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1 GazettE SANDY SPRINGS The Stories of Sandy Springs Dear Friend Welcome to the Sandy Springs Gazette published by Heritage Sandy Springs. For years the stories you will read and listen to in this interactive publication sat on shelves in our library waiting for researchers genealogists or interested readers to explore them. As Heritage Sandy Springs updates our mission we are also updating our approach to sharing the history of Sandy Springs with the public. History at Heritage will no longer be relegated to a library shelf. We have created this interactive publication for those of you who remember these stories events and locations and want to share our unique history with the next generation. Here is what you can expect from the Sandy Springs Gazette Each Thursday Heritage Sandy Springs (HSS) will publish a new article based on oral histories from Sandy Springs residents. EachweekHSSwilladdthesestoriestotheGazette accumulatingafirsthandaccountof historic people places events and happenings in our community. Researchers and fans will have the opportunity to view and study the written transcripts and listen to the audio of actual interviews. YoucanreceivenotificationsviaFacebookandTwitterwhenthenewarticleshavebeen published. Look for hashtag TBT (throwback Thursday). Or you can sign up for our email list to get the latest information. (http heritagesandysprings.org ) We look forward to welcoming you into the fascinating history of our community. Sincerely Melissa Swindell Director of Historic Resources P.S. If these stories spark memories or if you know of someone who would like to share an oral history of our community please feel free to contact Heritage Sandy Springs at curator heritagesandysprings.org or 404-851-9111 ext. 2 so we can arrange an interview for you. Table of Contents Ebenezer Primitive Baptist Church........ 4 The Oldest House in Sandy Springs ...... 6 Saddling Up to Aging ...........................12 Rise of Historic Glenridge Hall .............16 A Nurse on Horse Back.........................18 Women s Devotion Sisters of Mercy .....20 Early Sandy Springs by the River .........24 Just Skimming Off The Ground .............26 The Family Behind the Burdett Legacy .34 Water Water Everywhere ....................36 Work Work Baseball Work ..................38 Shopping Takes Center Stage ..............40 Living Off The Land ..............................42 The Sandy Springs Garden Club ..........46 Contributors Clarke Otten Coy Wilson Melissa Swindell Garnett Cobb Rhonda Lopatin Burt Terrell Dorothy Knight Sandy Springs Gazette June 2017 Volume 2 Issue 25 Publisher Chip Emerson Editor Melissa Swindell Production and Design FourWindsAgency.us Multi-Media Editor Melissa Swindell FourWindsAgency.us HeritageSandySprings.org The Sandy Springs Gazette is published weekly by Heritage Sandy Springs Copyright 2017 R2R Media Inc. All rights reserved. Reproductions in whole or part without express written permission of the publisher is strictly prohibited. This magazine is available by digital download. Article ideas are welcome. Email inquiries to mswindell heritagesandysprings.org Heritage Sandy Springs 6110 Bluestone Rd. Sandy Springs GA 30328 404-851-9111 Read The Stories You Missed Volume 1 Click Here Historic Ebenezer Primitive Baptist Church A Church for the Ages An Interview with Horace R. DeLong B Interviewer Burt Terrell B Date of Interview August 22 1994 From long-ago camp meetings to weekly scriptural services found Georgia on February 1 1906 and grew up just north of Sandy Springs across Fulton County today religion and churches have been important in Dunwoody. Ebenezer Primitive Baptist Church--Horace s life-long aspects of everyday life to many Sandy Springers since the community s church--was founded in 1829. During the Civil War the Union Army formation. Some of the first faith-based structures to dot the landscape took over the church for use as a troop hospital. Shortly after the war of Fulton County included Sandy Springs Methodist Church First Baptist the DeLong family moved to the area and began attending services Church of Sandy Springs and Ebenezer Primitive Baptist Church. These at the church. Horace not only spent his life attending church services churches provided a place of worship renewal and congregation for there but he also went to school there. The wood-framed schoolhouse the growing community. sat across the street from Ebenezer Primitive sits at the church on the left-hand the corner of Roberts Drive side of Spalding Drive. It and Spalding Drive and is was the only school for home to one of the oldest several miles and most of congregations in Sandy the children in Horace s Springs. Many founding family were educated there. families of Dunwoody and Horace recollects What Sandy Springs including the little schooling we got was Williams Ball Holcombe right there at Ebenezer. A Burdett and Jett families little one-room schoolhouse. attended services in each [It] taught first primer to ot h e r s h o m e s b e f o r e the twelfth grade. Didn t the church was formally get much education. We established in 1829. That didn t have a chance to. The Singing School in Oak Grove (today Sandy Springs) is was the year the church s What money they had they believed to have been located at the Sardis Methodist Church on followers petitioned to spent it at Alpharetta you Powers Ferry. The school taught sacred heart singing c. 1886. become a Primitive Baptist know. We couldn t go clear congregation and welcomed to Alpharetta Walk clear up its first reverend Reverend Radford Gunn. Although the actual church there and back just to go to school...Miss Annie Drake taught there and structure has been rebuilt four times over the past 188 years Ebenezer then a Miss Daisy Copeland. Horace remembers that the county used Primitive Baptist continues to be crucial to the lives of countless all its money to build a school in Alpharetta--and that was just too far residents. for them to commute for daily classes. When Horace was a teenager he watched the one-room schoolhouse