition to weapon purchases by quoting economic the primary contract and the compensatory offset contract. benefits accruing through the mechanism of offsets. Secondly As per the London-based Transparency International defence offsets are seen as engines to economic and industrial development trade is one of the most corruption-prone sectors after the construcof the recipient nations. Finally with shrinking defence budgets of tion and the oil and gas sectors. It is of the view that access to offsets most countries defence trade has become a buyers market forcing arrangements distributed by officials can become more lucrative than sellers to outbid their competitors. Offsets are offered by desperate competitive activities creating an incentive for networks of corruption vendors to make their offers more attractive. to proliferate around them. Thus introduction of offsets has increased India introduced offsets in defence trade in 2005. The policy the risks of corrupt practices in defence business considerably. was made a part of the Defence Procurement Procedure in 2008. Whatever be the opinion of the advocates of offsets a numFor all capital procurements with indicative cost of 300 crore ber of major infirmities afflict the concept. Most defence observ(about 50 million) or more India demands offsets equivalent to 30 ers are convinced that injection of offsets in defence deals has per cent of the contract value. With a view to streamline the policy a vitiated the environment. number of revisions have since been carried out. The latest version Secrecy breeds Corruption was promulgated in August 2012. As per Report No. 17 of 2012-13 (Air Force and Navy) of the The defence offset regime the world over is characterised by secrecy Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) India had con- and a total absence of transparency. Most unwarrantedly offset cluded a total of 16 offset contracts worth 18 444.56 crore (about contracts are accorded the same security classification as the main 3.1 billion) and should have received offset inflows of 5 543.33 defence contracts. Under the garb of security concerns all offsetcrore (about 923 million) at the time of compilation of the said related activities are kept away from public oversight. As is well report. As the Ministry of Defence (MoD) is very wary of sharing known secrecy is the antithesis of transparency. Secrecy makes any data it is not known if any offset programme has been success- offsets an ideal breeding-ground for corruption. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 7 DeFenCe ProCureMent ProCeDure oF 2013 inDian arMeD ForCeS MuSt not be MaDe to FigHt witH outDateD weaPonary although earlier versions of Dpp also considered indigenous procurement development to be the preferred option Dpp 2013 has laid it down as a policy directive. this is by far the most significant change incorporated in Dpp 2013 and is expected to give a strong impetus to indigenisation efforts. us army T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 123 REGIONAL BALANCE he Industrial approve the latest version of the MaJor general (retD) Mrinal SuMan Policy Resolution procurement procedure i.e. DPP of 1956 had divid2013. Stressing the need for rapid ed industry into the following three categories indigenisation of defence products through the strengthening of n Schedule A Basic industries which are the the defence manufacturing base and infusion of greater efficiency preserve of the state including defence and heavy in the procurement process the Defence Minister exhorted both engineering. the public and the private sectors to play pivotal roles in this nSchedule B Industries in which private industry was allowed endeavour. He also promised to create genuine level playing field to operate. for Indian manufacturing industries vis- -vis global players. nSchedule C All other industries. All cases in which the request for proposal (RFP) is issued after After continuing with the above archaic policy for a period of June 1 2013 will be guided by DPP 2013. Procurement cases under three-and a-half decades manufacture of defence components progress in accordance with the provisions of earlier versions of assemblies and subassemblies was thrown open to the private sec- DPP will continue to be valid. DPP 2013 aims to kick-start India s tor in 1991. Subsequently in May 2001 the Government allowed quest for self-reliance in defence production. Salient aspects of the the private sector to enter the defence industry with maximum for- new procedure have been discussed in this article. eign equity component pegged at 26 per cent. Detailed guidelines Preference to the indigenous Defence industry for the issuance of licence for the production of arms and ammuniAlthough earlier versions of DPP also considered indigenous protion were issued in January 2002. Promulgation of Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) of curement development to be the preferred option DPP 2013 has June 2002 was the first major step towards streamlining the laid it down as a policy directive. This is by far the most significant defence acquisition regime. It flowed from the recommendations change incorporated in DPP 2013 and is expected to give a strong of the Group of Ministers constituted in the wake of the Kargil con- impetus to indigenisation efforts. Every proposal for acquisition flict to review the national security system. The stated objective of has to be examined for categorisation as per the following order DPP is to ensure expeditious procurement of the approved defence of preference requirements through free competition in a transparent manner nPriority 1 Buy (Indian) procurement of complete requirement from indigenous sources. It has now been specified that in by optimally utilising the allocated budgetary resources. DPP has addition to the equipment even the product offered at the trial been undergoing periodic reviews. Although the basic contours stage must also have minimum 30 per cent indigenous content. continue to remain the same inclusion of minutiae has enlarged nPriority 2 Buy & Make (Indian) purchase of limited quanits scope considerably. tity from an Indian vendor followed by licensed production In April 2013 the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) met indigenous manufacture in the country with minimum 50 under the chairmanship of the Defence Minister A.K. Antony to GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 8 FaCilitation oF DeFenCe oFFSetS oPerationaliSation oF tHe DeFenCe oFFSetS ManageMent wing perhaps there is need to provide higher multiplier values to extremely critical technologies required by DrDo in order to attract foreign vendors. it may be helpful if moD assigns multiplier values on a case to case basis based on criticality importance requirement and urgency. indian navy Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 127 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS T he Defence Offsets cent of the total value of the supplies lt general (retD) P.C. katoCH Management Wing locally. However no offset policy is in (DOMW) of the place for other sectors. Department of Defence Production (DoDP) the The objective in the new offset policy is to introduce crossMinistry of Defence (MoD) has issued an office sector offsetting to streamline the process and also ensure that memorandum on February 14 2014 notifying oper- the sectors that have not been benefiting from offset start doing ationalising of a Facilitation Cell located at the Central Marketing so implying that if a particular ministry or agency for instance the Scope Complex Lodhi Road New Delhi. The objective is to Commerce Ministry does not have anything to sell to offset a part enhance transparency and facilitate free and easy access to indus- of what it is purchasing it could ask the foreign seller to buy sometry participants to approach the DOMW for discussion on any thing from another sector of equal value. matter pertaining to the offset policy and speedy redressal of grievDefence offset Policy ances. The Facilitation Cell shall be operational on all working days of the week and one official or a representative from the DoDP shall For any country to be strong a vital element is a sound defencebe present at the Facilitation Cell. In addition designated OSDs industrial base. The Defence Research and Development (officers on special duty) from DOMW having high level expertise Organisation (DRDO) Ordnance Factory Boards (OFBs) and the shall be visiting the Facilitation Cell on rotation basis on Tuesdays defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs) have been trying to fulfill their mandate to master the science of designing developand Thursdays. ing and manufacturing cutting-edge military technologies ever indian offset Policy since. However what has been achieved is pockets of excellence The media had reported in November 2013 that India was consider- as acknowledged by high placed DRDO officials themselves. India ing a national offset policy that would make it compulsory for for- has adopted numerous methodologies like licensed production eign companies selling goods to the Government for sourcing part transfer of technology (ToT) joint ventures (JVs) and indigenous of their supplies from domestic producers. The Commerce Ministry research and development (R&D) to acquire and absorb critical had reportedly circulated discussion papers inviting comments. defence technologies. The proposed move is expected to boost domestic manufacturHowever 67 years after independence India continues to import ing and also lead to technology transfer. The offset policy being over 77 per cent of its defence needs which is a shame. To say that framed by the Commerce Ministry will be applicable only in case we are lagging behind the envisaged goals of realising a sustainable of government procurement for non-commercial purposes esti- indigenous defence manufacturing industry would be a gross undermated at over 100 billion annually. This restriction is apparently statement. Offset practices in the global defence industry have been in accordance with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade instrumental in influencing the defence-related decision-making (now WTO) that does not allow such conditions to be imposed for of several countries with varying results and degrees of success. commercial procurement. India already has an offset policy for the Defence offsets encompass a variety of compensation arrangements defence sector where foreign suppliers have to buy at least 30 per mandated by foreign governments as a condition on the purchase TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 9 raPiD ProCureMent anD inDigeniSation eMPHaSiS on ProCeDural reFineMentS through the issuance of Dpp 2013 the government has taken a sure step to signal that it is serious about turning around the pathetic state of india s defence acquisitions and also setting up of a defence industrial base through greater participation by the private enterprises bae systems Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 131 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS M ilitary preparedness Pacific region increasingly entering the general (retD) n.C. ViJ of any nation can be waters of the Indian Ocean under the pretext accessed through of anti-piracy operations has only further appreciation of three related factors. These added to the gravity of the situation. The threat becomes more proare security environment of that country nounced as the Chinese are modernising rapidly and their defence involving both external and internal dimen- budget is estimated to be between 160 billion and 210 billion sions budgetary allocations matching its specific needs and finally which is four times the Indian defence budget. its defence industrial base and procurement procedures. equipping our Defence Forces Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 2013 covers only one but a crucial part of this spectrum in which we have constantly Under the given backdrop of a security threat over two fronts struggled with dismal results. In this paper an attempt has been equipping of our defence forces with the latest technology weapmade to analyse DPP 2013 and examine as to whether and how the ons becomes a security imperative which has got to be ensured under all circumstances and with no scope whatsoever of any revised DPP can help expedite procurement and indigenisation. compromises. Thinking and planning ahead with expediency have indian Security environment got to be the guiding principles. It is also necessary that the raising The Indian armed forces face unique security challenges which of the recently approved Mountain Strike Corps is completed in a warrant high level of operational preparedness at all times be it in maximum of two-three years rather than the planned seven years peace or war. India s regional environment is fraught with instabil- a time period which may become strategically unacceptable. All in ity. There are a number of conflicts raging on our periphery. The all we must have net-enabled armed forces with high degree of protracted militancy in Afghanistan from where the International surveillance and rapid deployment capabilities sustained mobility Security Assistance Force (ISAF) is pulling out in 2014 without and lethal firepower capable of operating seamlessly on land sea being able to restore stability is a great concern. The Afghanistan- and aerospace domains in an operational environment of informaPakistan border region with a strongly entrenched Taliban which tisation over the next two-three years. has a footprint on both sides of the Durand Line may well implode Defence budget with a return of the Al-Qaeda and their supporters. While the situation along our Western Borders can never be taken as settled irre- Equipping the armed forces is not just about the defence procurespective of which government is in power in Pakistan the proxy war ment procedures. There are critical issues that are outside the in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) is certainly likely to get a further fillip domain of defence procurement. The first and foremost is the defence budget. The current allotment is below two per cent of the as a result of the disturbed situation in Afghanistan. The recent Chinese intrusion in April 2013 in Depsang Valley GDP and is just not good enough to equip the armed forces anyand subsequently in Chumar in Ladakh has once again reminded where close to the desired standards leave aside building requisite us that we can take the menace along our Northern borders lightly defence capabilities as well as setting up sound research and develonly at our own peril. Besides this an assertive China in the Indo- opment facilities and a defence industrial base. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Global ContraCtS (From January 2013-March 2014) Contract Value Remarks Hardware and services associated with the combat-proven Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) Missile Segment Program. Elbit will deliver avionics systems comprising battle management systems (BMS) and avionics for helicopters and virtual training for the Israeli Air Force (IAF). Components repairs maintenance and services in support of the Doppler GPS Navigation Sets. Manufacture and supply 310 night vision goggles of type Lucie II D and 16 IR modules for 30 combat systems of the Infantry Soldier of the Future. Modification of existing contract to procure Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System unitary rockets. 755 million Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile Avionics systems and other services January 2013 January 2013 July 2015 Recipient Supplier Product Project Quantity Date of Contract Date of Delivery US Army Lockheed Martin Grand Prairie Texas USA 75 million www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com 226 million Components repairs maintenance and services 310 night vision goggles of type Lucie II D and 16 IR modules for 30 combat systems Modification of Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System unitary rockets Light armoured vehicle-III (LAV-III) Modification of Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles M1A2S Abrams Tank production 24 January 2013 January 2013 May 2015 310 16 January 2013 January 2013 December 2017 7.5 million 197 million 65.3 million May 2014 Delivery of light armoured vehicle-III (LAVIII) to Colombia s Army. January 2013 September 2014 69 January 2013 July 2014 Modification of an existing contract to procure Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles. Procurement and production of 69 Saudi M1A2 (M1A2S) Abrams tanks for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. February 2013 July 2016 Construction of a medical facility to replace the existing William Beaumont Army Medical Center at Fort Bliss in El Paso Texas. F-16 February 2013 Contract to provide F-16 support equipment test systems and spares to the Government of Oman. 194 million 132.7 million 648 million Construction of a medical facility 23 million Israeli Air Force Elbit Systems Israel US Army BAE Wayne New Jersey USA Rheinmetall Defence Thales Germany US Army Lockheed Martin Corp. Grand Prairie Texas USA Colombian Army General Dynamics Land Systems Canada US Army Oshkosh Corp. Oshkosh Wisconsin USA US Army General Dynamics Land Systems Sterling Heights Michigan USA US Army Clark McCarthy Healthcare Partners II Dallas Texas USA SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 135 Oman BAE Systems USA REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS www.spguidepublications.com Recipient 55 million High-performance electro-optical (EO) sensors gun mountadaptable aiming system (LAZ) Maintenance supply and transportation services February 2013 January 2014 Modification of an existing contract to provide maintenance supply and transportation services in support of the 401st Army Field Support Brigade located in Afghanistan. QinetiQ will manage 17 key MoD sites and administer test and evaluation nontasking services training support capability maintain associated equipment land and buildings. Food services at 11 dining facilities in Fort Jackson South Carolina. 418 275 February 2013 Next four years The company will deliver 418 LAZ 200 and 275 LAZ 400L sensors for installation on around 700 remote control weapon stations (RCWS) on different vehicle types. Supplier Contract Value Remarks Product Project Quantity Date of Contract Date of Delivery business Germany Army Rheinmetall Defence Germany US Army AC First LLC Fort Worth Texas USA 356 million UK MoD QinetiQ UK 998 million Continue providing test evaluation and training support services Food services February 2013 January 2018 February 2013 March 2018 136 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 162 million 37 million Advanced version of its Fuchs Fox armoured vehicles Procurement for the Space-based Infrared Systems GEO 5-6 programme Integrated biological detection systems (IBDS) fleet Hardware and support for the Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures System Additional Gladius soldier systems February 2013 7 February 2013 November 2014 June 2016 Deliver an advanced version of its Fuchs Fox armoured vehicles to the German Army. Advanced procurement for the Space-based Infrared Systems GEO 5-6 programme. 284 million 18.5 million February 2013 Next two years Bio-consumables contract to deliver in-service support for the UK Ministry of Defence s (MoD) integrated biological detection systems (IBDS) fleet. February 2013 April 2015 Modification to procure hardware and support for the Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures System. 159 million 84 million 60 February 2013 2014 Rheinmetall will manufacture and supply around 60 systems to equip 60 infantry sections having a total of 600 soldiers. February 2013 2014-17 Contracts cover an upgrade of existing units and supply of new systems with groundbased air defence command control and communication (C3) functions based on its Giraffe agile multi-beam (AMB) multifunctional radar system. Global ContraCtS 94.7 million National army s ground-based air defence systems US Army South Carolina Commission for the Blind Columbia South Carolina USA German Army Rheinmetall Defence Germany US Air Force Lockheed Martin Space Systems Co. Sunnyvale California USA UK MoD Smiths Detection UK US Air Force Northrop Grumman Systems Corp. Rolling Meadows Illinois USA German Army Rheinmetall Defence Germany www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com Swedish Defence Materiel Administration Saab Sweden Recipient 77.2 million Cheetal helicopters 20 February 2013 Four years Contract covers production and supply of 20 helicopters as well as associated equipment to the army. Supplier Contract Value Remarks Product Project Quantity Date of Contract Date of Delivery Global ContraCtS Indian Army US Army Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) India Harris Rochester New York USA 500 million March 2013 December 2015 113 million Procurement of radios support equipment data and services Additional Mobile Strike Force vehicles 135 March 2013 February 2014 Modification of an existing contract to raise the price ceiling in support of the procurement of radios support equipment data and services. Procurement of Mobile Strike Force vehicles to support the Afghanistan National Security Forces. www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com 173 million March 2013 December 2017 September 2016 Sustainment of the Litening Targeting Pod System. Contractor logistics support legacy sustainment and combined task force support for the Space Based Infrared Systems. 105 million Sustainment of the Litening Targeting Pod System Contractor logistics support legacy sustainment and combined task force March 2013 780 million Manufacture and supply of Insensitive Munitions Explosives Su-30MKM 18 March 2013 March 2013 September 2017 Manufacture and supply of Insensitive Munitions Explosives. 100 million 433 million RQ-4 Global Hawk fielded weapon system March 2013 September 2014 Sukhoi will provide technical maintenance as well as spare parts for a total of 18 Su-30MKM fighter aircraft for the RMAF. Contractor logistics support for the RQ-4 Global Hawk fielded weapon system. 146 million Joint Land Component Constructive Training Capability M107 projectile metal parts March 2013 March 2018 Services in support of the Joint Land Component Constructive Training Capability. 100 million March 2013 March 2018 Procurement of M107 projectile metal parts. US Army US Air Force US Air Force US Army Malaysian Ministry of Defence US Air Force Textron Marine & Land Systems New Orleans Louisiana USA Northrop Grumman Systems Corp. USA Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company Sunnyvale California USA BAE Systems Ordnance Systems Inc. Kingsport Tennessee USA Sukhoi Russia business US Army Northrop Grumman Corp. Aerospace Systems San Diego California USA Lockheed Martin Corp. Orlando Florida USA GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 137 US Army General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems Inc. Scranton Pennsylvania and IMT Defense Corp. Westerville Ohio USA REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Contents One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Integrated Defence Staff The Indian Army The Indian Navy The Indian Air Force Indian Coast Guard Who s Who in Indian Defence Indian Defence Industry Defence Research & Development 145 153 179 209 237 247 267 291 INDIAN DEFENCE REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO Homeland Security One Two Three Four India s Homeland Security India s Internal Security Environment India s Coastal Security The Maoist Menace in India 299 311 325 329 BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Indian Defence CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section four 4 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 1 inteGrateD Defence Staff WorkinG toWarDS inteGration anD JointneSS the Defence planning staff (Dps) was the forerunner to the integrated Defence staff (iDs) or what is called in some countries as Joint staff. the iDs came into being in october 2001 with the merging of the military wing of the cabinet secretariat with the Dps. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 145 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS S Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and the trengthening our milibriGaDier (retD) VinoD ananD setting up of Headquarters Integrated tary capabilities and Defence Staff (HQ IDS). internal security efforts are intricately linked with our broader political and economic objectives. If India has to survive as a modkey GoM recommendations ern and progressive nation that wishes to achieve its After considering the report of the task force on the management of long-cherished goal of strategic autonomy defence and security defence the GoM made the following key recommendations reforms have to be ushered in at a faster pace than hitherto before. nIntegration of the Armed Forces Headquarters with the Ministry The Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was established in 1986 of Defence (MoD). under the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) when it became nCreation of the posts of CDS and Vice Chief of Defence Staff clear that future wars would be fought jointly by the three servic(VCDS). es and that the time had come for jointmanship Working under nSetting up of IDS to support the CDS. . the COSC Chairman and headed by the Director General Defence nEstablishing a Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA). Planning Staff (DGDPS) the DPS had under it directorates cover- nOrganising an Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC). ing policy and plans international and regional security affairs nCreation of a Strategic Forces Command (SFC). weapons and equipment and financial planning. It also operated nEstablishing a Defence Procurement Board (DPB). as a think tank for the COSC. The DPS was the forerunner to the nSetting up of an Indian National Defence University (INDU). Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) or what is called in some countries nA number of other long-term recommendations on aspects as Joint Staff. concerning air space and maritime management budgetThe IDS came into being in October 2001 with the merging ary reforms including performance budgeting private sector of the military wing which was established at the time of indeparticipation in defence production improvement in service pendence and had functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat for a conditions media handling and cost-effectiveness. number of years till it came under the COSC with the DPS. After All the recommendations except the one on the appointment the Kargil War in 1999 the report of the Kargil Review Committee of the CDS were accepted by the Cabinet Committee on Security (KRC) headed by K. Subrahmanyam was examined by a Group of (CCS) on May 11 2001. The decision about appointing a CDS was Ministers (GoM). They recommended the formation of the four task kept in abeyance pending consultations with other political parties. forces to review the national security system nManagement of Defence Structure of integrated Defence Staff nInternal Security The CDS The responsibilities of the CDS who would be the permanent nBorder Management Chairman of the COSC were as follows nIntelligence Systems and Apparatus The task force on the management of defence headed by Arun nProvide single-point military advice to the Indian Government. Singh recommended among other things the appointment of a nCommand the forces of the ANC. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES pib WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 2 tHe inDian arMy inDian arMy HaS to conStantly PrePare itSelf for tHeSe MUlti-faceteD DiVerSe cHallenGeS the indian army is the largest standing volunteer army in the world. its apolitical stance is at variance with armies of most of its neighbours in the subcontinent that has witnessed these armies often imposing their will on their people by eliminating legitimate democratic dispensations. spsc I Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 153 REGIONAL BALANCE ndia s land mass covers an area of 3.3 million square kilometres and is strategically located in continental Asia and in the Indian Ocean. Land borders extending more than 15 500 kilometres and a coastline totalling over 7 500 kilometres make India a continental or maritime neighbour of 11 countries of Asia. India s maritime boundaries overlook three major shipping lanes. It is a home to over a billion people with varying ethnic linguistic religious and cultural background. The topography of India is diverse ranging from the snow-clad Himalayas with peaks over 28 000 feet in the north to deserts and vast fertile plains in the west high ranges and dense tropical forests in the east and maritime borders in the Bay of Bengal Arabian Sea and the India Ocean. To the South there are ranges close to the sea inland plateaus interspersed with river valleys coastal plains and far-flung island territories such as the Lakshadweep to the West and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the East. India is not only centrally located in South Asia but also abuts West Asia and South East Asia. India s location at the base of continental Asia and at the top of Indian Ocean provides it vantage point with respect to both Central Asia and the Indian Ocean region. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands located 1 300 km away from the nearest point on our East Coast assume strategic predominance with respect to the entrance to the Strait of Malacca through which more than 60 000 shipping vessels transit every year. In the Arabian Sea the Lakshadweep and Minicoy islands situated on the sea lines of communication running eastwards from the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea are 450 km away from the nearest point on the West Coast. The island territories along with a long coastline extend India s territorial waters to more than 1 60 000 square kilometres and the exclusive economic zone to the regional Security environment A secure stable peaceful and prosperous neighbourhood is central to India s economic prosperity and security. India continues to pursue active and collaborative engagements with her neighbours with a view to promoting mutual understanding and regional peace and stability. India has maintained that a strong and prosperous Pakistan is in the best interest of India and has supported dialogue and engagement with Pakistan. However security concerns vis- -vis Pakistan remain a cause of concern due to the continuing activities of terrorist organisations functioning on its territory and territories under its control. The existence of terrorist camps across the India-Pak border and the line of control (LoC) and recurrent infiltrations across the LoC continue to demonstrate Pakistan s attitude and approach to terrorist organisations even though such organisations pose a danger to Pakistan s own social and political fabric. The ambush of Indian troops by a Pakistan Border Action team which crossed the LoC at the Mendhar Sector in January 2013 and the heinous killing of two Indian soldiers during this attack in contravention of all norms of international conduct have been taken up strongly with the Pakistan Government. This was followed by an ambush and killing of five Indian soldiers on the LoC in August 2013 followed by the attack in Samba area by three fidayeen which killed four policemen and later four army soldiers including a Lt Colonel second in command of 16 Cavalry on September 26 2013. While the Samba attack was being executed in Jammu region an infiltration in the Keran Sector in the Kashmir Valley by 30 to 40 terrorists was being attempted simultaneously. This commenced on October 24 2013 and the battle raged for about 11 days in which the army claimed GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS more than two million square kilometres. India is thus a maritime as well as a continental entity. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS tHe bUDGetary allocation to tHe arMy in tHe recent yearS HaS been fairly conSiStent General bikram Singh took over as the chief of the army staff (coas) on may 31 2012. in an exclusive interview with SP s Military Yearbook the coas guaranteed that with high levels of motivation and morale the indian army is fully prepared to take on the present and future challenges with lan and professionalism. www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 169 REGIONAL BALANCE SP s Military Yearbook (SP s) You have now been the Chief of the Army Staff for more than a year. Which are the areas within the Army or in your relationship with the Ministry of Defence (MoD) where you have been able to positively influence matters and set into motion some long-term corrective measures reforms Chief of the Army Staff (COAS) As the Army Chief it is my bounden responsibility to chart a course that prepares the Army to meet future threats and challenges effectively and continues to live up to the faith and trust that the nation has reposed on its soldiers and commanders. To start with on taking over as the Chief of the Army Staff I had laid down certain thrust areas to realign the focus of the Indian Army. These form the foundation of a comprehensive approach to building an Army that remains a ready potent responsive and accountable instrument of national power--a vision that I have articulated time and again. To ensure the highest state of operational preparedness is my single most important area of focus. Another critical challenge remains that of force modernisation and capability build-up. It has been my endeavour to bring in greater transparency and accountability in our policies and procedures. Financial probity is integral to maintaining and preserving our core values which form the basic edifice of our strength and structure. Our soldiers remain our most precious resource. A review of the human resource policy is already under way to meet individual aspirations and organisational needs. I have maintained that as an organisation we need to cut down on activities that do not have a bearing on our operational preparedness. I am also committed to creating an environment that offers challenging opportunities to our junior leadership. There is greater synergy now both with the MoD as well as with Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book sister services and all other agencies who are the stakeholders in national security something that I have upheld as a pre-requisite to achieving our common aim and purpose. I have always maintained that our veterans veer naris (brave women) and widows who have made tremendous sacrifices are our strength and it is our duty to look after their well-being. Special cells for ex-servicemen have been set up at all headquarters. To usher all ranks into their second innings placement nodes have also been created under the Army Welfare Placement Organisation (AWPO). In addition special discharge drills are being conducted at Delhi for officers and at Regimental Centres for Junior Commissioned Officers and other ranks. My efforts thus have been towards moulding the Army into a cohesive confident and effective force and bringing about a wellness that permeates across the rank and file. Let me assure the nation that with high levels of motivation and morale the Indian Army is fully prepared to take on the present and future challenges with lan and professionalism. SP s Which are the areas where you have not been able to make any headway despite a strong desire on your part to do so and what is preventing you from doing it COAS There is no area where progress has not been made. We have made headway on all fronts albeit the pace may be slightly slow in certain cases. Long-term processes need to be imparted with impetus to achieve our vision. Capability building requires time commitment and resources. Most projects have long gestation periods and are spread over many years. The progress has to be viewed in this context. There are areas where the progress has been slower than what is expected. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES interVieW cHief of tHe arMy Staff sp Guide pubns WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS inDian Defence equipment catalogue indian army inSaS 5.56mm assault rifle Characteristics Calibre (mm) 5.56 Muzzle velocity (m s) 900 Length of rifle (mm) Without bayonet 960 With bayonet 1110 Weight of rifle Without magazine & Bayonet 4.15 Effective range (m) 400 Range for grenade (m) Multi-mode 200 M 36 150 Magazine capacity (Rounds) 20 Cyclic rate (Rounds min) 600 to 650 Trigger Pull 2.10 to 4.00 Recoil Enegry (joules) 4.43 Rifling. 6 grooves R.H 1 in 200mm. Sight Fore sight Post Type Rear sight Aperture type Type of fire Single 3 Round Burst Mbts t-90S Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Width over tracks Height over turret Roof Engine Road range Armament and Ammunition Cbt Weight Height Armament 46 500 kg 2.228 m Main 1 x 125mm SBG AA 1 x 12.7mm NSVT (300 rounds) Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2 000 rounds) 45 x APDSFS HEAT HESH (inclusive 6 ATGW) V-12 multi-fuel (V-84) 840 hp at 2 000 rpm 60 kmph (max) 550 km 280mm (max) Main gun ammunition Engine Speed Range Armour protection 3 46.5 tonne 3.37 m 2.23 m V-84MS four-stroke 12-cylinder multifuel diesel engine developing 840 hp 550 km www.spguidepublications.com Main 1 x 125mm SBG which fires an ATGM as well as conventional ammunition. Has a laser range finder and thermal imaging night sight [43 (22 - in autoloader) rounds] Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm MG (2 000 rounds) AA 1 x 12.7mm MG (300 rounds) Main gun rate of fire 8 rounds min t-72S Characteristics Crew cbt improved t-72M-1 (ajeya) Characteristics Crew 3 Cbt weight 43.5 tonne Height (turret roof ) 2 190mm Engine Up rated V46-6 engine a 12 cylinder 4 stroke V 60 turbocharged watercooled multi-fuel direct injection engine developing 1 000 hp at 2 000 rpm. Power to weight ratio 22.98 hp t Max speed (on road) 60 kmph Max speed (Cross country) 35 to 45 kmph Gradient Ability 60 Vertical obstacle 850mm Trench crossing 2.6 to 2.8 m Shallow fording 1.2 m Armament Main 1 x 125mm SBG Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm MG AD 1 x 12.7mm MG Elevation depression 16 to -6 Traverse 360 Max range 3 km Main gun rate of fire 8 rounds min Ammunition loading Auto Ammunition stowage 44 projectiles charges Note Other improvements include explosive reactive armour integrated fire detection and suppression system and GPS. t-55 (Up Gunned) Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Height 3 3 43 000 kg 2.26 m 172 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com eqUiPMent cataloGUe inDian arMy inDian Defence Weight Length Width Height Armament BMP2 3 7 BMP1 12 500 kg BMP2 14 300 kg BMP1 6.74 m BMP2 6.735 m BMP1 2.94 m BMP2 3.15 m BMP1 2.18 m BMP2 2.45 m Main gun BMP1 1 x 73mm SBG (40 rounds) BMP2 1 x 30mm Auto Cannon (500 rounds) Coaxial (Both) 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (1 000 rounds) BMP1 AT-3 BMP2 AT-5 V-16 in line water-cooled diesel rated at 300 bhp BMP1 Land 65 kmph Water 7 kmph BMP2 Land 65 kmph Water 7 kmph 550-600 km (both) 20mm Armament Main gun ammunition Engine Speed Range Armour 43 rounds x APDSFS HEAT HESH V-2-55 V-12 Diesel rated at 600 bhp 50 kmph (max) 500 km 140mm Main gun ammunition Main gun rate of fire Fire control Night vision Ballistic computer Engine Transmission Steering Suspension Fuel Track Max speed Shallow fording Vertical obstacle Trench crossing Gradient brDM-2 Characteristics Crew Weight Armament Engine Speed Range Armour artillery 4 7 000 kg 6 x AT-3 [ATGM] 1 x 14.5mm KPVT HMG (500 rounds) 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG coaxial (2 000 rounds) GAZ-41 V-8 water-cooled petrol developing 140 hp at 3 400 rpm Land 100 kmph Water 10 kmph 750 km 14mm infantry fighting Vehicles (ifVs) recce Vehs bMP-1 2 Characteristics Crew Rate of fire www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 173 REGIONAL BALANCE BMP1 3 8 155mm fH-77b How contractor bofors ab Sweden Characteristics Crew 6 Calibre 155mm GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO arjun Mk ii These tanks will have substantially upgraded capabilities of firepower mobility and protection. The development of Arjun Mark I tank with 43 improvements has commenced and limited technical trials incorporating the improvements have been carried out in Rajasthan. First batch of MBT Arjun Mark II is likely to go in for production by 2014-15 at Heavy Vehicles Factory (HVF) Avadi. 