burn to the ground on a late Horace Richard DeLong was born on Hewlett Road in Milton County Friday night. After I was grown I was riding by through there on Friday 5 night. Had a girl with me. I said if you ll ride out here with me I ll show you where I got my learning. Got around a curve there in sight of the schoolhouse and that thing was a solid blaze from one end to the other. I sat right there and watched it burn to the ground. Way in the night. That was an old landmark recollects Horace. Ebenezer Primitive Baptist operated as a private school for its congregation until 1911 when Dunwoody Elementary opened its doors to serve the community until 1989. While Horace felt as though his education was limited through Ebenezer Primitive Baptist the church provided for him and his family in other ways by serving as the center of the community as well as a connection to others in their area. In fact Horace was lucky enough to meet his future wife Gertrude--or Gerdie--at the church when she was fifteen years old. As Horace tells it Well I tell you I got in Ebenezer Church on Sunday morning fourth Sunday in May and my brother...he and his wife came in there and she [Gertrude] was with her. I never had seen her before. I worked with her daddy about six years before I knew he had a girl a daughter. And I punched my brother...I went up and sat up by him and punched him and said who is that over there He told me. When church broke up I went and found out who she was myself. I wouldn t take his word for it. So we courted each other about three years. Finally got married. During those first three years the couple attended their fair share of Sunday services at Ebenezer. As Gerdie put it I couldn t get rid of him and for fifty-six years the couple continued attending weekly worship services together. Primitive Baptists are known for the simplicity of their worship. No musical instruments are allowed in church so the congregation enjoys Sacred Harp music--a form of a cappella music tradition incorporated into church services since the mid-19th century. Sacred Harp singing is a tradition of choral music that originated in the Deep South in the 1840s. The music is based upon specific shapes that help the musician identify where the note will lay on a scale of music. Each symbol designates a specific tone Fa So La and Mi. Pitch is never absolute as the symbols can indicate multiple notes on the scale. Those who sing this style of music are able to recognize the pitch and style by beginning each song with one person singing the scale in which the notes are indicated. Sacred Harp is more specifically a Protestant or revival-style of music and is always sung a cappella--without the help of any instruments--which made it attractive to rural worshipers in the South. Horace became a part of the Sacred Harp singers when he was ten years old. He recalls One time we was at an all-day singing over there at the Baptist Church in Roswell Sacred Harp. We didn t...hadn t tried to sing any out you know my twin brother Dorris and me. We was sitting together in back of the house. Fellow got up and made an announcement. Said We re going to have a song sung by two little boys sitting in back of the house. The house was full of people back then. I looked at Dorris and he looked at me. Horace and Dorris DeLong. I felt like going under the bench. We went on and got up there. We sung on song. A kind of mess we made out of it Horace and his brothers all participated in the local Sacred Harp singing group at Big Creek Church--which drew participants from all over the area including Calhoun Dalton and Lawrenceville. This group met once a month on the Friday night before the third Sunday when they would sing and worship for two hours. Horace remembers Tom McGraw as the most influential Fa-So-La singer He was out here at our singing. Bass singer. He s got a bass voice that won t quit. He talks bass. He knows that Sacred Harp singing. He had a bunch of his uncles I reckon. Tom McGraw and...they wrote a lot of songs in that bunch. Horace eventually taught his own children to sing in the group too and the Sacred Harp awarded them with a plaque (Horace his son and daughter) for their efforts to teach the community. But it was Horace s brother Dorris who excelled at the practice of Fa-So-La singing. All of my brothers could sing it and did do it. But...see...there s his name Dorris W. DeLong. He knew a lot about it. He...I just learned enough to sort of get by with it. He had a lot [of] spare time. He worked for himself. He was a painter and rainy days he d get in there and sing all day and study that stuff...See he d sit down and think he was going to try to write a song and he couldn t think of nothing but he d get busy doing something else. It d come to him as fast as he could write recalls Horace. The tradition has continued in the DeLong family. Horace has several grandchildren who also partook in Sacred Harp singing and one grandson who travels the globe teaching the a cappella choral tradition. Horace lived in the area his entire life. He and Gerdie moved to 1035 Pitts Road in Sandy Springs in 1965.He held several small jobs in Sandy Springs and Dunwoody before taking a job with the city. Horace remembers I went to Atlanta from up here and didn t know how to do anything. The first little job I ever had was helping a plumber cutting and threading pipe. I did that about two weeks. The first job I ever had. I take that back. I worked for McDougald [sic] when they built Roswell Road over here. Drove a pair of mules and wagons. Hauling rock. I went to Atlanta in 1929 and went to work for the city. Made thirtyfour years with the city. Horace drove a truck for the City of Atlanta for fourteen years and then went on to become the district inspector in the Garbage Department. Horace supervised ten trucks and thirty-five men to ensure proper sanitation of his district in Atlanta. Horace DeLong s life was shaped and enriched by Ebenezer Primitive Baptist Church. He grew up attending weekly services in the church garnered what education they offered until it burned down met the love of his life and married her there. Many of his relatives--from his great grandparents to his parents--are buried in the adjacent cemetery. Horace passed away January 10 1999 and was laid to rest in the cemetery of the church where so much of his identity was formed. Gertrude joined him on November 6 2012. Ebenezer remains in operation today and continues to welcome visitors every Sunday for worship and Sacred Harp music at 10 30 am. B The Oldest House in Sandy Springs B Written by Clarke Otten B Our tale starts with the land Lottery of 1821 which distributed Creek Indian lands that were ceded that very same year by Chief William McIntosh. It was the fourth lottery of liberated Creek lands in less than 90 years since James Oglethorpe founded the colony of Georgia on the coast at Savannah. Part of that newly opened land became the heart of Sandy Springs. The pressure of the early settlers to expand into the newly opened territory resulted in much of the land being settled by the early 1830 s. The 1830 census showed almost 1400 families living on Dekalb County s Chief William McIntosh roughly 1700 land lots. However in most cases throughout the state the winners of the land lots seldom were the ones to settle on the land. Most of the original winners of the land lots subsequently sold their lots to others who wished to settle on the new frontier. Many of those settlers built log cabins and developed the land while promising to pay mortgages on future production of the land. One of those log settler cabins still stands today. Land Lot (LL) 134 consisting of 202 1 2 acres was won by Robert Wynn from Warren County Ga. but Wynn did not settle there. At first the land was part of 17th district of Henry County but settlers were arriving so fast that Henry was split into smaller counties within the first year (1822). At that point the future Sandy Springs became part of Dekalb County. The area continued to blossom with ever more settlers until Dekalb was also split in 1853 and our portion became part of what is today the 17th district of Fulton County. The chain of ownership for LL134 cannot be documented prior to 1863 due to the losses of records in the Dekalb Cour thouse fire i n D e c e m b e r 1842 and in the Fulto n C o unt y C o ur t ho us e in Original survey of the 17th district July 1864 when of Henry County August 24th 1821 General Sherman burned Atlanta. Somewhere along the line James F. Alexander of Atlanta bought the property. Records show that in 1863 he sold it to Robert T. Williams for 300. Mr. Williams sold the western half of the land lot to John Wesley Mitchell (1817-1893) in 1866 however the Mitchells had already been living on the land for some time. The Mitchell house along with the Williams house are shown on both Confederate and Union military maps of 1864. We know that Mr. Alexander did not live on the property as he was shown in the late 1840 s to be living at the intersection of Peachtree Rd. and Luckie St. in what is now downtown Atlanta. Mr. Alexander 7 was a prosperous real estate investor. John was probably paying rent to Mr. Alexander and then to Mr. Williams on his nascent farm since he shows up as a Tenant Farmer on the 1860 census. Like many of the other immigrants to Sandy Springs John Wesley Mitchell was from South Carolina. He was born in 1817 and migrated as a child with his parents Stephen (1785-1850) and Mary J. Narramore (1792-1850) to the Sandy Springs area sometime between 1820 and 1830. Research has shown the majorit y of the settlers in our area came from the western parts of South Carolina. This is no surprise inasmuch as South Carolina was the closest neighboring Confederate Map of 1864 state. These settlers were closer to our area than were the Georgia immigrants living at the coast in Savannah. Also they already had experience in developing frontier lands and dealing with the native Indians who were being rapidly displaced which is something with which the Europeans arriving at the coast had no experience. John shows up as an adult in the official records for the first time when he marries Jemima Yarborough (1815-1883) on January 11th 1843 at the age of 26. His wife was 2 years older than he was. John and Jemima were typical of many of the settlers who came to the frontier. Neither would have had the benefit of an education as schools were not yet part of this undeveloped territory and both were probably illiterate. State schools were not founded in Georgia until 1866. It is uncertain where John met Jemima since there are no Yaboroughs recorded in Dekalb up through the 1850 census. Perhaps the families knew each other in South Carolina. Jemima s parents are listed as being born in South Carolina. Records indicate that many of the settler families in Sandy Springs knew and intermarried with others of the settler families before they even migrated to our area. However Jemima may have been related to John W. Yarborough who was the second preacher of record to preach at the newly formed Sandy Springs Methodist Church and would have been a circuit rider. The Mitchells are recorded as one of ten families who first gathered at the brush arbor for worship in the later part of the 1840s. Services were held at 11 00 AM one Saturday and Sunday a month. Incidentally it is curious to note that many of the settler families came from the area around Anderson SC. Just outside Anderson is a small unincorporated town also known as Sandy Springs. John officially shows up again on the 1850 census as 70 in the Cross Keys district. It is probable that he built his log cabin for he and his wife in the early 1840 s as some of the structural parts of the cabin are made of circular sawn lumber which was not produced until some time in the early 1840 s. However it is possible that he rebuilt the cabin at that time using much of the original log walls from an earlier cabin perhaps built as early as the 1820 s. The Mitchells settled in what was just the backwoods of the Cross Keys Dekalb County GA. The fertile land and numerous springs in the area would first be named Oak Grove Hammond and then Burdall before it