130mm M-46 Med Gun Characteristics Crew Calibre Weight (travelling position) Elevation depression Traverse Projectile weight MV Range 8 130mm 8 450 kg 45 to 2.5 50 (total) 33.4 kg 930 m sec 27 km (full charge) 19.1 km (reduced charge) 5-6 rounds min INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY arjun Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Overall length (with gun forward) Overall height (with AD gun mount) Overall width Ground pressure Armament 4 58.5 tonne 10.638 m 3.03 m 3.864 m 0.85 kg cm Main 1 x 120mm Rifled gun AA 1 x 12.7mm MG Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm MG 39 rounds (HESH FSAPDS) 6-8 rounds minute Director type & Electro-hydraulic system & gun control Thermal imaging Digital MTU 838 Ka 501 10-cylinder liquid cooled Diesel developing 1 400 hp at 2 500 rpm 4 Fwd 2 rev Torque converter Mech. Lockup clutch & hydrodynamic retarder Double radii Mechanical steering with neutral turn Hydro-gas Renk transmission DHPP (A) Diehl L - German Road 70 kmph Cross country 40 kmph 1.4 m 0.914 m 2.43 m 35 ATGW Engine Speed Range Armour CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Main 1 x 105mm rifled bore gun Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2 000 rounds) AA 1 x 12.7mm NSV M (2 800 rounds) CONTENTS 3 tHe inDian naVy inDia iS trUly a MaritiMe nation anD tHe Sea iS critical to itS SUrViVal anD ProSPerity the mission of the indian navy is to ensure that india s maritime security and vital national interests at sea are fully safeguarded against multifarious threats. with the transformation that has taken place in the international political arena from the cold war s clear bipolarity to the uncertain and undefined international order of today india needs to evolve coherent strategies that are relevant and will be able to cope with the evolving challenges. indian navy H Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 179 REGIONAL BALANCE istorically the roles of navies worldwide can be said to comprise the military constabulary diplomatic and benign. The military role encompasses deterrence against war or intervention obtaining a decisive military victory in case war does take place Security of India s territorial integrity citizens and offshore assets from seaborne threat (these could be from non-state actors also) influencing affairs on land safeguarding India s mercantile marine and maritime trade and safeguarding India s national interests and maritime security. The constabulary role shared in part with the Coast Guard includes all aspects of coastal defence exclusive economic zone (EEZ) security and maintaining good order at sea. The diplomatic role encompasses strengthening political relations and goodwill strengthening defence relations with friendly states portraying a credible defence posture and capability strengthening maritime security in the Indian Ocean region and promoting regional and global stability. The benign role encompasses promoting civil safety and security and projecting national soft power. The Indian Navy s responsibilities encompass all the roles described above. The Indian Navy is responsible for safeguarding of a wide spectrum of the country s maritime interests comprising a coastline of 7 516.6 kilometres and an EEZ of over 2.3 million square kilometres which is expected to increase to over 3.2 million sq km after the inclusion of the extended continental shelf for which India s claim is pending resolution at the UN Commission on the Law of the Seas. In its EEZ the country has sovereign rights to explore and exploit economic assets without encroachment or hindrance from others. The country s overseas trade is more than 513.5 million tonnes over 95 per cent of which by volume and 77 per cent by value moves through the medium of the sea to and from 13 major ports and dozens of smaller ones on either coast. India has island territories on both seaboards. To the east more than 1 040 kilometres from the Indian mainland are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands stretching 720 kilometres from north to south. The southern-most of these islands is only 145 kilometres from the western tip of the Indonesian archipelago while in the north Myanmar (Coco islands) lies only 35 kilometres away. To the west about 240 kilometres from the mainland are the Lakshadweep group of islands occupying a strategic location astride vital international shipping lanes. Other maritime interests include offshore oil and gas production sites on both the West and the East Coasts fishing and its regulation the ocean mining site of 75 000 square kilometres in the Central Indian Ocean Basin and interests in Antarctica. India s merchant marine is close to 10.5 million tonnes gross register tonnage (GRT) comprising over 1 150 ships. The country shares maritime boundaries with seven Indian Ocean littoral states. Another example of the importance of the sea is India s current oil consumption which was 3.1 million barrels per day (bbl d) in 2010 and is likely to rise to 5.3 million bbl d by 2025. Domestic production was 0.75 million barrels per day and is projected to increase marginally. This will mean a substantial increase in oil imports touching 80 per cent of total consumption. Most of this will come by the sea route. Any stoppages or even interruptions will inevitably have a crippling effect on the economy. Thus India is truly a maritime nation and the sea is critical to its survival and prosperity. It is the role of the Indian Navy to ensure that these interests are adequately safeguarded in peace and in war. The Navy will hopefully in the very near future provide the third GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS admiral Devendra kumar Joshi who prematurely and voluntarily resigned as the chief of the naval staff on february 26 2014 in an interview with SP s Military Yearbook on february 19 2014 had said that the overall security situation in the indian ocean region continues to be a cause of concern. piracy and terrorism facilitated by failing states and ungoverned spaces is a clear threat that needs to be contained. SP s Military Yearbook (SP s) On taking over the helm of the Indian Navy your mission statement was to steer Team Navy and its resources in the best interest of the country as dictated by the current national policy. While this may have a long gestation period how has the Indian Navy progressed in pursuit of the mission statement Admiral D.K. Joshi Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS) The overall security situation in the Indian Ocean region (IOR) continues to be a cause of concern. Piracy and terrorism facilitated by failing states and ungoverned spaces is a clear threat that needs to be contained. Therefore in the coming years issues of regional stability will continue to be a vital imperative that would impact India s national security matrix. Due to India s central position in the IOR and our entrenched values of democracy secularism and the rule of law smaller littoral countries in the region seek India s support to ensure their sovereignty and security. Consequently the Indian Navy is well positioned to play a maritime leadership role in the IOR. With the above issues in mind the Indian Navy is developing a capable and balanced force that should meet the emerging maritime challenges across the entire operational spectrum from low intensity operations to armed conflict. Countering these challenges require navies to work in close cooperation with each other. This has often been done in cooperation with other regional as well as extra-regional navies. Indian Navy in consonance with India s policy of providing capacity-building and capability-enhancement for littorals of Indian Ocean region has been very active in this regard. With reference to Maldives Mauritius and Seychelles the Indian Navy has been providing assistance for their exclusive economic zone (EEZ) surveillance by ships and aircraft as also in providing hydrographic assistance to other IOR littorals. Therefore the Navy is playing a proactive and responsible role towards maintaining peace and stability in the IOR. SP s The importance of cooperation and interoperability between the navies in the Indian Navy s area of responsibility can hardly be overstated. Is there a need to relook at the Indian Navy s mandate being restricted to bilateral engagements only CNS Operational engagement with regional and extra-regional navies involves structured interaction in the form of exercises and operations. Participation in exercises with foreign navies enables us to reinforce perceptions of the Indian Navy as a competent confident and stabilising force in the region. These exercises are aimed at achieving a high level of interoperability share transformational experiences examine and imbibe best practices enhance maritime domain awareness through a variety of information-sharing mechanisms and gain operational and doctrinal expertise. Although majority of the exercises undertaken by the Indian Navy are bilateral in nature Indian Navy has also been participating in few multilateral exercises which primarily focus on HADR (humanitarian assistance and disaster relief ) and crisis management. We recently participated in a multilateral HADR and military medicine exercise held at Brunei and in MSFTX (maritime security field training exercise) at Australia under the ADMM Plus construct. Indian Navy also participates in exercises like IBSAMAR (Trilateral exercise with South African and Brazilian Navies) and a ship will participate in RIMPAC-14 conducted by the US for the first time. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 187 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY key tecHnoloGieS WHicH tHe inDian naVy WoUlD like to focUS UPon for inDiGeniSation are DeVeloPMent of WeaPonS SenSorS anD ProPUlSion SySteMS CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES interVieW cHief of tHe naVal Staff sp Guide pubns WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS inDian Defence equipment catalogue indian navy SUbMarineS Shishumar class type HDW type 209 1500 Total No. in Service 4 Name Shishumar Shankush Shalki Shankul Specifications Displacement (tonnes) Standard 1450 Surfaced 1700 Dived 1850 Dimensions feet (metres) 211.2 x 21.3 x 19.7 (64.4 x 6.5 x 6) Propulsion Diesel Electric 4MTU 12V 493 AZ80 GA31L diesels 4 Siemens alternators 1 Siemens motor 1 shaft Speed (knots) Surfaced 11 Dived 22 Range (miles) 8 000 Snorting at 8 knots 13 000 Surfaced at 10 knots Complement 36 (8 officers) Torpedoes 8 Nos. 21 inch (533mm) tubes. S m carries 14 AEG SUT Mod 1 wire guided active passive torpedoes homing to 28 km at 23 knots 12 km at 35 knots warhead 250 kg. Mines External strap-on type for 24 Mines Countermeasures Decoys C303 acoustic decoys ESM Argo Phenix II AR 700 or Koll Morgen Sea Sentry radar warning ESM-DR 3000 Weapon Control Singer Librascope MKI CCS 90-1 ISUS Radars Surface Search Thomson-CSF Calypso I-band KH 1007 2007 Sonars Atlas Elektronik CSU 83 active passive search and attack Thomson Sintra DUUV-5 passive ranging and intercept CSU 90-14 Programme HDW concluded an agreement with Indian Navy on December 11 1981. The first two submarines were built in West Germany and commissioned in 1986. The next two were built at the Mazagon Dock Limited Mumbai with supply of material package from HDW and commissioned in 1992 and 1994 respectively. Two more submarines were ordered. The submarines form the 10th Submarine Squadron based at Mumbai. Mid-life refit-cum-modernisation of the class has been undertaken in a progressive manner starting with Shishumar in 1999. Sindhughosh (kilo) class (Project 877 ekM 8773) Total No. in Service 10 Name Sindhughosh Sindhudhvaj Sindhuraj Sindhuvir Sindhuratna Sindhukesari Sindhukirti Sindhuvijay Sindhurakshak Sindhushastra Displacement (tonnes) 2 300 surfaced 3 100 dived Dimensions feet (metres) 238 x 32.5 x 21.7 (73.0 x 10.0 x 6.6) Propulsion 2 Model 4-2AA-42M diesels 2 generators 1 motor 1 shaft 2 MT-168 auxiliary motors 1 economic speed motor Speed (knots) 10 surfaced 17 dived 9 snorting Range (miles) 6 000 at 7 kt snorting 400 at 3 kt dived Complement 68 (7 officers) Torpedoes 6-21 in (533mm) tubes combination of Type 53-65 passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 n miles) at 45 Kt TEST 71 76 anti-submarine active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt or 20 km (10.08 n miles) at 25 kt warhead 220 kg Total of 18 weapons. Wire-guided torpedo on two tubes. Other Weapons Mines 24 DM-1 in lieu of torpedoes some submarines carry shoulder held 9M36 Strela-3 (SA-N-8) SAM launcher placed in fin for use on surface. Countermeasures ESM squid head radar warning Porpoise (Indigenous) Weapon Control Uzwl MVU-119EM TFCS Radars Navigation Snoop Tray MRP-25 I-band Sonars MGK 400 hull mounted active passive search and attack medium frequency. MG-519 hull mounted active search high frequency. Being replaced by Sonar USHUS manufactured by BEL Bengaluru in a progressive manner on submarines Programmes The Kilo class was launched in the former Soviet Navy in 1979 and India was the first country to acquire these between 1993 and 2000. Indian Navy procured 10 submarines of this class from Russia. This class of submarine has since been supplied to Algeria Poland Romania Iran and China. Operational First four form the Eleventh Submarine Squadron based at Visakhapatnam and the remaining six comprise the Twelfth Submarine Squadron based www.spguidepublications.com 190 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com eqUiPMent cataloGUe inDian naVy inDian Defence Navy. Design consideration provides special attention to stealth features with the hull forms the sail and the appendages specifically designed to produce minimum hydrodynamic noise. Armed with Exocet SM 39 anti-ship missile the Scorpene also offers advanced capabilities for mine warfare intelligence gathering and special operations. arihant class (SSbn) Dimensions Length 112 m (367 ft) Beam 15 m (49 ft) Draft 10 m (33 ft) Displacement 6 000 tonnes Propulsion PWR using 40 per cent enriched uranium fuel (80 MWe) one turbine (1 11 000 hp 83 MW) one shaft one 7-bladed high-skew propeller (estimated) Range Unlimited except by food supplies Speed 12-15 knots surface 24 knots dived Test Depth 300 m (980 ft) (estimated) Complement 95 Sensors and Processing Systems The Bharat Electronics Ltd USHUS Integrated Sonar Panchendriya submarine sonar and tactical weapons control system with active passive ranging surveillance and intercept sonars and underwater communication system. Armament 6 x 533mm torpedoes 12 x K-15 Sagarika SLBM (Range 750 km 8 MIRV each) or 4 x K-4 Shaurya SLBM (range up to 3 500 km) Launched July 26 2009 Status Undergoing sea trials Programme Arihant s reactor is reported to have gone critical in mid-August 2013 and a sea trial period of around 18 months is expected to follow. Arihant should commission in early 2015. The second submarine of the class reportedly named INS Aridhaman is scheduled for launch in 2013 or early 2014. Two more submarines of this class are expected to follow. inS chakra (SSn) Displacement (tonnes) 8 450 surfaced 13 400 dived Dimensions (metres) 113.3 x 13.6 x 9.7 Main machinery 1 OK 650B OK 650M nuclear PWR 190 MW one OK-7 steam turbine 43 000 hp(m) 2 OK 300 retractable electric propulsors for low speed and quiet manoeuvring 750 hp(m) (552 kW) 1 shaft Speed (knots) 28-35 dived 10 surfaced Complement 90 (23 officers) at Mumbai. The submarines have progressively undergone mid-life modernisation refits commencing 1997 which includes installation of the Klub cruise missile and the associated Lama fire control system new sonars electronic warfare systems machinery control systems and an automated information and control system for the weapon package. Sindhuvir was the first to go through this refit at Severodvinsk from 1997-99 followed by Sindhuraj and Sindhukesari at Admiralty Shipyard St Petersburg from 1999-2001. Sindhuratna Sindhughosh Sindhuvijay and Sindhurakshak have been refitted at Severodvinsk from 2001-03 200205 2005-07 and 2010-12 respectively. Sindhurakshak is reported to have been gutted in a major fire on 14 August 2013. Sindhukirti is undergoing refit to the same standard at the Hindustan Shipyard Limited Visakhapatnam from 2007 onwards. The last two submarines are expected to be refitted at Visakhapatnam. One submarine is expected to be fitted out with BrahMos cruise missiles the surface version of this Indo-Russian 290-km range supersonic missile is already being fitted on the Indian Navy s surface platforms. Scorpene class (Project 75) Displacement (tonnes) 1 668 dived Dimensions (feet metres) 217.8 x 20.3 x 19 (66.4 x 6.2 x 5.8) Main machinery Diesel-electric 4 MTU 16 V 396 SE84 diesels 1 Jeumont (metres) Schneider motor 1 shaft Speed (knots) 20 dived 12 surfaced Range (miles) 550 at 4 kt dived 6 500 at 8 kt surfaced Diving Depth More than 300 m (984 ft) Complement 31 (6 officers) Torpedoes 6-21 in (533 mm) tubes Countermeasures ESM Weapons Control UDS International SUBTICS Radars Navigation Sagem I-band Sonars Hull mounted passive and attack medium frequency Programme Project 75 negotiations for construction of six submarines in India were completed and contract concluded in late 2005. The contract envisages construction at MDL with transfer of technology from DCN France. The first submarine is expected to be delivered by 2016 and thereafter one every year to complete delivery by 2021. Details of equipment package are speculative and based on those built for Chilean www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 191 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 4 tHe inDian air force aiMinG for a StrateGic reacH over the years the iaf has grown from a tactical to a strategic force capable of protecting national security interests that extend from the Gulf to the strait of malacca. early History The IAF was formally established on October 8 1932 the date on which the first batch of officers was commissioned. On April 1 1933 A Flight of No. 1 Squadron was raised at Drigh Road Karachi now in Pakistan with six officers 19 airmen and four Westland Wapiti IIA aircraft. The fledgling IAF saw action for the first time in 1937 during operations in the North West Frontier Province. By June 1938 the Squadron was built up to full strength with three flights of three aircraft each 16 officers and 662 airmen. During World War II in response to the Japanese pre-emptive strikes on Pearl Harbour and Malaya No. 1 Squadron with 12 Westland Lysander aircraft was moved to Burma in February 1 1942. However when Rangoon fell to the Japanese in April 1942 the Squadron was relocated at Risalpur and converted to Hawker Hurricane IIB fighters. The IAF expanded rapidly growing to nine squadrons by the end of 1944. Redeployed in Burma the IAF played a major role in the Arakan offensive which began in December 1944. In March 1945 recognition of their outstanding performance came by way of the prefix Royal The IAF was then known as the . Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF). In 1946 the RIAF squadrons began to convert to the Hawker Tempest II which has been called the IAF s first true fighter bomb- Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 209 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS T he Indian Air Force (IAF) the fourth largest in the world today is the primary instrument available to the nation for the projection of air power. While in peacetime the IAF is responsible for security and integrity of the national air space it plays a central and critical role in war providing swift and decisive response. The potential of air power to influence the outcome of a military conflict has been amply demonstrated in the post-World War II era in several international conflicts including the wars in the Middle East and Afghanistan. In the Indian context as well in recent time the IAF played a critical role in the conflict with Pakistan in Kargil in 1999. er The first RIAF transport unit No. 12 Squadron was also formed . with Douglas C-47 Dakotas. When India attained independence on August 15 1947 some RIAF units were transferred to Pakistan. The RIAF therefore shrank to Nos. 3 4 7 8 and 10 Squadrons equipped with Tempests No. 2 Squadron with Spitfires and No. 12 Squadron with Dakotas. Post-independence on October 27 1947 the IAF undertook an emergency task with Dakotas to airlift Indian forces into Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) to thwart attempts by Pakistani-sponsored invaders to wrest control of the valley from India. Tempests and Spitfires joined the action successfully halting their advance. The operations in J&K ended on December 31 1948 under a United Nationssponsored ceasefire. On January 26 1950 India became a Republic and the RIAF dropped the Royal prefix. The 1950s also witnessed rapid expansion and modernisation of the IAF both in terms of capital assets and infrastructure. The modernisation process began in 1948 with the arrival of the Vampire the first combat jet of the IAF. This was followed by the induction of the Ouragan (Toofani) Mystere Canberra Hunter and Gnat entered service all in the 1950s. Closer strategic and military cooperation with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) resulted in the IAF acquiring three MiG-21 supersonic aircraft in 1963 which paved the way for subsequent induction of various other combat aircraft and weapon systems of Soviet origin. From this point onwards the IAF inventory acquired a distinct Soviet orientation which also influenced the evolution of the aerospace industry in India. The Indo-Pak conflict of 1965 witnessed the IAF aggressively using the redoubtable Gnat demolishing the myth of the F-86 Sabre being the best combat aircraft of that time. The Gnat again played a significant role in the 1971 conflict scoring a number of kills in the air. In the decade of the 1980s the IAF played a key role during the operations in Sri Lanka involving the Indian Peace Keeping Force and the military intervention in the Maldives effec- TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES iaf WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS air chief Marshal arup raha took over as the chief of the air staff on January 1 2014 on retirement of air chief marshal n.a.k. browne on December 31 2013. in an interview with SP s Military Yearbook as chief of the air staff-designate he said the iaf s major challenge is to remain a contemporary aerospace power which possesses credible response options. SP s Military Yearbook (SP s) What has been the most memorable event during your tenure as the Air Officer Commandingin-Chief of Western Air Command as also during your tenure as the Vice Chief of the Air Staff (VCAS) Air Chief Marshal A. Raha (CAS) Every tenure in my long service career has been eventful memorable enriching and very satisfying. However certain events remain deeply etched in my conscious because of their significance challenges involved and the resultant overall impact on me and the Indian Air Force (IAF). My tenure as the VCAS has been short but represents an accelerated learning curve in working with the Army Navy the Ministry of Defence (MoD) defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs) and other agencies. It is not possible for me to identify any particular event as outstanding while tenanting VCAS appointment. However the most memorable event during my tenure as the Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief (AOC-in-C) of Western Air Command (WAC) was the execution of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations Operation Rahat in Uttarakhand in June 2013. Uttarakhand falls within the area of responsibility of WAC. The unprecedented disaster of enormous magnitude had called for launching of perhaps the largest ever helicopter relief operations involving 45 helicopters pooled in from all Commands of the IAF. Under the direct guidance of the CAS from Air Headquarters (HQ) the necessary resources were organised and the operations were conducted with professionalism and grit thus rescuing thousands of people and saving precious lives. Various innovative steps including the fuel bridging missions undertaken by C-130 special operations aircraft and Mi-26 heavy-lift helicopter contributed to the success of the operations. Inclement weather narrow valleys and unprepared helipads did not deter our air warriors. They displayed exceptional commitment to the assigned task and a record 3 702 sorties were flown in airlifting 24 260 people to safety. The event highlighted the excellent ethos and values of our air warriors. Our professionalism and dedication has earned accolades from all quarters of the country and reaffirmed the confidence of the nation in IAF s capability. This event will always be remembered by the IAF and the nation as one of the most outstanding disaster relief operations in the history of our country. SP s Considering that the spectrum of war has been enlarged and requires capability and expertise for simultaneous conflict of different types how has this affected the inventory of the IAF its organisation and focus on training CAS As you would be aware the government has approved the long-term integrated perspective plan (LTIPP) of the armed forces. The all-spectrum capability development process of the IAF to enhance our combat potential has been factored in the LTIPP. These acquisitions would adequately address the myriad security challenges facing the nation both current and futuristic. Along with the acquisition of more versatile combat platforms force multipliers and creating net-centric environment the IAF is aware of the need to enhance the skills required of our air warriors to be able to absorb state-of-the-art technologies. Hence even on the training front we have revised our training syllabi to be commensurate with our future needs. These include induction of new aircraft for training like the Pilatus PC-7 MkII and Hawk along with greater Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 217 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY caPability DeVeloPMent of tHe iaf iS an onGoinG ProceSS SHaPeD by tHe eMerGinG aS Well aS enViSaGeD tHreatS anD tHe PerceiVeD role in oUr reGion CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES interVieW cHief of tHe air Staff iaf WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS inDian Defence equipment catalogue indian air force air Defence and Strike fighters Mikoyan MiG-21Mf bis bison M Mf NATO reporting names Fishbed and Mongol (trainer version) Country of origin USSR Manufactured under licence In India by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Type Single-seat multi-role fighter Number in Service All variants - 264. Construction Wings Delta planform with a 2 anhedral and 57 sweepback with small boundary layer fences at tips. Large blown plain trailing edge flaps. Fuselage Circular section all metal semi Tail Unit monocoque structure. Ram air intake in nose with floating centre body controlled by air speed and alpha angle. Large dorsal spine for avionics and fuel tanks. Air brakes under the leading edge of wing roots. Second air brake forward of the ventral fin. Tail unit of all moving surface type mass balanced at tips. Conventional fin with large inset rudder. Power Plant One Tumansky R-13 turbojet rated at 9 400 lb dry and 14 000 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity 2 750 litres Provision for drop tanks under fuselage and inboard wing pylons. The MiG-21Bis & Bison are powered by a Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet rated at 15 000 lb static thrust with reheat. Cockpit K-13 ejection seat with 0-130 kmph capability. Avionics and Equipment ALMAZ search and track radar with a 30 km lock on range. ARK radio compass IFF and Gyro gun sight Armament One twin-barrel 23mm GSh-23 2 cannon with 250 rounds carried internally & up to 2 500 lb of ordnance on four wing pylons. Typical loads include 2 1 000 lb RVV-AE R-73 R-60 AAMs S-24 and UB80 UB 57 rocket pods. Dimensions Wing span 7.15 m Length 16.10 m including pitot boom Height 4.5 m Wing area 23.45 m Weights Take-off (combat) Max take-off Performance Max speed Above 10 000 m At sea level Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Max rate of climb G Limits 8 750 kg 10 500 kg Mach 2.23 Mach 1.1 390 km 6 500 m min 7 1.5 Note 1 While the FL version of MiG-21 was finally retired from service in December 2013 a fleet of 125 MiG-21Bis aircraft with adequate residual airframe life have undergone an avionics and armament upgrade programme which comprises the following itmentofKOPYOmulti-moderadarinthenoseconeinplace F of the original ALMAZ radar which in combination with the active homing RVV-AE Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air missile in place of the R-60 has given the aircraft a Fire-andForget capability. Coupled with a new Russian-made Mission Computer the KOPYO radar has also enhanced the aircraft s overall air-to-surface capability. heaircrafthasbeenfittedwithaThales MonolithRingLaser T Gyro-based INS with integral GPS and GLONASS card. The INS has a drift of 0.5 nm per hour which is automatically updated by the integral GPS giving it a highly reliable navigation system. he aircraft has been given a semi-glass cockpit with the T fitment of a Russian made Liquid Crystal Multi-function Display and a Head-up Display. dditionalavionicsincludeaHAL-madeINCOMjamresistant A communications equipment and Tarang RWR equipment. n Israeli Video Recording System has been fitted in the A cockpit which captures HUD as well as visual parameters during air-to-ground strikes for better post-strike debriefs. The upgraded MiG-21Bis aircraft has been renamed the Bison by the Indian Air Force. Note 2 About 70 M MF versions of the aircraft to be phased out in 2014-15. But the 120 upgraded MiG-21Bis Bison aircraft are to remain in service till 2025. Mikoyan MiG-27M NATO reporting name Country of origin Type Number in Service Construction www.spguidepublications.com Flogger-J USSR Single-seat variable geometry strike fighter. 90 Planned to be retired from service by 2017 220 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com eqUiPMent cataloGUe inDian air force inDian Defence Mikoyan MiG-29a b NATO reporting name Country of origin Type Number in Service Construction Wings Wings Shoulder wing mono-plane with variable sweep angles at 16 45 and 72 . Full span hydraulically actuated trailing edge flaps in three sections. No ailerons. Instead two-section upper surface spoilers lift dumpers operate differentially in conjunction with horizontal tail surfaces to provide aileron functions Fuselage Conventional semi-monocoque structure with lateral air intakes. Four forward hinged air brakes above and below horizontal tail planes. All moving horizontal surfaces of the tail unit act differentially and symmetrically to provide aileron and elevator functions. Conventional fin houses a large inset rudder. Cockpit KM-21 0-130 kmph ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Bullet-proof wind screen and small rearward looking mirror on top of canopy. Kevlar plating around cockpit to withstand hits up to 23mm calibre shells. Power Plant One Tumansky R-29 17 500 lb st dry 25 35 lb streheat turbojet with variable geometry nozzle. Six fuel tanks with a total capacity of 6 700 litres. Avionics and Systems KLEN Laser marker and ranger in nose cone VHF UHF IFF equipment. Doppler nav attack system and radar altimeter. Gyro gun sight accurate up to 7.5 g loads. Duck nose houses Laser ranging targeting equipment. Doppler nav attack system with radar altimeter. Some aircraft being retrofitted with new nav attack systems and air data computers. Most aircraft fitted with deception broad-band ECM equipment and Flare chaff dispensers. Armament One GSh-23 6 Gattling type cannon with 350 rounds underbelly. Seven external pylons capable of carrying up to 5 000 kg of ordnance. Options include Durandal Beluga FAB 500 750 FAE weapons and various types of rockets and gunpods. X-29L T ASMs are also available. Dimensions Wing span 16 14.30 m 72 8.21 m Length overall 18.15 m Height overall 5.55 m Wing area 27.45 m2 Weights Empty 8 200 kg Clean 15 780 kg Max take-off 20 250 kg Performance Max level speed At 30 000 ft Mach 1.9 At sea level Mach 1.3 Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) 600 km Turn rate Max 20 deg sec sustained 14 deg sec G Limits Normal 7.5 -1.5 Ultimate 10 -3 Note About 50 MiG-27 aircraft have been given midlife upgrade at the HAL Nasik Division. www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 221 REGIONAL BALANCE Low-wing monoplane. Leading edge swept back at 42 with large ogival wing roots. Leading and trailing edge flaps without tabs. Fuselage Semi-monocoque all-metal structure sharply tapered and downswept aft of flatsided cockpit area with ogival dielectric nose cone. Tail Unit Twin vertical fins swept back at 40 and canted outward at 7 with inset rudders. All moving horizontal tailplanes mounted on slim booms along engine nacelles. Rudder & horizontal tailplanes honeycomb filled. Vortex generators mounted on either side and below cockpit. Almost 15 per cent of construction is believed to be of Carbon-Boron composite materials. Power Plant Two Tumansky RD-33 turbojets each rated at 11 250 lb dry and 18 500 lb reheat. FOD doors in each air intake duct actuated automatically with raising lowering of nose-wheel on take-off landing run. Total internal fuel capacity of 4 000 litres with a provision for a single 750-litre drop tank to be carried between engines underbelly. Later versions can carry wing drop tanks. Cockpit K-36D zero-zero ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Cockpit is high set and features a two piece blister design. Avionics NO-19 Sapfir-29 (NATO Slot Back ) coherent pulse Doppler radar with a 100-km detection and 70-km track range with full look up down shoot down and multi-tracking capability. Limited look up down shoot down IRST on nose on starboard side. Navattack computers HUD helmet mounted sights operable up to 40 off the axis. Advanced 360 passive RWR of unknown type. Comprehensive VHF UHF communication systems. AoA indicator radar altimeter 3-axis auto stabilisation system auto pilot deception jammer in wing root. Armament 1 GSh-301 30mm cannon in port wing root with 150 rounds. Up to six AAMs including R-73 R-27R R-27T Alternate loads of ground attack weapons with a total weight of 3 500 kg on six external hard points. Dimensions Wing span 11.40 m Length overall 17.34 m Height overall 4.75 m Wing area 35.35 m Weights Empty 8 340 kg Normal GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES Fulcrum USSR Single-seat air superiority fighter 62 CONTENTS 5 inDian coaSt GUarD enSUrinG tHe SecUrity of MaritiMe ZoneS the coast Guard plans to cater to a twofold increase in force levels by the year 2027. the various types of units envisaged for induction include offshore patrol vessels pollution control vessels fast patrol vessels interceptor boats and shallow water craft. in addition aircraft such as multi-mission maritime aircraft coastal surveillance aircraft and twin-engine heavy and light helicopters are also envisaged in these plans. the plan also caters for additional coast Guard units at strategic locations. T Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book he Indian Coast Guard (ICG) was constituted as an armed force of the Union by an Act of Parliament on August 18 1978 to undertake the predominantly peace-time tasks of ensuring the security of the maritime zones of India with a view to the protection of maritime and other national interests in such zones and matters connected therewith. The Indian Coast Guard functions under the Ministry of Defence primarily for non-military maritime security functions. It has military functions in a war situation when it conjoins with military forces in national defence under the Indian Navy. The Coast Guard began patrolling in earnest with two old frigates inducted from the Navy and five patrol vessels seconded from the Central Board of Excise and Customs. Duties and functions The Coast Guard Act 1978 specifies the duties and functions of the service mandating adoption of appropriate measures for the following tasks nSafety and protection of artificial islands and offshore terminals installations and devices. nProtection and assistance to fishermen at sea in distress. nPreservation and protection of marine environment. nPrevention and control of marine pollution. nAssistance to Customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations. nEnforcement of maritime laws in force. nSafety of life and property at sea. nCollection of scientific data. nOther duties as and when prescribed by the Government of India. www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 237 REGIONAL BALANCE The following additional responsibilities have been entrusted to the Coast Guard nCoordinating authority for taking measures to address oil pollution response in the Maritime Zones of India. The Director General of the Indian Coast Guard (DGICG) is the Chairman of the National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOSDCP) preparedness meeting. nCoordinating authority for maritime Search and Rescue in the Indian Search and Rescue Region. The DGICG is the Chairman of the National Maritime Search and Rescue Board. nThe Director General Indian Coast Guard is the Chairman of the Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC) and regular meetings are conducted at the national level to identify threats to offshore installations such as internal sabotage terrorist attacks hijacking of platforms drill ships jack up rig blow outs fire hazards etc. nThe authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters. nNominated as the Lead Intelligence Agency (LIA) for the country s coastal sea borders for the purpose of generating coordinating and sharing intelligence with the agencies concerned including the Central Government. These duties are carried out by the ICG over an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) measuring 2.01 million square kilometres that are home to inter-alia 3 565 square kilometres of mangroves 18 000 square kilometres of coral reefs and a potential 4.72 million tonnes of fisheries resources. It is also entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the safety and security of a peninsular nation that harbours 12 major ports and 187 minor ports (some of the significant achievements of the Indian Coast Guard in pursuit of its vast charter of duties can be seen at Appendix A). GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES Gsl WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS inDian Defence equipment catalogue indian coast Guard Surface offshore Patrol Vessels (oPVs) Samar class Total No. in Service 4 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) Light 1 604 Deep 1 800 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) 102 x 11.5 x 3.4 m Armament 76 62 SRGM with electro-optical fire control System (EOFCS) & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck Can operate ALH & Chetak Main machinery 2 Diesels 4 707KW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 16 PA6V280) Speed (knots) 22 Range (n miles) 6 000 at 15 kn Complement (crew) 128 (including 15 officers) offshore Patrol Vessels (oPVs) Sankalp class Total No. in Service 2 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) Light 1 830 Deep 2 325 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) 105 x 12.9 x 3.6 Armament 2 x 30mm CRN 91 with Stabilised Optronic Pedestal (SOP) & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck Can operate ALH & Chetak Main machinery 2 Diesels 7 700 KW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 20 PA6BSTC) Speed (knots) 23.5 Range (n miles) 6 500 at 12 kn Complement (crew) 128 (including 15 officers) offshore Patrol Vessels (oPVs) Vikram class Total No. in Service 6 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) Light 992 Deep 1 180 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) 74 x 11.4 x 3.2 m Armament 30mm 2A42 and 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck Can operate Chetak Main machinery 2 Diesels 4707 KW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 16PA6V280) Speed (knots) 22 Range (n miles) 8 500 at 12 kn Complement (crew) 108 (including 10 officers) offshore Patrol Vessels (oPVs) Vishwast class Total No. in Service 3 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) Light 1 500 Deep 1 840 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) 94 x 12.2 x 3.6 m Armament 30 mm CRN 91 with SOP & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck Can operate ALH Main machinery 2 Diesels 9 000 KW each (MTU 20 V 8 000 M90) Speed (knots) 26 Range (n miles) 4 500 at 14 kn Complement (crew) 108 (including 10 officers) Pollution control Vessels (PcVs) Samudra Prahari class Total No. in Service 2 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) Light 3 196 Deep 3 946 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) 94 x 15.5 x 4.5 m Armament 30mm CRN 91 with SOP & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Flight deck Can operate ALH Main machinery 2 Diesels 3 000 KW each (Bergen B32 40 L6P) & 883 KW Ulstein Aquamaster bow thruster Speed (knots) 26 (ship is capable of cruising at 0.2 kn speed during oil skimming mode with bow thruster) Range (n miles) 6 000 at 14 kn Complement (crew) 102 (including 12 officers) fast Patrol Vessels (fPV) Priyadarshini class Total No. in Service 8 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) Light 165 Deep 215 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) 47 x 7.5 x 2 m Armament 40 60 or 30mm 2A42 and 2 x 12.7mm HMG Main machinery 2 Diesels 1480 KW each (MTU 12V www.spguidepublications.com 244 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com eqUiPMent cataloGUe inDian coaSt GUarD inDian Defence Armament 30mm CRN 91 with SOP & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Main machinery 3 Diesels 2 720 KW each (MTU 16V 4 000 M90) Speed (knots) 34 Range (n miles) 1 500 at 16 kn Complement (crew) 42 (including 6 officers) interceptor boats (ibs) c-131 class Total No. in Service 10 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) Light 32 Deep 44 Dimensions (LOA x B x T) 20 x 5 x 1.4 m Armament 12.7mm HMG Main machinery 3 Diesels 2 x 823 KW (MWM 234 TBD V12) & 1 x 410 KW (MWM 234 TBD V08) Speed (knots) 32 Range (n miles) 489 at 12-14 kn Complement (crew) 11 (including 2 officers) interceptor boats (ibs) c-141 class Total No. in Service 13 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) Light 62 Deep 81 Dimensions (LOA x B x T) 26 x 6.6 x 1.7 m Armament 12.7mm HMG Main machinery 2 Diesels 2 042 KW each (MTU 12V 4 000 M90) Speed (knots) 45 Range (n miles) 500 at 25 kn Complement (crew) 13 (including 2 officers) interceptor boats (ibs) c-154 class Total No. in Service 1 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) Light 54 Deep 73 Dimensions (LOA x B x T) 27.5 x 6.2 x 1.2 m Armament 12.7mm HMG Main machinery 2 Diesels 1 630 KW each (MTU 16V 2 000 M92) Speed (knots) 35 Range (n miles) 500 at 20 kn Complement (crew) 13 (including 2 officers) interceptor boats (ibs) c-401 class Total No. in Service 5 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement fast Patrol Vessels (fPV) Sarojini naidu class Total No. in Service 7 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) Light 235 Deep 259 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) 48 x 7.5 x 2 m Armament 30mm 2A42 or 30mm CRN91 with SOP and 2 x 12.7mm HMG Main machinery 3 Diesels 2 720 KW each (MTU 16V 4 000 M90) Speed (knots) 35 Range (n miles) 1 500 at 12 kn Complement (crew) 42 (including 6 officers) fast Patrol Vessels (fPVs) tarabai class Total No. in Service 5 Specifications Make Singapore Indian Displacement (in tonnes) Light 141 Deep 200 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) 45 x 7 x 1.89 m Armament 40 60 & 7.62mm LMG Main machinery 2 Diesels 1480 KW each (MTU 12V 538 TB 82) Speed (knots) 26 Range (n miles) 2 400 nm at 14 kn Complement (crew) 42 (including 6 officers) fast Patrol Vessels (iPVs) rani abbakka class Total No. in Service 2 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) Light 269 Deep 349 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) 50 x 8.36 x 2.1 m Armament 30mm CRN 91 with SOP & 2 x 12.7mm HMG Main machinery 3 Diesels 2 720 KW each (MTU 16V 4 000 M 90) Speed (knots) 34 Range (n miles) 1 500 at 16 kn Complement (crew) 42 (including 6 officers) fast Patrol Vessels (fPVs) rajshree class Total No. in Service 6 Specifications Make Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) Light 244 Deep 303 Dimensions (LOA x B x D) 48.9 x 7.5 x 2.1 m www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 245 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES 538 TB 82) Speed (knots) 23 Range (n miles) 2 400 at 14 kn Complement (crew) 42 (including 6 officers) CONTENTS 6 Who S Who in indian defence Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (As on April 30 2014) President & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces ........................................................................... Pranab Mukherjee Vice President ................................................................................................................................................. M. Hamid Ansari Union Government Prime Minister ................................................................................................................................................ Dr Manmohan Singh Minister of Defence ........................................................................................................................................ A.K. Antony Minister of State for Defence ......................................................................................................................... Jitendra Singh Ministry of defence department of defence Defence Secretary .......................................................................................................................................... Radha Krishna Mathur Secretary (Ex-Servicemen Welfare) .............................................................................................................. Sangita Gairola Joint Secretary (Navy Ordnance).................................................................................................................. Ram Subhag Singh Joint Secretary (Establishment & Public Grievance & CVO) ...................................................................... Navin Kumar Choudhary Joint Secretary (General Air) ........................................................................................................................ Ravi Kant Joint Secretary (Ex-Servicemen Welfare) ..................................................................................................... A.S. Lakshmi Joint Secretary (Planning and International Cooperation) ........................................................................ Smita Nagraj acquisition Wing Director General (Acquisition) ..................................................................................................................... A.R. Sihag Financial Adviser (Acquisition) & AS ........................................................................................................... Shobhana Joshi Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Land Systems) ............................................................................. Vacant Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Maritime & Systems) .................................................................. Ravindra Pawar Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Air) ............................................................................................... Rajeev Verma Technical Manager (Land Systems).............................................................................................................. Major General Sanjeev Shukla Technical Manager (Maritime & Systems) ................................................................................................... Rear Admiral I.P.S. Bali Technical Manager (Air)....................................................................................................................................Air Vice Marshal G. Raveendranath Finance Manager (Land Systems) & Joint Secreatry ................................................................................... R.K. Sinha Finance Manager (Maritime & Systems) & Joint Secretary ........................................................................ Arti Bhatnagar Finance Manager (Air) ................................................................................................................................... A.R. Sule department of defence Production Secretary (Defence Production).................................................................................................................... Gokul Chandra Pati Additional Secretary (Defence Production)................................................................................................. Ashok Kumar Gupta Joint Secretary (Electronic Systems) ............................................................................................................. P.K. Mishra Joint Secretary (Aerospace) ........................................................................................................................... Kamlesh Kumar Pant Joint Secretary (Naval Systems) .................................................................................................................... Ashok Kumar Meena Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 247 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS indian defence Pranab Mukherjee Who S Who in indian defence President of India & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces A man of unparalleled experience in governance with the rare distinction of having served at different times as Foreign Defence Commerce and Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee assumed office as the 13th President of India on July 25 2012. After his post-graduation in History and Political Science and a degree in Law from the University of Kolkata he embarked on his professional life as a college teacher and journalist. In 1969 he plunged into full-time public life following his election to the Upper House of the Parliament (Rajya Sabha). Mukherjee was elected to the Rajya Sabha five times and twice to the Lower House of the Parliament (Lok Sabha). He was a member of the Congress Working Committee the highest policy-making body of the party for 23 years. During the period 2004-12 Mukherjee was instrumental in spearheading critical decisions of the government on a range of issues such as Administrative Reforms Right to Information Right to Employment Food Security Energy Security Information Technology and Telecommunication setting up of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) Metro Rail etc through Chairmanship of over 95 Groups of Ministers constituted for the purpose. In the 1970s and 1980s he was instrumental in setting up the Regional Rural Banks (1975) and the EXIM Bank of India as well as National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (1981-82). A powerful orator and scholar Mukherjee s intellectual and political prowess as well as remarkable knowledge of international relations financial affairs and parliamentary process are widely admired. Dr Manmohan Singh Prime Minister of India Dr Manmohan Singh the 15th Prime Minister of India is rightly acclaimed as a thinker and a scholar. Born on September 26 1932 in a village in Punjab province of undivided India Dr Singh completed his matriculation from Punjab University in 1948. His academic career took him to the University of Cambridge in the UK where he earned a first class Honours degree in Economics in 1957 followed by a D.Phil in Economics from Nuffield College at Oxford University in 1962. Dr Singh s academic credentials were burnished by the years he spent on the faculty of Punjab University and the Delhi School of Economics. His brief stint at the UNCTAD Secretariat was prior to his appointment as Secretary General of the South Commission in Geneva between 1987 and 1990. In 1971 Dr Singh served as Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Commerce and subsequently took over as the Chief Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Finance in 1972. Among the numerous positions held by Dr Singh are Secretary in the Ministry of Finance Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission Governor of the Reserve Bank of India Advisor to the Prime Minister and Chairman of the University Grants Commission. The turning point in the economic history of independent India was his tenure as the Finance Minister of India from 1991 to 1996. Among the multitude of awards and honours conferred upon Dr Singh in his public career the most prominent are India s second highest civilian honour the Padma Vibhushan (1987) the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award of the Indian Science Congress Association (1995) the Asia Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993 and 1994) the Euro Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993) the Adam Smith Prize of the University of Cambridge (1956) and the Wright s Prize for Distinguished Performance at St. John s College in Cambridge (1955). Dr Singh has been a member of the Rajya Sabha since 1991 and has served as the Leader of the Opposition from 1998 to 2004. A.K. Antony www.spguidepublications.com Defence Minister A.K. Antony took over as the Union Defence Minister on October 24 2006 marking a return to the Indian Cabinet after a long hiatus of 12 years. Born on December 28 1940 in Cherthala of Alappuzha district in Kerala to Aley Kutty and Arakkaparambil Kurian Pillai he is a law graduate from the University of Kerala. He was married on March 17 1985 to Elizabeth Antony and has two sons. His interest in politics and social work dates back to his young days when he headed the students unions. Having been a member of the Congress Party from the beginning he has held several party posts both at the state and national levels. He has also held numerous positions in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1970 onwards and took charge of the portfolio of Union Cabinet Minister of Civil Supplies Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution from 1993 to 1995. Antony who has been the Chief Minister of Kerala thrice is an astute politician with a spotless image. 252 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com Who S Who in indian defence indian defence Jitendra Pratap Singh Minister of State for Defence and Youth Affairs and Sports Born in the royal family of Alwar in Rajasthan Jitendra Pratap Singh Prabhakar Bahadur is a Member of Parliament from Alwar. He has a Bachelor of Commerce degree from Delhi University. Singh is a member of the All India Congress Committee has been a Member of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly for two terms and was elected to the 15th Lok Sabha on May 18 2009. He has been a Member of Public Accounts Committee and Committee for Transport Tourism and Culture. He is the grandson of Sir Tej Singh Prabhakar KCSI (1911-2009) the last ruling Maharaja of Alwar. He is fond of sports and his special interests include flying aeroplanes and photography and trekking in the Himalayas. He is a national medalist in trap shooting. He is a widely travelled politician. He was inducted as a Minister of State for Defence and Youth Affairs and Sports in the latest Cabinet reshuffle in October 2012. Radha Krishna Mathur Defence Secretary Radha Krishna Mathur Secretary Department of Defence Production Ministry of Defence has been appointed as Defence Secretary on May 25 2013. Mathur an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of the 1977 batch from Manipur-Tripura cadre succeeds Shashi Kant Sharma. A B.Tech in Mechanical Engineering from IIT Kanpur and M.Tech in Industrial Engineering from IIT Delhi he has also done his Masters in Business Administration from ICPE Ljubljana Slovenia. Mathur has served in various ministries in the Government of India in different capacities including the Ministry of Industry External Affairs Information and Broadcasting and Textiles. From 2000 to August 2008 he served the Government of Tripura as Principle Secretary and finally as Chief Secretary. From September 2008 to October 2011 he was the Additional Secretary and Special Secretary in the Ministry of Defence. Secretary Defence Production Gokul Chandra Pati is an Orissa Cadre IAS officer of 1978 batch. He succeeds R.K. Mathur as the Secretary Department of Defence Production Ministry of Defence. He was earlier the Secretary Department of Animal Husbandry. His educational qualification includes B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Physics. He has had a considerable level of experience in Orissa State as a joint secretary in the department of industries and as a joint and additional secretary in the Ministry of Agriculture at the Centre. He has attended a large number of Courses Cadres including an advanced course on World Trade Organisation at the Administrative Staff College Hyderabad. He has done MBA in 1995 in Autralia. Avinash Chander Secretary Department of Defence R&D DG R&D and SA to RM Avinash Chander joined DRDO in 1972 after completing graduation in Electrical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi. He obtained MS in Spatial Information Technology from Jawharlal Nehru Technological University (JNTU) Hyderabad. Shri Avinash Chander is the chief architect of Agni series of ballistic missile systems due torelentless efforts. He pioneered research in inertial navigation and guidance systems and has enabled utilisation of solid propulsion the main thrust and the backbone of long-range missile system. Under his leadership DRDO carried out extensive research and indigenously developed the critical technologies like Composite Rocket Motors Re-entry Carbon Composite Heat Shield Advanced High Accuracy Navigation Systems Flex Nozzle Control System High-end Real-time Computing Techniques Advanced Navigation Systems Onboard Computers and Servo Valves and Seekers. He also laid the technology roadmap for Missile Complex Laboratories. He has been honoured with with Padma Shri and numerous other awards. He is a Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineers Systems Society of India Andhra Pradesh Academy of Sciences and VicePresident of Astronautical Society of India. www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 253 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS Gokul Chandra Pati TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS indian defence Who s Who in indian defence Public Sector Undertakings R.K. Tyagi Chairman Hindustan Aeronautics Limited R.K. Tyagi took over as Chairman of the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in March 2012. Previously he was Chairman and Managing Director of Pawan Hans Helicopter Ltd. He is an Engineering Graduate in Electronics and Telecommunications (1975) from IIT Roorkee and is also a Masters in Business Administration. Subsequently he also attended an Advanced Leadership course on Public Sector Management for 15 months at the Indian School of Business in Hyderabad in the years 2004-05. He joined Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) as a Graduate Trainee in the year 1976 and through various assignments rose to the position of General Manager in the year 2003 and continued serving ONGC up to May 2007. S.K. Sharma Chairman and Managing Director Bharat Electronics Limited S.K. Sharma took charge as Chairman and Managing Director (CMD) of Navratna defence PSU Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) on January 1 2014. He was Director (Bangalore Complex) BEL before his elevation. He joined BEL in 1978 after graduating from the University College of Engineering Bengaluru. He completed his Masters in Business Administration while in service. He has wide experience in multiple disciplines covering Electronic Warfare Avionics Network Centric Systems Radars and Components having served in various capacities at BEL s Bengaluru Ghaziabad and Hyderabad Units. He was General Manager (Network Centric Systems) and head of BEL s Ghaziabad Unit before he took charge as Director (Bengaluru Complex) in September 2011. S.K. Sharma is a BEL nominee Director on the Boards of BEL s Joint Venture Companies GE BEL Pvt Ltd and BEL Multitone Pvt Ltd. P Dwarakanath . Chairman and Managing Director Bharat Earth Movers Limited P. Dwarakanath has assumed charge as Chairman and Managing Director of the Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) from October 10 2012. He joined the Board of BEML Limited on March 1 2008 as Director (Metro and Rail Business). He is a graduate in Mechanical Engineering from the National Institute of Technology Warangal. He joined BEML in 1978 as a Management Trainee and served in all business verticals of the company namely Rail and Metro Defence and Mining and Construction. www.spguidepublications.com 264 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com Who S Who in indian defence PUblic Sector UndertakinGS indian defence Rear Admiral (Retd) R.K. Shrawat Chairman and Managing Director Mazagon Dock Limited Rear Admiral (Retd) R.K. Shrawat took over as the CMD of the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) on February 29 2012. An Electronics and Communications Engineer from IIT Roorkee he also holds a post-graduate degree in Radar and Communication Engineering from IIT Delhi. He has undergone the Naval Higher Command course at the College of Naval Warfare Mumbai and is also an alumnus of the National Defence College New Delhi. He has served as Project Director at ATV Headquarters responsible for Arihant the indigenous strategic submarine. He served as Chief Staff Officer (Technical) at the Western Naval Command Mumbai and later as Admiral Superintendent Naval Dockyard Mumbai. Before taking premature retirement from the Indian Navy he also served as Director General Weapons and Electronics Systems Engineering Establishment New Delhi. A recipient of AVSM he was awarded the Lieutenant V.K. Jain Gold Medal for Applied Research work in 1991. Rear Admiral (Retd) A.K. Verma Chairman and Managing Director Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited After serving in the Indian Navy for 34 years Rear Admiral (Retd) A.K. Verma took over as Chairman and Managing Director of the Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited Kolkata on November 1 2011. He did his Mechanical Engineering from the National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur in 1977. After joining Indian Navy he did his Marine Engineering Specialisation course from Naval College of Engineering at Lonavla Pune and Aeronautical Engineering course from Air Force Technical College Bengaluru. He has held many appointments both onboard as well as ashore including Naval Headquarters Command Headquarters at Mumbai and Kochi Western Fleet and many operational ships and air stations. He has the unique distinction of being the only officer in the Navy to have commanded both the Aircraft and the Ship Repair Yards at Kochi. He is recipient of VSM. Rear Admiral (Retd) Shekhar Mital Chairman and Managing Director Goa Shipyard Limited Rear Admiral (Retd) Shekhar Mital assumed charge as Chairman and Managing Director of Goa Shipyard Ltd (GSL) on February 1 2014. He is B.Tech M.Tech from IIT Kharagpur and M.Phil in Defence Studies from Naval Defence College New Delhi. The various senior positions he has held in his long and distinguished career with the Indian Navy have provided Rear Admiral Mital with a deep and well rounded understanding of the very many facets of shipbuilding. He has worked for over 12 years at IHQ MoD and is well versed with MoD shipbuilding design and repairs procedures. Under his dynamic and professional leadership GSL is poised for major leap ahead in design and construction of complex platforms including weapon intensive ships. Rear Admiral Shekhar Mital is recipient of the NM for distinguished service. Rear Admiral (Retd) N.K. Mishra Rear Admiral (Retd) N.K. Mishra took over as the Chairman and Managing Director of the Hindustan Shipyard Limited on August 1 2011. He is an alumnus of the National Defence Academy Khadakwasla. He completed his Engineering Degree from INS Shivaji Lonavla and thereafter he specialised in Electrical and Weapons Engineering from INS Valsura Jamnagar. He is an M.Tech. in Computer Science from IIT Mumbai. He has overseen www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 265 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE refits of INS Viraat on two occasions first in 1993 and then as a full-fledged Director Viraat Project Team during 1997-2002. He was awarded the Nao Sena Medal for successful completion of the modernisation refit of Viraat ahead of schedule. During 2002-05 he was the Defence Attach at Embassy of India Rome. On promotion to Flag rank he was the Additional Director General Quality Assurance (Naval) in the DGQA New Delhi. ASIAN WHO S WHO Chairman and Managing Director Hindustan Shipyard Limited INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 7 anoop kamath sp Guide pubns DePartMeNt oF DeFeNCe ProDUCtioN aND SUPPlieS as a matter of policy ordnance factories and defence public sector undertakings have been outsourcing many of their requirements and have over the years developed a wide vendor base which apart from the large-scale industries includes many small-scale enterprises Year 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Sales OFs 8 715.26 11 215.01 12 390.72 NA Sales DPSUs 25 899.64 25 975.06 28 667.28 29 455.88 Total 34 614.90 37 190.07 41 058.00 29 455.88 Note All figures are in crore Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book As a matter policy ordnance factories and DPSUs have been outsourcing many of their requirements and have over the years developed a wide vendor base which apart from the large-scale industries includes many small-scale enterprises. The website of the Department http www.ddpmod.gov.in has been functional since January 1 2013. Participation by the Private Sector With the strategic objective of achieving self-reliance in defence production the DDP&S has been endeavouring to indigenise defence equipment wherever technologically feasible and economically viable. In May 2001 the defence industry sector which was hitherto reserved for the PSUs was opened for 100 per cent participation by the Indian private sector with foreign direct investment (FDI) limit at 26 per cent both subject to licensing. The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) has issued detailed guidelines for the licensing of the production of arms and ammunition. In July 2013 the government decided to increase FDI in the defence www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 267 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS E stablished in November 1962 the Department of Defence Production and Supplies (DDP&S) was mandated to develop a comprehensive industrial infrastructure to achieve self-reliance in defence production. Over the years the department has established wide ranging facilities for the production of a variety of defence equipment by ordnance factories and defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs). Products include arms and ammunition tanks armoured vehicles heavy vehicles earth-moving equipment combat aircraft helicopters warships submarines missiles electronic equipment special alloys and special purpose steel. The Department of Defence Production and Supplies has the following organisations under it nOrdnance Factory Board (OFB) nHindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) nBharat Electronics Limited (BEL) nBharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) nMazagon Dock Limited (MDL) nGoa Shipyard Limited (GSL) nGarden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSEL) nHindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) nBharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) nMishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) nDirectorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) nDirectorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) nDirectorate of Standardisation (DOS) nDefence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) nDirectorate of Planning and Coordination (Dte of P&C) nNational Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH) The ordnance factories and the DPSUs have been on a constant drive to modernise upgrade their capabilities and expand their range of products. They have developed a number of products indigenously and have developed capabilities in various fields through transfer of technology. Production and turnover of ordnance factories and the DPSUs have been increasing steadily to meet the increasing requirements of the armed forces. The turnover for the last three years are as under TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES iNDiaN DeFeNCe iNDUStry WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 8 DeFeNCe reSearCH & DeVeloPMeNt aCHieViNG teCHNoloGiCal SelF-reliaNCe today drdo has transformed into a highly professional and mature organisation with strong technology base and management systems to undertake indigenous development of state-of-the-art defence systems including design development integration and production sp Guide pubns organisational Structure With its headquarters at New Delhi DRDO is headed by the Scientific Advisor to the Raksha Mantri who is also the Secretary to the Government of India and the Director General DRDO. He is assisted by the Chief Controllers R&D. The DRDO headquarters has two types of directorates namely corporate and technical. While the former is responsible for matters related to human resource (HR) finance and administration the latter is responsible for all technical and scientific issues. DRDO has two organisations under it namely the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) to undertake design and development of advanced technology aircraft and the Society for Integrated Technology Application and Research (SITAR) for designing digital components for various projects. DRDO has around 30 000 knowledge workers on its rolls which includes 7 000 scientists 12 000 technical personnel and 11 000 administrative support staff. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 291 REGIONAL BALANCE DRDO has a mission to design develop and produce state-of-theart complex and strategic defence systems and technologies to provide technological solutions to the armed forces to optimise combat readiness to build a strong indigenous technology base and to foster quality workforce. A number of projects are being executed through a network of laboratories Field Stations Regional Centres of Military Airworthiness (RCsMA) located across the country. DRDO has empowered the country with cutting-edge technologies and provided the services with contemporary systems to enhance their combat effectiveness. The value of products from DRDO inducted into the armed forces stands at 1 30 000 crore GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO Programmes and Projects INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS F ormed on January 1 1958 by merging the units of Defence Science Organisation and the Technical Development Establishments of the armed forces the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) of India was a fledgling research establishment with just 10 laboratories. In 1980 the DRDO became a department under the Central Government. Today it is one of the largest science and technology departments of the Indian Government with a network of 52 laboratories and establishments spread all over the country. With a vision to empower India with cutting-edge technologies and to equip the services with internationally competitive systems DRDO has proven its competence to produce state-of-the-art strategic and tactical military hardware and related technologies in diverse disciplines such as aeronautics armaments combat vehicles combat engineering electronics missiles life sciences advanced materials composites and naval systems. DRDO has expertise in system design system integration testing and evaluation and project management built over the last five decades which has enabled it to develop indigenous capabilities in weapons and delivery systems. Today DRDO has transformed into a highly professional and mature organisation with strong technology base and management systems to undertake indigenous development of state-of-the-art defence systems including design development integration and production. DRDO has achieved technological self-reliance in critical areas including ammunition armoured systems missiles radar avionics and electronic warfare system sensors nuclear biological chemical (NBC) defence low-intensity conflict technologies and advanced computing. DRDO plays a significant role in providing scientific and technological advice to the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in support of defence policy as evaluator of defence equipment for the military operational requirements and generating new technological knowledge to be transferred for development of state-of-the-art weapon systems indigenously. It also advises the government to make technical assessment of international security threats and the military capabilities of both current and potential adversaries. TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS indian defence AERONAUTICAL DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADE) Director P. Srikumar Suranjan Das Road C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru 560093 Tel 080-25283404 25057001 25057034 Fax 080-25283188 ARMAMENT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ARDE) Director Anil M. Datar Dr Homi Bhabha Road Armament Post Pashan Pune 411021 Tel 020- 25865282 25865116 Fax 020-25893102 CENTRE FOR AIRBORNE SYSTEMS (CABS) Director Dr S. Christopher Ministry of Defence DRDO Belur Yemlur Post Bengaluru 560037 Tel 080-25225121 26572638 Fax 080-25222326 CENTRE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & ROBOTICS (CAIR) Director Sanjay Burman DRDO Complex C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru -560093 Tel 080-25342646 25244298 (Extn 2270 2271) Fax 080-25244298 CENTRE FOR FIRE EXPLOSIVE & ENVIRONMENT SAFETY (CFEES) Director Dr Sudershan Kumar Ministry of Defence Brig. S.K. Majumdar Marg Timarpur Delhi 110054 Tel 011-23813239 23907102 23919555 Fax 011-2381 9547 COMBAT VEHICLES RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (CVRDE) Director Dr P. Sivakumar Avadi Chennai 600054 Tel 044- 26383722 26364001 26364003 Fax 044-26383661 DEFENCE AVIONICS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (DARE) Director P.M. Soundar Rajan Post Box No. 9366 C.V. Raman Nagar Phase II New Thippasandra Post Bengaluru 560093 Tel 080-25347704 25349571 Fax 080- 25347717 DEFENCE BIO-ENGINEERING AND ELECTRO MEDICAL LABORATORY (DEBEL) Director Dr V.C. Padaki Post Box No. 9326 C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru 560093 Tel 080-25058325 25280692 23446987 Fax 080-25282011 DEFENCE ELECTRONICS APPLICATION LABORATORY (DEAL) Director R.C. Agarwal Post Box No. 54 Raipur Road Dehradun 248001 Uttarakhand Tel 0135-2787224 Fax 0135-2787290 2787265 DEFENCE ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LABORATORY (DERL) Director S.P. Dash Chandrayangutta Lines Hyderabad 500005 Tel 040- 24440061 24530264 Fax 040- 2787161 2787128 www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 295 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY AERIAL DELIVERY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADRDE) Director Dr S.C. Sati Post Box No. 51 Station Road Agra Cantt Agra 282 001 Tel 0562-2260023 2258200 Fax 0562-2251677 CENTRE FOR MILITARY AIRWORTHINESS & CERTIFICATION (CEMILAC) Chief Executive Dr K. Tamilmani Ministry of Defence Defence Research and Development Organisation Marthahalli Colony Post Bengaluru 560037 Tel 080-25230680 28517272 Fax 080-25230856 25234781 CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES ADVANCED NUMERICAL RESEARCH & ANALYSIS GROUP (ANURAG) Director C.V.S. Sastry DRDO Kanchanbagh PO Hyderabad 500058 Tel 040-24347630 Fax 040-24347679 CENTRE FOR PERSONAL TALENT MANAGEMENT (CEPTAM) Director Sudheer Gupta Defence Research and Development Organisation Ministry of Defence Metcalfe House Complex Delhi 110054 Tel 011-23810276 23819217 Fax 011-23810287 23882306 23817489 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES indian Defence r&D establishments CONTENTS 1 iNDia S hoMelaND SeCurity the MiNiStry of hoMe affairS & CeNtral arMeD PoliCe forCeS the ministry of Home affairs in its annual report 2012-13 has said that the internal security situation in the country during 2012 has shown signs of considerable improvement over the previous years and has justified their assessment by citing figures from 2010 onwards Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 299 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS I n the era immediately after improved security situation in the state. lt GeNeral (retD) V.k. kaPoor independence threats to However this should not lead us to be India were mainly external-- complacent because an Indian Army from hostile nations. Despite the recommendations of spokesman in August 2013 has said that in the preceding period various committees instituted by the government of the of about two months the Army has killed 28 militants on the line day the internal security threats were never so acute as of control (LoC) and in the hinterland in Kashmir. Thus it needs to to seriously induce the political leadership to reform the internal be understood that Pakistan controls the levers of acceleration or security apparatus. However as the challenges and threats to the deceleration of terrorist infiltration into India and hence the need internal security of India grew the Indian Government felt com- for being constantly alert. pelled to focus on this dimension of national security. It is now Challenges to internal Security widely acknowledged that there is more to security than purely military factors. Today s definition of security acknowledges political Consequent to the Mumbai terror attacks on November 26 2008 economic environmental social and human thread among other the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government went into high strands that impact the concept of security. Today it is the concern drive to implement the internal security reforms. The Union Home for security of the lowest common denominator of every society Minister P. Chidambaram at the Chief Ministers Conference on namely the human being or civil security as the Americans term Internal Security held in New Delhi on August 17 2009 said Let me it which has resulted in the development of the concept of human recall the three challenges to internal security--terrorism insurgensecurity with focus on the individual and the people. Therefore the cy in the North-eastern states and left-wing extremism or Naxalism. definition of security is related to the ability of the state to perform Each one of them shares many characteristics with the other two. At the same time each one of them is significantly different from the function of protecting the well-being of its people. The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) in its Annual Report the other two. We have one instrument to confront and defeat the 2012-13 has said that the internal security situation in the country three challenges and that is the police. In the final analysis it is the during 2012 has shown signs of considerable improvement over policemen and the policewomen who can help us win these battles. the previous years and have justified their assessment by citing To that policemen and policewomen this conference must send out figures from 2010 onwards. The Prime Minister in his speech a clear message that the government at every level is duty-bound to the Chief Ministers on June 5 2013 made similar observa- to provide them every kind of support--monetary material and tions saying that the year 2012 saw a significant improvement moral. The government s resolve to reform the internal security in the security situation in Jammu and Kashmir. He said that apparatus of the country was apparent in the Minister s statement. The Prime Minister while addressing the Chief Ministers at the our strategy to prevent cross-border infiltration by militants and our intelligence based counter-terrorism operations in Jammu Conference on Internal Security in Delhi on June 5 2013 elaborated and Kashmir have resulted in a decline in the level of terrorist on the challenges facing the country in the form of Naxalism (leftviolence by about one-third in 2012 as compared to 2011 and the wing extremism) militancy and terrorism in the Northeast and in record inflow of tourists and pilgrims during 2012 also points to an the hinterland infiltration in Jammu and Kashmir communal and TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES pib WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 2 iNDia S iNterNal SeCurity eNViroNMeNt ChalleNGeS faCeD & MeaSureS takeN the ongoing insurgency in the northeast the extinguished terrorism in punjab the dissidence and proxy war in Jammu and kashmir and the burgeoning naxalite violence has kept indian security agencies on their toes as far as internal security is concerned. insurgency and naxalite violence in some parts of india and jehadi terrorism unleashed by our unscrupulous western neighbour combined with poor governance in most states all put together have become a serious threat which can destabilise the indian state if allowed to grow unchecked. I Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 311 REGIONAL BALANCE ndia s internal security public anger became palpable and the lt GeNeral (retD) V.k. kaPoor remains an area of major government was forced to act speedily. concern even 67 years after India s Home Minister and the then independence. The Prime Minister (PM) while address- Chief Minister of Maharashtra became the first two political ing the Chief Ministers at the Conference on Internal casualties. A spate of reforms which were already in the pipeline Security in Delhi on June 5 2013 elaborated on the were announced by the new Home Minister. Meanwhile the perchallenges the country is facing in the form of Naxalism (left-wing ception was growing stronger that India s external and internal extremism) militancy and terrorism in the Northeast and in the security was getting inextricably linked especially on its western hinterland infiltration in Jammu and Kashmir communal and borders. A large number of India s internal security problems are sectarian violence crimes against women and children border connected to jehadi groups based in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir management and coastal security. Last year the PM while inau- (PoK). Pakistan s intelligence agencies and the military are fundgurating the Annual Conference of Chief Ministers on Internal ing training and abetting terror in India and these linkages now Security in New Delhi on April 16 2012 had said that left-wing stand fully exposed. However despite a restrained but tough extremism (LWE) religious fundamentalism and ethnic violence stance taken initially the national leadership has now decided to were major challenges facing the country. He then urged states get back to the negotiation table with Pakistan both at the official to fight them together with the Central Government. The PM s and at the Track 2 level. statement in two consecutive years shows the fast growing internal the Preceding year security challenges in India. In the past six decades or so the ongoing insurgency in the The internal security situation in J&K and other parts of India in Northeast the extinguished terrorism in Punjab the dissidence 2012 showed distinct signs of improvement over the previous years. and proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and the burgeoning The level of infiltration from across the borders and the resultant Naxalite violence has kept Indian security agencies on their toes as terrorist activities in the valley of Kashmir showed a significant far as internal security is concerned. Insurgency and Naxalite vio- decline. The incidents of terrorist violence declined from 1990 in lence in some parts of India and jehadi terrorism unleashed by our 2005 to 220 in the year 2012. The number of security forces killed in unscrupulous western neighbour combined with poor governance 2005 was 189 and in 2012 the number came down to 15. The numin most states all put together have become a serious threat which ber of civilians killed has also declined from 557 in 2005 down to 31 in 2011 and 15 in 2012. The number of terrorists killed declined can destabilise the Indian state if allowed to grow unchecked. This realisation seemed to have dawned on a sluggish United from 917 in 2005 to 100 in 2011 and 72 in 2012 showing the effects Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government after the November 26 of better domination of the line of control and the resultantly lower 2008 terror attacks in Mumbai. In the days following the attacks infiltration. For details see Table 1. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES pib WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 3 iNDia S CoaStal SeCurity MaNaGeMeNt aND SeCurity of MaritiMe zoNe a CoMPlex taSk there is a multi-tier arrangement for protection and maritime security of the country involving the indian navy indian coast Guard (icG) and marine police of the coastal states and union territories. close coastal patrolling is done by the state marine police whose jurisdiction extends up to 12 nm icG functions between 12 nm and 200 nm which is the exclusive economic zone (eeZ) and the indian navy extends beyond 200 nm. at times this division can get blurred depending upon the operational requirement. aerial surveillance is carried out by the indian navy and the icG. I Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 325 REGIONAL BALANCE ndia has a coastline of ism. Smuggling of gold arms and lt GeNeral (retD) NareSh ChaND 7 516.6 kilometres touchexplosives has been quite common in ing nine states and four this area. Explosives were smuggled union territories (UT). It also has 1 197 islands which through Raigad on the Maharashtra coast to carry out serial blasts accounts to a stretch of 2 094 kilometres additional in Mumbai during 1993. There is continuous movement of all types coastline. Gujarat has the longest coastline of 1 214.7 of vessels for trade fishing military policing sports and so on. It km and Goa has the smallest with 101 km. There is more than 2.5 is estimated that there are about 1 50 000 small fishing boats with million square km of exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The mining no modern navigation means or communications moving freely areas allotted under the United Nations Convention on the Law of around without any control. There are also some disputed areas in the Sea (UNCLOS) are about 2 000 kilometres from the southern- the EEZ. Thus management and security of India s maritime zone most tip of India. including the coastline is by itself a formidable and a complex task gaps in which were amply displayed during the terrorist attack on Mercantile trade Mumbai on November 26 2008. This attack actually placed India s Ports play a vital role in the overall economic development of the coastal security into focus and triggered the government agencies country. India has 13 major and 176 minor ports. As GDP grows to put in place appropriate organisations and infrastructure for so will be the sea traffic. About 90 per cent by volume and 70 per coastal security. cent by value of the country s international trade is carried on recap through maritime transport. Import of oil and gas is of paramount importance for the economic growth of India thus petroleum oil Operation Swan and lubricants dominates the sea traffic with about 30 per cent On March 12 1993 terrorists carried out a series of explosions of the overall share. As per statistics given by the Global Shipping in Mumbai which ravaged the city caused 250 fatalities and 700 Council India is eleventh in containerised cargo export trade with were injured. The explosives were smuggled through Raigad and 1.9 twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUS) million and for import Shekhadi. The Government of India launched Operation Swan during August 1993 to prevent clandestine landings along the India is sixteenth with 2 TEUS million. coasts of Maharashtra and Gujarat by strengthening joint patrolCoastal threat ling. A six-year scheme was also formed with effect from 2005-06 The states of Maharashtra and Gujarat are strategically located for creating additional infrastructure for Indian Coast Guard (ICG) and prosperous which makes their coastline vulnerable to smug- with an outlay of 342.56 crore (about 57 million) for non-recurgling poaching of seafood anti-national activities and terror- ring expenditure funded by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES icG WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 4 the MaoiSt MeNaCe iN iNDia briDGiNG the PerSiSteNt fault liNe as the maoist juggernaut gathers steam there is still time for the indian state to get its act together. we need to ensure that we should not be forced to fight a two-and-a-half-front war or worse still permit the internal halffront upgraded to a third full-front . resolving the maoist insurgency should be our top priority. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 329 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE H When the security forces do not exercise Maoists start targeting the leadership at lt GeNeral (retD) P.C. katoCh the necessary care and caution to avoid the Centre and the state capitals. collateral deaths of innocent civilians Ground reality counter-insurgency operations themselves instead of putting down When the Congress motorcade of some 20 vehicles slid into the the insurgency become a root cause of more insurgency . Maoists trap in the Jagdalpur forest on May 25 2013 it shattered the --B. Raman former Additional Secretary illusion of the insurgents being under pressure and on the run because Cabinet Secretariat of some recent targeting of Maoist leaders by security forces. As always tactical pauses by insurgents get misconstrued and in such periods eavy security forces deployment dur- insurgents recoup build capacity and have all the time to strike again ing the first phase of Chhattisgarh elections at the time and place of their choosing. The site chosen by the Maoists on November 11 saw through the voting suc- for this ambush was along a curving stretch of road with dominating cessfully despite several disruptions created heights providing long distance observation and concealed firing posiby the Maoists at Dantewada Kanker Sukam tions the vehicles were moving bumper to bumper and the Maoists and Durgapur which resulted in killing of one blew up the second lead vehicle using an IED bringing the motorcade Central Reserved Police Force (CRPF) constable injuring another to an abrupt halt. What followed was intense automatic fire that evenwhile recovering a bomb use of improvised explosive devices tually gunned down 17 Congressmen and 10 policemen. Another 36 (IEDs) and looting of electronic voting machines (EVMs). However were injured. The ambush was sprung by some 200 Maoists reportbecause of the forthcoming general elections the political hierar- edly of age group 18-25 many of them women. Senior Congressman chy is apparently playing down incidents that would be otherwise V.C. Shukla was injured in the attack and later died at a private hosconsidered very serious be that the cross border raids beheadings pital in Gurgaon. The Maoists were methodical composed and cold ceasefire violations and terrorist attacks by Pakistan or intrusions blooded which is not surprising with their core group having been by China deep inside our territory. When serious external issues are trained by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and the manner dealt with in a lackadaisical fashion little resolute response can be in which they have booby-trapped those killed in the past including at expected to the Maoist insurgency. The only small ray of hope has Latehar. The statement by one of the injured who was given a lifesavbeen the recent admission by the Home Minister that the Maoists do ing injection and was bandaged by a woman Maoist after he faked have the potential to strike effectively in at least four states--a depar- being a doctor himself and cried for help shows that Maoists are well ture from his predecessor who had stated in 2010 The government organised to look after their own casualties. The hard fact is that you is confident that the problem of left-wing extremism (LWE) will be cannot leave everything to chance in insurgency-affected areas despite overcome in next three years. Ironically India stirs only when cri- tactical pauses in hostilities. We don t seem to have learnt anything sis occurs. Post kidnapping and or killing ground level politicians from heavy casualties suffered in the past by even foot columns of the and bureaucrats Maoists have struck a convoy of Congressmen Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) moving bunched up along roads but perhaps India will consider it as an extreme crisis only after and tracks in areas of Dantewada Garhchiroli Bhadrakali and Latehar. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Contents Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Cambodia People s Republic of China Egypt Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Libya 333 333 333 334 334 334 334 334 335 335 335 335 335 336 336 336 336 336 336 336 Malaysia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen 337 337 337 337 337 338 338 338 338 339 339 339 339 339 340 340 340 340 340 340 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Asian Who s Who CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section five 5 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Who S Who in aSian Defence forceS Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (As on March 25 2014) afghaniStan Head of State and Government President Hamid Karzai First Vice President Vacant Second Vice President Abdul Karim Khalili Defence Minister Bismillah Khan Mohammadi Foreign Minister Ahmad Zarar Moqbel Osmani Interior Minister Mohammad Omar Daudzai Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces Lt General Sher Mohammad Karimi Commander of the Air Force Major General Abdul Wahab Wardak Ministry of Defence Kabul Afghanistan Tel 0093 (O) 202300331 Tel 0093 (O) 700275707 Ministry of Defence Avenue des Tagarins Algiers Algeria Tel 2132611515 National People s Army HQ C o Ministry of National Defence Avenue Ali Khoudja Algiers Algeria Tel 2132634176 631765 611515 auStralia Head of State Queen Elizabeth II (since January 6 1952). Governor General Quentin Alice Louise Bryce Prime Minister Tony Abbott Defence Minister David Albert Lloyd Johnston Chief of the Defence Forces General David Hurley Chief of Army Lt General David Morrison Chief of Navy Vice Admiral Ray Griggs Chief of Air Force Air Marshal Geoff Brown Chief Joint Operations Lt General Ash Power Department of Defence Russel Offices Suite MF149 Parliament House Canberra ACT 2600 Tel 02 6277 7800 6162659111 Fax 02 6273 4118 Defence National Tel 1300 3333623 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book algeria Head of State President Abdel-aziz Bouteflika Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal Chief of General Staff and Vice-Minister of National Defence General Ahmed Salah Gaida Commander of the Land Forces Major General Ahcene Tafer Commander of the Navy Major General Malek Necib Commander of the Gendarmerie Major General Ahmed Boustila www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 333 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS Contents One Two Three Four Five Six GDP & Military Expenditure Central & South Asia East Asia Pacific Rim & Australia West Asia and North Africa Asia-Pacific Environment Equipment & Hardware Specifications 341 345 375 415 451 457 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Regional Balance CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES section six 6 WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS deep Rooted Integrity &Trust SP s Aviation SP s Land Forces SP s Naval Forces SP s Airbuz are a. BPA Applied For b. Circulated in Asia-Pacific including India backed by BPA endorsement. Yet another Development that reinstates our Long-Established Commitment to Aerospace & Defence Fraternity Scan to view BPa documentS We at SP s Believe in Relentless Hardwork & Firm Expansions UNPArALLELED UNmAtChED StANDINg IN thE rEgIoN. 1 GDP & Military exPenDiture GDP Total Per Capita Based on Current Prices Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) (estimates for 2013) Sr No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Country Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China Egypt India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Libya GDP Current Prices ( Billion) 20.647 215.723 1 487.97 28.362 140.175 2.133 15.642 8 939.33 262.03 1 758.22 867.468 388.512 221.774 272.737 5 007.20 34.076 224.858 1 197.51 186.058 7.234 10.099 43.493 70.924 GDP Based on (PPP) ( Billion) 35.301 284.684 998.265 34.963 324.628 5.235 39.639 13 374.02 551.441 4 961.71 1 284.79 987.115 248.03 274.504 4 728.87 40.02 243.556 1 665.60 154.23 14.297 20.778 64.309 73.601 GDP Current Prices Per Capita ( ) 626.082 5 668.36 64 156.92 24 153.17 899.298 2 863.20 1 015.28 6 569.35 3 113.84 1 414.11 3 498.51 5 039.30 6 377.17 34 651.38 39 321.19 5 207.31 13 048.37 23 837.71 47 829.01 1 281.83 1 490.31 GDP Based on (PPP) Per Capita ( ) 1 070.48 7 480.38 43 042.24 29 775.32 2 082.66 7 027.86 2 572.90 9 828.32 6 553.07 3 990.64 5 181.56 12 803.63 7 132.19 34 875.89 37 135.42 6 115.67 14 133.44 33 155.59 39 647.16 2 533.34 3 066.27 Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 341 REGIONAL BALANCE GET 10 707.67 COPY TO READ YOUR 15 832.19 IN 10 863.57 COMPLETE 11 273.56 ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 2 Central & South aSia Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book Central asia Central Asia is a region that comprises five states that belonged to the erstwhile Soviet Union--Kazakhstan Kyrgyztan Tajikistan Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It is a region that once used to be called the Centre of the World Given its abundant energy resourc. es and by virtue of its geographical location it has consistently been in the limelight. In the 19th century it was the theatre of the classic great game which was played out between the Russian and the British empires. Later it became a prized possession of the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the independence www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 345 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY C entral and South Asia together account for about one-quarter of the world s population. Both the regions have countries that are mostly underdeveloped and poor. Central Asia lies at the crossroad of Europe and Asia and together with South Asia constitutes one of the most unstable regions of the 21st century. It encompasses the world s largest landmass (39 95 800 sq km) and has vast natural resources including significant reserves of oil and gas. Historically it has acted as a crossroad for the movement of people goods and ideas between Europe West Asia South Asia and East Asia. On the other hand South Asia is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East. Further India s economic growth and dynamism had made South Asia an attractive destination for foreign investment. Despite the global economic meltdown India s GDP was expected to grow at the rate of eight per cent during 2010 and more thereafter. However India s economy has not lived up to its promise of high growth. After considerable slow down in 2012 the year 2013 saw a feeble recovery in the first quarter but weak private consumption capital investment and slowing public spending offered little hope for a fast rebound in coming quarters. Asia s third largest economy grew at 4.7 per cent in 2013. India s coalition government has been weakened by a series of scandals linked to allocation of resources including coal and telecom. Opposition parties attacks on the government have paralysed the Indian Parliament delaying legislation aimed at attracting funds to lift capital investment growth from an eight-year low. High interest rates despite the Reserve Bank of India s intervention and the drift in the government s decision-making process have led to a sharp fall in investment and consumer demand and have choked growth. The rupee has slumped to below 60 vis- -vis the dollar making costly oil imports even more expensive and imposing a bigger burden on Indians travelling or studying abroad. of the Central Asian states. The 9 11 terrorist attacks in the United States brought further global attention to this region reiterating its geostrategic relevance. Along with this the presence of hydrocarbons has again made this region important. The key players in this region are the United States Russia and China. The Fergana Valley is the best-suited land in Central Asia for hosting a large population. Soviet leader Josef Stalin split the valley up between the Soviet republics that would become the countries of Central Asia to ensure the region remained divided however Uzbekistan controls most of the basin itself Tajikistan controls the most accessible entrance to the valley from the west and Kyrgyzstan controls the high ground around the valley. Uzbekistan also controls several exclaves within Kyrgyzstan s portion of the valley affording the Uzbek Government and Uzbek citizens (including militants) access fairly deep into Kyrgyz territory. These complex geographic and political divisions ensure that no one country can dominate Central Asia s core and hence Central Asia itself. Central Asia is referred to as the backyard of Russia and China . It has emerged as the focal point of rivalry between the United States on the one side and Moscow and Beijing on the other side. Post-9 11 Central Asia also emerged as the epicentre of geopolitical changes on a global scale. The United States became the main economic donor and assumed security responsibility enabling it to establish military presence in the region and set up military bases in four out of the five Central Asian states. Due to intensely competitive ties among countries of the region as well as the key players namely the United States Russia and China the American presence now has reduced. It is interesting to note that while each major player tries to accomplish its national interests through their grand strategies the countries of Central Asia are using their own strategies to balance the relationships which seem threatening. Three different strategies have been employed to balance out the major players including strategic partnership non-alignment and a multi-vectored approach The key to what became known as Kazakhstan s multi. vectored approach is to build strategic partnerships with all three powers. Today this policy has eroded somewhat under pressure from Russia s Eurasec Gazprom and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) but it nonetheless remains in place. The major attraction for key players as also countries like India Japan and the European Union is the vast energy reserves of the Caspian basin. Russia which already enjoys military presence in CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS regional balance the region has in conjunction with China sought to counterbalance Washington s influence in the region through SCO. Russia is also further increasing its troop deployment in the region. Central & South aSia Pakistan-afghanistan region The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9 11. Today international terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Additionally Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) continues to foment terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989 and now Pakistan InterServices Intelligence (ISI)-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India establishing their cells within home-grown groups bedevilling relationship between the two countries. Mumbai terrorist attacks on November 26 2008 which emanated from Pakistan created an impasse in their relationship. However much water has flowed since then and a new civilian government under Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is now in power. There are good reasons to believe that the place may get stabler calmer and more prosperous. Sharif s victory was not the only election result worth celebrating. As Pakistan s urban middle class grows so voters are swayed less by tribal loyalty and more by government s policies and performance. For the first time in Pakistan s history one fairly elected civilian government has served a full term and in the course of a fair election been replaced by another. Pakistani democracy has never looked stronger. But it is how things go with India that will do most to shape Pakistan s future. That toxic relationship is behind most of Pakistan s problems the army s dominance the soldiers habit of ousting civilian governments the imbalance between military and civilian spending and the terrorist groups spawned to attack India that have come back to bite Pakistan. When Nawaz Sharif is deciding how to allocate his political capital plenty should go towards normalising relations with India. If he succeeds in doing that much goodwill flow from it. The four major uncertainties in post-2014 Afghanistan (security reconciliation trade and regional cooperation) all have external routes. While the United States will in all probability continue to manipulate and manage the situation from the background in line with its own national interests continued instability in Afghanistan will have adverse consequences including for Pakistan Iran and Central Asian Republics. Pakistan needs to restrain its proxies. China is already in dialogue with India Russia Pakistan and other countries in respect of Afghanistan. The Kabul Ministerial Meeting of June 2012 (attended by the United States China Russia India Iran Pakistan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkey Denmark EU France Japan Norway Afghanistan Azerbaijan Russia Tajikistan Kazakhstan Canada Denmark Turkmenistan Germany and Australia) had chalked out a road map of confidencebuilding measures that would help reconciliation and reconstruction of Afghanistan which in turn would result in regional stability. Genuine efforts by these countries can help achieve this aim. By drastically cutting down a number of residual troops analysts feel the United States may weaken Afghanistan and some chaos will be inevitable. The regional countries need to collectively contribute to the stability of Afghanistan and help in the country s reconstruction. of geographical spread the worst affected States are Chhattisgarh Jharkhand Odisha and Bihar. The LWE problem also exists in certain pockets in the States of Maharashtra West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The front organisations of LWE are active in many states of India. The CPI (Maoist) continues to remain the most dominant and violent LWE group accounting for more than 80 per cent of the violence and the killings. Nepal went to polls on November 18 2013 to elect the Constituent Assembly of the country hit by political stalemate Maoist threats and violence. According to the information received Nepal s oldest political party won the most seats in the first set of results from the election ahead of two prominent communist parties. The results showed that the Nepali Congress Party had won. After years of deadlock Nepal s Parliament elected Sushil Koirala a longtime democracy activist. Mr. Koirala 75 is the president of the Nepali Congress Party which emerged in November election with the most seats in the country s Constituent Assembly. Koirala won more than two-thirds of the legislators votes with 405 voting for him and 148 opposed. In Sri Lanka since the defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) the government has enacted an ambitious programme of economic development projects many of which are financed by loans from the Government of China. In addition to efforts to reconstruct its economy the government has resettled more than 95 per cent of those civilians who were displaced during the final phase of the conflict and released the vast majority of former LTTE combatants captured by the government security forces. At the same time there has been little progress on more contentious and politically difficult issues such as reaching a political settlement with Tamil elected representatives and holding accountable those alleged to have been involved in human rights violations at the end of the war. The British Prime Minister visiting North Sri lanka on November 15 2013 while speaking to journalists said The fact is about this country that there is a chance of success because the war is over the terrorism has finished the fighting is done. Now what s needed is generosity and magnanimity from the Sri Lankan Government to bring the country together. In Bangladesh by every account the January 5 election Bangladesh s 10th so far was a low point for democracy. The boycott of the 18-member opposition alliance meant half the seats Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina s Awami League (AL) won were uncontested and about half the remainder were against unknown candidates with a turnout of just 22 to 30 per cent of voting population. The western world have not supported the election and EU has called for reelection. India has defended Bangladesh from international onslaught however favouring Bangladesh must be regardless of which party rules the country. In the long run this would lead to more stability in the region. Central & South asia nKazakhstan nKyrgyzstan nTajikistan nTurkmenistan nUzbekistan nAfghanistan nBangladesh nBhutan nIndia nNepal nPakistan nSri Lanka www.spguidepublications.com South asia The South Asian scene has been marred by hostility between the nuclear-armed India and Pakistan and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is battling terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir in its north-eastern states and in the rest of the country. Leftwing extremism (LWE) has affected a large number of states. In terms 346 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com Central & South aSia regional balance Central & South aSia www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 347 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS regional balance KaZaKhStan General information Central & South aSia kazakhStan rating. Extractive industries have been and will continue to be the engine of Kazakhstan s growth although the country is aggressively pursuing diversification strategies. Landlocked with restricted access to the high seas Kazakhstan relies on its neighbours to export its products especially oil and grain. Although its Caspian Sea ports pipelines and rail lines carrying oil have been upgraded civil aviation and roadways continue to need attention. Telecoms are improving but require considerable investment as does the information technology base. Supply and distribution of electricity can be erratic because of regional dependencies but the country is moving forward with plans to improve reliability of electricity and gas supply to its population. At the end of 2007 global financial markets froze up and the loss of capital inflows to Kazakhstani banks caused a credit crunch. The subsequent and sharp fall of oil and commodity prices in 2008 aggravated the economic situation and Kazakhstan plunged into recession. While the global financial crisis took a significant toll on Kazakhstan s economy it has rebounded well helped by prudent government measures. Rising commodity prices have helped the recovery. Despite solid macroeconomic indicators the government realises that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries the so-called Dutch disease. In response Kazakhstan has embarked on an ambitious diversification programme aimed at developing targeted sectors like transport pharmaceuticals telecommunications petrochemicals and food processing. In 2010 Kazakhstan joined the Belarus-Kazakhstan-Russia Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade relationships. Area Capital Coastline Population Ethnic Divisions Religions Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions 27 24 900 sq km Astana 0 km (landlocked) 1 79 48 816 (July 2014 est.) Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1 per cent Russian 23.7 per cent Uzbek 2.8 per cent Ukrainian 2.1 per cent German 1.1 per cent Tatar 1.3 per cent Uighur 1.4 per cent others 4.5 per cent (2009 census) Muslim 70.2 per cent Christian 26.2 per cent (Russian Orthodox 23.9 per cent other Christian 2.3 per cent) Buddhist 0.1 per cent other 0.2 per cent atheist 2.8 per cent unspecified 0.5 per cent (2009 census) Kazakh (Qazaq state language) 64.4 per cent Russian (official used in everyday business designated the language of inter-ethnic communication ) 95 per cent (2001 est.) 99.7 per cent Republic authoritarian presidential rule with little power outside the executive branch 18 years of age universal Defence Total Armed Forces Active 39 000 (Army 20 000 Air 12 000 Navy 3 000 MoD 4 000) Terms of Services 12 months Paramilitary Forces Presidential Guard 2 000 Internal Security Troops 20 000 est. State Border Protection Force 9 000 est. Government Guard 500 Security environment Kazakhstan faces no significant external threats. Unique in the post-Soviet Central Asian region for its significant and sustained economic growth which has translated into consistent standard of living increases for the population Kazakhstan has also had a measured foreign policy since independence. Although Russia and China its two economically and militarily sizeable neighbours are perceived as threatening by some Kazakhs it is not in a military sense. Rather Kazakhs worry about Russian and Chinese investors exerting influence as a result of economic power and they express concern about political bullying. They have managed these problems predominantly by maintaining good relations with these countries as well as building ties with the United States. Kazakhstan has sought not so much to balance any one partner against others as it has to ensure that a network of good relationships prevents conflict. In its own region Kazakhstan has aspired to Central Asian leadership with variable success. Kazakhstan is a strategic fulcrum in the vast Central AsianCaspian Basin zone a region rich in energy resources and a potential gateway for commerce and communications between Europe and Asia. It is also an area that faces a vast number of security challenges. Ensuring a stable and secure Central Asia is important for the world and for Kazakhstan which has a vital stake in the security of this region. www.spguidepublications.com 14 provinces and 3 cities overview of the economy Kazakhstan geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics excluding Russia possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals such as uranium copper and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. In 2002 Kazakhstan became the first country in the former Soviet Union to receive an investment-grade credit GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 348 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com 3 eaSt aSia PaCifiC riM & auStralia Chinese Nationalism The present Chinese leadership too has not been remiss in promoting anti-Japanese feelings in China purely for channelling domestic discontent into anti-Japanese sentiment. The bitter relationship between the two countries that began with the Sino-Japanese War more than 120 years ago in 1894 and culminated with massive Japanese atrocities committed during its occupation of China during World War II were never allowed to rise above the surface during the Mao Zedong-Zhou Enlai period. For external enemies Mao had the US and later the Soviet Union. When Deng Xiaoping first started his reform movement in 1978 there was stiff opposition from old Chinese Communist Party (CCP) hardliners and scepticism within the general Chinese public about the efficacy of these reforms. The Chinese people wondered whether yet another calamity like the Cultural Revolution was about to be inflicted on them. It was Deng who devised the strategy of targeting Japanese atrocities during World War II as a means to divert public attention from the economic reforms that he was about to launch. Since then whenever Chinese Communist Party leaders have felt the need to find a scapegoat in the form of an external enemy Japan has invariably been targeted. As China s GDP growth falters and China attempts to restructure its economy it is bound to lead to acute internal dissension and greater inequality. Ever afraid of renewed domestic upheaval the new Chinese leadership might just be tempted to continue play the nationalist card and perhaps even more vigorously than their predecessors. And the popular choice will inevitably be Japan again for no other country arouses such emotions throughout China as does anti-Japanese feeling. It is for these reasons that the flare up over the Senkaku Diaoyu Islands dispute continues to fester and it will inevitably lead to the rise of unfettered nationalism. The Chinese Government announced establishing an East China Sea Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ) on November 23 2013. The Ministry of National Defence of the People s Republic Japanese Nationalism The victory of Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe s Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) in the recent upper house elections in Japan has demonstrated emphatically that nationalism is indeed one of the main driving factors in Japanese politics and that Prime Minister Abe had co-opted it as a part of his election strategy. Of all the foreign policy issues in Japan none is more emotive and appealing than adopting a tough anti-Chinese posture. Before the elections Shinzo Abe made significant gestures that only added to the strength of nationalist feeling amongst the Japanese electorate. On July 17 2013 Abe visited the island of Ishigaki in the Okinawa chain of islands and inspected a Coast Guard vessel there and later in a speech to the Japan s Air Self-Defense Force (ASDF) units stations at Miyako Island spoke of his determination to protect Japanese territories . No one missed the significance of Prime Minister Abe s visit to these islands so close to the disputed islands (Senkaku Diaoyu) with China. On April 21 2013 Prime Minister Abe defended the right of Japanese Ministers to visit the Yasukuni Shrine and he himself went there in October 2013 during its annual autumn festival lay a wreath with his full designation of Prime Minister written on it. Significantly this nationalist feeling is largely anti-Chinese in its orientation and centres on the territorial dispute between the two countries over the Senkaku Diaoyu Islands. Although Sino-Japanese bilateral trade is robust touching nearly 350 billion yet there is an element of touchiness in Japan in that China has surpassed Japan to become the second largest economy in the world leaving Japan behind in third place. Nationalists in Japan find this fact galling. Also on the Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 375 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY E ast Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia though not strictly a part of the region has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important powers in the region are the United States China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness is also aware that the latter s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan its historical antagonist. Four major issues continue to impact the security environment in East Asia China-Japan relations Korean Peninsula Taiwan and international terrorism. cards is the attempt to amend Article 96 of the US imposed Japanese Constitution that will allow a simple majority of both Houses of Parliament and a referendum to overturn Article 9 that prohibits Japan from using force as an instrument of state policy. All these policy changes are seen by China as a ploy by Prime Minister Abe to promote anti-China feelings. As a Chinese official commentary termed it the two countries are now in a state of cold confrontation. CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS regional balance of China issued a statement that the East China Sea ADIZ is established in accordance with the Law of the People s Republic of China on National Defence (March 14 1997) the Law of the People s Republic of China on Civil Aviation (October 30 1995) and the Basic Rules on Flight of the People s Republic of China (July 27 2001). China s declaration of this ADIZ has surely upped the ante in this bitterly contested and explosive zone covering the Senkaku Islands under Japan s administrative control in addition to the greater part of the East China Sea including sections of Taiwan and South Korea -- thereby infuriating the region. eaSt aSia PaCifiC riM & auStralia korean Peninsula The imminence of conflict on the Korean Paninsula is nothing new only the intensity varies. Often it seems that a conflict is imminent but much of it is bluster for none of the principals are interested in a renewed conflict. The starting point of the recent crisis was the third nuclear test conducted by North Korea in February 2013 and the military exercises conducted jointly by the United States and South Korea. These military exercises are conducted regularly by the latter two countries on an annual basis. However what distinguished them this time was the unusual belligerence with the US bringing B-52 bombers and B-2 stealth aircraft to South Korea. The US made no effort to hide the fact that these aircraft were nuclear capable. The shrill response of North Korea to Operation Foal Eagle was expected since the North believes that a major US objective is a regime change in North Korea. China supported the UNSC Resolution 2094 passed by the Security Council on March 7 2013 which was resented by North Korea. They were particularly resentful against the Chinese for UNSC 2094 because it contained financial sanctions. Many analysts interpreted Chinese leader Xi Jinping s remarks that no country should be able to throw the region or even the entire world into chaos for selfish gains as being directed against the North Korean leadership. However that would be reading too much into a firm relationship forged over decades. There are others who believe that North Korea would do nothing without Beijing s explicit clearance. North Korea has for all practical purposes become an autocratic state with an established dynasty. Kim Jong-un is the third in a line of succession going back to his grandfather the legendary Kim Il-sung. The new leader has still to establish his leadership qualities and is in the process of consolidating his power. The appointment of Pak Pong-ju as the new Prime Minister of North Korea has been welcomed for he is known as an economic reformer and as a pragmatist. By taking a belligerent stand against alleged US and South Korean provocations Kim hopes to establish his credentials as a tough leader who can stand up to US. In South Korea too a dynastic succession of sorts has taken place with the new President Park being the daughter of the dictator who ruled South Korea in the 1980s. dant Japan. China argues the islands should have been returned to it on Japan s defeat in 1945. Japan however regards the Senkakus as part of the Okinawa (formerly the Ryukyu) chain and says they were unclaimed by any power until it discovered them in 1884. (China s People s Daily has raised doubts as to whether even this interpretation of history would give Japan sovereignty questioning its claim to all the Ryukyus the modern-day Okinawa prefecture.) But recently to China s fury Taiwan cut a deal with Japan allowing both countries fleets to fish in the waters round the islands. It was a reminder that for all its ardent nationalism Taiwan has close ties with Japan--which occupied it for 50 years--and also that it pursues its own interests not those of the Chinese Motherland . tripartite Cooperation Japan China and Republic of Korea (South Korea) have been regularly holding talks as a part of Tripartite Cooperation among the People s Republic of China Japan and the Republic of Korea. After more than 10 years of development of the cooperation the three countries have established a full-fledged mechanism for cooperation and formed an all-dimensional multi-tiered and wide-ranging cooperation framework with the Trilateral Summit Meeting at its core and supported by 18 ministerial meetings in areas like foreign policy economy and trade science and technology and culture and over 50 working-level mechanisms. These trilateral meetings have also served as confidence building measures as all three countries exchange views on each other s security and defence policies and regional issues. Senior diplomats from South Korea China and Japan held the first trilateral talks in 18 months on November 7 2013 to mend frosty ties caused by Japan s territorial disputes with neighbouring countries and its anachronistic historical perception. South Korean Deputy Foreign Minister Lee Kyung-soo together with his Chinese counterpart Liu Zhenmin and Japanese counterpart Shinsuke Sugiyama met in Seoul to discuss trilateral cooperation through the diplomatic channel that has been halted since May 2012. In the context of counter-terrorism they expressed their intent to cooperate for the Japan-China-ROK Trilateral Counter-Terrorism Consultations which is specified in the Trilateral Cooperation Vision 2020 adopted at the Japan-China-ROK Trilateral Summit in May 2010. uS interest The US interest in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming deeper. This can be seen by the fact that it is reposturing its naval forces in the Asia-Pacific region. By 2020 the Navy will reposture its forces from today s roughly 50 50 split between the Pacific and the Atlantic to about a 60 40 split between those oceans the US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta told Asian officials at a conference in Singapore in June 2012. This will include six aircraft carriers in this region a majority of their cruisers destroyers combat ships and submarines. It is being done in a steady deliberate and sustainable way-- the United States military is rebalancing and brings enhanced capabilities to this vital region. To combat terrorism threat the US has pressed countries in the region to arrest suspected terrorist individuals and organisations funded and trained Indonesia s elite counter-terrorist unit and deployed troops to the southern Philippines to advise the Philippine military in their fight against the violent Abu Sayyaf Group. It has also launched a Regional Maritime Security Initiative to enhance security in the Strait of Malacca increased intelligence sharing operations restarted military-military relations with taiwan Taiwan s President Ma Ying-jeou has presided over a big improvement in relations with China through increased trade and tourism. But that has not brought much sympathy in Taiwan for any kind of Chinese security umbrella let alone unification. And in another dispute--over the five Japanese-controlled islands in the East China Sea known as the Senkaku Islands in Japanese and the Diaoyu in Chinese--Taiwan has incurred China s wrath. In China s view the uninhabited islands are a historical part of what was the Taiwan prefecture of Fujian province (and from 1887-95 the province of Taiwan). Taiwan and the islands it controlled were snatched from the declining Qing empire in 1895 as war booty by an ascenwww.spguidepublications.com 376 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com eaSt aSia PaCifiC riM & auStralia regional balance East Asia Pacific Rim & Australia www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 377 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS regional balance Indonesia and provided or requested substantial aid for Indonesia and the Philippines from the US Congress. Also since 2001 Thailand and the United States have substantially increased their anti-terrorism cooperation. The responses of countries in the region to both the threat and to the US reaction generally have varied with the intensity of their concerns about the threat to their own stability and domestic politics. In general Singapore Malaysia and the Philippines were quick to crack down on militant groups and share intelligence with the United States and Australia whereas Indonesia began to do so only after attacks and arrests revealed the severity of the threat to its citizens. Since that time Indonesian authorities have been aggressive in their pursuit of terrorists and extremist groups. Many governments view increased American pressure and military presence in their region with ambivalence because of the political sensitivity of the issue with both mainstream Islamic and secular nationalist groups. The Muslim insurgency in southern Thailand has escalated in recent years as has terrorist activity in southern areas of the Philippines. eaSt aSia PaCifiC riM & auStralia people initiatives B2B activities and cultural programmes both in India and the ASEAN countries. regional Comprehensive economic Partnership India overcame resistance from China to become a part of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement an ASEAN 6 grouping which is set to emerge as one of the most significant free trading blocs in the world government sources confirmed. Despite Beijing s reservations India participated in the first round of negotiations held recently for RCEP because of support from several ASEAN nations led by Malaysia which insisted on India s involvement. The RCEP comprises China India Australia New Zealand Japan and South Korea apart from the 10-member ASEAN. The second round of negotiations for RCEP will be held in Australia in September. The agreement is likely to come into effect in 2015. After it was first proposed in the 2011 ASEAN summit RCEP has been looked upon by Malaysia and other nations in the region as one of the most ambitious regional economic integration initiatives meant to integrate ASEAN economy with the global economy. ASEAN countries many of which have had territorial spats with Beijing in the South China Sea look upon India as an important partner not least Malaysia which is fast emerging as a crucial economic partner for India. Details pertaining to economic review security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region are as follows nAustralia nCambodia nChina nIndonesia nJapan nNorth Korea nSouth Korea nLaos nMalaysia nMyanmar nThe Philippines nSingapore nTaiwan nThailand nVietnam aSeaN-india relations To mark the 20th anniversary of the ASEAN-India dialogue partnership and the 10th anniversary of ASEAN-India Summit-level partnership India hosted the ASEAN-India Commemorative Summit in New Delhi on December 20-21 2012. The theme of the summit was ASEAN-India Partnership for Peace and Shared Prosperity . The Summit has resulted in the adoption of the Vision Statement which will chart the future direction of ASEAN-India relations. The ASEAN-India Eminent Persons Group (AIEPG) submitted their recommendations to the leaders on future relations between ASEAN and India at the 10th ASEAN-India Summit in Phnom Penh. Enhancing relations with ASEAN has been central to India s Look East Policy and there has been steady progress in the relationship with ASEAN countries since the policy was initiated in 1991. India became a sectoral dialogue partner of ASEAN in 1992 and a full dialogue partner in 1996. Since 2002 they have had annual Summits with ASEAN. After the Commemorative Summit in December 2012 in Delhi India has become a strategic partner of ASEAN. The ASEAN-India Commemorative Summit was the culmination of several events organised in celebration of the partnership. These included a number of ministerial level meetings people-to- www.spguidepublications.com 378 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com eaSt aSia PaCifiC riM & auStralia auStralia regional balance overview of the economy The Australian economy has experienced continuous growth and features low unemployment contained inflation very low public debt and a strong and stable financial system. By 2012 Australia had experienced more than 20 years of continued economic growth averaging 3.5 per cent a year. Demand for resources and energy from Asia and especially China has grown rapidly creating a channel for resources investments and growth in commodity exports. The high Australian dollar has hurt the manufacturing sector while the services sector is the largest part of the Australian economy accounting for about 70 per cent of GDP and 75 per cent of jobs. Australia was comparatively unaffected by the global financial crisis as the banking system has remained strong and inflation is under control. Australia has benefited from a dramatic surge in its terms of trade in recent years stemming from rising global commodity prices. Australia is a significant exporter of natural resources energy and food. Australia s abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal iron copper gold natural gas uranium and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments such as the US 40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project will significantly expand the resources sector. Australia is an open market with minimal restrictions on imports of goods and services. The process of opening up has increased productivity stimulated growth and made the economy more flexible and dynamic. Australia plays an active role in the World Trade Organisation APEC the G-20 and other trade forums. Australia has bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) with Chile Malaysia New Zealand Singapore Thailand and the US has a regional FTA with ASEAN and New Zealand is negotiating agreements with China India Indonesia Japan and the Republic of Korea as well as with its Pacific neighbours and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries and is also working on the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement with Brunei Darussalam Canada Chile Malaysia Mexico New Zealand Peru Singapore the US and Vietnam. AUSTRALIA General information www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 379 REGIONAL BALANCE 200 nm 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin 2 25 07 617 (July 2014 est.) White 92 per cent Asian 7 per cent aboriginal and others 1 per cent Religions Protestant 28.8 per cent (Anglican 17.1 per cent Uniting Church 5.0 per cent Presbyterian and Reformed 2.8 per cent Baptist 1.6 per cent Lutheran 1.2 per cent Pentecostal 1.1 per cent) Catholic 25.3 per cent Eastern Orthodox 2.6 per cent other Christian 4.5 per cent Buddhist 2.5 per cent Muslim 2.2 per cent Hindu 1.3 per cent other 8.5 per cent unspecified 2.2 per cent none 22.3 per cent Note Percentages add up to more than 100 per cent due to rounding (2006 Census) Languages English 76.8 per cent Mandarin 1.6 per cent Italian 1.4 per cent Arabic 1.3 per cent Greek 1.2 per cent Cantonese 1.2 per cent Vietnamese 1.1 per cent other 10.4 per cent unspecified 5 per cent (2011 est.) Literacy 99 per cent Government Federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Suffrage 18 years of age universal and compulsory Administrative Divisions Six states and two territories Area Capital Coastline Maritime Claims Territorial sea Contiguous zone Exclusive economic zone Continental shelf Population Ethnic Divisions 12 nm 24 nm Defence Total Armed Forces Active 57 050 (Army 28 850 Navy 14 000 Air 14 200) Reserve 22 650 (Army 16 650 Navy 2 000 Air 4 000) Foreign Forces US Pacific Command 180 New Zealand Army 9 Singapore Air Force 230 Security environment In recent decades Australia has become an internationally competitive advanced market economy due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s and its location in one of the fastest growing regions of the world economy. Long-term concerns include ageing of the population pressure on infrastructure and environmental issues such as floods droughts and bushfires. Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth making it particularly vulnerable to the challenges of climate change. Australia is home to 10 per cent of the world s biodiversity and a great number of its flora and fauna exist nowhere else in the world. In January 2013 Australia assumed a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term. Australia remains part of the Commonwealth and the Queen is the head of state represented by a Governor General. The future of the monarchy is a recurring issue in politics. In a 1999 referendum about 55 per cent of Australians voted against becoming a republic. The six states of the federation retain extensive powers particularly over education police the judiciary and transport. GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS 77 41 220 sq km Canberra 25 760 km TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 4 WeSt aSia and north africa iraq As violence and political turmoil tear through a war-wrecked Iraq in August 2013 military experts warned US Congress that Al-Qaedaaffiliated terrorist cells are regrouping and working together not only in Iraq but in the entire region to undo a decade of US-led progress. On August 22 2013 Iraq s parliament speaker painted a grim picture of a crumbling country that is taking another beating by terrorists. Al-Nujaifi believes recent spikes in sectarian violence www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 415 REGIONAL BALANCE On November 22 2012 Islamist President Mohammed Morsi issued a constitutional declaration purporting to protect the Constituent Assembly of Egypt from judicial interference. The declaration stated that it only applies until a new constitution is ratified. The declaration also required new trials for people acquitted of Mubarak-era killings of protesters and extended the mandate of the constituent assembly by two months. Additionally the declaration authorised Morsi to take all measures necessary to these ends. In effect the declaration made all constitutional declarations laws and decrees made since Morsi assumed power immune to appeal by any individual political or governmental body. Demonstrations both in support of and opposing Morsi broke out around Egypt after the declaration was made. President Mohammed Morsi was ousted by the Army on July 3 2013. While the West is ambivalent about the crisis in Egypt--critical of the Egyptian generals but reluctant to cut ties with them--some of its key allies in the Middle East suffer no such inhibitions. Sensing a policy vacuum left by the West they are rushing to fill it. Saudi Arabia in particular is positioning itself as the main supporter of the military- Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE egypt BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY T he term West Asia is co-terminous with the Middle East which describes geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than location within Asia. Due to this perceived Eurocentrism international organisations such as the United Nations have replaced Middle East with the term Western Asia. Except for Israel a Jewish country all other states of West Asia and North Africa are Muslim countries. Ethnically most of the Muslim states are Arab and predominantly Sunni. The exceptions are Iraq which is largely dominated by Shias and Iran which has both non-Arab and Shia populace. This region is the birthplace of three of the world s most widespread religions--Judaism Christianity and Islam. West Asia is an area of unique historical importance. Huge oil deposits which were discovered in the early 20th century have further augmented its strategic importance as the economies of a number of developed countries are critically dependent on its oil. Saudi Arabia is geographically the biggest country in West Asia. It is also the richest as it has the largest oil reserves. Iran Iraq and some of the smaller countries like Kuwait and UAE also have huge oil deposits. Politically most of the states are monarchies sheikhdoms or single-party dictatorships and enjoy very little democratic freedom. The dramatic unfolding of the situation in West Asia over the past two years or so poses a challenge for all countries in terms of a political response. It calls for a quick rethinking of their foreign policy not just from a long-term perspective but also to address the challenges in the short term. The challenges did not appear on the scene without warnings. The world has been dealing with nuclear issues for about a decade. Apart from this the post-9 11 scenario brought forth other issues that added to the dilemma and changed the situation in West Asia--the rise of Shia influence the Iranian nuclear issue tensions between Iranians and their Arab neighbours tensions between Iranians and Israelis the Palestine issue and the Arab Spring. coupled with political instability are fuelling concerns that the country could be pushed into another civil war. The latest series of orchestrated attacks in Iraq took place after militants set up their own checkpoints across the country and executed drivers at will. While the killings occurred a bomb went off inside a crowded caf north of Baghdad near the town of Muqdadiyah killing 16 and injuring 20 others. The attacks in August 2013 followed a big prison breakout at the notorious Abu Ghraib prison now under Iraqi Government control. At least 250 prisoners who were linked to terror groups were released and are now back on the streets. Though the country s economy has actually been gradually improving over the last few years the attacks in recent months have been frequent and severe threatening stability. Nearly 2 000 people died in April and May of 2013 alone. The strikes in 2013 underscored the tenuous security picture in the country 10 years after thousands of American troops were dispatched to Iraq in 2003. As pro-democracy uprisings have spread across West Asia the rulers of the monarchies are feeling threatened. Saudi Arabia--the region s great bulwark of religious and political conservatism--is feeling increasingly isolated and concerned that the United States may no longer be a reliable backer as officials and diplomats state. CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS regional balance backed regime in Cairo. In a calculated snub to Washington the Saudi princes have declared that if the Americans cut aid they will increase it. This comes hard on the heels of the 12 billion ( 7.5 billion) they pledged -- with two of their Gulf allies Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates -- in the immediate aftermath of the coup which overthrew President Mohammed Morsi in July 2013. Where the West sees a dilemma the Saudis see an opportunity--a chance to weaken and even destroy their regional enemy the Muslim Brotherhood. A unique phenomenon is unfolding in Egypt. It has a population that is 90 per cent Muslim but the country is witnessing a noholds-barred contest between Muslims and Islamists unfolding in public unprecedented for a Muslim country. WeSt aSia and north africa israel-Palestine conflict The Israel-Palestine conflict extends well beyond the Middle East. Unresolved for more than 60 years it has become a colossal obstruction to international politics and cooperation. However August 2013 saw Israelis and Palestinians holding a third round of negotiations and Israel s chief representative at the talks predicted the US-brokered peace process would lead to dramatic Israeli decisions. The negotiations were renewed in July 2013 in Washington after a three-year stand-off over Israeli settlement expansion in the West Bank and East Jerusalem areas captured in the 1967 Middle East war that Palestinians wants for a state along with the Gaza Strip. A second round of talks was held at an undisclosed location in Jerusalem on August 14 2013 despite Palestinian consternation over Israel s approval in the run-up to the meeting of plans for 3 100 new homes for settlers. An Israeli statement issued after the third round of negotiations on August 20 said that both sides parted agreeing the meeting has been serious and that they will continue the talks at a near date. Israel has rejected criticism of its settlement policy saying the new homes would be erected in enclaves it intends to keep in any future peace deal. Most countries view all settlements Israel has built on occupied land as illegal. No details were given after the August sessions that were widely believed to have focused on setting an agenda for discussing core issues such as borders security and the future of settlements and Jerusalem and Palestinian refugees. alleged could tip that balance -- as many foes of Assad hope it will. But like so much in Syria where the government bars most reporters from working and the opposition heavily filters the information it lets out the truth remains elusive. At Geneva I held on June 20 2012 the action group for Syria which included Russia and the United States agreed on the principles and guidelines for a Syrian-led transition. According to the group communique the first key step in the transition involved the establishment of a transitional governing body with full executive powers formed on the basis of mutual consent involving members of the present government and the opposition At Geneva II the . international community is laying to rest the idea of a final solution in Syria that can be reached through a unilateral military victory. Building on their collaboration in getting the Syrian regime to dismantle its chemical weapons arsenal followed by their success in convening the Geneva II conference Russia and the US now co-own the Syrian conflict. The chemical weapons agreement and Geneva II are partly the result of increased diplomatic traffic between Moscow and Washington. This budding working relationship will be severely tested. iran Iran s nuclear programme is one of the most polarising issues in one of the world s most volatile regions. While American and European officials believe that Tehran is planning to build nuclear weapons Iran s leadership says that its goal in developing a nuclear programme is to generate electricity without dipping into the oil supply it prefers to sell abroad and to provide fuel for medical reactors. Iran and the West have been at odds over its nuclear programme for years. But the dispute has picked up steam since November 2011 with new findings by international inspectors tougher sanctions by the United States and Europe threats by Iran to shut the Strait of Hormuz to oil shipments and Israel signalling increasing readiness to attack Iran s nuclear facilities. In August 2013 Iran sent strong signals that its new foreign minister an American-educated diplomat with a deep understanding of the United States would assume the additional role of leading the Iranian delegation in talks with the major powers over Iran s disputed nuclear programme. Such a change under the new President Hassan Rouhani a moderate cleric who won the presidency in June over his more conservative rivals is a significant departure for Iran in the nuclear talks. Rouhani 0has pledged to reduce tensions with the West over the nuclear issue which has left Iran increasingly isolated and economically troubled by punitive sanctions. On November 24 2013 the interim nuclear accord between Iran and the international community was announced after tense negotiations in Geneva. This accord is historic for two reasons. Taken to its logical conclusion in the coming deal promises to end Iran s prolonged nuclear confrontation with the world strengthen the global non-proliferation regime and reduce the dangers of war in the Middle East. Second emerging from secret talks between Washington and Tehran over the last many months the deal lays the foundation for a long overdue rapprochement between America and Iran. Iran is now open to unprecedented international inspections to verify its commitments under the accord. The international community in turn has given modest relief from the massive sanctions regime that has been constructed in recent years against Iran. The other major problems of this region are the fundamentalist Islamic militancy and sectarian violence and terrorism all these pose threats to peace in West Asia. The US is involved in a significant way in clearing up or resolving all of them. Syria The Syrian civil war is an ongoing armed conflict in Syria between forces loyal to the Ba ath Government and those seeking to oust it. The conflict began on March 15 2011 with popular demonstrations that grew nationwide by April 2011. These demonstrations were part of the wider Middle Eastern protest movement known as the Arab Spring. Protesters demanded the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad whose family has held the presidency in Syria since 1971 as well as the end of the Arab Socialist Ba ath Party rule since 1964. In April 2011 the Syrian Army was deployed to quell the uprising and soldiers fired on demonstrators across the country. After months of military sieges the protests evolved into an armed rebellion. In August 2013 scores of men women and children were killed outside Damascus in an attack marked by the telltale signs of chemical weapons row after row of corpses without visible injury hospitals flooded with victims gasping for breath trembling and staring ahead languidly images of a gray cloud bursting over a neighbourhood. Images of death and chaos poured out of Syria after what may be the single deadliest attack in more than two years of civil war. There were hospital scenes of corpses and the stricken sprawled on gurneys and tile floors as medics struggled to resuscitate them. This latest attack by far the largest chemical strike yet www.spguidepublications.com 416 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com WeSt aSia and north africa regional balance West Asia & North Africa WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 417 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES CONTENTS regional balance ALGERIA General information WeSt aSia and north africa alGeria reserves approaching 200 billion and a large budget stabilisation fund available for tapping. In addition Algeria s external debt is extremely low at about 2 per cent of GDP. However Algeria has struggled to develop non-hydrocarbon industries because of heavy regulation and an emphasis on state-driven growth. The government s efforts have done little to reduce high youth unemployment rates or to address housing shortages. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted the Algerian Government to offer more than 23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases moves which continue to weigh on public finances. Long-term economic challenges include diversifying the economy away from its reliance on hydrocarbon exports bolstering the private sector attracting foreign investment and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians. defence Total Armed Forces Active 1 30 000 Reserve 1 50 000 Terms of Service Conscription 18 months Paramilitary Forces Gendarmerie- 20 000 National Security Forces 16 000 Republican Guard 1 200 Legitimate Defence Groups 1 50 000 est. Security environment In the 1990s Algerian politics was dominated by the struggle involving the military and Islamist militants. In 1992 a general election won by an Islamist party was annulled heralding a bloody civil war in which more than 1 50 000 people were slaughtered. An amnesty in 1999 led many rebels to lay down their arms. Abdelaziz Bouteflika with the backing of the military won the presidency in 1999 in an election widely viewed as fraudulent. He was re-elected to a second term in 2004 and overwhelmingly won a third term in 2009 after the government amended the constitution in 2008 to remove presidential term limits. Long-standing problems continue to face Bouteflika including large-scale unemployment a shortage of housing unreliable electrical and water supplies government inefficiencies and corruption and the continuing activities of extremist militants. The Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) in 2006 merged with Al-Qaeda to form Al Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb which has launched an ongoing series of kidnappings and bombings targeting the Algerian Government and Western interests. The government in 2011 introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring including lifting the 19-year-old state of emergency restrictions and increasing women s quotas for elected assemblies. Parliamentary elections in May 2012 and municipal and provincial elections in November 2012 saw continued dominance by the National Liberation Front (FLN) with Islamist opposition parties performing poorly. Political protest activity in the country remained low in 2012 but small sometimes violent socio-economic demonstrations by disparate groups continued to be a common occurrence. Parliament in 2013 is expected to revise the constitution. Terrorism continues to pose a threat to the safety and security of US citizens travelling to Algeria. Terrorist activities including bombings false roadblocks kidnappings and ambushes occur often particularly in the Kabylie region east of Algiers and in the southern part of the country. Although its yearly military expenditures are well above the world average Algeria maintains a relatively small active military. More than half of its troop strength consists of conscripts who Area Capital Coastline Maritime Claims Territorial sea Exclusive fishing zone Population Ethnic Divisions Religions Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions 23 81 741 sq km Algiers 998 km 12 nm 32-52 nm 3 88 13 722 (July 2014 est.) Arab-Berbers 99 per cent European less than 1 per cent Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99 per cent Christian and Jewish 1 per cent Arabic (official) French Berber dialects 72.6 per cent Republic 18 years of age universal 48 provinces overview of the economy Algeria s economy remains dominated by the state a legacy of the country s socialist post independence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatisation of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy accounting for roughly 60 per cent of budget revenues 30 per cent of GDP and over 95 per cent of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Strong revenues from hydrocarbon exports have brought Algeria relative macroeconomic stability with foreign currency www.spguidepublications.com GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 418 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com 5 aSia-PaCiFiC eNViroNMeNt StrategiC DyNaMiCS iNCeSSaNt traNSForMatioN the strategic environment in the asia-pacific has seen continuous change and volatility over the past decade or so after the united states intervention in afghanistan in 2001 which followed the 9 11 terror attacks. 2013 was no different. Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 451 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS T he situation of strabrigaDier (retD) tegic flux in the region is due to a number of factors. Firstly a challenge to the global balance with the rise of China and India threatening the traditional international order dominated by the US West and Russia. Secondly a resurgent Japan increasing economic clout of South Korea and Indonesia waiting in the wings to seek its rightful role in the regional and ipso facto global order has resulted in reverberations of change in the region. Thirdly the United States Asia-Pacific rebalancing has been a cause for turbulence in regional and global geopolitics. Fourthly the trajectory of change is further distressed by conflicts as the raging civil war in Syria drawing high level of attention particularly of major powers as the United States and Russia. Fifthly China s aggressive posturing to secure what is defined by it unilaterally as core interests caused concerns in its immediate neighborhood. This was followed by attempts at concord between regional states such as the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and India or Japan and India to maintain a balance through mutual coagulation of interests to keep China s ambitions and aggressive intent under check. The most significant defining factor in the transformation however has been the state of global and regional economies. The economic and fiscal challenges in 2013 denoted that the rise of Asia could not follow an autonomous trajectory and highlighted continued global interdependence be it currencies trade or energy flows. Quantitative easing by the US Federal Reserve during the year saw flight of capital from the emerging economies strengthening of the US dollar and corresponding fall in value of other currencies. This placed considerable pressure on economies of the Asia-Pacific particularly India Indonesia and other South East Asian states thereby affecting their growth. This caused a major setback for the rise of the so-called middle powers particularly India. However by rahul bhoNSle December 2013 Indian economy had recovered lost ground so to say with control over the twin deficits fiscal and current account raising the confidence of investors. How these states are able to sustain momentum of growth will dictate the future strategic balance in the region. Demonstration of economic resilience will ensure long-term confidence region thereby feeding in greater investments for the future. China has consolidated its position as one of the primary poles in the Asia-Pacific. This was reinforced with the shutdown of the United States Government in October 2013 that prevented President Barack Obama from participating in the East Asia summit. Thus China seemed to assume the leadership at least notionally on the high table. China s relative economic stability that is being maintained at over 7 per cent growth in the GDP is attracting the region s economies and with continued deflation in the United States and Europe is seen as having greater stability. Moreover Chinese investments in sovereign bonds in the United States are likely to be reviewed breaking the long-standing link between the world s largest and second largest economies. How this will impact the overall regional and global power dynamics is not clear so far. Suffice to say the US-China relations be it economic or military will deserve greater scrutiny in the year ahead. Increasing use of the phrase Indo-Pacific places India into a higher order amongst states in the region. This despite India s rising political and military power followed by its economic status as the third largest economy suffered a setback during the year. This was largely due to slow economic growth given global cues and internal supply side challenges. Strategically India has taken a number of initiatives to expand its influence in Central Asia Afghanistan and Iran which should pay rich dividends in the future. The most important shift has been a closer embrace of South East Asia with the Look East Policy of the country rationalised in 1997 having TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES pib WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS 6 equiPMent & Hardware SPecificationS an overview arMy equiPMent Army equipment is listed below in the following order China Main battle tanks (MBTs) 152mm Gun How Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRLs) Type-90 122mm (40 round) MR System WS-1B Multiple-Launch Rocket System Abbreviations & Index at the end of the book www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 457 REGIONAL BALANCE Light tanks (Lt Tks) Armoured personnel carriers infantry Combat Vehicles (APCs) (ICVs) Type-90 ZBD-04 IFV ZBD (Type-97) NORINCO VP1 Type-89 (YW 534) Type-85 (531H) Type WZ 501 Type-77 Norinco YW 531 APC Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers Type-83 152mm PLZ45 155mm How Enhanced PLZ45 systems NORINCO Type-85 122mm How 155mm (SP) System -SH1 Towed anti-tank (A Tk) guns guns and howitzer Type-59-1 130mm Fd Gun Type-66 Type-98 Type-99 Type-99G Type-90-II NORINCO Type-85-III Type-62 Type-63 Type-63A SP Anti-Aircraft Guns and SAMs Type-80 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System PL-9C Almaz S-300 Offensive Air Defence China s SD-10A Air Defence System Low Altitude (Alt) SAM System Towed AA Guns Chinese Type-56 14.5mm Gun NORINCO 37mm Type-74 Czech Slovak Republics APCs ICVs BRDM-2 OT-64 C (SKOT-2A) BMP-1 & OT90 APC France MBTs Lt Tks APCs ICVs Leclerc AMX-30 AMX -13 Giat AMX-10P Nexter Systems AMX10P Marines AMX VCI (ICV) Improved VAB 4 x 4 version (Wheeled) Panhard ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY T his chapter contains specifications of some important military hardware being employed in the Asian region. Equipment having greater commonality within the region and those of comparatively recent origin have been chosen and presented for each wing of the armed forces namely army navy and air force separately. Salient details are as under nThe chapter begins with a summary of equipment of each manufacturing country followed by more detailed characteristics of each type of equipment of that country. nWhile the equipment mentioned is in use in the Asian region each type of hardware is listed under its country of origin (manufacturer) like Russia UK and the US. nThe development of weapon systems being a long-term process a composite unit like a tank ship or an aircraft passes through various phases stages of development and appears in different variants with new fitments based on new technologies to cater for new operational parameters. Thus the equipment may seem old but in fact may have undergone numerous upgrades to modernise it for current and future conflicts. nSome such variants of equipment have been included based upon information in the public domain and collated from various sources including other publications. For greater details please refer to other relevant media. nSpecifications have been listed in general terms and common features spelt out. Details of sensors weapon control systems and other such subsystems have been omitted as they may vary from craft to craft even within the same class or category. nThe equipment held (types and numbers) in various countries of Asia along with other details is given in our Chapter on Regional Balance. CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS regional balance arMy equiPMent (contd.) PVP Panhard M3 GIAT Mk. F3 155mm SP Gun GIAT 155mm GCT SP Gun SP AA Guns and SAMs Panhard M3 VDA Twin 20mm SP AA Gun System Crotale Low Alt SAM System Shahine Low Alt SAM System AMX-30 twin 30mm SP AA Gun System SP Guns and Hows Germany MBTs APCs ICVs Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2A7 Leopard 2A6 Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2 MBT Neuer Schutzenpanzer PUMA AIFV Condor Fuchs Rheinmetall Landsystem Marder 1A3 ICV T-90 Arjun IFG Mk.2 105mm Pinaka MR System Merkava Mk3 Merkava 4 Sabra MBT RAM family of light AFVs Soltam L-33 155mm Soltam M-71 155mm Gun How Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows equiPMent & Hardware SPecificationS arMy Propelled Artillery System 2S19 D-30 122mm Fd Gun M-46 130mm Fd Gun 155mm Gun How D-20 MRLs Splav 300mm BM 9A52 (12 round) Smerch MR System BM-21 122mm (40 round) MR System SP AA Guns and SAMs ZSU-23-4 Quad 23mm SP AA Gun System ZSU-57-2 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System 2S6M Tunguska System SA-6 Gainful Low-to-Med alt SAM System SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System SA-8B SAM System SA-9 Gaskin SAM SA-13 Gopher SAM System Towed AA Guns ZU-23-2 Twin 23mm Automatic (Auto) AA Gun S-60 57mm Auto AA Gun 100 mm anti-aircraft gun KS-19 Singapore SP Guns and Hows South Africa APCs ICVs South Korea MBTs Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Howitzer Spain APCs ICVs Sweden Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Howitzer Towed AA Guns Switzerland APCs ICVs Towed AA Guns SSPH-1 Primus Casspir Mk. III Ratel 90 K1 Hyundai Rotem K2 MBT 155mm KH179 How BMR-600 India MBTs Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows MRLs Israel MBTs Reconnaissance Vehicles SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows Italy SP Guns and Howitzer Oto Palmaria 155mm Oto Melara 155mm M109L [SP] Howitzer Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Howitzer Oto Melara Model 56 105mm Pack How Japan MBTs Recce Vehs APCs ICVs SP Guns and Hows MRLs Pakistan MBTs APC Russia MBTs Lt Tks Recce Vehs APCs ICVs SP Guns and Hows Type-74 Type-90 Mitsubishi TK X MBT Type-87 Type-73 Type-89 Mitsubishi Type SU 60 Type-75 155mm Type-99 155mm Type-75 130mm (30 round) MR System Bofors FH-77 B 155mm Bofors L-40 -70 40mm Auto AA Gun Mowag Piranha Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 and 005 Twin 35mm Auto AA Guns Oerlikon Contraves 20mm GAI-B01 Auto AA Guns Chieftain Mk 5 Centurion Mk 13 Challenger 2 Khalid Vickers MBT Mk 3 Alvis Scorpion Alvis Saladin Daimler Ferret Mk 2 3 Stormer GKN Def Desert Warrior FV432 AS90 (Braveheart) 155mm SP Gun 105mm Lt Gun (L 118) 155mm Lightweight How (M 777) United Kingdom MBTs Lt Tks Recce Vehs APCs ICVs SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows Type MBT 2000(Al Khalid) Type Al Zarrar Type Saad Type Talha Type M113A2 Black Eagle Development Tank T-95 T-54 T-55 T-55 (Upgraded) T-62 T-64B T-72 T-80U T-90S PT-76B BRDM-2 PRP-4 BMP-1 BMP-2 BMP-3 BMD-1 ACV BTR-50 BTR-80A MT-LB BTR-152VI M 1973 (2S3) 152mm M 1974 (2S1) 122mm (MSTA-S) 152mm Self- www.spguidepublications.com United States of America MBTs M-1 Abrams M-48 series M 60 A3 Lt Tks M-41 Sting Ray APCs ICVs M-113 A3 SP Guns and Hows 15 mm 52-calibre International Howitzer M-107 175mm SP Gun 458 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com equiPMent & Hardware SPecificationS arMy regional balance began circulating shortly after Xinhua News Agency released photos of what looked like a new and improved version of that armoured vehicle in early 2008. The visual differences indicate that the Type-99G has a new Active Protection System (APS) and an independent thermal imaging system for the tank commander. The tank also seems to sport a new electro-optical countermeasures package and a new laser designator warning system. Collectively these improvements in the sensors and electronics mean the Type99G is better able to find targets more aware of when it is being targeted by an enemy and better able to use small missiles to deflect or destroy incoming attacks. The Type-99G main battle tank is also rumoured to have a new diesel engine developing 2 100 hp. This represents an increase of 600 hp over the engine used in previous versions of the tank. Some sources also indicate that the Type-99G uses improved materials technology in the armour and possibly the engine resulting in a tank lighter tank with just as much armoured protection. The Type-99A2 the previous version of the tank was thought to weigh 58 tonnes while the 99G is thought to weigh 54 tonnes. The road speed off-road speed and range for the new Type-99G all remain unknown but if the information about the engine and the construction bear out the tank s power-to-weight ratio rises from 27.8 hp per tonne to 38.8 hp per tonne. By contrast the American M-1A1 tank weighs 60 tonnes has a 1 500 hp gas turbine engine and has a power-to-weight ratio of 24.5 hp per tonne. 4. NORINCO Type-85-III MBT Specifications Dimensions and Weights Crew 3 Length Overall 10.369 m Main armament rear 9.508 m Width 3.42 m Height 2.3 m Ground clearance adjustable 0.48 m to 0.52 m Weight 42 500 kg Power-to-weight ratio 23.52 hp tonne Speed Max speed 65 kmph Range Main fuel supply 600 km (est.) Engine Configuration V-type Fuel diesel Output 1 000 hp Smoke generator in exhaust yes FIREPOWER Armament 1 x turret mounted 125mm smoothbore gun 1 x coaxial mounted 7.62mm (0.30) machine gun 1 x roof mounted 12.7mm (0.50) machine gun 12 x turret mounted smoke grenade launcher (2 x 6) Ammunition 42 rounds arMy equiPMent (contd.) M- 109 Series of 155mm SP How M-110 Series of 203mm SP How (8 inch) Towed A Tk Guns Guns and Hows M-198 155mm How SP AA Guns and SAMs M-42 Twin 40mm SP AA Gun System M-163 Vulcan 20mm SP AA Gun System M-48 A1 Chaparral Low Alt SP SAM System Patriot Msl (many verions) single stage low to high altitude SAM system Hawk Single Stage low to medium altitude SAM System Towed AA Guns M-167 Vulcan 20mm AA Gun cHina Main Battle Tanks (MBT) 1. Type-98 Specifications Crew 3 Weight 50 000 kg Power-to-weight ratio 24 hp tonne Length gun forward 10.92 m Width 3.372 m Height 2.805 m Engine Model WD396 V-8 turbo-charged diesel developing 1 200 hp Max road speed 65 kmph Max range 500-650 km Armament Main 1 x 125mm SBG Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm MG AA 1 x 12.7mm MG Amn 42 x 125mm 2 000 x 7.62mm 300 x 12.7mm 2. Type 99 99A2 Specifications Type Tracked armoured Crew 3 (commander gunner driver) Length 11 m Width 3.4 m Height 2.2 m Type-99G 54 t Type-99A2 58 t Maximum Speed (Road) 80 kmph Cruising Range 400 km or 600 km with external fuel tanks Armament Coaxial 1 x 7.62mm AA 1 x 12.7mm It is in service with People s Liberation Army (PLA). 3. Type-90-II Specifications Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 443. Type 99 G A more potent variant of the Chinese Type-99 main battle tank www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 459 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS regional balance arMy equiPMent (contd.) Gun stabiliser yes Range-finding device Laser LIGHT TANKS 1. Type-62 Specifications Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 443. It is in service with Bangladesh Cambodia China and Vietnam. 2. Type-63 Specifications Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section Page 443. It is in service with China Myanmar and Vietnam. 3. Type-63A Specifications Weight Length Width Height Crew Armament Main AA Coaxial Engine diesel Power weight Operational range Land Speed Land It is in service with PLA equiPMent & Hardware SPecificationS arMy Width Height Weight Configuration running gear Power-to-weight ratio Max speed Main fuel supply Amphibious Engine Fuel Cooling Output Gearbox model Steering 3.178 m 2.556 m (with AA MG) 14 500 kg tracked 22 hp tonne 65 kmph 500 km yes diesel air cooled 320 hp power shifting two-stage planetary drive final drive hydraulic torsion bar 1 x cupola mounted 12.7mm (0.50) Type-54 machine gun 2 x smoke grenade launcher NBC capability and Night Vision Clutch type Suspension Firepower Armament Survivability It is in service with PLA 19-20 tonnes 7.3 m 3.2 m 2.6 m 4 105mm rifled gun 12.7mm 7.62mm 580 hp 26.4 hp tonne 400 km Sea 120 km [1] 75 kmph Swim 28 kmph [2] 4. Type- 89 (YW 534) Specifications Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2011-12 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 443. It is in service with PLA. 5. Type-85 (YW 531 H) Specifications Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2011-12 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 443. It is in service with PLA Myanmar Sri Lanka and Thailand. 6. Type WZ 501 IFC Specifications Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2011-12 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 443. It is in service with PLA. 7. Type 77 APC Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 444. It is in service with PLA and Albania. 8. NORINCO YW 531 APC Specifications Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2011-12 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 444. It is in service with PLA Albania Bangladesh North Korea Tanzania Vietnam Zimbabwe SP Guns and Hows 1. Type-83 152mm Specifications Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 444. It is in service with PLA. APCs ICVs 1. Standard Type-90 Specifications Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 443. It is in service with PLA. 2. ZBD-04 IFV ZBD (Type 97) In mid-2003 China developed a new Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) which has significant improvements in the key areas of armour mobility and firepower over existing vehicles employed by the People s Liberation Army (PLA). This new Chinese IFV is designated the ZBD-04 and was first fielded in small numbers by the People s Liberation Army in 2006. It is the most powerful vehicle of its type deployed by the PLA and as of mid-2010 has not been offered on the export market by China North Industries Corporation (NORINCO). 3. NORINCO VP1 Armoured Personnel Carrier Specifications Crew 2 13 Length 6.634 m www.spguidepublications.com GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 460 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com equiPMent & hardware SPecificationS navy regional balance Destroyers Frigates Kashin Class Udayloy I & II Class Krivak Class Admiral Gorshkov Class Admiral Grigorovich Class Gepard Class Buyan Class Steregushchy Class Nanuchka Class Tarantul Class naval equiPMent Naval equipment is presented in the order as shown below. CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines Aircraft Carriers Patrol Submarines Destroyers Frigates Corvettes INDIA Submarines THAILAND Air Craft Carriers Amphibious Forces Frigates Air Craft Carrier Destroyers Frigates Shishumar Class Kilo Class Foxtrot Class Scorpene Class Hermes Class Kiev Class (Ex Admiral Gorshkov) Delhi Class Kashin Class Godavari Class Brahmaputra Class Talwar Class Shivalik Class Dolphin Class Eilat (SAAR 5) Class Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class Reshef Class Super Dvora Class Romeo Class Sang-O Class Corvettes Chakri Naruebet Class Endurance Class Nomed PS 700 Class Naresuan Class Gwanggaeto Class Oliver Hazard Perry Class Knox Class Jianghu II Class Tapi Class Khamronsin Class Ratnakosin Class ISRAEL Submarines Corvettes Patrol Forces UNITED KINGDOM For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section. Frigates Leander Class Salisbury Class Alvand (Vosper Mk. 5) Class Lekiu Class Missile Craft Dhofar (Province) Class Corvettes Qahir Class UNITED STATES OF AMERICA For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section Guided Missile Destroyers Gearing Class Frigates Adelaide Class Amphibious Forces Austin Class WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section. Submarines Agosta Class (France Spain) Daphne Class (France) Yono Class Frigates Najin Class For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section. Soho Class RUSSIA Patrol Submarines Kilo Class Lada Class www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 481 REGIONAL BALANCE ASIAN WHO S WHO NORTH KOREA Submarines INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY Jin Class XIA Class Han Class Shang Class Varyag (Admiral Kuznetsov Class) Song Class Yuan Class Kilo Class Luzhou Class Sovremenny Class Luyang Class Luyang II Class Luda Class Luhai Class Luhu Class Jiangkai Class Jiangkai II Class Jiangwei Class Jiangwei II Class Jianghu 1 II V Class Jiangdao Class Corvettes CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES SOUTH KOREA Submarines Chang Bogo Class Son Wonil Class Dolgorae Class Amphibious Assault Dokdo Class LPH Go Jun Bong Class LST Destroyers KDX1 2 & 3 Class Frigates Incheon Class Ulsan Class Corvettes P O Hang Class For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Equipment and Hardware Section. WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS regional balance naval equiPMent (contd.) Frigates HDW Class (Germany) Al Riyadh Class (France) Madina Class (France) La Fayette Class (France) Descubierta Class (Spain) Combattante Class (France) Ratcharit Class (Italy) Principe De Asturias Class (Spain) equiPMent & hardware SPecificationS navy an extended hull to accommodate 12 ballistic missile tubes. Nuclear Propelled Attack Submarines (SSGN) Han Class (Type 091) Displacement tonnes 5 000 dived Dimensions feet (metres) 385 x 33 x 24 (98 x 10 x 7.4) Main machinery 1 nuclear pressurised water reactor 1 shaft Speed knots 25 dived 12 surfaced Complement 75 Weapons 6 x 533mm torpedo tubes for CET 65E and Type 53-51 torpedoes up to 20 torpedoes or 36 mines Tube launched C-801 anti-ship missiles Programme & Structure The first nuclear powered submarines deployed by the PLA (Navy). Five boats of the class were built and commissioned between 1974 and 1990. The first two are reported to have been decommissioned. They are known for a noisy reactor and poor radiation shielding and are inhibited in their ability to launch missiles while submerged. Reported to be equipped with SQZ-262 sonar made in China. All boats deployed with the North Sea Fleet and based at Qingdao. Shang Class (Type 093) Displacement tonnes 6 500 dived Dimensions feet (metres) 372 x 37.2 x 33.6 (110 x 11 x 10) Main machinery 1 nuclear pressurised water reactor 1 shaft Speed knots 30 dived Complement 100 Weapons 6 x 533mm or 650mm torpedo tubes for a range of wire acoustic and wake homing torpedoes and the submarine launched version of YJ-83 cruise missile. Programme & Structure The second generation of nuclear powered submarines deployed by the PLA (Navy). Design developed with assistance from Russia s Rubin design bureau. At least four are reported in service with reports indicating up to four more may be built. All boats deployed with the North Sea Fleet and based at Qingdao. Patrol Submarines 13 Song Class (Type 039 039G) (SSG) Displacement tonnes 1 700 surfaced 2 250 dived Dimensions feet (metres) 246 24.6 17.5 (74.9 8.4 5.3) Main machinery Diesel-electric 4 MTU 16V 396 SE 6 092 hp (m) (4.48 MW) diesels 4 alternators 1 motor 1 shaft. An AIP system has been reported Speed knots 15 surfaced 22 dived Complement 60 (10 officers) Missiles SSM C-801A radar active homing to 80 km (44 n miles) at 0.9 Mach warhead 165 kg Torpedoes 6-21 in (533mm) tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET-50) passive homing to 15 Fast Attack Missile Craft Aircraft Carriers china Strategic Missile Submarines 5 1 Jin Class (Type 094) (SSBN) Displacement tonnes 8 000 surfaced 11 000 dived Dimensions feet (metres) 449.5 38.7 7.5 (137.0 11.8 2.3) Main machinery Nuclear 2 PWR 150 MW 2 turbines 1 shaft Speed knots 20 Complement 140 Missiles SLBM 12 JL-2 (CSS-NX-5) 2-stage solid-fuel rocket Inertial guidance with stellar update to over 8 600 km 12 000 km or 14 000 km depending on the variant single nuclear warhead of 1 MT or 3-8 MIRV of smaller yield. CEP 300 m approximate Torpedoes 6-21 in (533mm tubes). Countermeasures Decoys ESM. Radars Surface search navigation Type-359 I-band Sonars Hull mounted passive active flank and towed arrays. Structure Likely to be based on the Type-093 SSN design which in turn is believed to be derived from the Russian Victor III design. XIA Class (Type 092) (SSBN) Displacement tonnes 6 500 surfaced 7 000 dived Dimensions feet (metres) 393.6 33 26.2 (120 10 8) Main machinery Nuclear turbo-electric 1 PWR 58 MW 1 shaft Speed knots 22 dived Complement 100 Missiles SLBM 12 JL-1 (CSS-N-3) inertial guidance to 2 150 km (1 160 n miles) warhead single nuclear 250 kT. Torpedoes 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Yu-3 (SET-65E) active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt warhead 205 kg. Countermeasures ESM Type 921-A radar warning. Radars Surface search Snoop Tray I-band. Sonars SQZ-3 hull-mounted active passive search and attack medium frequency. Structure Diving depth 300 m (985 ft). The Xia is a derivative of the Han Class SSNs with www.spguidepublications.com 482 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com equiPMent & hardware SPecificationS navy regional balance 54E1) active radar homing to 180 km (97.2 n miles) at 0.7 Mach (cruise) and 2.5 Mach (attack) warhead 450 kg Torpedoes 6-21 in (533mm) tubes. 