became known as Sandy Springs. The Mitchells were typical of the poor and often landless farmers who did not live on the prime bottomlands around Marsh Creek Long Island Creek and Nancy Creek. Rather they lived near the ridgeline next to what was first known as the Lawrenceville Road and then later Mount Vernon Highway. This land was not as flat was more rocky and was further from the fresh water springs and creeks. Consequently raising crops was more difficult. They were never wealthy. Surviving tax records show them only paying a poll tax. The 1850 census shows that the Mitchell s had only fourteen acres under cultivation growing corn oats wheat and sweet potatoes. John relied on 2 oxen to help himself and his sons till his fields. Mt. Vernon Mitchell Williams He also had Union Map of 1864 one horse two milk cows and a small herd of swine. Obviously he raised what would have been sufficient for his own family but that was about all. The 1855 Fulton County digest showed that three of his children probably the oldest were being educated by the Poor School Fund. While they probably did not receive the best education it would have been more than their parents had received. John and Jemima had six children over the years. Jemima died December 4th 1883 and John died almost ten years later on October 1st 1893. They are buried at Crossroads Baptist Church Cemetery on Mount Vernon Hwy. where four of their six children are also buried. Winter View of the Mitchell Cabin from Mt. Vernon in the early 1900 s The Oldest House in Sandy Springs continued Children of John and Jemima Mitchell Their first child William Harris Mitchell was born in the Mitchell log cabin on January 16th 1844. William turned out to be a joiner and a leader. Family tradition tells of William chopping wood when he decided to join the army. He purportedly told his father John Wesley he would finish choppin wood when he returned from the war. His father left the ax in the log where William buried it and he found it still waiting for him when he returned home. However romantic this story may seem it is unlikely the ax would have remained in a log for the four years he was gone. Even if the family s intention was to leave it there it would almost surely been stolen when the Union forces occupied the ridge of Mount Vernon nearby for a week and half. Sherman himself headquartered July 17th and 18th 1864 near what would become the Crossroads Baptist church after the war. Although no dairies or letters from the Mitchell s have been found telling of the war passing through Sandy Springs letters from the nearby Jett family relate how the soldiers searched all the houses in the vicinity regularly for food and valuables stealing all they found and killing all the livestock. Willaim volunteered for the Confederate Army and served as a Private in Evan s Brigade Gordon s Division Jackson Corps of Lee s Army of Northern Virginia. The armies took their name from where they spent most of the war and not where they originated. Unfortunately the stone carver did not quite get the all details straight on his tombstone. The Muster Roll of Company A 38th Regiment of the Georgia Volunteer Infantry shows that William volunteered on March 1st 1861. He was wounded three times before finally being captured. He was first wounded at the 2nd battle of Manassas on August 28th 1862 but no details are given on the wounds. He was wounded in the left shoulder and lung at Winchester VA on June 13th 1863 and in the foot and left hand at Spotslyvania VA on May 18 1864. He was then captured at High Bridge VA on April 6th 1865 and then paroled at Farmville VA on April 21st 1865. There is no record of how long it took him to get home. William was married twice but lost his first wife after 5 years. He married his first wife Martha Elizabeth Rice (1848-1870) in 1865 after he returned from the war. They had 3 children. Their firstborn Laura only lived to be two years old. Then his wife Martha tragically burned to death while making soap. Despite all the adversity in his life William was an active Freemason and would later become one of the leaders at Sandy Springs Methodist Church (est. 1848). Franklin Garret s Necrology of cemeteries around Atlanta records on Aril 17th 1931 that the inscription on the cornerstone of the church built in 1920 showed W.H. Mitchell as Chairman of the Building Committee and Chairman of the Trustees. After losing his first wife Mitchell (pictured at the right) remarried two years later to Loduska Arcain Reed on January 25th 1872. Arcain was the daughter of Nathaniel Reed (1808-1892) and Celicia Spruill Reed (1810 -1889) (Loduska Arcain and both her parents are buried at S.S. Methodist Church along with Mitchell and his first wife Martha). Arcain s parents had built a house about 1838 on Long Island Drive near where 285 now passes over it. At some point William Harris moved into the old Reed home along with his wife and the two surviving daughters from his first marriage. He would stay there until his death and raise seven more children. That house was moved further north on Long Island Drive to preserve it in the early 1960 s when I-285 was built. It still exists today and although it has been greatly remodeled it is still known as the Reed-Mitchell House. James N. Mitchell was born in April 11 1845 but little is known about him. He shows up on the 1880 census as still living at home and working as a farm laborer. His 1890 census records were lost in a great fire in Washington as so many were. By the 1900 census well after both had parents had died he was shown to be living with his brother Stephen Jasper and their family. He was still living with his brother on the 1920 census. There is no known record of marrying and having children. He died March 22 1922 and is buried in the Crossroads Cemetery. Stephen Jasper Mitchell (18471937 buried at Crossroads Cemetery) followed and had four children of his own in his 90 year life span. The graves of his wife and three of the children can also be found at the Crossroads Cemetery. T h e n c a m e J o h n M. Mitchell who died single and childless at 23 years of age. (1849-1872 buried at S.S. Methodist). There is no record of the cause of death but the loss had to have taken not only an emotional toll but also greatly reduced the productivity of the farm as his father would have been 55 at the time of his death. 9 Next was Hiram Garrett Mitchell (1851-1930 buried in the Crossroads Cemetery) who married and had two children. Hiram was an Elder at the nearby Crossroads Primitive Baptist church. He lived to be almost 80. Martha C. Mitchell (1855-1883) was the youngest and only girl there are no records extant that shows she married or had children but next to the graves of Jemima Yarborough Mitchell and John Wesley Mitchell is the grave of Martha C. McDowell which is marked Dau. of J.Y. & J.W. Mitchell . Next to her grave lies the grave of Nora Y. McDowell born January 2nd 1883 died April 1884 so it would seem that perhaps she did marry and have one child. Martha died at the age of 28 and her daughter barely over 1 year. Although no records have been found stating it it would seem likely that the deaths of Martha on November 5th 1883 Jemima Mitchell (her mother) on December 4th 1883 and then her daughter in April 1884 were possibly all related to illness in the family. The Old Home Place Changes Hands After the death of John Wesley Mitchell in October 1893 the old home place and most of the property was put up for sale. The eastern half of Land Lot 134 belonging to neighbor Robert Williams sold to a real estate investor from Atlanta in the spring 1894. He must have been happy with his purchase because early in 1895 he bought the majority the western half of LL 134 from the Mitchell estate. A year later he bought the balance of the property from the Mitchell son William Harris Mitchell. Over the next ten years he bought land extending down Mt Vernon to the west nearly to the Crossroads Baptist Church in land lot 165. In all he bought over 350 acres in Sandy Springs before he died. Although the investor and his family used it as a country retreat he never once called it home. The investor s name was James Alexander Tiller. Who was James Alexander Tiller James father John Tiller (1795-1879) came from Oglethorpe County Georgia and was an early settler in Atlanta long before Atlanta became the state capital in 1868. He officially shows up when he and his wife buy property near the new Macon & Western Railroad tracks (see box). T hey m ove d into their Atlanta home in May 1847 about three years after John Wesley Mitchell and his wife The Tiller family predates the Mitchells for settling in Georgia. James Tiller s Grandfather and Grandmother on his father s side (John Tiller Sr. (1758 1829) and Nancy Hopper (1765-1837)) moved from Virginia and settled in Oglethorpe County Georgia sometime between 1780 and 1790. J o hn Jr. w as b or n in Oglethorpe County and was married to a woman only known as Francis. Little is known about Francis other than they had 7 children including James and according to the 1850 census lived in Atlanta. The 1860 Census shows John and only the two youngest children Mary Frances and James plus two other adult females Winey or Viney and one Mary Jones living together in Atlanta. No record has been found of what happened to Francis and the other children. It is probable that Winey move into their log cabin in Sandy Springs. The Tillers had lived here for some period before buying as his obituary notes he lived in Atlanta when it was still called Marthasville (18431847). The financial panic of 1837 is reported to have struck Oglethorpe County quite hard and he may have moved to Atlanta as a result. There were plenty of opportunities in Atlanta because the railroads had begun operating about ten years earlier. They lived at the corner of what was then known as West Peters and Thompson Streets. Today it is called Spring and Trinity Streets. Today as Trinity continues west across Spring St. it is still called Peters St. Railroad tracks still pass by just west of this intersection but note in the 1871 birds eye view below that the Macon and Western was not in what became known as the Railroad Gulch along Alabama street. The Oldest House in Sandy Springs continued Viney was the widow of John s brother Elisha who was recorded as Atlanta s first murder victim on January 21st 1853. Ms. Jones lists her occupation on the census as prostitute her relationship to the family is unknown. John Jr. was living in Atlanta when he volunteered for service in the Confederate Army on March 1862 (Co J 42nd Infantry). John remarried again after the war to Lucinda Myrick in December 1866. James father John died in 1879. His stepmother died 20 years later in 1899. In the city directory of 1874 James (left) shows up working as a bartender at a neighborhood bar owned by William Blasingham located at 94 W. Peters street. By 1876 he is shown as owner of the bar. James seems to have devoted much of his early adult life to building his business and caring for his ageing stepmother. He does not get married until 1887 at age 44 to Lucia Arnold. They had 5 children the last born in August of 1897. After the death of his father James became more active in the business world and was mentioned by a leading real estate salesman as being an active client. Although his father left no record of wealth perhaps there was some unrecorded inheritance that led James to begin engaging in deals outside of his saloon. He also became quite litigious usually being named as plaintiff but also on occasion also as defendant over the following years. Within a decade of his father s death James is recorded moving into a new home on Hood Street with his stepmother and then two years later they move into another home on Rawson Street. Both moves seem upwardly mobile. From 1885 to 1887 Fulton County went dry forcing James to look for new opportunities. However he reopens his saloon in 1887 and shortly after takes on a partner in his saloon Ike Suttles. He later petitions the city to have the liquor license revert back to just his name. Shortly after his s tepmother s death in 1899 he really begins investing in real es t