18 torpedoes. Combination of TEST 71 96 wire-guided active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt warhead 205 kg and 53-65 passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 n miles) at 45 kt warhead 300 kg Mines 24 in lieu of torpedoes Countermeasures ESM Squid Head or Brick Pulp radar warning Weapons control MVU-119 EM Murena TFCS. Radars Surface search Snoop Tray I-band. Sonars Shark Teeth hull-mounted passive active search and attack medium frequency Mouse Roar hull-mounted active attack high frequency. Modernisation The first four submarines were refitted in the Shipyards at Russia. Upgrade package is likely to have included installation of the Klub (3M54) (SS-N27) anti-ship missile system. Operational The first eight (364-371) based at Xiangshan in the East Sea Fleet and the remainder (372-375) based in the South Sea Fleet. Aircraft Carriers 0 1 Varyag (Admiral Kuznetsov Class) (Project 1143.5 6) Name Liaoning named for the Liaoning province Displacement tonnes 53 000-55 200 standard 58 600-67 500 max. Dimensions feet (metres) 999 oa 918.6 wl x 229.7 oa 121.4 wl x 34.4 (304.5 280 x 70 37 x 10.5) Flight deck feet (metres) 999 x 229.7 (304.5 x 70) Main machinery 8 boilers 4 turbines 2 00 000 hp(m) (147 MW) 4 shafts Speed knots 30 Range n miles 3 850 at 29 kt 8 500 at 18 kt Complement 1 960 (200 officers plus 626 aircrew plus 40 flag staff ) Weapons 3xType 1130 CIWS 11 barrels firing 9 000 to 11 000 rounds per minute range 2.5-3.5 km 3 x HQ 10 (18 cell SAM system) 2 x ASW Rocket Launchers Aircraft Mix of Shenyang J-15 fighters (Chinese derivative of Su-33 2.4 Mach) Changzhe Z-8 helicopters (French Super Frelon SA 321 made in China for ASW and SAR role) and Ka-31 AEW helicopters. Programme Liaoning is the PLA (Navy) s first and only aircraft carrier. Originally laid down as Riga at Nikolayev South Shipyard in 1985 the ship was renamed Varyag in 1990. However construction ceased in 1992 with the structure naval equiPMent (contd.) km (8.1 n miles) at 30 kt warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET-65E) active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wake-homing torpedoes may also be fitted In lieu of torpedoes ESM Type 921-A radar warning Surface search I-band Bow-mounted Chinese derivative of French Thomson CSF TSM 2233 passive active search and attack medium frequency. Flank array Chinese derivative of Thomson CSF 2255 passive search low frequency Basing North (315 316 327 328) East (314 321 322 323 324 325) South (320 326 329) Mines Countermeasures Radars Sonars Operational 7 1 Yuan Class (Type 041) (SSG) Displacement tonnes 4 000 dived Dimensions feet (metres) 236.2 x 27.5 (72.0 x 8.4) Main machinery Diesel-electric 4 diesels 1 motor Chinese developed AIP system 1 shaft Missiles SSM C-80X inertial cruise active radar homing to 80-120 km (44-66 n miles) at 0.9 Mach warhead 165 kg. Torpedoes 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET-50) active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 30 kt warhead 309 kg and Yu-3 (SET65E) active passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt warhead 205 kg. Yu-6 wake-homing torpedoes may also be fitted. Sonars Bow-mounted active passive search and attack medium medium frequency. Flank array passive search low frequency. Comment Teardrop hull and use of anechoic rubber tiles suggest strong influence of Kilo class in design. Equipped with indigenously developed shock absorber system to reduce noise by over 35 dB. Intended to replace the obsolescent Romeo and Ming class submarines. Kilo Class (Project 877EKM 636) (SSG) Displacement tonnes 2 325 surfaced 3 076 dived Dimensions feet (metres) 238.2 242.1 (Project 636) 32.5 21.7 (72.6 73.8 9.9 6.6) Main machinery Diesel-electric 2 diesels 3 650 hp(m) (2.68 MW) 2 generators 1 motor 5 900 hp(m) (4.34 MW) 1 shaft 2 auxiliary motors 204 hp(m) 150 kW) 1 economic speed motor 130 hp(m) (95 kW) Speed knots 17 dived 10 surfaced Complement 52 (13 officers) Missiles SLCM Novator Alfa Klub SS-N-27 (3M- www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 483 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS regional balance air equiPMent AIR equipment is listed below in the following order aerial PlatforMS Combat Aircraft China Europe France India Israel Russia Xian H-6K Bomber Shenyang J-8A 8B & J8II Xian JH-7 & 7A Chengdu J-7 & J-7D E Chengdu J-10 Nanchang Q-5 Fantan FC-1 Xiaolong JF-17 Thunder Chengdu J-10 Chengdu J-20 Stealth Aircraft Under Development Shenyang J-11A 11B & 11BH (Copy of Su-27) Shenyang J-16 Shenyang J-31 Fifth-Generation Stealth Aircraft Eurofighter Typhoon Tranche 1 2 & 3A Dassault Mirage 2000H Dassault Mirage F1 Dassault Mirage IV Dassault Rafale LCA Tejas Mk I IAI Kfir IAI Nesher (Israeli version of Dassault Mirage 5) Mikoyan MiG-25R Mikoyan MiG-27M Mikoyan MiG-29 Mikoyan MiG-31 MiG-31BM Mikoyan MiG-35 Sukhoi Su-24 M M2 MR Sukhoi Su-25SM Sukhoi Su-27 Sukhoi Su-30M M2 Sukhoi Su-34P Sukhoi Su-35 Saab JAS-39 Gripen Panavia Tornado BAE Systems Hawk 200 Series Boeing F-15C D Eagle Boeing F-15E Strike Eagle Boeing F A-18A B C D Hornet Boeing F A-18E F Super Hornet Lockheed Martin F-16C D Fighting Falcon Northrop F-5E Tiger Northrop F-5F N Tiger II F-22A Raptor F-35A F-35B Joint Strike Fighter Lightening II Spain Ukraine equiPMent & hardware SPecificationS air force Tupolev Tu-134 Yakovlev Yak-40 EADS CASA C-212 EADS CASA CN-235M EADS CASA C-295 Antonov An-12 Antonov An-22 Antonov An-24 Antonov An-26 Antonov An-32 Antonov An-124 Antonov An-72 Antonov An-74 United States of America Brazil C-5 Galaxy C-17 Globemaster III Lockheed Martin C-130J-30 Super Hercules Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante Embraer Legacy 600 VIP Transport Embraer 190 VIP Transport Embraer 120 Brasila Embraer 145 Utility Embraer 121 Xingu Embraer R 99 AEW Elint Embraer KC-390 (28 on order induction in 2015) Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma AS 532 Cougar Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil AS 550 AS 555 Fennec Eurocopter SA 360 AS 365 Dauphin SA 365 366 Dauphin II AS 565 Panther Eurocopter SA 316 319 Alouette III Eurocopter SA 330 Puma Eurocopter SA 341 342 Gazelle Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv ALH WSI (Armed Version) Orders placed Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) Orders placed AW101 VIP Communication AW139 VIP Communication SAR Kamov Ka-52 Attack Helicopter Kamov Ka-226 Training Kazan Ansat Mil Mi-6 Mil Mi-8 Mil Mi-17 Mil Mi-24 Attack Helicopter Mil Mi-25 -35 Attack Helicopter Mil Mi-26 Bell 407 Bell AH-1 Cobra Super Cobra helicoPterS France Sweden United Kingdom United States of America Germany India Italy Russia www.spguidepublications.com tranSPort aircraft Germany Dornier Do-228 Russia Ilyushin IL-76 Ilyushin IL-86 United States of America 502 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com equiPMent & hardware SPecificationS air force regional balance (xv) J 7 FT 7 Tandem two-seat operational trainer based on J-7 II Users China (J-7 II IIA H IIM III IIIA E) Bangladesh (F-7M) Egypt (F-7A B) Iran (F-7M) Myanmar (F-7M) North Korea (F-7) Pakistan (F-7P PG) and Sri Lanka (F-7BS) Jian 8 NATO reporting name Finback Western designation F-8 Users China Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 499. Jianjiao 7 Western designation FT-7 Users Bangladesh (FT-7B) China (JJ-7) Iran (FT-7) Myanmar (FT-7) Pakistan (FT7P PG) and Sri Lanka (FT-7). Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 499. Qiang 5 NATO reporting name Fantan Western designation A-5 Users Bangladesh (A-5C) China (Q-5) Myanmar (A-5-C -M) and Pakistan (A-5III). Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 499. FC 1 Export version Super-7 Users China Pakistan Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 500. Jianji 10 Western designation F-10 Type Multi-role fighter Design Tail-less delta wing and close-coupled fore-planes single sweptback vertical tail outward-canted ventral fins single ventral engine air intake. Accommodation Pilot only on zero zero ejection seat. Range 1 000 nm Armament 11 external stores points including one on centerline tandem pairs on fuselage sides and three under each wing the outboard wing stations each carrying PL-8 or later AAMs. Other potential weapons could include Vympel R-73 and R-77 AAMs C-801 or C-802 ASMs and laser guided or free fall bombs. Combat Radius 250-300 nm Users China J 11 (Su-27SK) For details see Su-27 under Russia air equiPMent (contd.) training Brazil India United Kingdom China Pakistan Boeing AH-64 Apache Boeing CH-47 Chinook Sikorsky UH-60 SH-60 S-70 Blackhawk S-92 Embraer EMB-312 Tucano HAL HJT-16 Kiran Mk I IA and Mk-II BAE Systems Hawk Advanced Jet Tainer K-8 Karakoram Basic Jet Trainer L-15 Advanced Jet Trainer coMbat aircraft ChinA hong 6 Western designation B-6 Users China Note For details please refer to SP s MYB 2009-10 Edition Equipment and Hardware Section page 499. Jian 7 Western designation F-7 Type Single-seat fighter and close support aircraft Design based on MiG-21 F (of Soviet origin) Other versions (i) J-7 I (ii) F-7A (export version of J-7I exported to Albania Egypt Iraq and Tanzania) (iii) J-7 II (modified and improved version of J-7I also known as J-7B) (iv) F-7 B (upgraded export version based on J-7II with ability to carry air-to-air missiles exported to Bangladesh Iran Jordan Pakistan Zimbabwe) F-7BS (Sri Lanka) (v) J-7 IIA (improved version of J-7 II) (vi) J-7 H (improved version of J-7 II with improved ground attack capability) (vii) F-7 M Airguard (export version of J-7 IIA) (viii) J-7 II M (Chinese version of F-7M) (ix) F-7 P Airbolt (variant of F-7M to meet specific requirements of Pakistan Air Force including ability to carry 4 X air-to-air missiles F-7 MP Airbolt (modified version of F-7 P) (x) J-7C (J-7 III) (design based on MiG-21 MF) (xi) J-7 D (J-7IIIA Improved J-7C version) (xii) J-7E (third generationJ-7 version based on J-7II airframe) (xiii) F-7 MG (export variant of J-7E) (xiv) F-7 PG (variant of F-7 MG modified for Pakistan Air Force) www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd issue 503 REGIONAL BALANCE GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE ASIAN WHO S WHO INDIAN DEFENCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY airborne early warning & control Brazil Embraer-145 R99 AEW Sweden Saab 2000 AEW&C United States of America Boeing E-3 Sentry Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye Boeing E-767 AWACS Russia Israel IL-76 with Phalcon System CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONTENTS abbrevIatIons A A&E A&N A S A S Mortars AA-AB AAAU AAC AAD AAM Ac ac ACAS ACCCS ACCP ACEMU ACHR ACIDS ACIDS (PP&FS) Ammunition and Explosives Andaman and Nicobar Anti-Submarine Anti-Submarine Mortars anti-aerial air burst active array antenna unit Army Aviation Corps Army Air Defence air-to-air missile aircraft Assistant Chief of the Air Staff Artillery Combat Command and Control System artillery command control and communications system Assistant Controller of Carrier Project alternating current electrical multiple unit Asian Centre for Human Rights Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff ADMM ADRDE ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment AESA active electronically scanned array AEW airborne early warning AEW&C airborne early warning and control AFP Armed Forces of the Philippines Af-Pak Afghanistan-Pakistan AG Adjutant General AGM air-to-ground missile AGPL actual ground position line AH attack helicopters AHEAD advanced hit efficiency and destruction AIEPG ASEAN-India Eminent Persons Group AIS automatic identification system AJT advanced jet trainer AL Awami League ALH advanced light helicopter ANA Afghan National Army ANC Andaman and Nicobar Command ANSF Afghan National Security Forces ANURAG Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group ANVC Achik National Volunteer Council AOC Army Ordnance Corps AON acceptance of necessity AOP Air Officer-in-Charge Personnel APA advanced projects agency APC armed personnel carrier APDS armour piercing discarding sabot APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation APFSDS armour piercing fin stabilised discarding sabot APS Active Promotion System APT advanced persistent threat AQAP Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula AR Assam Rifles AR&DB Aeronautical Research and Development Board ARDC Aircraft R&D Centre ARDE Armament Research & Development Establishment ARF ASEAN Regional Forum ARMREB Armament Research Board ARMSCOR Armaments Corporation of South Africa ARTC&S Assam Rifles Training Centre and School ARTRAC Army Training Command ASAT anti-satellite weapons ASCON Army Static Communication Network ASDF Air Self-Defense Force ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations ASG Abu Sayyaf Group ASTE Aircraft and System Testing Establishment ASTROIDS Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System ASW anti-submarine warfare ATAS active-cum-passive towed array sonar ATDS advanced torpedo defence system ATGM anti-tank guided missile ATM air traffic management AWACS airborne warning and control system BHEL BIMSTEC BM BMC2 BMD BMI BMS BMS Bn (bn) BNP BOMCA BRICS BRO BSF BSS BTAD BVR Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation Border Management Battle Management Command and Control ballistic missile defence brain-machine-interfaces ballistic missile systems battlefield management system Battalion Bangladesh Nationalist Party Border Management Programme in Central Asia Brazil Russia India China and South Africa Border Roads Organisation Border Security Force battlefield surveillance system Bodoland Territorial Autonomous District beyond visual range Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff (Policy Planning & Force Structures) ACM Advanced Cruise Missile Air Chief Marshal ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Submarines) ACNS (P&P) Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Policy & Plans) ACOL Assistant Controller of Logistics ACOP Assistant Chief of Personnel ACOP (CP) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Career Planning) ACOP (HRD) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Human Resource Development) Acqn Acquisition ACWP&A Assistant Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition AD Air Defence ADA Aeronautical Development Agency ADC&RS air defence control and reporting system ADDC Air Defence Direction Centre ADE Aeronautical Development Establishment ADG Army Avn Additional Director General Army Aviation ADG DV Additional Director General Discipline and Vigilance ADG EM Additional Director General Equipment Management ADG Mov Additional Director General Movement ADG Procurement Additional Director General Procurement ADG PS Additional Director General Personnel Services ADG Quartering Additional Director General Quartering ADG TA Additional Director General Territorial Army ADGES Air Defence Ground Environment System ADGIS Additional Director General Information System ADGIW Additional Director General Information Warfare ADGMI Additional Director General Military Intelligence ADGMO Additional Director General Military Operations ADGMS (Navy) Additional Director General Medical Services (Navy) ADGOL Additional Director General Operation Logistics ADGPI Additional Director General Public Information ADGSI Additional Director General Signal Intelligence ADIZ Air Defence Identification Zone C C4 C4I C4I2 C4I2SR C4ISR CABS CAD CAG CAIR CAPF CAR CAR CARAT CAREC CASA CASSA CAW CBI CBM CBRN CBTA CC CCA CCP CCS CDS CECA CELLDAR CEMILAC CEO CEP CEPA command control communications and computers command control communications computers information command control communications computing intelligence and information command control communications computers information and intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance command control communications computers intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance Centre For Airborne Systems computer-aided design current account deficit Comptroller and Auditor General of India Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Central Armed Police Force Central Acquisition Radar Central Asian Republics Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Central Asia South Asia Council of Agencies Serving South Asians College of Air Warfare Central Bureau of Investigation confidence building measures chemical biological radiological and nuclear Cross-Border Transport Agreement control centre Central Coordinating Authority Chinese Communist Party Cabinet Committee on Security Chief of Defence Staff Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement cell phone radar Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification Chief Executive Officer circular error probability Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement Centre for Personal Talent Management Computer Emergency Response Team Common Economic Space Combined Force Commander computational fluid dynamics Centre for Fire Explosive & Environment Safety www.spguidepublications.com B BADZ BARC BDL BDR BE BEL BEML BFSR Base Air Defence Zone Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Bharat Dynamics Limited Bangladesh Rifles Budget Estimate Bharat Electronics Limited Bharat Earth Movers Limited battlefield surveillance radar CEPTAM CERT CES CFC CFD CFEES 512 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com abbrevIatIons CFL CFT CGE CHARI CHASNUPP CIA CIAT CIDSS ceasefire line Combating Financing Terrorism Central Government Expenditure Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative Chashma Nuclear Power Plant Central Intelligence Agency Counter-Insurgency and Anti-Terrorist command information decision support system CIG Counter-Insurgency Grid CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CISC Chief of Integrated Staff to the Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee CISF Central Industrial Security Force CMC Computer Maintenance Corporation Central Military Commission CMD credible minimum deterrence CMDS countermeasure dispensing systems CNC computer numerically controlled boring machines CoBRA Commando Battalion for Resolute Action COM Chief of Material COP Chief of Personnel CORF Collective Operational Reaction Force COSC Chiefs of Staff Committee COTS commercial off-the shelf CPI (M) Communist Party of India (Maoist) CPMF Central Paramilitary Forces CPMIEC China National Precision Machinery Corporation CPS Controller of Personnel Services C-RAM counter rocket artillery and mortar CRBC China Road and Bridge Corporation CrPC Criminal Procedure Code CRPF Central Reserve Police Force CSA (ILMS) Chief Systems Administrator (ILMS) CSIS Centre for Strategic and International Studies CSN coastal surveillance network CSS coastal security scheme CSS coastal surveillance system CSTO Collective Security Treaty Organisation CT computed tomography CU Customs Union CUNPK Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping CVLO counter very-low observable CVM Chakri Naruebet Class CVRDE Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment DG EME DG FP DG Inf DG Mech Forces DG MP DG MS (Army) DG Pers DG Pers & Org DG PP DG RR DG WKS (Army) DGAQA Welfare Director General Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Director General Financial Planning Director General Infantry Director General Mechanised Forces Director General Manpower Planning Director General Medical Services (Army) Director General Personnel Director General Organisation and Personnel Director General Perspective Planning Director General Rashtriya Rifles DVB-T DVD digital video broadcastingterrestrial digital versatile video disc E EADS EAEF ECCC ECFA ECIL EEZ E-in-C ELINT ELM EME EMP ENPO EO EOFCS EOIs ERV EU EVMs EW EW European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company Euro-Asia Economic Forum Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement Electronics Corporation of India Ltd Exclusive Economic Zone Engineer-in-Chief electronic intelligence Expeditionary Laboratory Mobile Electrical and Mechanical Engineers electromagnetic pulse Eastern Naga People s Organisation electro-optical electro-optical fire control system expressions of interest exchange rate variation European Union electronic voting machines airborne electronic warfare electronic warfare D DAB DAC DARE DARPA DART DBSN DCIDSPP&FD DCMG DCN DCNS DDG CS DDG DSC DDG MF DDG Pnr DDP&S DEAL DEBEL DERL DESIDOC DFRL DG AAD DG Arty DG CW DG DCW digital audio broadcasting Defence Acquisition Council Defence Avionics Research Establishment Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Driven Ammunition Reduced Time of Flight distributed battlefield sensor network Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff Policy Planning and Force Development Defence Crisis Management Group Defence Communications Network Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Deputy Director General Canteen Services Deputy Director General Defence Security Corps Deputy Director General Military Farms Deputy Director General Pioneers Department of Defence Production and Supplies Defence Electronics Application Laboratory Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory Defence Electronics Research Laboratory Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre Defence Food Research Laboratory Director General Army Air Defence Director General Artillery Director General Ceremonials and Welfare Director General Discipline Ceremonials and Director General Works (Army) Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance DGICG Director General of the Indian Coast Guard DGMO Director General Military Operations DGNAI Director General Naval Armament Inspection DGND-SDG Director General Naval Design (Submarine Design Group) DGND-SSG Director General Naval Design (Surface Ship Group) DGNO Director General Naval Oprations DGOF Director General Ordnance Factories DGONA Director General Naval Armament DGP Director General of Police DGQA Directorate General of Quality Assurance DGSPV & AOB Director General Special Purpose Vehicle & AOB DGST Director General Supply and Transport DGWE Director General Weapons and Equipment DHD Dima Halam Daogah DIA Defence Intelligence Agency DIAT Defence Institute of Advanced Technology DIBER Defence Institute of Bioenergy Research DIHAR Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIPAS Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences DIPP Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion DIPR Defence Institute of Psychological Research DISB Directorate for Interaction with Services for Business DLJ Defence Laboratory Jodhpur DMA Direct Marketing Association DMRC Delhi Metro Rail Corporation DMRL Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory DMSRDE Defence Material & Store Research & Development Establishment DMZ demilitarised zone DOC Declaration on Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea DODP Department of Defence Production DOFA Defence Offset Facilitation Agency DOMW Defence Offset Management Wing DOS Directorate of Standardisation DOT Department of Telecommunication DPB Defence Procurement Board DPP Defence Procurement Procedure DPSUs defence public sector undertakings DPT Druk Phuensum Tshogpa DQMG Deputy Quarter Master General DRDB Defence Research and Development Board DRDE Defence Research & Development Establishment DRDL Defence Research & Development Laboratory DRDO Defence Research and Development Organisation DRL Defence Research Laboratory DSDI Defence Spatial Data Infrastructure DT disruptive technology Dte of P&C Directorate of Planning & Coordination DTN disruption-tolerant networking DTRL Defence Terrain Research Laboratory DTTI Defence Technology and Trade Initiative DU Delhi University DURGA directionally unrestricted ray-gun array F FAA FATA FATF FBI FC FCORD FDI FGFA FICCI FICN FICs FICV FII F-INSAS FIS FLN FM FMS FODAG FOGA FOK FOMAG FONA FOSM FPDA FPVs FRA FRAP FTA Federal Aviation Administration Federally Administered Tribal Areas Financial Action Task Force Federal Bureau of Investigation fire control FICN Coordination Group foreign direct investment fifth generation fighter aircraft Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry Fake Indian Currency Notes fast interception crafts Future Infantry Combat Vehicles foreign investment institution Future Infantry Soldier as a System Flying Instructor s School National Liberation Front frequency modulation foreign military sales Flag Officer Offshore Defence Advisory Group Flag Officer Goa Area Flag Officer Karnataka Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra and Gujarat Flag Officer Naval Aviation Flag Officer Submarine Five Power Defence Agreement Fast Petrol Vessels Flight Refuelling Aircraft fragmenting payload Free Trade Agreement G GATT GCC GDP GE GHG GIS GJM GMDSS GNC GOM GPR-AB GPS General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Gulf Cooperation Council Gross Domestic Product General Electric greenhouse gas global information system Gorkha Janmukti Morcha Global Maritime Distress and Safety System General National Congress Group of Ministers general purpose round air burst global positioning system www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue 513 abbrevIatIons GRSEL GSL GSLV GSPC GTA GTRE Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited Goa Shipyard Limited geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat Gorkha Territorial Administration Gas Turbine Research Establishment IRB IRDE IRENA IRNSS IRS IRST IS ISAF ISI ISIL ISIS ISR ISRO ISRR ISSA ISSA ISTAR IT ITBP ITM ITR ITSPP IW IWI India Reserved Battalions Instruments Research & Development Establishment International Renewable Energy Agency Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System Indian remote satellite infrared search and track information superiority International Security Assistance Force Inter-Services Intelligence Pakistan State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Search and Rescue Region Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis International Social Security Association intelligence surveillance target acquisition and reconnaissance information technology Indo-Tibetan Border Police Institute of Technology Management Integrated Test Range Integrated Tri-Service Perspective Plan information warfare Israel Weapon Industries LTTE LUH LWE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam light utility helicopter left-wing extremism M MAC MADDLS MANTIS Multi Agency Centre Mirror Airfield Dummy Deck Landing System Modular Automatic and Network Capable Targeting and Interceptor System MARCOS Marine Commandos MaRV manoeuvrable re-entry vehicle MASINT measurement and signature intelligence MAV micro UAV MAV micro-air vehicle MBRL multi-barrel rocket launcher MBT main battle tank MCPP maritime capability perspective plan MD AWES Managing Director Army Welfare Education Society MD AWHO Managing Director Army Welfare Housing Organisation MDA maritime domain awareness MDL Mazagon Dock Limited MEDS micro-biotic electronics and disabling system MEMS micro-electro-mechanical system MFN most favoured nation MFSTAR Multifunctional Surveillance Threat Assessment Radar MGO Master General Ordnance MHA Ministry of Home Affairs MIB Ministry of Information & Broadcasting MIDHANI Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited MILF Moro Islamic Liberation Front MIMO multiple-input multiple-output MIRV multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle MIS management information system MMRCA medium multi-role combat aircraft MND Ministry of National Defense MNLF Moro National Liberation Front MoD Ministry of Defence MR maritime reconnaissance MRBM medium-range ballistic missile MRCC Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre MRD Motorised Rifle Division MRL multiple rocket launcher MRO maintenance repair and overhaul MRSAM medium-range surface-to-air missile MRSC Marine Rescue Sub-Centre MRTT multi-role tanker transport MS Military Secretary M-SAR Maritime Search and Rescue MSME Medium Small and Micro Enterprise MSQA missile system quality assurance MTA multi-role transport aircraft MTAL Multirole Transport Aircraft Ltd MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime MTRDC Microwave Tube R&D Centre H HADR HAL HAUV HCHE HEMRL HEU HF HHTI HSL HUD HuJI HUMINT HVF humanitarian assistance and disaster relief Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Hybrid Autonomous Undersea Vehicle higher capability high explosives High Energy Materials Research Laboratory highly enriched uranium high frequency thermal imaging devices Hindustan Shipyard Limited Head-up display Harkat-ul-Jihad al -Islami human intelligence Heavy Vehicles Factory I IAF IAI IAP IB ICAO ICBM ICG ICJ ICSS ICV IDAS IDEX IDP IDS IDSA IED IEW IFA (N) IFC IFF IFV IGNS IGPS IISS IITF IJT IKR IM IMF IMG IMO IMRH IMU INDSAR INDU INMAS INSAT IOCL IONS IOR IOT IPA IPC IPKF IPSP IPV IPv4 IPv6 IR IR&FC IRAL Indian Air Force Israel Aerospace Industries Integrated Action Plan Intelligence Bureau Interceptor Boat International Civil Aviation Organisation intercontinental ballistic missile Indian Coast Guard International Court of Justice Integrated coastal surveillance system Infantry Combat Vehicle Integrated Defensive Aids Suite International Defence Exhibition and Conference Internally Displaced Person Integrated Defence Staff Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses improvised explosive device information electronic warfare Integrated Financial Advisor (Navy) inter-factional clashe identification friend and foe Infantry Fighting Vehicle Inspector General Nuclear Safety Intelligent Global Positioning System International Institute for Strategic Studies India International Trade Fair intermediate jet trainer Iraqi Kurdistan Region Indian Mujahideen International Monetary Fund Inter-Ministerial Group International Maritime Organisation Indian multi-role helicopter Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Indian (Maritime) Search and Rescue Indian National Defence University Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences Indian national satellite Indian Oil Corporation Ltd Indian Ocean Naval Symposium international offshore rule Internet of Things Indian Production Agency Indian Penal Code Indian Peace Keeping Force Internal Peace and Security Plan inshore patrol vessels Internet protocol version 4 Internet protocol version 6 India Reserve infrared international relations Information Resource & Facilitation Centre Indo-Russian Aviation Limited J J&K JAG JeM JNU JOC JOCOM JODI JSF JSIC JTC JTFI Jammu and Kashmir Judge Advocate General Jaish-e-Mohammad Jawaharlal Nehru University Joint Operation Centre Joint Operation Committee Joint Organisations Data Initiative joint strike fighter Joint Services Intelligence Committee Joint Training Committee Joint Task Force on Intelligence K KAI KALI KANUPP KKH KLA KMW KNO KPLT KRG Korea Aerospace Industries kinetic attack loitering interceptor Karachi Nuclear Power Plant Karakoram Highway Kamtapur Liberation Army Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Germany Kuki National Organisation Kuki Peoples Liberation Tigers Kurdistan Regional Government L L&T LAC LASTEC LCA LCH LCM LCU LDP LeJ LEO MEO LeT LEVCON LIA LIDAR LNG LoC LRDE LRSAM LSRB LTIPP LTPP LTPPFC Larsen and Toubro line of actual control Laser Science & Technology Centre light combat aircraft light combat helicopter Local Communist Movement landing craft utility Liberal Democratic Party Lashkar-e-Jhangvi low medium earth orbit Lashkar-e-Taiba Toiba leading edge vortex control surface Lead Intelligence Agency light detection and ranging liquefied natural gas line of control Electronics and Radar Development Establishments long-range surface-to-air missile Life Sciences Research Board Long-term Integrated Perspective Plan Long-term Perspective Plan Long-term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee N NAFTA NAIS NASA North American Free Trade Agreement National Automatic Identification System National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASSCOM National Association of Software and Services Companies NATGRID National Intelligence Grid NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NBC nuclear biological chemical defence NBDC National Bomb Data Centre NC3IN National Command Control Communication and Intelligence NCA National Command Authority NCCC National Cyber Coordination Centre NCSL National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy NCTC National Counter Terrorism Centre NCTF Naresh Chandra Task Force NCW network-centric warfare www.spguidepublications.com 514 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com abbrevIatIons NDA NDFB NDMA NDN NDRF NFU NHRC NIA NIC National Defence Academy National Democratic Front of Bodoland National Disaster Management Authority Northern Distribution Network National Disaster Response Force no first use National Human Rights Commission National Investigative Agency National Informatics Centre National Intelligence Council NIRDESH National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding NLD National League for Democracy NMF National Maritime Foundation NMRH naval multi-role helicopter NMRL Naval Materials Research Laboratory NMSAR National Maritime Search and Rescue NMSARCA National Maritime Search and Rescue Coordination Authority NMSRB National Maritime Search and Rescue Board NOS-DCP National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan NPOL Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory NPR National Population Register NPT Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty NRB Naval Research Board NSA National Security Advisor National Security Agency NSC National Security Council NSCN National Socialist Council of Nagaland NSCN IM National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah) NSCN K National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) NSCS National Security Council Secretariat NSEC Naval Standing Establishment Committee NSG National Security Guard Nuclear Suppliers Group NSR New Silk Road NSTL Naval Science & Technological Laboratory NTG Naval Technology Group NTRO National Technical Research Organisation NWWA Navy Wives Welfare Association PDESA PDFC PDFM PDG PDIT PDLS PDM (P&M) PDMPR PDMS (M&S) PDNA PDNAS PDNCO PDNE PDNI PDNO PDNOM PDNP PDNPF PDNS PDNT PDOA PDODY PDOH PDOI PDOP PDP PDP&A PDPRO PDPS PDSMAQ PDSMO PDSMS PDSOD PDSR PDSSD PDW PDWE PELE PFI PGMs PIPVTR PLA PM PML PML(N) PMOC PNT PoK POL PPBP PPOC PPP PPP PSOC PSR PXE Principal Director Ex-Servicemen Affairs Principal Director Foreign Cooperation Principal Director Fleet Maintenance Parliament Duty Group Principal Director Information Technology Principal Director Logistics Support Principal Director Medical Services (Personnel & Material) Principal Director Manpower Planning & Recruitment Principal Director Medical Services (Hospital & Services) Principal Director Naval Architecture Principal Director Naval Air Staff Principal Director Net-centric Operations Principal Director Naval Education Principal Director Naval Intelligence Principal Director Naval Operations Principal Director Naval Oceanology & Meteorology Principal Director Naval Plans Principal Director Non-Public Funds Principal Director Naval Signals Principal Director Naval Training Principal Director Administration Principal Director Dockyards Principal Director of Hydrography Principal Director Indigenisation Principal Director Personnel People s Democratic Party Principal Director Pay & Allowances Principal Director Procurement Principal Director Personnel Services Principal Director Submarine Acquisition Principal Director Submarine Operations Principal Director Submarine Safety Principal Director Special Operations & Diving Principal Director Staff Requirements Principal Director Ship Systems & Development Principal Director Works Principal Director Weapons Equipment Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect Popular Front of India precision-guided munitions Philippine Institute for Peace Violence and Terrorism Research People s Liberation Army Provost Marshal Pakistan Muslim League Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) Principal Maintenance Officers Committee position navigation and timing Pakistan occupied Kashmir petrol oil and lubricants policy exercise of planning budgetary allocations and process of acquisition Principal Personal Officers Committee public-private partnership purchasing power parity Principal Supply Officers Committee preliminary staff requirements Proof and Experimental Establishment RBG RCEP RCI RCMA RCS ReCAAP REF RFIs RFP RIAF RMA ROC ROS ROV RPA RRP-I RSTA RUAV Royal Bhutan Guards Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Research Centre Imarat Regional Centre of Military Airworthiness radar cross section Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery Rapid Equipping Force request for information request for proposal Royal Indian Air Force revolution in military affairs regional operating centres remote operating stations remotely operated vehicle remotely piloted aircraft Road Requirement Plan I reconnaissance surveillance and target acquisition Rotary-winged UAVs S SA to CNS SAARC SAD SAG SAGW SAM SaR SAR SASE SATA SBE SCAF SCAPCC SCAPCHC SCO SCS SCTC SDI SDR SDR SFC SID SIDBI SIGINT SIPRI SIRBs SITAR SLBM SLOC SMAC SMAC SNERDI SNR SoD SPB SPG SQR SRBM SRE SR-SAM SSB SSG SSPL SSQAG STEA STOBAR STOVL STP Scientific Advisor to Chief of Naval Staff South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation space asset domination Scientific Analysis Group surface-to-air guided weapons surface-to-air missile search and rescue surveillance and reconnaissance synthetic aperture radar Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment surveillance and target acquisition strategic and business environment Supreme Council of Armed Forces Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee Shanghai Cooperation Organisation South China Sea State Counter-Terrorism Centres Strategic Defense Initiative software defined radio Strategic Defence Review Strategic Forces Command Signal Intelligence Directorate Small Industries Development Bank of India signal intelligence Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Specialised India Reserved Battalions Society for Integrated Technology Application and Research submarine launched ballistic missile sea line of communication Subsidiary MAC State Multi Agency Centre Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute signal to noise ratio Suspension of Operation Sagar Prahari Bal Strategic Policy Group services qualitative requirements short-range ballistic missiles security related expenditure short-range surface-to-air missile Sashastra Seema Bal Special Security Group Solid State Physics Laboratory Strategic Systems Quality Assurance Group Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment short take-off but arrested recovery short take-off and vertical landing Specialist Technical Panels O OECD OEM OFB OFC OIS ONGC OPCW OPEC OPV OROP OSCC OSINT OST OTH Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development original equipment manufacturer Ordnance Factory Board optical fibre cable operational information system Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapon Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Offshore Petrol Vessels One Rank One Pension Offshore Security Coordination Committee open source intelligence Outer Space Treaty over the horizon radar P PAT PCL PCVs PDAA PDACP PDALS PDAPP PDAPSA PDASE PDCP PDCPS PDCV PDEE Perform Achieve and Trade passive coherent location Pollution Control Vessels Principal Director Aircraft Acquisition Principal Director Aircraft Carrier Project Principal Director Air Logistics Support Principal Director Aircraft Projects & Plan Principal Director of Adventure Physical Fitness in Sports Activities Principal Director Aircraft Systems Engineering Principal Director Civilian Personnel Principal Director Civilian Personnel Services Principal Director Clothing & Victualling Principal Director Electrical Engineering Q QMG Quarter Master General R R&D R&DE RADAR RAF RAM RAP RAW RBA research and development Research & Development Establishment radio detection and ranging Rapid Action Force radar absorbent materials paint Research and Analysis Wing Royal Bhutan Army www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue 515 abbrevIatIons SUAS SWATH small unmanned aircraft systems small water plane area twin hulls TSD TTP Technical Support Division Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (Tehrik) V VBIG VCAS VCDS VCNS VCOS VCR VLO VRDE Valley Based Insurgent Group Vice Chief of Air Staff Vice Chief of Defence Staff Vice Chief of Naval Staff Vice Chief of Army Staff video cassette recorder very low observable Vehicles Research and Development Establishment V-SAT Very Small Aperture Terminal VSHORAD very short-range air defence systems VTOL vertical take-off and landing T TACAN TacC3I TACDE TAPI TBM TBRL TCS TCS TECHINT TERI TEUS TFT TIKA TKK TNA TNSM TNW ToT TPCR TPCRM TPP tactical air navigation tactical command control communications and information Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India theatre-range ballistic missile Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory tactical communication system Tata Consultancy Services technical intelligence Tata Energy Research Institute twenty-foot equivalent units thin-film transistor Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency Tamu-Kalewa-Kaleymyo Tamil National Alliance Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi tactical nuclear weapons transfer of technology Technology Perspective and Capability Roadmap Trans-Pacific Partnership U UAC-TA United Aircraft Corporation-Transport Aircraft UAE United Arab Emirates UAS unmanned aerial systems UAV unmanned aerial vehicle UCAV unmanned combat air vehicle UDF United People s Front UHQ Unified HQ ULFA United Liberation Front of Asom UN United Nations UNCIVPOL United Nations Civilian Police UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific UNGA United Nations General Assembly UNHRC United Nations Human Rights Council UNKPO UNHRC Peacekeeping Operations UNSC United Nations Security Council UPA United Progressive Alliance UPUA Urban Perspective Our Work in Urban Areas USA United States of America USAF United States Air Force USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics UWSA United Wa State Army W WAC WCS WLR WMD WPN WSOI WTO Western Air Command Weapon Control System weapon locating radar weapons of mass destruction Weapons Weapon Systems ORSA and Infrastructure World Trade Organisation Z ZUF Zaliangrong United Front www.spguidepublications.com 516 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com Index A A-330 Abbott Tony Abbottabad Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud King of Saudi Arabia ABG Shipyard Abhay ABI research Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) AC First LLC USA Achik National Volunteer Council (ANVC) Act of Parliament (1993) active array antenna unit (AAAU) active electronically scanned array (AESA) systems 110 333 454 48 369 455 338 434 201 284 327 186 197 294 365 90 404 136 318 322 73 110 73 211 226 275 293 484 459 --US military presence and withdrawal --post-2014 Afghanistan-Pakistan region Agrawal J.P. Agarwal R.C. Aggarwal Shankar AGM-114 Hellfire air-to-ground missiles Agni series --Agni-I --Agni-II --Agni-III --Agni-IV --Agni-V AGS-30 AgustaWestland AgustaWestland AW119 Koala AgustaWestland VVIP helicopters AH-64 Apache AH-64D Ahmadinejad Mahmoud air burst munitions concept air defence control and reporting system (ADC&RS) Air Defence Direction Centre air defence gun ammunition Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ) air defence networks and weapon system Air Equipment --Brazil --China --France --Germany --India --Israel --Italy --Pakistan --Russia --Spain --Sweden --Ukraine --United Kingdom --United States of America 1 2 5 10 17 20 27 346 358 17 20 41 45 346 370 4 45 131 170 346 355 370 455 56 303 295 250 57 118 165 253 364 292 364 176 292 364 292 364 292 51 292 177 121 22 94 95 93 94 510 109 427 84 74 110 83 84 30 78 502 503 508 510 511 502 503 4 511 502 504 508 502 507 502 504 511 502 503 504 511 502 503 511 502 503 504 5 507 511 502 507 502 503 505 6 511 502 507 502 503 506 508 502 503 506 7 508 510 511 110 326 airport and metro security 316 air-to-air missiles 46 59 60 66 94 109 167 202 203 232 375 331 462 503 504 505 506 507 air-to-ground missiles 94 99 109 234 504 506 Akarsiya (M 1973) 472 Akash SAMs 73 Akash 272 Akayev Askar 25 Al Qaeda 3 5 7 12 17 18 21 23 45 46 59 76 131 369 370 415 418 431 443 44 449 50 456 Alexander General Keith 77 Algeria 418 19 --Air Force 19 --Army 419 --defence 418 --economy 418 --general information 418 --Islamic Maghreb 418 --National Liberation Front (FLN) 418 --Navy 419 --security environment 418 --Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) 418 Almaz Antey 81 Alok Kumar 300 303 alternating current electrical multiple units (ACEMUs) 282 Alvis Saladin Armoured Car 476 77 Alvis Scorpion 476 Ammunition and Explosives (A&E) 269 270 amphibious aircraft 103 Amphibious forces ships 496 499 --Guldar 186 200 --Kumbhir 186 200 --Mahish 186 200 AMX-13 463 AMX-30 463 AN ZPY-1 STARLite 90 An-12 507 An-24 507 An-26 507 An-32 109 508 ANAC 293 Anand Lt General Sanjeev 248 Anantha Narayanan S. 297 Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Islands 6 153 179 183 207 210 238 327 328 402 Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC) 145 147 183 210 Andhra Pradesh 45 162 238 286 287 312 313 316 318 320 323 330 331 346 Andijan crisis 25 Annan Kofi 76 161 Ansari Hamid 247 Ansar-ul-Islam 11 anti-aerial air burst (AA-AB) 84 anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) 63 anti-submarine warfare (ASW) 69 anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) 94 Antonov 109 507 8 Antony A.K. 78 98 109 115 118 123 150 151 168 247 252 326 454 Apache Block-III 95 Apache Longbow-AH-64D 95 Appavuraj R. 297 Aquino Benigno III 338 403 Arab Spring 21 25 416 446 Arabian Sea 16 42 Active Promotion System (APS) Active-cum-passive towed array sonar (ATAS) 294 actual ground position line (AGPL) 43 adaptive antenna SAGW 65 Admiral Gorshkov Class 494 Admiral Grigorovich Class 494 advanced hit efficiency and destruction (AHEAD) 84 advanced jet trainer (AJT) 109 advanced light helicopter (ALH) 93 94 95 96 109 167 184 193 194 196 197 198 205 211 231 238 244 246 274 275 276 277 365 502 Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group (ANURAG) 295 advanced persistent threat (APT) 75 advanced projects agency (APA) 149 advanced torpedo defence system (ATDS) 294 Advani L.K. 326 Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE) 295 Aero India show 94 Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) 275 291 293 Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) 110 293 295 Aeronautical Research and Development Board (AR&DB) 294 Aerospace Testing Alliance USA 140 AeroVironment 60 Afghanistan 358 59 451 455 --Afghan Mujahideen 19 --Afghan National Army (ANA) 6 456 --Afghan National Police (ANP) 6 358 --Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) 6 18 19 154 358 --Air Force 359 --Army 359 --civil war 17 18 --Constitution 18 --defence 358 --economy 358 --and India s regional security environment 5 6 41 452 --and Indo-US strategic partnership 1 4 --Northern Alliance 17 20 --Pakistan relations 19 --reconstruction and Central Asia 26 27 --security dynamics 356 358 59 --Soviet occupation 7 --Taliban forces 2 17 20 46 131 Air Force Network air traffic management (ATM) airborne anti-submarine warfare (ASW) 94 95 103 184 195 197 198 199 202 203 263 386 391 397 411 422 429 433 446 483 484 485 486 493 494 495 498 airborne early warning (AEW) system 103 236 511 airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) system 73 110 211 293 511 airborne electronic warfare (EW) 69 airborne electronics attack technologies 67 airborne warning and control system (AWACS) 58 69 81 110 Airbus Industries 277 Aircraft R&D Centre (ARDC) 276 aircraft safety systems 67 aircraft survivability 67 air-launched torpedoes 70 air-launched underwater weapons 69 70 www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue 517 Index Arakan-Yunnan pipeline Aren Plan Arjun Mark II Arjun MBT (main battle tank) Armament Research & Development Establishment (ARDE) Armament Research Board (ARMREB) Armaments Corporation of South Africa (ARMSCOR) armed personnel carriers (APCs) armed recovery vehicles armour piercing discarding sabot (APDS) armour piercing fin stabilised discarding sabot (APFSDS) Army Aviation Association of America Army Aviation Corps Army Equipment --China --Czech Slovak Republic --France --Germany --India --Israel --Italy --Japan --Pakistan --Russia --Singapore --South Africa --South Korea --Spain --Sweden --Switzerland --United Kingdom --United States of America Army Ordnance Corps (AOC) Army Static Communication Network (ASCON) Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System (ASTROIDS) Army Training Command Army War College Indore Madhya Pradesh Army s Hunter Arroyo Gloria Artillery Combat Command and Control System (ACCCS) artillery command control and communications system (ACCCS) Arudhara Arudra Arun Singh Committee Report Arunachal Pradesh Chinese intrusion 16 100 01 113 118 173 99 173 295 294 132 456 460 471 456 84 84 59 94 99 457 459 62 457 462 63 457 58 463 65 458 465 66 458 466 458 466 67 458 467 68 458 468 69 458 469 70 458 470 74 458 474 458 474 458 474 75 458 475 458 475 458 475 76 458 476 78 458 59 478 80 156 100 101 74 100 98 154 161 373 72 403 100 165 167 74 294 73 149 44 46 47 320 322 362 165 508 94 95 477 Ashok Kumar Rear Admiral G. 249 Ashram Schools 317 Ashwini 294 Asia --financial crisis 8 --GDP and military expenditure 341 44 --pivot strategy India s role 2 29 Asia-Pacific environment 451 56 --regional economic flux and trade partnership 452 --US rebalancing 31 451 455 56 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 27 379 380 Asian Centre for Human Rights (ACHR) 330 Asian defence forces 333 40 --Afghanistan 333 --Algeria 333 --Australia 333 --Bahrain 334 --Bangladesh 334 --Cambodia 334 --People s Republic of China 334 --Egypt 334 --Indonesia 335 --Iran 335 --Iraq 335 --Israel 335 --Japan 335 --Jordan 336 --Kazakhstan 336 --Kuwait 336 --Kyrgyzstan 336 --Laos 336 --Lebanon 336 --Libya 336 37 --Malaysia 337 --Myanmar 337 --Nepal 337 --North Korea 337 --Oman 337 38 --Pakistan 338 --Philippines 338 --Qatar 338 --Saudi Arabia 338 39 --Singapore 339 --South Korea 339 --Sri Lanka 339 --Syria 339 --Taiwan 339 40 --Tajikistan 340 --Turkmenistan 340 --United Arab Emirates 340 --Uzbekistan 340 --Vietnam 340 --Yemen 340 al-Assad Bashar 23 24 339 416 431 434 446 455 Assam 38 45 55 318 320 323 330 31 Assam Rifles (AR) 166 304 309 312 313 314 331 363 Assam Rifles Training Centre and School (ARTC&S) 309 Assistant Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (Policy Planning and Force Structures) (ACIDS-PP&FS) 149 Astra missile 118 293 Atambayev Almazbek 336 351 Aung San Suu Kyi 401 402 AURA UCAV 110 Australia 32 117 346 358 375 379 81 405 --Air Force 381 --Army 380 --and ASEAN 378 --defence 379 --economy 379 380 --general information 379 --and India relations 452 --and military developments in South East Asia 31 --Navy 380 81 --security environment Australia Group automatic identification system (AIS) Autonomous Research Pilot Initiative project autonomous robotic devices Avinash Chander AW119Ke Azad Jammu & Kashmir Council Azerbaijan 379 80 1 390 326 27 328 90 90 60 249 50 253 293 95 9 346 355 358 B B-2 Spirit 454 B-52 Stratofortress 454 Backward Regions Grant Fund 317 BAE Systems 77 84 101 135 137 139 141 143 145 275 470 478 503 506 508 511 BAeHAL Software Limited 277 Bagde Surendra Kumar 302 Bahrain 421 425 26 --Air Force 426 --Army 426 --defence 425 --economy 425 --Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with United States 425 --NATO 425 26 --Navy 426 --security environment 425 Bajpai K. Shankar 47 Bakhshi Lieutenant General Rajan 249 259 Bakiev 350 Bali Rear Admiral I.P.S. 247 251 ballistic missile defence (BMD) 49 ballistic missile systems (BMS) 52 Bangladesh 41 117 359 60 --Air Force 360 --Army 360 --Awami League (AL) 6 346 359 360 456 --Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) 6 --Bangladesh Rifles (BDR) 6 --defence 359 --economy 359 360 --and India 6 43 359 60 452 --Islamic fundamentalism 5 19 41 --military modernisation 360 456 --Navy 360 --security environment 359 60 Bansal M.C. 270 Barack I 118 Baretta 165 Bargotra R. 239 Barisan Revolusi Nasional Melayu Pattani 410 Baruah Paresh 318 Batra Harsh Vardhan 296 battlefield management system (BMS) 70 74 101 battlefield surveillance system (BSS) 74 100 101 Bautista Emmanuel 31 Bawadar Mullah Abdul Ghani 19 456 Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) 402 Bay of Bengal 42 153 160 360 402 456 Bechtel Marine Propulsion Corp. USA 141 Behara Laxman 115 Beidou China 63 Belarus 294 357 Belarus-Kazakhstan-Russia Custom Union 346 347 Bell 407 510 Bell AH-1 Cobra Super Cobra 510 Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. 277 Berdimuhamedow Gurbanguly 25 340 354 beyond visual range (BVR) missiles 80 Bhagwan Shankar 300 303 ARX-160 AS 332 Super Puma AS 532 Cougar AS550 Fennec AS90 (Braveheart) ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) 5 6 27 33 36 151 364 378 379 380 384 388 398 404 405 413 451 54 456 --and China relations 29 32 33 36 --and India politico-military relations 29 32 378 ASEAN 6 378 ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM) Plus Eight mechanism 32 ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM) Plus Expert Working Group 151 ASEAN-India Eminent Persons Group (AIEPG) 378 ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) 35 Ashok Kumar 239 www.spguidepublications.com 518 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com Index Bhalla Lt General Anil 248 Bhandari Amit 239 Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) 140 267 272 287 Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) 264 267 272 282 83 Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) 74 101 110 165 264 267 268 272 280 82 Bharat Forge 101 Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) 280 Bharati class interceptor boats 327 Bharati Shipyard 327 Bharatriya S.K. 239 Bhatnagar Arti 247 251 Bhattacharya Bikash 297 Bhutan 41 361 62 --and China 361 362 --defence 361 --Druk Phuensum Tshogpa (DPT) 362 --economy 361 --general information 361 --and India land borders 43 362 --India relations 361 362 --People s Democratic Party (PDP) 362 --security environment 361 62 Bhutiyani Mahendra Ramprakash 296 Bhutto Zulfiqar Ali 14 Biden Joseph (Joe) 1 3 Bihar-Odisha border 330 biodegradable ammunition 68 biofuels and bio-based chemical technology 91 Biogerontechnology 91 biometric and identification systems 91 biotechnology 68 91 399 Black Eagle development tank 470 Black Kite 73 Blackwill Robert 17 Blohm Shipyard Germany 87 BM-21 MR System 473 BM-21 RL 174 BMD-1 ACV 471 BMP-1 99 173 463 471 BMP-2 99 173 268 294 471 BMP-2 2K 113 BMR-600 475 boats registration and installation of transponders 328 Bodoland Territorial Autonomous District (BTAD) 318 Boeing 737-300 508 Boeing 106 108 113 138 141 143 145 503 506 508 Bofors 84 98 99 475 border conflicts 5 170 border management 98 Border Management Programme in Central Asia (BOMCA) 351 Border Police Force 312 Border Roads Organisation (BRO) 307 Border Security Force (BSF) 6 42 95 274 304 306 312 314 324 363 Bouteflika Abdelaziz 418 Brahimi Lakhdar 23 BrahMos 99 108 118 133 165 191 193 194 195 196 203 216 293 365 brain drain 427 brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) 91 Brazil 54 109 117 161 282 368 452 BRDM-2 173 462 471 BRICS (Brazil Russia India China and South Africa) 117 452 Browne Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. 78 107 Brunei 31 32 33 35 54 187 454 456 BTR-152VI 472 BTR-50 472 BTR-80A 472 Burma. See Myanmar Burman Sanjay Burmese Communist Party Bush George W. Buyan Class 295 46 1 408 452 494 95 Management (CEPTAM) 295 Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) 14 Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping (CUNPK) 161 CH-47F Chinook 95 109 113 510 Chabbewal Lt General A.S. 157 159 248 Chachra Lieutenant General Sanjiv 249 257 Chadha Lieutenant General R.C. 248 Chahal Iqbal Singh 300 302 303 Chait Lieutenant General Anil 248 255 Chakravarty Lt General Aniruddha 248 Chakri Naruebet Class (CVM) 498 99 Challanger 2 476 Chanakya 48 Chandipur Test Range 292 Chandramouli C. 300 Chang Bogo (Type209 1200) Class (SSK) 495 96 Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASNUPP-I II III & IV) 13 14 Chatterjee Upamanyu 247 250 Chatterjee Vice Admiral Pradeep K. 249 257 Chaudhary Arun 310 Chauhan A.K.S. 239 Chauhan Air Marshal J. 249 261 Chawla Rear Admiral A.K. 249 Cheema Vice Admiral S.P.S. 248 256 Cheetah 93 95 109 113 166 67 186 200 211 215 231 274 276 77 365 368 386 Cheetal Rotor System 231 Cheetal 137 166 274 chemical and biological sensors 90 91 chemical biological radiological and nuclear (CBRN) defence 65 69 Cheney Dick 3 Chengapa Comdt A. 239 Chengdu Aircraft Industry Corporation (CAC) China 15 Chengdu J-20 Mighty Dragon 79 Chengdu Military Region 52 Chetak 93 95 106 109 113 166 67 184 192 195 197 98 201 205 06 211 215 231 238 244 246 274 276 77 365 509 Chiarelli General Peter 59 Chidambaram P. 78 111 299 315 Chidambaram V. 303 Chief Ministers Conference on Internal Security and Law and Order 7 Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) 145 147 150 51 352 Chief of Integrated Staff to the Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee (CISC) 147 149 Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) 145 147 149 150 151 China 6 111 117 383 87 --Afghanistan reconstruction and 27 --aggression to accommodation 453 --Air Force 386 87 --anti-stealth a generation ahead 81 --Armed Forces 453 --Army 385 86 --ASEAN Free Trade Agreement 34 --ASEAN relations 29 32 378 452 --assertion in South East Asia 3 29 31 32 34 --and Central Asia relations 25 27 28 345 346 --Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 375 453 --Cultural Revolution 375 --defence 384 --defence budget 98 --defence modernisation 81 131 --economy 383 84 451 --general information 383 --India relations intrusions threat 3 4 5 6 13 30 32 41 42 43 44 45 48 98 117 131 151 329 31 362 364 451 C C X Band 81 C-130 Hercules 508 C-130J-30 109 C-131 Class 245 C-14-1 Class 245 C-154 Class 245 C-17 Globemaster III 108 9 C-212 507 C-27J Spartan 109 C-295 109 C-3I 100 C-401 Class 245 46 Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) 100 134 145 149 151 152 160 185 188 196 219 314 315 323 325 326 327 CAE Canada 138 Cambodia 381 82 410 413 --Air Force 382 --Army 382 --defence 382 --economy 381 82 --Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) 382 --general information 381 --Navy 382 --security environment 382 Cameron David 76 Campose Lieutenant General Philip 249 257 Canada 32 346 358 Capex 133 Carl Gustaf 177 Carnegie Foundation 45 Carter Ashton B. 4 164 Cassidian 108 Cassidy Thomas 59 Casspir Mk. 474 ceasefire line (CFL) 43 cell phone radar (CELLDAR) 82 Central Acquisition Radar (CAR) 73 Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) 171 304 10 313 14 323 329 330 331 Central Asia Gas Pipeline 355 Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) 27 Central Asia South Asia (CASA-1000) hydro-electric power line 27 Central Asia 345 46 451 --and India 28 --and Iran 28 --strategic linkages 25 28 Central Asian Republics (CARs) 5 346 358 Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) 77 94 102 Central Coordinating Authority (CCA) 241 Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) 308 9 312 316 324 328 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 3 59 71 450 Central Military Commission (CMC) 453 Central Paramilitary Forces (CPMF) 304 331 Central Police Forces 321 Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) 304 6 314 324 329 Centre For Airborne Systems (CABS) 110 211 293 295 Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics (CAIR) 295 Centre for Fire Explosive & Environment Safety (CFEES) 295 Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification (CEMILAC) 295 Centre for Personal Talent www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue 519 Index --India war (1962) 43 268 307 309 312 --Japan relations 375 76 384 452 --Kazakhastan 346 47 --Marine Surveillance 30 --military assistance to Taliban 45 46 --military capability 5 32 --military modernisation 31 44 49 50 62 453 --Myanmar relations 6 --nationalism 375 76 --Navy 19 30 34 46 364 386 413 453 482 483 --North Korea relations 393 --nuclear matrix 49 52 --nuclearisation 44 50 51 --and Pakistan strategic nexus 13 16 19 20 49 99 --People s Liberation Army (PLA) 7 16 29 30 34 44 46 75 117 160 170 320 330 362 384 408 453 460 --perception of Gang of Four 454 --and Philippines dispute 29 35 36 --precision missile strike capability 52 --radar system 81 --rising power 451 52 --and Russia relations 384 --Second Artillery Corps 52 --security environment 384 85 --and South Korea relations 454 --space programme and implications for India 62 63 --Sri Lanka relations 7 373 --territorial claims in South China Sea 388 413 453 454 --Tibet 384 --Turkmenistan relations 355 --United States relations 4 32 384 451 --Vietnam relations 30 --war-fighting doctrines 63 China-India-Pakistan triad 49 China National Nuclear Corporation 14 China National Precision Machinery Corporation (CPMIEC) 461 62 China-Pakistan Joint Maritime Research Centre 15 China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) 16 Chittagong Bangladesh 16 Chopra Lt General Sanjeev 248 Chopra Vice Admiral Anil 249 260 Chouhan Satpal 300 304 Christensen Clayton M. 89 Christopher S. 295 Chunmugong Yi Sun Shin (KDX-2) Class (DDGHM) 497 circular error probability (CEP) 64 Civic Action Programme 313 Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act (2010) 55 civil trade and exports diversification 270 71 Clark McCarthy Healthcare Partners II USA 135 clean coal technology 91 climate change 359 369 413 --and energy security of India 53 56 Clinton Bill 4 Clinton Hillary Rodham 35 356 370 444 CN-235M 507 coastal security 312 325 28 --initiatives post-26 11 326 coastal security scheme (CSS) 326 27 coastal surveillance network (CSN) 327 coastal surveillance system (CSS) 327 Cochin Shipyard Limited 327 Cold War 41 61 384 Collective Operational Reaction Force (CORF) 357 Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) 27 357 Colt and Sig Sauer 165 66 combat identification 69 Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) Combating Financing Terrorism (CFT) command and control systems command information decision support system (CIDSS) command control communications and computers (C4) command control communications computers information (C4I) command control communications computers information and intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (C4I2SR) systems command control communications computers intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems command control communications computing intelligence and information (C4I2) systems Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (CoBRA) commercial off-the shelf (COTS) commercial shipyards Common Economic Space (CES) Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) communication intelligence communication systems Communist Party of India (Maoist) [CPI(M)] Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computed tomography (CT) scan systems Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) Computer Maintenance Corporation (CMC) computer numerically controlled boring machines (CNC machines) computer-aided design (CAD) confidence building measures (CBMs) Cooper Barry Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) Cordesman Anthony corruption 331 350 352 354 358 359 Corvettes --Abhay --Khukri --Kora --Kamorta --Kiltan --Kadmat --Kiltan --Kavaratti --Veer cost penalty and suspect benefits Council of Agencies Serving South Asians (CASSA) Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School Mizoram counter rocket artillery and mortar (C-RAM) counter very-low observable (CVLO) Counter-Insurgency and Anti-Terrorist (CIAT) Counter-Insurgency Battle Schools 294 295 312 65 78 74 69 280 Counter-Insurgency Grid (CIG) 331 counter-insurgency operations 6 7 38 47 93 98 99 154 162 166 68 304 306 309 312 318 321 329 331 countermeasure dispensing systems (CMDS) 276 287 counter-stealth through Schlieren photography 81 credible minimum deterrence (CMD) 51 Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) 1898 322 Crisis Management Centre 147 cross budgeting team 149 Cross-Border Transport Agreement (CBTA) 26 27 Crotale Low Alt SAM System 464 current account deficit (CAD) 118 customs and coastal surveillance 60 Customs Union (CU) 27 28 Cyber Command 76 77 78 150 51 cyber security 74 75 78 --options for India 81 82 Cyber Security Task Force 76 Czech Republic 166 294 51 63 73 74 51 63 69 75 89 51 305 312 100 85 87 27 28 322 27 350 68 65 68 100 203 221 292 330 28 373 67 280 77 101 282 85 92 280 43 46 117 154 170 376 18 35 14 39 115 118 119 490 494 500 186 197 186 197 186 197 98 186 198 186 198 186 198 186 198 186 198 186 196 97 121 149 373 84 81 313 309 D D-20 472 73 D-30 How 174 472 Daimler Ferret 477 Daksha 294 damage characteristics of above water weapons 90 damage characteristics of underwater weapons 90 Dandakaranya Jharkhand 330 Dangi M.S. 239 Dantewada 329 DARIN III 108 Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council Act (1988) 316 Das Trithankar 302 Dash S.P. 295 Dassault Aviation 504 Dastane Lt General R.P. 248 Datar Anil M. 295 Debroy Bibek 322 Declaration on Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) 34 Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) 97 99 101 123 124 125 129 147 149 163 164 165 290 Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE) 108 295 Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory (DEBEL) 295 defence budgets (2013 14) and (2014 15) 111 16 defence capability 63 64 69 211 254 Defence Communications Network (DCN) 73 218 Defence Crisis Management Group (DCMG) 147 Defence Electronics Application Laboratory (DEAL) 295 Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DERL) 295 Defence Exhibition Organisation 267 290 Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL) 296 Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT) 296 Defence Institute of Bioenergy Research (DIBER) 296 Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) 296 Defence Institute of Psychological Research (DIPR) 296 Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS) 296 Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) 71 73 145 147 Defence Laboratory Jodhpur (DLJ) 296 Defence Material & Store Research www.spguidepublications.com 520 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com Index & Development Establishment (DMSRDE) Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Defence Offset Facilitation Agency (DOFA) Defence Offset Management Wing (DOMW) Defence offsets facilitation Defence Procurement Board (DPB) Defence Procurement Manual Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) -- 2013 296 296 290 127 127 30 125 145 147 149 272 70 123 26 128 29 132 151 162 171 118 123 26 128 131 34 118 125 Destroyers 496 Devanand G. 239 devices supporting long-term evaluation (4G) 65 Dharam Vira 322 Dhawan Sunil Kumar 302 Dhowan Admiral R.K. 248 254 Dhruv WSI 109 Dhruv 109 192 196 201 205 211 231 274 275 76 365 368 502 509 Diehl BGT Defence 84 digital audio broadcasting (DAB) 80 81 digital radio trunking system 280 digital systems 65 digital versatile video disc (DVD) 89 digital video broadcasting-terrestrial (DVB-T) bands 80 81 Dikshit K. 239 Dillow Clay 60 Dima Halam Daogah (DHD) (Joel) group 318 Direct Marketing Association (DMA) UK 132 directionally unrestricted ray-gun array (DURGA) 64 Director General of Lighthouses 327 Director General of the Indian Coast Guard (DGICG) 237 Director General Ordnance Factories (DGOF) 269 272 Directorate for Interaction with Services for Business (DISB) 294 Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) 267 268 289 Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships 328 Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) 134 267 268 288 Directorate of Planning & Coordination (Dte of P&C) 267 290 Directorate of Standardisation (DOS) 267 289 Disaster Management Act (2005) 324 disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) 92 disruptive military technologies 89 92 disruptive technology (DT) 89 distributed battlefield sensor network (DBSN) 90 Dokodo Class LPH 496 Dolograe Class 496 Dolphin (Type 800) Class (SSK) 489 90 Dornier aircraft 238 246 Dornier Do-228 184 274 275 507 Driven Ammunition Reduced Time of Flight (DART) 84 Dubey Raghvendra Narayan 250 Dutton Peter 36 Dwarakanath P. 264 Dwivedi Comdt. R.P. 239 Dyer Vice Admiral Joseph W. 58 --National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy (NCSL) --Navy --People Power --security environment --Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) EH-AW 101 Eilat (Saar 5) Class (FSGHM) Elbit Systems Israel Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (EME) electromagnetic pulse (EMP) Electronic and Radar Development Establishment Electronic Corporation of India Ltd (ECIL) electronic intelligence (ELINT) electronic voting machines (EVMs) electronic warfare (EW) Electronics and Radar Development Establishments (LRDE) electro-optical (EO) electro-optical fire control system (EOFCS) ElintLorros mast EMB-312 Tucano Embraer EMB-145 aircraft Embraer Brazil EMP weapons employment options and communication of intent Endurance Class Landing Platform Dock energy efficiency and conservation energy security India energy storage technology environmental security India Estrada Joseph Euro-Asia Economic Forum (EAEF) Eurocopter Germany Eurofighter Typhoon European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) European Network and Information Security Agency European Union (EU) --and Central Asia --and Iran Evidence Act (1871) e-weapons Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 187 237 325 28 360 382 Expeditionary Laboratory Mobile (ELM) expressions of interest (EOIs) 421 421 22 421 420 21 22 509 490 101 135 156 51 65 73 101 51 64 73 74 329 64 65 69 74 211 275 296 66 83 280 510 73 110 503 510 511 65 52 499 53 54 56 7 53 56 91 8 403 456 94 95 96 139 167 277 502 508 9 504 77 80 75 27 75 117 358 405 345 427 322 51 8 35 36 153 179 92 101 defence procurement reforms Defence Production Policy (2011) defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs) 97 127 129 132 133 134 166 171 188 211 217 219 264 66 267 272 290 Defence Research & Development Establishment (DRDE) 296 Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) 296 Defence Research and Development Board (DRDB) 149 Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) 60 65 69 70 73 74 77 94 97 99 100 108 110 111 115 116 118 124 126 127 129 30 132 133 134 149 156 165 171 188 193 203 211 235 250 253 268 269 274 280 287 289 290 291 94 defence research and development 291 98 Defence Research Laboratory (DRL) 296 Defence Science Organisation 291 Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) 296 Defence Spatial Data Infrastructure (DSDI) 73 defence strategy India 45 48 Defence Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI) 118 Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) 296 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) US 91 133 Defense Security Cooperation Agency 60 Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) 308 Delhi University (DU) 330 demilitarised zone (DMZ) 396 Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) 318 361 Dempsey Marine 31 Denmark 346 358 465 Department of Animal Husbandry Dairying and Fisheries 328 Department of Defence Production (DoDP) 125 127 129 132 274 286 290 Department of Defence Production and Supplies (DDP&S) 149 267 90 Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) 267 268 Department of Internal Security 301 Department of Jammu and Kashmir 301 Department of Border Management 301 Department of Official Language 301 Department of Shipping 328 Department of States 301 Department of Telecommunication (DoT) 238 280 Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff Policy Planning and Force Development (DCIDS-PP&FD) 149 Desai Nitin 76 designated consumers 56 E EADS Barracuda technology demonstrator EADS CASA early warning 95 110 184 211 235 236 293 East China Sea Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ) East China Sea Eastern Naga People s Organisation (ENPO) Edgar Timothy H. e-governance Egypt --Air Force --Al Noor Party --Army --Constitution --defence --economy 79 507 15 50 51 61 62 73 375 76 31 34 43 319 76 268 305 21 23 415 420 22 421 22 421 22 421 420 420 F F-117 F-15A B C D F-16A B C D Fighting Falcon F-22 Raptor F-35 joint strike fighter (JSF) programme F-35 Lightening II F-35A F35B F-414A F-5E Tiger Faber Marc FAC (Waterjet) --Car Nicobar --Cheriyam --Chetlat --Cora Divh --Cankarso --Kalpeni --Kabra --Kondul 80 506 506 79 80 81 506 59 80 81 79 506 275 507 48 186 199 186 199 186 199 186 199 186 199 186 199 186 199 186 199 www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue 521 Index --Koswar 186 199 --Karuva 186 199 Fake Indian Currency Notes (FICN) 312 Farrukhyor Shahobiddin 352 fast interception crafts (FICs) 326 27 fast patrol boats 327 Fast Petrol Vessels (FPVs) 238 244 45 FC-1 503 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) 57 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 60 Federal Prisons Industries USA 141 Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) 17 19 369 Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) 294 Ferghana Valley 345 FH-77B 99 173 74 475 FICN Coordination Group (FCORD) 315 fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) 108 274 276 55Z46M Nebo M 3D radar system 81 Finance Commission Thirteenth 323 Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 315 F-INSAS 73 fire control (FC) system 80 first use doctrine 50 51 53 fishermen issuance of ID Cards 328 Five Power Defence Agreement (FPDA) 405 fixed-and rotary-wing aircraft 67 flight control systems 67 flight refuelling aircraft 110 FLIR Systems Inc. USA 139 force application perspective 63 force multipliers 110 foreign direct investment (FDI) 11 118 126 128 129 134 267 268 398 401 408 423 430 foreign military sales (FMS) 99 151 Foreigners (Protected Area) Order 1958 318 Foreigners (Restricted Areas) Order 1963 318 Forest Rights Act 2006 317 fragmenting payload (FRAP) 84 France 15 23 32 59 81 108 113 117 166 188 191 287 292 294 346 358 406 446 448 455 456 457 463 502 504 508 Free Syrian Army 446 frequency modulation (FM) 80 81 frigates 487 89 492 493 498 --Beas 186 196 --Betwa 186 196 --Brahmaputra 182 186 195 --Ganga 186 194 --Godavari 186 194 --Gomati 186 194 --Sahyadri 186 196 --Satpura 186 196 --Shivalik 186 196 --Tabar 186 195 --Talwar 182 195 96 365 481 494 --Tarkash 184 186 195 196 --Teg 186 195 --Trishul 186 195 Future Infantry Combat System 115 Future Infantry Combat Vehicles (FICV) 99 164 294 Future Infantry Soldier as a System (F-INSAS) 73 100 FV 432 477 Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSEL) 88 105 106 185 196 198 199 200 201 267 272 284 85 326 327 Garg Mukul 239 Garg Praveen 303 Garud Air Marshal A.P. 249 262 Garuda Shield 32 Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) 296 GDF-002 and -005 475 GE F414 108 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). See World Trade Organisation (WTO) General Atomics Aeronautical Systems 59 General Atomics Aeronautical USA 142 143 145 General Atomics Predator 57 General Dynamics USA 77 101 General Dynamics Land Systems Canada 135 142 145 General Dynamics National Steel and Shipbuilding Co. USA 144 General Electric (GE) USA 143 145 275 280 general purpose round air burst (GPR-AB) 84 Geneva II Conference on Syria 23 24 Geneva II Conference 416 geo-information technologies 63 geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle (GSLV) 274 Germany 15 83 87 101 117 161 184 190 275 346 358 427 455 458 465 502 507 509 GFAST 149 GIAT MkF3 464 Gill Air Marshal P.S. 249 262 Global Hawk 57 58 59 60 72 90 global information system (GIS) 74 Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) 241 global positioning system (GPS) 63 65 72 100 135 140 142 166 172 204 220 223 224 227 28 232 275 327 461 485 489 Global Triangle 46 global war on terrorism 3 59 98 346 448 globalisation 128 308 368 Go Jun Bong Class LST 496 Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) 105 265 267 272 285 86 Goel Rashmi 300 304 Gokhale Amol A. 296 Golden Crescent (Afghanistan Iran and Pakistan) 8 182 Golden Hawk 73 Golden Triangle (Laos Myanmar and Thailand) 8 182 398 Goodrich Corp. USA 143 145 Google computer systems 75 77 Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (GJM) 316 Gorkha Territorial Administration (GTA) 316 Goswami Anil 300 302 332 Goyal S.K. 239 Greece 83 greenhouse gas (GHG) emission 56 91 ground-based sensors 63 ground-to-space warfare 61 Group of Ministers (GoM) 123 145 150 159 316 326 Gujral I.K. 71 Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 23 24 379 449 Gulfstream Aerospace Corp. USA 144 Gupta A.K. 297 Gupta Ashok Kumar 247 250 269 Gupta Prabhat 297 Gupta Sudheer 295 Gurung Lt General Shakti 157 248 Guruprasad S. 297 Gwanggaeto The Great (KDX-I) Class DDG 496 97 Gyanendra King of Nepal 6 H H-181 Class H-187 Class al-Hadi Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hagel Chuck Halbit Avionics Pvt Ltd Hamad bin Khalifa Hamas Hambantota port Sri Lanka Han Class (Type 091) hand-held battlefield surveillance radars (BFSRs) hand-held thermal imaging devices (HHTIs) Haqqani network Haqqani Jallaluddin Harf Marie Harkat-ul-Jihad al -Islami (HuJI) Harop Harpy Kamikaze Harris Corporation USA Harrison Selig Hasina Wajed Sheikh 246 246 449 31 277 442 23 45 432 7 16 482 100 72 100 11 17 19 45 17 45 3 7 114 114 137 142 16 6 334 346 359 60 456 297 G Gaddafi Muamar Gaddafi Saif al-Islam GAI-B01 475 76Mk5 Gairola Sangita Galil Ace carbine Gallelio Avionica Ganapathy M.A. Ganju Ashwagosha 423 423 24 476 247 250 165 277 300 303 298 Hastak R.S. HATSOFF Helicopter Training Pvt Ltd 277 Hawk 132 274 Hawk 200 Series 506 HCL Infosys Ltd 73 74 101 Head-up display (HUD) 275 Heavy Vehicles Factory (HVF) 99 Hebbar A.A. 239 Hekmatyar Gulbuddin 17 Helina 94 109 Hensel Phelps Construction USA 143 Heron 110 Hetz (Saar 4.5) Class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) (PGGM) 490 91 Hezbollah 23 45 455 High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) 297 high frequency (HF) 66 81 higher capability high explosives (HCHE) 84 highly enriched uranium (HEU) 50 Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) 93 96 108 10 137 166 67 205 211 214 15 219 220 221 222 224 225 231 246 264 267 272 274 79 293 509 511 --Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd 277 --ventures for Indian military 95 96 Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) 105 267 272 286 Hizbollah 431 432 HJT-16 Kiran 110 503 511 HJT-36 275 homeland security in India 299 332 Honeywell International Inc. USA 140 277 Hong-6 502 Hoodbhoy Pervez 19 Horizon Core Technology Group 149 Horn of Africa 5 448 Horton HO 229 83 HOTAS 112 Hovercraft 238 246 HPT-32 110 275 HS-748 109 HS-74B 508 HTJ-36 Sitara 274 HTT-40 110 Huawei 16 Hughes Michael 18 human behavior modelling 91 human intelligence (HUMINT) 75 76 human resource management 104 105 humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR) 32 151 Hun Sen 334 282 Hungary 294 Huntington Ingalls Inc. USA 139 Hybrid Autonomous Undersea www.spguidepublications.com 522 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com Index Vehicle (HAUV) Hydrocarbons Hyundai Rotem 474KH179 How 90 241 475 --participation in United Nations peace keeping operations 160 Indian Coast Guard (ICG) 237 44 285 325 28 --equipment catalogue 244 46 Indian Coast Guard Act (1978) 237 Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) 76 Indian Cyber Command 78 Indian Defence Shipyards modularisation 87 88 Indian diaspora security 8 Indian Liability Act 2 India Meteorological Department 280 Indian misconception 47 48 Indian Mujahideen (IM) 331 Indian multi-role helicopter (IMRH) 274 Indian National Defence University (INDU) 148 151 Indian national satellite (INSAT) 274 Indian Navy 59 60 65 68 71 73 74 77 87 93 95 96 118 19 121 132 134 150 151 156 158 179 86 187 89 218 237 241 274 275 284 285 286 287 288 290 292 325 28 --budget (2013 14) 111 113 15 --budget (2014 15) 115 --equipment catalogue 190 207 --Marine Commandos (MARCOS) 151 --modernisation 103 6 Indian Ocean 5 7 16 19 31 34 46 60 64 69 70 131 153 179 187 89 363 380 388 456 Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) 456 Indian Oil Corporation Ltd (IOCL) 168 Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) in Sri Lanka 47 Indian Penal Code (IPC) 1860 322 Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) 63 327 Indian remote satellite (IRS) 274 Indian Search and Rescue Region (ISRR) 237 238 Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) 64 238 274 327 Indonesia 35 117 378 387 89 451 --Air Force 389 --Army 388 --defence 387 --economy 387 --general information 387 --military modernisation 31 --Navy 388 --security environment 387 88 --United States defence assistance 31 32 Indo-Russian Aviation Limited (IRAL) 277 Indo-Sri Lanka Accord (1987) 7 373 Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) 43 152 160 304 306 7 310 312 314 324 363 Indus Waters Treaty 8 InDyne Inc USA 140 Infantry Combat Vehicle (ICV) 113 460 Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) 460 information dominance 62 65 information electronic warfare (IEW) systems 67 69 information operations 67 information superiority (IS) 69 information technology (IT) 69 91 105 106 280 information warfare (IW) 8 147 Infosys 101 Infotech-HAL Ltd 277 infrared (IR) 66 72 73 82 83 86 87 90 100 211 275 infrared search and track (IRST) system 82 INS Amba 184 INS Aridhaman 185 INS Arihant 185 186 188 191 INS Astravahini 207 I ICGS Rajdhwaj ICGS Rajratan identification friend and foe (IFF) Idus Teqsite IFG Mk 2 IL-18 IL-76 IL-86 Ilyushin improvised explosive devices (IEDs) 285 285 90 280 174 466 507 225 502 507 511 502 109 225 502 507 60 100 162 329 330 331 India 363 66 --Afghanistan 41 42 452 --Air Force 365 --ASEAN relations 453 54 --Australia 452 US 452 --Bangladesh 452 --Central Asia role in 28 --and China relations conflict 3 4 5 6 13 30 32 41 42 43 44 45 48 50 98 117 131 151 268 314 329 31 362 364 451 --war (1962) 43 268 307 309 312 --Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act (2010) 55 --defence 363 --developmental dilemma 39 --divisiveness 37 --economy 37 118 345 363 451 --future weapon capability 65 68 --general information 363 --internal security dimensions 37 40 --Japan relations 390 452 --Japan United States and Australia quadrilateral 454 --land alienation 39 --Myanmar and Thailand trilateral highway project 454 --and Pakistan relations 2 9 12 42 44 99 326 --wars (1947) 44 1965 43 44 (1971) 15 43 --Kargil (1999) 44 99 326 --security environment 363 64 --societal criminalisation 39 --societal turbulence 39 --Strategic Force Command 364 --East Asia surge 453 54 --future weapon capability 65 68 --land borders 41 43 --Look East Policy 32 451 453 --nuclearisation 44 --space vision 2025 63 64 India International Trade Fair (IITF) 290 India-Myanmar-China tri-junction area 43 India Reserve (IR) battalions 313 317 18 India Reserved Battalions (IRBs) 320 322 323 Indian (Maritime) Search and Rescue (INDSAR) 238 Indian Air Force (IAF) 49 60 65 71 73 95 99 100 118 129 132 134 167 184 209 16 217 19 238 241 254 256 260 262 274 76 287 89 293 94 406 433 511 --budget (2013 14) 111 113 --budget (2014 15) 115 --equipment catalogue 220 36 --Garudas 151 --modernisation 107 10 Indian Army 6 43 44 65 71 73 94 --budget (2013 14) 111 112 13 --budget (2014 15) 115 --equipment catalogue 220 36 --fledgling Technical Support Division (TSD) 71 --modernisation 97 102 --Special Forces 151 INS Baaz INS Chakra INS Delhi INS Dweeprakshak INS Kadamba INS Kalveri INS Kamorta INS Mysore INS Rajput INS Rana INS Ranvijay INS Ranvir INS Saryu INS Shalki INS Shankul INS Shankush INS Shishumar INS Sindhdhvaj INS Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class INS Sindhukesari INS Sindhukirti INS Sindhuraj INS Sindhurakshak INS Sindhuratna INS Sindhushastra INS Sindhuvijay INS Sindhuvir INS Sunayna INS Vikramaditya INS Vikrant INS Vikrant-Sea Hawks combination INS Viraat inshore patrol vessels (IPVs) Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA) Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS) Institute of Systems Studies & Analyses (ISSA) Institute of Technology Management (ITM) Instruments Research & Development Establishment (IRDE) Integrated Action Plan (IAP) Integrated coastal surveillance system (ICSS) Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) Integrated Defensive Aids Suite (IDAS) Integrated Functional Commands integrated perspective planning in services Integrated Test Range (ITR) Integrated Theatre Commands Integrated Tri-Service Perspective Plan (ITSPP) Intelligence Bureau (IB) intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) intelligence surveillance target acquisition and reconnaissance (ISTAR) Intelligent Global Positioning System (IGPS) Interceptor Boats (IBs) Interceptor Missile Technology intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) inter-factional clashes (IFCs) intermediate jet trainer (IJT) Inter-Ministerial Group (IMG) internal security environment India Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) International Aerospace Manufacturing Pvt Ltd 185 184 191 92 365 104 186 193 327 185 184 184 104 186 193 186 193 365 104 193 186 193 186 193 184 186 190 186 190 186 190 186 190 186 190 186 190 91 186 190 186 190 191 186 190 104 186 190 191 186 190 186 190 186 190 191 186 190 191 184 103 4 114 183 184 185 189 192 202 103 104 188 193 94 205 104 104 183 192 255 260 265 285 327 76 297 74 297 297 297 313 317 294 65 73 290 108 275 76 73 148 297 73 148 147 241 316 49 50 57 60 62 63 71 74 69 87 238 245 327 293 51 52 318 274 315 311 24 372 277 www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue 523 Index International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) international cooperation International Court of Justice (ICJ) International Defence Exhibition and Conference (IDEX) 2013 International Energy Forum International FAR Certification Agency International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) International Maritime Organisation (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) international offshore rule (IOR) international relations (IR) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) International Social Security Association (ISSA) Internet of Things (IOT) Internet protocol version 4 (IPv4) Internet protocol version 6 (IPv6) Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) Pakistan Invar ATGM IPV Rajkamal IPV Rajkiran Iran --Air Force --Army --defence --economy --and European Union --Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps --military doctrine --Navy --nuclear programme and foreign policy --security environment --and Syria relations --and United States relations Iraq --Air Force --Army --Constitution --defence --economy --Iraqi Kurdistan Region (IKR) --Kurdistan Region Investment Law --Kurdistan Board of Investment --Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) --and Kuwait tensions --Navy --security environment --and United States relations Islamic Caliphate Islamic Emirates of Afghanistan Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) Islamic radicalism fundamentalism in Central Asia Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria (ISIS) Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) Israel Weapon Industries (IWI) Israel --Air Force --Army --defence --economy --Navy 57 241 290 35 84 54 293 29 241 11 352 356 369 372 382 434 452 63 9 117 183 354 442 54 6 117 131 358 370 455 56 149 91 95 96 69 69 45 330 346 369 287 285 285 6 28 346 355 358 416 427 29 451 429 428 427 24 427 427 428 428 428 29 24 440 427 23 21 23 24 416 427 455 430 31 446 431 431 430 430 430 430 430 430 430 436 431 430 31 415 430 18 420 17 18 350 356 5 21 25 415 16 23 101 110 193 277 292 165 83 294 406 432 33 433 433 432 432 433 --Palestine conflict --security environment Italy Izhmash Russia 416 432 33 83 101 165 456 467 502 139 --Army --defence --economy --Navy --security environment Joshi Air Marshal D.P. Joshi Shobhana 435 434 434 435 434 35 248 247 250 J J-11 (Su-27SK) 503 Jabhat al Nusrah 23 Jacobs Technology Inc. USA 138 Jaguar 108 184 210 211 215 222 223 234 277 287 366 441 476 Jain Rear Admiral A.K. 249 Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) 7 Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) --Pakistani infiltration and terrorism (proxy war) 7 20 43 131 299 311 331 370 --United States mediation 4 --Trans-Karakoram Tract 370 Japan 32 117 241 389 92 405 451 --Air Self-Defense Force (ASDF) 375 392 --Army 391 --and ASEAN 378 --and Central Asia 345 346 --and China relations dispute 375 76 384 452 --China and Republic of Korea Tripartite Cooperation 376 --Constitution 375 --China and Republic of Korea Trilateral Counter-Terrorism Consultations 376 --economy 389 90 --general information 389 --India relations 390 452 --Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) 375 --nationalism 375 --Navy 390 --security environment 390 91 --United States relations 390 JAS 39 505 Jawaharlal Nehru Solar Mission 55 Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) 330 Jian-7 503 Jian-8 503 Jianghu III Class 500 Jianghu V (Type 053H1G) Class (FFG) 489 Jiangkai I (Type 054) Class (FFGHM) 487 Jiangkai II (Type 054A) Class (FFGHM) 487 88 Jiangwei I (Type 053 H2G) Class (FFGHM) 488 Jiangwei II (Type 053 H3) Class (FFGHM) 488 Jianji-10 503 Jianjiao-7 503 Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck King of Bhutan 361 362 Jin Class (Type 094) (SSBN) 482 Jinagdao Class (Type 056) 488 Jindal Suresh Kumar 296 JL-2 52 Johnson Lyndon B. 3 joint area missile defence 69 Joint Operation Centres (JOCs) 326 Joint Operation Committee (JOCOM) 147 Joint Organisations Data Initiative (JODI) 54 Joint Services Intelligence Committee (JSIC) 147 Joint Task Force on Intelligence (JTFI) 315 Joint Training Committee (JTC) 147 Jolly Air Marshal R.K. 249 261 Jordan 421 434 35 446 --Air Force 435 K K 1A1 K2 MBT K-8 Karakoram Ka Band Kalam A.P.J. Abdul Kalsi Nirmaljeet Singh Kamov (airborne early warning) Kamov Ka 226T Kamov-28 Kamov-31 Kamtapur Liberation Army (KLA) Kanakaraj Air Marshal P. Kant Ravi Kaplan Robert H. Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP-I) Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works Karakoram Highway (KKH) Karimi Sher Mohammad Karimov Islam Karzai Hamid Kashmir. See Jammu and Kashmir Kataria Kaushik Amit Kumar Kaushik Atul Kaushik M.P. Kayani Ashfaq Pervez Kazakhstan 348 49 355 357 358 --Air Force --Army --Chinese intervention --defence --economy --general information --Navy --security environment Kazan Helicopters Kelkar Committee Keran Pakistani infiltration attempt Kerry John Khajuria Air Marshal D.S. Khamenei Ayatollah Ali Khunjerab Pass Khushab Nuclear Facility Kilcullen David Kim II-sung Kim Jong-un Ki-moon Ban kinetic attack loitering interceptor (KALI) Kiran KJ 200 & 2000 K-MAX Knox Class Koel-Kaimur Kohli Lt General Nitin Koirala Girija Prasad Koirala Sushil Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) Korean Peninsula --challenges on --war Kornet E Korwa project Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) Germany Krivak (Project 1135 1135M 1135MP) Class (FFM) 474 474L-40 -70 475 511 69 76 300 303 95 94 93 95 361 249 262 247 269 17 19 45 13 15 16 364 370 19 25 27 340 356 357 6 333 358 456 P.K. 250 302 303 296 10 18 19 45 25 26 345 346 349 349 27 348 348 348 349 348 49 109 133 9 10 1 3 17 23 370 455 56 249 427 16 13 59 337 376 393 337 376 454 33 36 161 64 110 81 387 96 500 330 248 367 337 346 367 138 142 83 376 452 454 55 395 96 176 272 138 465 466 493 www.spguidepublications.com 524 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com Index KS-19 Kuki National Organisation (KNO) Kuki Peoples Liberation Tigers (KPLT) Kulibayev Timur Kulkarni Lt General S.H. Kumar Lt General P.R. Kumar Sneh Lata Kursk Kuwait --Air Force --Army --defence --economy --Navy --security environment --security ties with US Kyrgyzstan --Air Force --Army --defence --economy --general information --and Iran --security environment --and United States relations --and Uzbekistan relations 474 318 318 25 248 248 300 302 104 416 436 37 437 437 436 436 437 436 37 436 437 25 26 294 345 350 51 358 351 351 350 350 350 28 350 5 27 26 345 --Syrian conflict Lee Myung-bak left-wing extremism (LWE) Leopard 2A6EX Leopard 2A7 Leopard 2MBT Li Keqiang Li Yuanchao Liaoning formation Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 438 39 395 305 311 12 313 314 317 323 329 346 466 465 466 13 15 117 334 453 334 393 31 7 41 46 235 329 30 346 372 73 21 23 423 24 424 424 423 L L 118 L Band L-3 Communications Military Aviation Services Canada L-40 70 L-70 L-7T Lada Class (Project 677) (SSK) Ladakh Chinese intrusion Laden Osama bin Lahore Agreement Lakshadweep Islands Lakshmi A.S. Lalit Kumar Dr Lanba Vice Admiral Sunil land borders India land forces employment land warfare land sea and air warfare-based technologies landing craft utility (LCUs) Laos --Air Force --Army --defence --economy --general information --security environment Larsen and Toubro (L&T) Laser Science & Technology Centre (LASTEC) laser technologies laser-based wake detection capability Lashkar Aman Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ) Lashkar-e-Taiba Toiba (LeT) Lavrov Sergey Lead Intelligence Agency (LIA) leading edge vortex control surface (LEVCON) Lebanon --Air Force --Army --defence --economy --Navy --security environment 477 81 140 143 145 175 99 113 284 492 43 44 60 99 131 154 160 210 3 48 369 370 444 455 12 327 247 250 297 248 41 44 43 44 68 69 66 67 185 186 200 397 98 410 413 398 398 398 397 98 397 398 74 99 101 327 297 66 68 90 103 68 11 7 7 10 11 12 17 45 330 23 237 275 438 39 446 439 439 438 438 439 438 Libya --Air Force --Army --economy --General National Congress (GNC) 423 --Great Manmade River Project 423 --Navy 424 --security environment 423 --United Nations sanctions 421 Life Sciences Research Board (LSRB) 294 light combat aircraft (LCA) 73 103 108 185 214 216 224 256 274 275 278 287 293 light combat helicopter (LCH) 95 100 109 274 276 502 light detection and ranging (LIDARs) 81 light utility helicopter (LUH) 94 109 274 276 line of actual control (LAC) 5 42 44 97 152 154 170 314 384 453 line of control (LoC) 5 9 42 97 117 152 53 254 256 58 299 304 306 311 316 364 liquefied natural gas (LNG) 53 85 449 littoral warfare 87 Local Communist Movement (LCM) 404 Lockheed Martin US 77 79 80 96 101 109 506 508 long-range surface-to-air missile (LRSAM) 287 292 Long-term Integrated Perspective Plan (LTIPP) 65 97 149 150 151 294 Long-term Perspective Plan (LTPP) 108 149 Long-term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee (LTPPFC) 149 low medium earth orbit (LEO MEO) satellite system 69 LUDA (Type 051D 05DT 051G 051G II) Class (DDG) 486 Luhai Class (Type 051C) 486 Luhu Class (Type 052) 486 87 Luyang I (Type 052B) Class (DDGHM) 485 Luyang II (Type 052C) Class (DDGHM) 485 Luzhou Class (Type 051C) (DDGHM) 484 M M-107 M-109 M-110 M-113 A3 M-160 M-163 Vulcan M-167 Vulcan M-1943 M-198 M-1A2 Abrams M-4 M-40 A2 M-41 M-46 M-48 A1 M-48 Series M-60A3 M-777 479 479 479 478 174 479 480 174 479 478 165 177 478 173 174 472 479 478 478 99 174 Ma Ying-jeou machinery control systems MAC-SMAC connectivity scheme Madhok Lieutenant General Sanjeev Magar Class Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme Mahindras main battle tanks (MBTs) 268 457 458 459 470 474 478 Maini Anil Kumar maintenance repair and overhaul (MRO) Major Air Chief Marshal Fali H. Malakondaiah G. Malaysia 399 400 405 425 453 --Air Force --Army --defence --economy --general information --Navy --security environment --United Malay National Organisation (UMNO) Maldives --China-Pakistan collusion Malhotra Lt General Anoop Malik G.S. al-Maliki Nouri Malleswar C.D. management information system (MIS) Mandal Manas K. Manipur insurgency manned aircraft systems manned system for land sea and air manoeuvrable re-entry vehicles (MaRVs) Mantha S.N. Maoist insurgency in India 40 Marcos Ferdinand Marder 1A3 ICV Mareech Marine Rescue Sub-Centres (MRSCs) maritime --borders boundaries --commons --cooperation --rights --security 82 185 88 237 43 325 28 --trade maritime capability perspective plan (MCPP) maritime domain awareness (MDA) maritime reconnaissance (MR) Maritime Rescue Coordination Centres (MRCCs) Maritime Search and Rescue (M-SAR) Maritime Zones of India al-Masri Taher Matheswaran Air Marshal M. Mathur R.K. Mathur Radha Krishna Mattis James Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) 188 191 196 265 267 272 284 MBDA France 176 232 234 287 504 507 McMahon Line measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) 339 376 408 68 316 249 259 200 317 99 99 164 172 200 297 274 107 248 293 32 35 378 379 400 400 399 399 399 400 399 400 400 41 117 241 46 248 293 297 431 297 74 248 293 37 318 320 322 58 90 51 266 329 31 403 466 294 238 241 243 68 69 70 211 30 35 36 153 183 15 35 63 8 15 32 102 179 179 241 188 89 64 187 327 184 85 238 241 237 238 237 435 248 250 253 247 253 353 88 105 106 185 94 108 109 165 43 81 www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue 525 Index medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA) 108 113 129 151 215 216 219 274 Ministry of Information & Broadcasting (MIB) 280 Ministry of Petroleum 326 Ministry of Road Transport and Highways 313 317 Mirage 2000-5 Mk 2 108 Mirage 2000H 504 Mirage 5 504 Mirage F-1C 504 Mirage III 504 Mirror Airfield Dummy Deck Landing System (MADDLS) 103 Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) 267 272 287 88 Mishra Diwakar Nath 250 Mishra P.K. 247 251 269 Mishra Rear Admiral (Retd) N.K. 265 Mishra Sanjay Kumar 300 missile system quality assurance (MSQA) 289 missile systems 292 93 Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) 1 390 Mital Rear Admiral (Retd) Shekhar 265 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 468 469 Mizoram insurgency 37 320 322 Mk I-40 275 Mk III 276 Mk-13 476 Mk-2 3 477 Mk-3 476 Mk-42B 114 204 5 mobile satellite terminals 65 modernisation of defence forces 32 49 63 111 16 117 118 126 129 132 134 151 52 364 --of Air Force 107 10 114 209 11 214 216 219 --of Army 97 102 112 114 116 162 64 166 169 71 269 --of Central Armed Police Forces 313 320 --of Defence Public Sector Undertakings 133 280 284 285 286 288 300 --of electronic and cyber warfare 182 --for homeland security 307 309 313 316 320 --of Navy 103 6 114 15 183 185 189 190 93 195 200 --of ordnance factories 272 --of shipbuilding and shipyards 85 --of state police force 320 Modified Gwangaeto Class 499 500 Modular Automatic and Network Capable Targeting and Interceptor System (MANTIS) 84 Moorthy Lt. General Gautam 249 Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) 404 Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) 404 Morsi Mohamed 22 415 16 420 most favoured nation (MFN) 11 Motorised Rifle Division (MRD) 353 Mountain Strike Corps 100 113 116 118 MQ-8B Fire Scouts 58 MSTA-S 472 MT-LB Multi-Purpose Tracked Vehicle 472 Mubarak Mohamed Hosni 21 420 Mueller Robert 60 Mukherjee Pranab 118 247 252 Multi Agency Centre (MAC) 71 312 315 multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRL) 99 165 Multifunctional Surveillance Threat Assessment Radar (MFSTAR) 293 multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRV) 191 292 482 multiple rocket launchers (MRL) 461 473 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar 81 multi-purpose national identity cards multi-role tanker transport (MRTT) multi-role transport aircraft (MTA) Multi-role Transport Aircraft Ltd (MTAL) Muralidharan R. Muralidharen P.M. Murugesan Vice Admiral P. Muslim Brotherhood Muslim Rohingya Muttahida Jihad Council Myanmar (formerly Burma) --Air Force --Army --China relations --defence --economy --general information --India relations --Kachin rebels --National League for Democracy (NLD) --security environment 328 110 113 109 274 276 276 277 298 302 249 21 22 420 21 432 6 402 11 32 401 2 410 402 402 401 402 402 401 401 6 43 401 2 6 46 330 401 401 2 medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBM) 51 52 medium-range surface-to-air missile (MRSAM) 99 287 Meena Ashok Kumar 247 251 269 Meena Veena Kr. 300 303 Meena Yogita 302 Meggitt Training Systems UK 138 142 Meghalaya 210 318 320 322 MEKO system (MehrzweckKombination) 87 Mekong-Ganga project 402 MEMS-based sensors 66 Menon M.S. 8 Menon Shivshankar 78 149 mercantile trade 325 Merkava Mk3 466 Merkel Angela 76 meteorology 69 183 211 MI-17 93 95 Mi-17V5 95 109 MI-26 95 Mi-28 (Havoc) 95 MI-8 93 95 109 micro UAVs (MAVs) 57 60 72 110 micro-air vehicle (MAV) 294 micro-biotic electronics and disabling systems (MEDS) 90 micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) 65 90 micro-system technology 66 Microwave Tube R&D Centre (MTRDC) 297 MIDARS 90 MiG Skat 79 MiG-21 108 504 MiG-23 504 MiG-25 504 MiG-27 108 MiG-27M 504 MiG-29 82 106 108 184 85 192 93 202 210 215 221 233 280 504 5 MiG-31 505 MiG-35 82 502 Mikoyan 79 220 221 502 504 505 Mil Mi-24 509 Mil Mi-25 -35 509 10 Mil Mi-26 510 Mil Mi-6 509 Mil Mi-8 509 Milan portable ATGW 176 militarisation of space implications for India 61 64 military developments in South East Asia 29 32 military helicopters for India 93 96 military operations in built-up areas (MOBUA) 69 military space technology 61 Miller James N. 30 MIM-23A and 23B 480 Mindadnao isaland 404 mine warfare forces 186 200 1 --Alleppey 186 200 --Cuddalore 186 200 --Kakinada 186 200 --Karwar 186 200 --Konkan 186 200 --Kozhikode 186 200 Minicoy Islands 153 182 238 327 Ministry of Defence (MoD) 8 69 70 73 93 94 95 97 99 106 109 113 115 118 119 121 124 125 126 127 129 130 133 134 145 149 150 151 156 159 165 166 169 170 171 183 188 217 219 237 268 69 272 274 276 282 284 87 289 291 309 316 323 326 Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) 171 299 301 304 309 312 313 315 18 320 322 323 325 28 N Nagaland Naga insurgency Nagraj Smita Nair Vice Admiral K.R. Nalanda project Namangani Juma Nanda Bhupal Nandal Lt. General A.S. Nansha (Spratly) Island conflicting claims Nanuchka Class (Project 1234.1 1234.7) (FSG) Narayana Rao M. narcotic trafficking and terrorism Naresh Chandra Task Force (NCTF) Naresuan Class (Type 25T) (FFGHM) Narula Lt General V.K. Nasim Mohammed Nassar missile system Nasser Gamal Abdel Natarajan K. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Aerospace Laboratories National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM) National Automatic Identification System (NAIS) National Bomb Data Centre (NBDC) National Command Authority (NCA) National Command Post National Command Control Communication and Intelligence (NC3IN) National Committee for Maritime and Coastal Security National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC) National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) National Informatics Centre (NIC) National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH) National Intelligence Council (NIC) National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) 37 318 19 320 322 247 249 272 356 300 303 249 35 495 266 5 149 50 151 152 499 248 296 52 420 239 92 293 78 328 308 51 52 147 326 27 328 71 315 77 78 318 324 306 312 324 322 328 267 91 71 314 315 331 www.spguidepublications.com 526 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com Index National Investigative Agency (NIA) National Maritime Search and Rescue (NMSAR) National Maritime Search and Rescue Board (NMSRB) National Maritime Search and Rescue Coordination Authority (NMSARCA) National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOS-DCP) National Police Commission National Policy on Biofuels National Population Register (NPR) National Rural Health Mission National Security Advisor (NSA) National Security Advisory Board National Security Commission National Security Council (NSC) National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) National Security Guard (NSG) 310 312 313 314 331 363 National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) --Isak-Muivah group (NSCN IM) --Khaplang group (NSCN K) National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) Nautiyal K.R. Naval Equipment --China --India --Israel --North Korea --Russia --South Africa --South Korea --Thai Land --United Kingdom --United States of America Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL) naval multi-role helicopters (NMRH) Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) Naval Research Board (NRB) Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL) naval ship design navigation systems and warhead guidance naxalism Nayak Keshav Dattatreya Nazarbayev Nursultan Nebo M Nehra Lt General J.P. Nepal --Air Force --Army --buffer zone between India and China --defence --general information --India s regional security environment --Maoist insurgency --security environment Netanyahu Benjamin Netra network-centric operations network-centric warfare (NCW) networked decision support systems nEUROn New Silk Road (NSR) New York Summit (2013) New Zealand --and ASEAN Nexter System France Nexter Systems AMX-10P Nexter THL-20 312 315 241 237 238 241 237 241 322 55 328 317 78 12 47 76 322 44 147 150 255 304 307 08 318 330 319 319 78 239 481 482 89 481 489 481 489 91 481 491 92 481 492 95 481 495 98 481 498 501 481 481 297 95 274 297 294 297 89 66 67 69 299 311 364 248 293 25 81 157 248 41 117 346 368 368 368 367 367 6 43 5 6 45 367 68 432 73 69 90 71 73 74 72 59 79 91 26 9 32 378 378 405 407 378 84 101 464 109 NH-90 95 114 Nigeria 54 117 night vision devices 72 89 90 9M31M 175 176 19 MHz 81 Nirbhay 108 Niteworks UK 139 Nixon Richard M. 3 Niyazov Saparmurat Atayevich 25 no first use (NFU) 49 50 51 --and second strike capability 52 Nomed PS 700 Class 499 non-government organisations (NGOs) 322 non-lethal or less-than-lethal weapons 90 non-state actors 21 NORINCO 459 460 461 North Africa 415 50 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 27 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) 3 6 17 19 27 29 46 47 60 77 170 192 352 358 369 370 425 426 511 North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council Assam 318 North Korea (DPRK) 5 376 392 94 452 --Air Force 394 --Army 393 94 --China relations 393 --defence 393 --economy 392 --general information 392 --Navy 394 --security environment 393 94 Northeast India insurgency 299 311 12 318 20 331 Northern Distribution Network (NDN) 27 Northrop Grumman Systems Corp. USA 77 90 136 137 138 139 140 507 511 Norway 121 346 358 NP-1 275 293 NP-2 275 293 nuclear biological chemical defence (NBC) 291 nuclear command structure India 51 nuclear deterrence of India 49 52 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 14 44 nuclear proliferation in South Asia 41 Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) 1 14 390 al-Nujaifi 415 operational information systems (OIS) optical fibre cable (OFC) Ordnance Factories Organisation ordnance factories modernisation Ordnance Factory Boards (OFBs) Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) OSA Missile Oshkosh Corp. USA Oto Melara Palmaria Outer Space Treaty (OST) over the horizon (OTH) radars 73 101 268 269 272 99 127 267 268 269 272 432 443 23 175 135 467 61 64 81 P P-8 I Poseidon PAC-1 Pacific Rim Padaki V.C. Padhi M.K. Padmanabhaiah Committee Pakistan --Afghanistan reconstruction and --Air Force (PAF) --Army 43 97 98 370 71 470 --Balochistan (Baluchistan) --capability development and doctrinal thinking --China strategic nexus --civil-military relations --Cyber Army --defence --democracy --domestic challenges --economy --foreign policy and terrorism --general information --Gwadar Port and GilgitBaltistan --and India tension 299 311 331 364 370 --internal security --jihadis --support to Maoists --military modernisation --National Highway Authority --Navy --nuclear power programme --politico-military nexus --security environment --Taliban --terrorism against India --United States relations --and United States military presence in Afghanistan Pakistan Muslim League (PML) Pakistan Muslim League (PML-Nawaz) Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) Palestinian question Panda Suresh Chandra Panetta Leon Pangtey Comdt L.S. Panhard M3 Panhard PVP Pant Kamlesh Kumar Paramesh S. 106 114 480 375 295 239 2000 322 41 241 346 369 71 405 27 15 371 7 9 10 11 12 19 5 11 16 20 41 49 50 13 16 20 46 370 10 77 369 19 10 11 19 369 11 13 19 20 369 7 11 15 16 19 41 5 7 20 43 131 151 11 45 330 13 16 44 16 15 371 13 14 44 9 369 70 3 10 11 17 19 3 45 46 47 48 329 3 13 369 70 17 20 20 7 11 12 311 331 346 364 370 416 432 33 435 442 300 302 1 31 58 76 350 376 384 239 464 465 464 247 251 239 O Obama Barack 1 6 18 23 24 31 58 60 75 77 353 358 408 430 440 451 52 455 oceans overexploitation 8 Octocopter (radio controlled quad copter) 60 offshore development areas 326 Offshore Petrol Vessels (OPVs) 238 244 Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC) 237 241 offshore security 241 Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) 168 183 241 264 Oil India Limited 241 Oliver Hazard Perry Class 500 Olson Richard 45 Om Prakash Lt General 248 omni-directional range instrument landing system (VOR ILS) 67 on-board processing techniques 69 Onodera Itsonuri 390 open source intelligence (OSINT) 71 Operation Enduring Freedom 356 384 Operation Flame 77 Operation Iraqi Freedom 384 www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue 527 Index Parliament Duty Group (PDG) Parliamentary Standing Committee on Defence Parlikar Atul Parthasarthy G. passive anti-stealth measures passive coherent location (PCL) mode Pathak K.K. Pathak M.V. Pathania V.S. Pati Gokul Chand Patney Air Marshal Vinod Patrol forces Patrol Submarines patrol submarines Pattanaik Vice Admiral R.K. Pawar Ravindra PC-7 MkII Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect (PELE) People s Liberation Army (PLA) of Manipur Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme Persian Gulf personnel identification systems Philippine --Air Force --Army --Bayanihan of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) --China dispute --defence --general information --Internal Peace and Security Plan (IPSP) --Navy --security environment Philippine Institute for Peace Violence and Terrorism Research (PIPVTR) Phillips Andrew Pillai A. Sivanthanu pilotless aircraft evolution Pinaka Pipavav Defence and Offshore Engineering Limited piracy and armed robbery at sea Piranha III PL-9C Low Alt SAM system Planning Commission PLZ 45 system PNS Aslat Police Act (1861) Police Act Drafting Committee (2005) Police Modernisation Scheme policy exercise of planning budgetary allocations and process of acquisition (PPBP) Pollution Control Vessels (PCVs) pollution response Popular Front of India (PFI) Port Engineer port security position navigation and timing (PNT) and monitoring pragmatic development plans and operational strategies Prahar Rear Admiral B.S. Prahlada Dr Prasad Bina Prasad M.V.K.V. precision air-ground weapons precision-guided missiles precision-guided munitions (PGMs) Predator UAV preliminary staff requirements (PSR) Pressler Amendment Prime Minister s Gram Sadak Yojana Principal Maintenance Officers Committee (PMOC) 312 99 152 239 19 82 80 81 300 303 239 239 247 250 253 269 59 490 482 492 248 247 250 110 84 46 330 56 5 107 153 427 440 444 448 91 31 378 403 4 404 404 404 29 31 35 36 403 403 404 29 404 403 4 404 77 248 293 57 60 99 174 272 466 284 8 241 475 462 315 317 321 461 15 322 322 320 322 323 148 49 238 244 241 330 105 328 61 323 24 52 249 296 303 297 66 15 70 69 70 97 99 110 72 87 15 317 147 Principal Personal Officers Committee (PPOC) Principal Supply Officers Committee (PSOC) PRISM (surveillance programme) Prithvi private sector and defence procurement and production Priyadarshini Class Project Appraisal Committee Proof And Experimental Establishment (PXE) proto laser weapon technology PRP-4 PS 700 Class PSDA PT-76B public opinion sensitive body bags public-private partnership (PPP) Puma AE system Punj Lloyd purchasing power parity (PPP) Pushpak Putin Vladimir 147 147 77 165 176 198 287 292 365 125 267 68 244 124 297 64 471 499 63 471 60 65 106 132 133 60 101 383 390 73 17 353 357 Razak Najib 399 410 RD-33 Series III 108 Reconnaissance 63 68 69 90 reconnaissance surveillance and target acquisition (RSTA) 100 Reconnaissance Vehicles 467 468 476 Reddy Air Marshal P.P. 249 Reddy G. Satheesh 298 Reddy M. Gopal 300 303 Reddy Vijay Latha 78 regional aspiration scenario 63 Regional Centre of Military Airworthiness (RCMA) 291 297 Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) 378 452 regional conflicts in Central Asia 25 28 Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP) 241 regional operating centres (ROC) 327 regional security --challenges India 7 8 --environment India 5 8 --Central Asia 28 religious and political conservatism 415 religious fundamentalism and religious extremism 311 remote operating stations (ROS) 327 remotely operated vehicle (ROV) 294 remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) 57 request for information (RFIs) 73 100 research & development activities 270 Research & Development Establishment (R&DE) 297 Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) 147 research and development (R&D) 65 70 97 127 131 133 147 149 170 270 274 280 294 Research Centre Imarat (RCI) 298 Reshef (Saar 4) Class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) (PTG) 491 Revathi 73 revolution in military affairs (RMA) 59 98 Rheinmetall Defence Germany 84 136 138 141 466 Rhode & Schwartz Germany 101 Ribeiro Committee (1998-99) 322 Rice Condoleezza 1 river water sharing India Nepal and Bangladesh 8 Road Development Plan 317 Road Requirement Plan I (RRP-I) 313 robotics and autonomy 65 68 90 Roghun hydroelectric dam Vaksh River 26 Rohini 73 Roke Manor Research Group (UK) 82 Rolls-Royce UK 143 145 275 277 Rolta India 101 Romeo (Project 033) Class (SS) 491 92 Rosoboronexport Russia 99 132 144 276 Rotary-winged UAVs (RUAV) 58 Rouhani Hassan 24 416 427 Roy Air Marshal P.K. 248 255 Roy K. 239 Royal Bhutan Army (RBA) 361 Royal Bhutan Guards (RBG) 361 Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF) 209 Royal Nepal Army 6 RQ 171 Sentinel 79 RQ-3 Dark Star 79 RQ-4 Global Hawks 60 Ruag Aerospace Germany 275 Rudra 94 96 275 Russia 6 117 294 405 446 452 --Air Force 276 --Central Asia 27 345 --China relations 384 --India military cooperation 117 --and Syria 416 --and Turkmenistan 354 55 --and Uzbekistan relations 357 Q Qaboos Sultan Qatar --Air Force --Army --defence --economy --Navy --security environment QinetiQ UK Qureshi Makhdoom Shah Mahmood 440 23 441 42 442 442 442 441 442 442 136 13 R RAC MIG radar absorbent materials paint (RAM RAP) radar cross section (RCS) radio detection and ranging (RADAR) Rafael Israel Raha Air Chief Marshal Arup Rahmon Emomali Rai Gulshan Rai Lieutenant General M.M.S. Rai Lt General R.P. Rajapaksa Mahinda Percy Rajaram Air Marshal H.B. Rajasekhar Comdt. D. Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidhyutikaran Yojana Rajshree Class Raju A.R. Rajveer ICG Ship Raksha Udyog Ratna Ramachandran K. Ramachandran Mullappally Ramanarayanan C.P. Rani Abbaka Class Ranjan Sanjiv Rao V. Bhujanga Rapid Action Force (RAF) Rapid Equipping Force (REF) Rashtriya Rifles (CounterInsurgency Force) Ratel 90 Ratmakosin Class Raveendran N.G. Raveendranath Air Vice Marshal G. Raven system Ravi Kant Ravindra Gupta Committee Raytheon US 108 69 79 68 69 79 81 81 101 108 113 248 254 340 353 76 249 258 248 339 372 373 249 239 317 245 302 327 133 296 300 302 332 296 245 250 248 293 304 305 92 156 323 331 474 501 239 247 251 60 90 247 250 269 133 73 77 101 144 www.spguidepublications.com 528 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com Index Rustamji K.F. Rustom 1 306 110 sea lines of communication (SLOC) search and rescue (SaR) secessionism India sectarian tension Sectra Sweden security environment in South Asia security related expenditure (SRE) scheme SEDS Kochi Sejong the Great (KDX-III) Class DDG Sekaran V.G. Selex Italy Sen Gupta Committee Senate Judiciary Committee Senkaku Diayu Island China-Japan dispute over sensor technology service robotic technology Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee (SCAPCC) Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee (SCAPCHC) services qualitative requirements (SQRs) Severodvinsk Shahine Low Alt SAM System Shakti Shang Class (Type 093) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Shanghai Institute of International Studies Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI) Shanghai-II Sharif General Raheel Sharif Mohammad Nawaz 154 338 346 364 370 456. Sharif Shahbaz Sharma Air Marshal R.K. Sharma Bhisham Sharma D.R. Sharma H.K. Sharma Rajiv Sharma S.K. Sharma Sharad Sharp Sword Sheikh Zayed Shenyang Aircraft Corporation China Shenyang J-31 Falcon Eagle Shinawatra yingluck Shinde Sushil Kumar Shinzo Abe shipbuilding and modularisation short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) short take-off but arrested recovery (STOBAR) short-range (SR-SAM) short-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs) Shrawat Rear Admiral (Retd) R.K. Shukla Major General Sanjeev Shukla V.C. Siachin Glacier Sibal Kanwal SIBAT Isarel Sibnath Som signal intelligence (SIGINT) Signal Intelligence Directorate (SID) signal to noise ratio (SNR) Sihag A.R. Sikand Lt General Jatinder Sikkim Sikorsky Aircraft Corp. USA Sikorsky Sikorsky S-97 Raider 388 68 238 37 38 39 40 11 12 19 21 416 431 144 41 42 312 317 320 327 497 248 293 101 144 133 60 375 376 384 65 66 90 91 149 149 133 103 191 465 93 482 27 28 345 346 456 13 14 15 10 338 3 4 7 9 13 19 45 7 10 249 256 239 239 239 300 302 264 239 79 448 79 79 80 410 300 302 332 335 375 390 452 85 88 104 104 99 51 385 265 247 251 329 42 43 48 132 296 71 147 81 247 250 248 160 320 142 114 510 96 S S-60 S-70-B SA -13 GOPHER SA 316 319 Aloutte III SA 360 AS 365 Dauphin SA 365 366 Dauphin II SA-13 Gopher SAM System SA-16 Gimlet (Ingla-1 9K310) SA-330 Puma SA-341 342 Gazelle SA-6 (Quadrat) SA-6 Gainful Low to Medium alt SAM SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System SA-8B (OSA AK) SA-8B SAM System SA-9 Gaskin SAM System Saab Sweden Sabra MBT El-Sadat Anwar Saddam Hussain Sadhwani D.D. al-Sadr Muqtada Saeed Sayeed Hafeez Sagar Prahari Bal (SPB) Sagrika K-15 missile system Sahni Lieutenant General Arun Kumar Sailesh Saleh Ali Abdullah SAM 67 SAM-6 (Kvadrat) SAM-8 OSA-AK Samar Class Samtel-HAL Display System Limited Samudra Prahari Class Sands Chris Sang-O Class (SSC) Sankalp Class Sanket S Saran Shyam Sareen Air Chief Marshal S.K. Sarma G.V.V. Sarojini Naidu Class Sarva Siksha Abhiyan Sarvatra Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) Sastry C.V.S. satellite redundancy satellite-based communication network Sati S.C. Saudi Arabia --Air Force --Army --defence --economy --national guard --Navy --security environment --and United States Saxena A.K. Saxena Lt General V.K. Saxena P.K. Scarborough Shoal ChinaPhilippine dispute Scheme of Construction of Fortified Police Stations Schlieren photography Scientific Analysis Group (SAG) Scindia Steam Navigation Company SD-10A Air Defence System Sea Harriers Sea Hawk Sea Hawk Vikrant Sea King (ASW) 474 114 175 509 509 473 176 509 509 175 473 473 175 473 473 136 141 144 145 503 511 467 420 448 303 431 10 11 326 27 52 249 258 300 303 449 99 99 244 277 244 17 492 244 280 12 78 300 245 317 100 309 10 314 324 361 295 64 69 295 23 415 421 443 45 444 45 444 443 443 444 444 443 444 444 296 248 298 29 35 317 81 298 286 462 104 114 103 95 Sikorsky S-70B 95 Sikorsky X2 96 Siliguri Corridor 362 Silk Road 354 Silk Route 27 silo-based systems 50 Singapore 16 31 32 25 83 117 161 284 294 376 378 379 408 --Air Force 407 --Army 406 --Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) 405 --defence 405 --economy 405 --general information 405 --India relations 406 --Navy 406 7 --security environment 405 6 Singer Peter 59 60 Singh Aditya Lt. General (Retd) 76 Singh Air Marshal Daljit 249 261 Singh Asit 302 Singh B.P. 239 Singh Comdt G. 239 Singh General (Retd.) V.K. 16 97 98 162 Singh General Bikram 10 99 100 118 146 157 161 169 71 248 254 Singh Jaswant 150 Singh Jitendra Pratap 247 253 Singh Kusum 248 269 Singh Lieutenant General Ashok 249 258 Singh Lieutenant General Dalbir 157 248 256 Singh Lieutenant General N.B. 249 Singh Lieutenant General Narendra 248 256 Singh Lieutenant General R.N. 248 Singh Manjit 298 Singh Manmohan 2 4 9 10 117 154 247 252 314 359 390 402 454 Singh N.K. 322 Singh Prakash 322 Singh R.P.N. 300 302 332 Singh Rajendra 239 Singh Rakesh 300 Singh Ram Subhag 247 250 Singh Ratanjit Pratap Narain 300 302 332 Singh Shambhu 300 303 Singh Shashi Bala 296 Singh Shashi Bhushan 297 Singhal A.K. 248 251 269 Sinha R.K. 247 251 Sinha Surg Capt. S.K. 239 Sinha Vice Admiral Shekhar 249 259 Sisi Abdel Fattah 22 Sistla Ravind 296 Sivakumar P. 295 SM-3 63 Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) 125 133 small radar systems 90 small unmanned aircraft systems (SUAS) 57 small water plane area twin hulls (SWATHs) 87 smart radios 65 SMART-L 81 smart-skin technology 79 Smerch MR System 473 Smirch 9K58 Multiple Launch Rocket System 174 Smith Stephen 454 Smiths Aerospace 277 Smiths Detection UK 136 Snecma-HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd 277 Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) 298 Snowden Edward Joseph 75 77 Society for Integrated Technology Application and Research (SITAR) 291 Society for Prevention of Cruelty www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue 529 Index to Animals software defined radio (SDR) SOHO Class (FFGH) Solid State Physics Laboratory (SSPL) Solomon Island Soltam L-33 Soltam M-71 Somalia Soman Air Marshal S.S. Son Wonil Class Song Class (Type 039 039G) (SSG) Soni Vice Admiral Satish Sorabjee Soli Soundar Rajan P.M. South Africa South Asia South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) South Carolina Commission for the Blind USA South China Sea (SCS) 399 403 404 413 452 54 --Chinese assertion South East Asia 451 --Chinese assertion --cooperative security --military developments South Korea (Republic of Korea) --Air Force --Army --and ASEAN --China relations --Combined Force Commander (CFC) --defence --economy --general information --Ministry of National Defense (MND) --Navy --and North Korea relations --security environment --and United States relations South Korean Modular Construction Soviet Union disintegration Sovremenny Class (Project 956E 956EM) (DDGHM) SP Guns and Howitzers SP Guns and Hows space asset domination (SAD) space-based missiles space-based radars Space Command space control space force application space resources space-to-space warfare special forces in India s defence strategy Special Infrastructure Scheme special operation equipment Special Operations Forces Special Security Group (SSG) Specialised India Reserved Battalions (SIRBs) Specialist Technical Panels (STP) Spets Techno Exports Ukraine Spike-ER Splav SRI International USA Sri Lanka --Air Force --Army --and China --defence --economy --general information --and India relations --Navy 60 167 492 298 380 467 467 21 456 249 260 496 482 83 249 260 322 295 117 121 41 345 346 6 136 5 43 378 388 390 29 32 33 36 33 36 456 29 32 117 376 395 97 405 451 397 396 378 396 454 396 393 395 395 454 55 396 97 395 96 454 395 96 454 87 345 350 353 484 85 458 467 68 472 477 458 460 464 469 474 478 63 64 61 65 151 62 62 61 61 45 48 150 317 70 91 308 315 16 482 313 318 323 290 109 94 473 138 5 41 372 74 374 373 373 372 372 372 372 73 374 --and Pakistan --security environment --Tamil issue --Tamil National Alliance (TNA) Srikumar P. Srivastava Arun Srivastava Comdt A. Srivastava R.B. Srivastava Ravindra Kumar Stalin Joseph State Counter-Terrorism Centres (SCTC) State Multi Agency Centre (SMAC) State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) State Police Force state police structure legal framework State Security Commission stealth technology Steregushchy Class Stingray Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) Stormer APC (Tracked) Strait of Malacca strategic and battlefield surveillance strategic and business environment Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment (STEA) Strategic Defence Review (SDR) Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Strategic Forces Command (SFC) Strategic Policy Group (SPG) Strategic Systems Quality Assurance Group (SSQAG) Strategies of Tactics for the Indian Revolution Stuxnet Su-24 Su-25 Su-27 Su-30K Su-30MKI Subic Bay submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) Submarines submarines including nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) Subramanian Lt. General A.V. Subsidiary MACs (SMAC) Sudershan Kumar Sukam Sukhoi T-50 Sukhoi Russia Sukumar Air Marshal S. Sule A.R. Sultanate of Oman --Air Force --Army --defence --economy --Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with United States --Navy --security environment Sun Tzu Sundaram S.S. Sundaresh S. Sunit Kumar Lt. General Super Dvora Mk I and Mk II classes (Fast Attack Craft-Gun) (PTFM) Suresh Kumar S. surface surveillance surface-to-air guided weapons (SAGW) surface-to-air missile (SAM) surface-to-sub surface strike capabilities 374 372 73 372 73 376 295 239 239 296 300 303 345 331 312 23 320 321 322 65 69 495 478 15 50 128 477 5 15 107 153 209 19 376 61 117 18 147 147 61 49 52 73 145 147 149 289 330 77 505 505 520 505 108 274 75 293 505 35 52 488 491 34 249 315 295 329 79 137 274 276 505 249 247 251 439 41 441 440 41 440 439 40 440 441 440 75 248 293 248 293 249 491 300 303 69 65 69 84 99 216 233 287 470 68 surveillance surveillance and reconnaissance (SR) surveillance and target acquisition (SATA) regiment Suspension of Operation (SoO) Swami Ramesh H. Swan Operation Swathi Sweden synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Syria --Air Force --Army --Ba ath government --civil war --defence --economy --Free Syrian Army --Navy --security environment --Syrian National Coalition --and United States relations systems and applications supporting indigenous global positioning system (GPS) 68 69 73 90 58 72 72 165 318 320 302 325 294 83 99 161 164 406 458 475 502 503 66 416 432 445 47 447 416 446 416 4 21 23 416 431 446 445 445 23 446 446 23 446 416 452 455 65 T T-50 PAK FA T-55 T-72 MI Ajeya T-80 UD T-90 Bhishma tactical air navigation (TACAN) tactical command control communications and information (TacC3I) system tactical communication system (TCS) tactical nuclear weapons (TNW) Taiwan --Air Force --Army --and China relations --Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) --defence --economy --general information --Navy --security environment --United States relations Tajikistan --Air Force --Army --civil war --defence --economy --general information --and India relations --and Iran relations --and Russia relations --security environment --and Uzbekistan relations Taliban TAMARA VERA system Tamil National Alliance (TNA) Tamilmani K. Tamu-Kalewa-Kaleymyo (TKK) Tapi Class 500 1Khamronsin Class (FDS) TAR Tarabai Class Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) Tata Power SED Tata Sons Tata-HAL Technologies Ltd 108 99 99 164 172 99 290 67 73 74 74 100 101 115 49 50 52 35 375 376 407 9 452 453 409 408 9 376 384 408 407 8 408 407 8 407 409 408 9 408 25 27 345 352 53 357 353 353 352 353 352 352 352 28 28 352 353 352 53 26 355 2 3 5 6 17 20 46 131 82 7 373 248 293 295 454 501 52 245 101 8 74 101 95 277 www.spguidepublications.com 530 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com Index Tatas TD-2 Tech Mahindra Technical Development Establishments technical intelligence (TECHINT) technology denial regimes Technology Perspective and Capability Roadmap (TPCR TPCRM) --2010 --2013 technology upgradation technology perspective planning and defence acquisitions Tehran Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-eMohammadi (TNSM) Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) Tehrik-i-Insaaf Tejas 256 274 275 287 293 Tejas MK I 99 276 101 291 71 70 65 70 97 150 150 133 150 152 151 150 51 28 416 427 428 431 7 7 11 370 20 118 185 216 224 118 224 275 502 504 73 108 214 275 330 45 Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Transparency International Tripathi R.P. Tripura Tri-Service Disaster Management Response Committee Tri-Service synergy Tri-Services Cyber Command tropo-scatter technology Tu-134 Tu-142 Tu-154 Tunisia Tupolev Turbomeca Shakti Turkey 452 119 297 38 318 320 330 147 71 78 110 507 103 507 21 283 425 449 507 93 275 276 23 346 354 358 446 456 467 Tejas MK II Telangana Tellis Ashley Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL) 298 Terrorism --in Afghanistan 4 346 455 --in Algeria 418 --in Bangladesh 5 --in Cambodia 382 --in global war against 3 41 448 --in India Pakistan sponsored 5 8 9 12 19 20 45 48 67 154 182 187 299 301 307 311 12 315 16 325 --International 375 76 --in Kuwait 436 --in Pakistan 4 7 12 346 359 455 --in Saudi Arabia 444 --in Singapore 405 406 --in South Asia 6 349 353 356 456 --in South East Asia 32 --in Sri Lanka 373 --in Syria 416 --in United Arab Emirates 448 --in Vietnam 413 Textron Marine & Land Systems USA 137 Thailand 35 117 378 379 410 12 --Air Force 412 --Army 411 --defence 410 --economy 410 --general information 410 --National Revolution Front 410 411 --Navy 411 --security environment 410 11 Thales Aeroportes Systems 77 84 215 Thales Germany 135 Thales International France 139 280 Thales Netherland 81 101 Thapliyal Vice Admiral Anurag G. 239 248 263 theatre-range ballistic missiles (TBMs) 51 Thein Sein 6 337 402 thin-film transistor (TFTs) 67 3D tactical control radar 73 3G spectrum 100 ThyssenKrupp 77 Tibet 5 43 52 97 152 160 164 Tier I 133 Tipnis Air Chief Marshal A.Y. 59 TK-X MBT 468 TM 333-2B2 275 Toepler August 81 transfer of technology (ToT) 15 99 106 108 109 124 127 129 164 166 191 201 267 275 288 290 Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA) 354 Turkmenistan 25 26 345 346 354 55 358 --Air Force 355 --Army 355 --and China relations 355 --defence 354 --economy 354 --general information 354 --Navy 355 --and Russia relations 354 55 --security environment 354 55 Turkmenistan-AfghanistanPakistan-India (TAPI) gas pipeline 27 355 Turkmenistan-Kazakhastan-China gas pipeline 354 12X AgustaWestland AW101 Merlin 95 26 11 terrorists attack on Mumbai 7 10 19 78 241 299 308 311 312 315 325 326 346 370 2S6M Tunguska System 175 473 Tyagi Air Marshal N.V. 59 Tyagi R.K. 264 Type-40 192 Type-904 192 Type Al Zarrar 469 Type DR 76 196 Type DR 77 196 Type M113A2 470 Type MBT 2000 (Al Khalid) 99 469 476 Type Saad 469 70 Type SU 60 469 Type Talha 470 Type WZ 501 IFC 460 Type-02 386 Type-03 385 391 Type-031 394 Type-04 385 386 392 Type-041 483 Type-05 385 386 Type-051 051C 051D 386 Type-054 054A 386 Type-07 385 386 Type-162 195 Type-209 184 Type-209 1500 190 Type-40-D 200 Type-51 409 414 Type-52 371 Type-53 360 385 402 Type-531 (Type-63) 394 Type-53-65 190 193 360 385 402 Type-54 54-1 360 370 385 413 428 460 Type-55 371 385 386 Type-56 (D-44) 371 373 Type-56 (KS-12) 386 Type-56 (M-160) 385 Type-56 (ZPU-4) 368 Type-56 414 457 462 Type-59 360 370 371 373 Type-60 385 413 Type-62 360 382 385 413 457 460 Type-63 63A 63C 370 373 382 385 386 394 402 413 424 428 446 457 460 Type-64 408 Type-65 74 57mm 360 371 385 386 414 Type-653 431 437 Type-66 373 385 457 461 Type-69 69G 360 370 402 411 Type-70 385 391 Type-71 385 Type-72 371 402 Type-73 385 391 458 468 Type-74 386 391 402 411 457 458 462 468 Type-75 385 391 458 469 Type-77 457 Type-78 385 391 Type-79 385 391 Type-80 (ZU-23-2) 386 Type-80 392 402 457 462 Type-81 371 391 392 Type-82 391 Type-83 371 385 422 431 457 460 Type-84 360 Type-85 370 373 386 402 411 457 459 460 Type-86 385 386 Type-87 391 458 468 Type-88 88A 386 391 Type-89 373 385 386 391 457 458 460 468 Type-90 90-II 386 391 392 448 457 458 459 460 461 468 Type-92 373 Type-95 386 Type-96 385 391 Type-98 98A 385 386 457 459 Type-99 99A-1 99A-2 385 391 392 457 458 459 460 Type-PB 90 402 Type-W87 385 U U-2 UAC-TA Udayloy I and II Class UH-60 SH-60 S-70 Blackhawk Uighurs Ukraine Ukrainian Kolchuga system Ulsan Class (FFG) Under-barrel Grenade Launcher underwater surveillance Unified HQ (UHQ) United Aircraft CorporationTransport Aircraft (UAC-TA) United Arab Emirates (UAE) --Air Force --Army --defence --economy --Navy --security environment --and United States United Kingdom United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) United Nations (UN) --Charter --Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) --Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) --Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) 72 274 493 510 45 384 109 484 502 507 82 498 100 68 103 331 276 415 16 421 442 447 48 448 448 447 447 448 448 447 405 446 46 318 330 360 361 364 6 46 47 160 171 209 305 415 455 61 62 307 32 33 35 36 325 401 www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue 531 Index --General Assembly (UNGA) --Human Rights Council (UNHRC) --Law of the Sea Treaty --Peacekeeping Operations (UNPKO) --Security Council (UNSC) --United People s Front (UPF) United Progressive Alliance (UPA) United States of America (USA) --Air Force (USAF) --ASEAN relations --rebalancing to Asia-Pacific --and Bahrain Free Trade Agreement --and Central Asia --and China relations --Cyber Command --Defence Strategic Guidance --Department of Defense (DoD) --domestic political fights --economic recovery --Goldwater Nichols Act --and India relations --and Iran relations --and Iraq relations --Iraq invasion (2003) --and Japan relations --and Kuwait security ties --and Kyrgyzstan relations --leader is cyberspace --military dominance --National Security Agency (NSA) --Navy SEALs --Navy 7 9 117 373 35 160 161 211 254 257 307 360 390 1 23 160 376 318 299 311 323 373 50 117 294 375 406 59 29 32 31 376 378 451 425 27 345 4 32 384 451 77 31 59 1 1 150 1 4 452 21 23 24 416 427 455 415 430 444 35 436 437 350 51 77 390 72 3 455 3 35 57 60 90 104 105 376 455 2 Urban Perspective Our Work in Urban Areas (UPUA) urbanisation in South Asia USA-193 USS Thresher Uzbekistan --Afghan reconstruction and --economy --and India relations --and Kazakhstan relations --and Kyrgyzstan relations --and Russia relations --security environment --and Tajikistan conflict --and Turkmenistan relations --and United States relations 330 41 63 104 25 26 345 355 356 57 27 356 28 26 26 357 356 26 355 356 Wasp system Wassenar Arrangement water security India Weapon Control System (WCS) weapon locating radar (WLR) Weapon System Technology Information Analysis Center Weapon Systems ORSA and Infrastructure (WSOI) weapons of mass destruction (WMD) West Asia --developments --and India --Syrian escalation Wheeled (SP) system Shi Wigneswaran C.V. Wind Blade Wipro World Bank World Trade Organisation (WTO) World War I World War II 60 1 7 8 293 457 501 165 294 89 92 149 154 393 423 426 345 415 50 21 24 24 455 461 373 79 101 8 352 382 398 434 452 119 127 350 379 398 412 443 76 23 35 57 76 79 389 V V-22 Osprey Vadera S.R. Vaibhav ICG Ship Vajpayee Vivek Valley Based Insurgent Groups (VBIGs) Varyag (Admiral Kuznetsov Class) (Project 1143.5 6) VBCI (8x8) Wheeled Infantry Combat Vehicle Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (VRDE) Verma Rajeev Verma Rear Admiral (Retd) A.K. vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) very low observable (VLO) very short-range air defence systems (VSHORAD) Very Small Aperture Terminal (V-SAT) VHF Band Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS) video cassette recorder (VCR) video surveillance system Vietnam --Air Force --and China relations --defence --economy --general information --Marine Police (VMP) --Navy --security environment --and United States defence cooperation --and United States war Vijay Veer Dr Vikram Class Vishwast Class Voss Shipyard South Korea Vumlunmang V. 96 296 327 239 318 483 464 298 247 265 67 69 80 83 101 81 145 147 89 68 35 412 14 414 29 31 413 413 412 413 412 413 413 414 413 31 17 93 296 244 244 87 300 303 X X2 and X3 X-45 Bird of Prey X-47B Xi Jinping XIA Class (Type 092) (SSBN) 96 79 90 13 35 75 334 376 383 396 452 453 482 www.spguidepublications.com --nuclear industry --and Oman Free Trade Agreement 425 --Pacific Command 34 --and Pakistan relations 3 369 70 --and Philippine relations 31 --and Saudi Arabia relations 19 444 --Senate Foreign Relations Committee 3 --and Syria relations 17 416 455 --and Tajikistan relations 353 --terrorist attack on twin towers (9 11 2001) 76 316 345 346 369 390 415 443 444 448 451 --and Turkmenistan relations 355 --and United Arab Emirates (UAE) relations 447 --and Uzbekistan relations 356 --United Technologies Corporation 142 --unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) 57 58 --withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan 1 2 5 10 17 20 27 United Wa State Army (UWSA) 46 331 Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (1967) 315 317 Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill (2012) 315 unmanned aerial systems (UAS) 57 58 60 unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) 57 60 67 70 72 73 79 89 90 unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) 57 59 67 68 79 97 99 110 unmanned surface vessels 70 unmanned systems 65 87 unmanned underwater vehicles 68 103 Y Yadav Lieutenant General Rameshwar Yahoo Yak-40 Yemen Republic of --Air Force --Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) --Army --defence --economy --general information --Navy --security environment Yono Class Midget Submarines Yuan Class (Type 041) (SSG) Yudhoyono Susilo Bambang Yuldashev Tahir 248 77 507 21 54 161 442 449 50 450 449 50 450 449 449 449 450 449 50 491 484 335 388 356 Z Z-9EC Zaliangrong United Front (ZUF) Zardari Asif Ali Zhanaozen events Zhuk-M Zia Begum Khaleda Zidan Ali Zong ZSU-23-4 Schilka (SP) AD gun system ZSU-57-2 Twin ZTE ZU-23-2 15 318 13 25 108 6 423 16 99 113 175 473 473 16 113 174 75 474 W Walchand Hirachand Wang Guazhong Wang Xiaomo Warrior ICV (Tracked) warships 267 284 293 456 485 487 492 286 30 81 477 34 73 85 87 105 532 SP s Military yearbook 2014-2015 42nd Issue www.spsmIlItaryyearbook.com Founded by Shri S P Baranwal in 1964 Guide Publications began its humble journey. 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