ate heavily and later wins a settlement in another lawsuit awarding him 26 acres on Turner s Ferry Road. But all this would suddenly end when he sickened and died in February 1908 leaving his wife Lucia and their five children to fend for themselves. Lucia quickly began downsizing and selling off real estate. They moved to West Peachtree St near 3rd St within a year of James death then again a year later in 1909 to home on North Ave. near Peachtree St. They moved again in 1912 to 486 Spring St. before finally moving to the old Mitchell cabin in 1914. This was a big step down from the houses where they had lived in Atlanta. H o w e v e r Lucia sons James and Fr a n k q ui c k l y s e t to work expanding and upgrading the house using salvaged ho u s e p ar t s f r o m other buildings. The eventual result was an expanded two-stor y craftsman style house that enveloped the log cabin leaving only three sides visible externally and two of those were shadowed by the porch that wrapped around the house. By the late teens Lucia would be living in the house with her two youngest children Frank and Mary Frances. Frank had met a local Sandy Springs girl Vivian Hildebrand. They married in 1918 and set up housekeeping with Lucia. In 1920 their oldest son Frank Jr. was born in the old home place. In an interesting twist of fate William Harris Mitchell son of the original inhabitants John and Jemima Mitchell marries another of the Hildebrand girls Clyde Clio Hildebrand (see box). Now the two families Mitchell and Tiller are linked through the old home place and by marriage. Life seems to be moving on smoothly until the premature death of Lucia s son John D. Tiller in 1923. This seems to have precipitated the division of the 350 plus acres between Lucia and the remaining children. Lucia kept the original home place and a surrounding fiftyacre parcel. At the end of the decade as the US began to fall into 11 the depression dif ficult times continued for the family. In 1932 financial difficulties finally forced Lucia to mor tgage the home place for money to live on. Then things got worse Lucia was unable to meet the payment on the mor tgage and the loan was foreclosed in 1936. The old home place was on the market again. In 1937 it was sold to a family with a similar name Tuller. They did lit tle to the house and resold it again in 1945. The next owners however were different. The McClarins made ends meet by operating an illegal whisky still in the outbuildings. Federal agents raided the house in 1948. The McClarins must have been tipped off because there was no one home and the McClarins were never seen again. But what the agents did find was a 110 gallon stacked barrel still a 10 gallon double boiler a copper condenser an 8 horsepower upright steam boiler 28 - 200 gallon fermenters 2 950 gallons of mash and 750 gallons of syrup. The moonshine operation at left is similar in size and equipment to the one in our story. No known pictures exist of the actual operation at the Mitchell-Tiller house. The house and still were seized by the Federal Revenuers and were eventually put up for auction on the courthouse steps later that year. Surprisingly the still and mash are also listed as part of the land and goods being auctioned. Mary Frances Tiller the baby of the Tiller family had a husband who worked as a lawyer in town and he discovered the auction notice. An agreement was worked out between family members and the house was bought back by Frank Tiller Jr. through his brother-in-law in 1949. Being born in the house Frank Jr. had a sentimental attachment to the home. Frank had married Janet Pearson in 1945 and his 25-year military career saw them living in different stations throughout the world. But in the interim Frank s parents moved back into the house where their marriage had begun 31 years earlier. The death of Frank s father in 1966 and then his mother in 1974 coupled with his own retirement led to Frank and Janet moving into the house in the 1970 s. They lived there through Frank s death in 1990. In 1993 Janet and her son Steve began the development around the old home place of Tiller Walk an upscale development of large homes off Glen Errol Dr. In 2002 the decision to tear down the old house had been reached. (Frank and Janet below.) So many event s had passed in this old home over the last 150 plus years that sacrificing t he log c abin to development seemed too much to bear. Foresight and the determination of Janet and Steve saw to the salvation of the original log cabin. The old house was carefully demolished while leaving the cabin still intact. Once the additions to the old house had been removed the log cabin stood once again as it had when it was originally built somewhere between 1820 and 1840. Once the cabin was exposed it was painstakingly disassembled and stacked to the side while the new Tiller home was being built. A new foundation was laid about one hundred feet away and the cabin was lovingly reassembled with additions to the upper floor and the backside making it much as it had been when the James Tiller first bought it nearly one hundred years earlier. Thanks to Janet and Steve Tiller the cabin has been saved for p os ter it y and t he enjoyment of later generations. B Saddling Up to Aging in Sandy Springs An Interview with Dorothy Benson B Interviewer Melissa Swindell and Rhonda Lopatin B Date of Interview November 30 2016 For those who were fortunate enough to have experienced it early Sandy Springs was a fascinating place. The community s proximity to the Chattahoochee River and sprawling farm land allowed residents to indulge in many outdoor activities such as fishing and horseback riding down the road before it became congested with today s heavy traffic. Especially during the period when Sandy Springs began to boom new residents help e d d evelo p local commerce and establish communal activities that would p ros p er as t he town continued to grow. One resident Dorothy Benson emulates the evolution of Sandy S p r i n g s hav i n g helped create the town s ver y own Po ny Clu b a n d eventually leading the development of the Fulton county senior citizen centers. Having moved to Sandy Springs after her husband relocated them from Florida Dorothy dedicated herself to allowing her children and other young Sandy Springers the opportunity to participate in all that the community had to offer. Dorothy C. Benson spent the early portion of her life traveling around the United States with her family. She was born in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania and raised in Miami Florida. She attended school in Florida throughout her childhood until she was old enough to travel to North Carolina for boarding school. Dorothy met her husband in the 1940s. The newlyweds briefly lived in Oklahoma before her h u s b a n d s N a v y c areer relo c ate d them to San Diego where he was part of the Pacific Fleet during World War II. Dorothy held several jobs during the 1940s including wor k ing for t he Horses near Mount Vernon Highway in Sandy Springs circa 1940s. telephone company briefly during the war. After 1946 Dorothy and her husband moved back to Miami where he began his career in the cattle industry. After her husband was appointed head of the Cattle Association of Atlanta they relocated to the Atlanta area settling in Sandy Springs. They had three daughters Barbara Linda and Diana. Dorothy s 13 up through A-ratings and the A-rating is a top rating and that would be when you get almost to where you re at the Olympic rider stage. Dorothy pioneered the Sandy Springs Pony Club on eight acres she owned on Peachtree Dunwoody Road. The club would routinely meet at the barn she had built behind her house and the members would ride around the area. Dorothy recollects [The] house over there on Glenridge we would ride by there through the woods. They had all woods out there and The Glenns had a shooting range up on the hill which is no longer a hill...It s been removed and big buildings have been put up there but we used to ride all up through there. They gave us permission and they had several small lakes on the property and they gave us permission to swim our horses in them. So we would swim our horses and what we would do is come over there and take the saddles off and just leave the bridles Cattle ranch on Mount Vernon Highway and Glennridge Drive in Sandy Springs. husband died at the young age of 45 due to complications from lung cancer. Dorothy remembers I still contributed [it] to his time in the service. [He] smoked and of course they [the U.S. military] encouraged smoking you know when you were in the service. They would give you free cigarettes and things like that. And I mean we just... that was a nice thing they thought they were doing giving you these things you know. And of course it just encouraged them to smoke more and that s what happened. And it ended. Doctor said it was directly because of his smoking. Dorothy raised all three of her girls in Sandy Springs and was an active participant in the girls extracurricular activities--especially their riding training and caring for horses. She encouraged them to partake in scouts where Dorothy was a local troop leader. She also motivated them to participate in the Atlanta Pony Club. Around this time many Pony Clubs began popping up throughout the United States beginning in 1954. The focus of the clubs was to foster sportsmanship leadership and horsemanship by teaching proper horse care and riding techniques for young children. The United States Pony Clubs Inc. was based on a similar British model that began as early as 1929. Dorothy was one of the first to start a Pony Club in Sandy Springs where she taught several generations of children to care for and ride horses. Dorothy recalls And we had about eight acres out there and a barn and a riding ring and the Pony Club would meet at my place every...every week every Sunday afternoon and then we got up teams and things and they have ratings in Pony Club that start from D-ratings and they go Dorothy Benson with Georgia State Representative Chuck Martin. on. Take them so we wouldn t get the saddles wet by swimming them with the saddles on but we used to pretend that we had fox hunts through there. Dorothy lived in Sandy Springs for almost forty years before moving to Alpharetta where she bought a small farm and continued teaching children horsemanship through the Pony Club. Dorothy remained an active member of the Pony Club until after her daughters finished school and moved throughout the state. Once her daughters were grown Dorothy noticed a growing problem within the aging Sandy Springs community--the lack of social activities and gathering sites for senior citizens. Consequently Dorothy began her crusade almost forty years ago to ensure that the children she taught through the Pony Club would have a place in which to remain active once they reached her age and became Saddling Up to Aging in Sandy Springs continued senior residents of Sandy Springs. Sandy Springs with its beautiful landscapes and active residents has grown into a rich and vibrant community over the past century and continues to be a destination for new residents and tourists. What many people may not realize however is that more than 30 percent of Sandy Springs s population is over the age of 45 and as much as 10 percent of its residents are over the age of 65. One resident Dorothy Benson was concerned that as area residents aged their abilities to take part in some of the more robust activities in Sandy Springs dwindled. This left many area citizens without anything to do outside their homes. After raising her children and teaching area children through the Pony Club and scouts Dorothy turned her sights towards ensuring that every citizen in the community--especially those over the age of 55--would be offered vibrant and interesting activities appropriate for their golden years. Many people have seen the name Benson on the senior center located in Sandy Springs but not many know that it is named after Dorothy who worked for decades to have it built. Once her three daughters were grown Dorothy noticed that as an active senior there were limited activities for her to participate in. This observation led her to the Fulton County Council on Aging and its mission to ensure that active seniors were welcomed and included in the Sandy Springs community. Dorothy began working with Fulton County nearly forty years ago to ensure that dynamic Sandy Springs seniors such as herself would have somewhere to go and stay active. Dorothy joined the Fulton County Commission on Aging after she and several other community members including Diane Williamson and Father H.J.C. Bowden recognized the need for a senior center in the community. The Sandy Springs senior community was growing and Dorothy thought They was figuring out that there was really nothing in Fulton County for seniors. And there should be some sort of centers other than these basements and churches. That s all there was. Nobody wanted to go to them and they were only allowed to use them when something with the church wasn t being used. And so they started what they called the Fulton County Council on Aging and I joined that. The Fulton County Council on Aging promoted social services for both children and seniors. The goal was to ensure that youth at risk as well as seniors ages 55 and above would be made aware of and have access to services. For seniors this included services that would help promote their longevity and independence in their later years. The council approached Fulton County Commissioner Michael Hightower with the charge that he needed to do something for seniors across the Atlanta community-- and he did. Hightower instructed the council to research senior centers throughout the country. Several different committees were formed within the council as seniors caretakers and government officials joined together to research how to best create and maintain a community center in Sandy Springs. Dorothy recollects One of us was to look into housing. One was to look into our nutrition. One was to look into transportation. Dorothy was charged with researching senior centers to better understand the variety of activities nutritional assistance and social services frequently offered to seniors. She wrote to senior centers throughout the United States to gather information. Dorothy discovered that the Cadillac of senior centers was based in Baltimore Maryland. [They] invited us to just come and see what they had so we said We d love to go. So we rented a bus and all and forty of us got on the bus ...and [we] rode to Baltimore and visited the center. They had several centers as a matter of fact. They had one in downtown Baltimore and one in the county recalls Dorothy. That center would become the base model for Fulton 15 County s senior centers. Dorothy and the committee took note of the Baltimore center s cafeteria gym and woodworking shop. As Dorothy remembers the center also offered lawyers visits to assist Baltimore area s seniors with any legal matters they may have had. Dorothy and her counterparts returned to Fulton County to consolidate the information they had collected before presenting their plans to County Manager John Stanford. According to Dorothy he had just one question Well how much does it cost to run one of these things for a month or a year or whatever It seems now that s the one thing we didn t ask. After more research and several phone calls the first Fulton County community center--the Bowden Center--was under way in East Point. Fulton County awarded several grants to Dorothy and the group as well as paid for their education to learn how to run a non-profit organization. Dorothy eventually became chairman of the board and began preparing for t he gr and opening of their first senior center in East Point. The group purchased an old church and re novate d the building to accommodate the new senior center. Dorothy and Jim Paine--who followed Dorothy as chairman--prepared for Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich to visit Atlanta and speak at the grand opening celebration. Dorothy recalls [When] we re getting ready to have our grand opening after the building was to be finished we asked Newt Gingrich if he would come and be our guest speaker for the program. He was Speaker of the House at that time. So we notified Fulton County that he was gonna be our speaker for the grand opening. And we got a letter back from this particular person that worked down there saying well she was sorry but we couldn t have Newt Gingrich. We would have to write him and un-invite him tell him he could come but he couldn t speak. Now can you imagine us writing the Speaker of the House of the United States third in line for president You may come but you can t speak And of course Jim wrote back and told her Well he was going to be our speaker so just plan on that. So at this time I was going over to the North Point Mall every morning and walking and it was my habit to stop by the center...to see how they were doing. And this one morning I came by and everybody was standing out on the parking lot. The seniors and workers...everybody. And I said What are you doing out here in the parking lot They said Well when we got here soandso from Fulton County had changed all the locks on the doors because we had asked Newt Gingrich to speak. Dorothy would not stand for it. She called Fulton County Commission Chairman Mitch Skandalakis who then called the woman at Fulton County. They had the locks changed back within 15 minutes. The workers continued their renovations and Newt Gingrich spoke at the grand opening of the senior center. The county has since built four centers each named after a significant participant in the process of getting the centers underway. The first center was built in East Point and was named after Father Bowden who was instrumental in guiding the vision of the centers from the start. Father Bowden was in his 90s by the time they broke ground on the project and passed away before the center opened. The land for that initial center had been donated so they only had to build the structure for the center. The second center was named after Emma Darnell s mother and the third was named after Dorothy due to her significant involvement in bringing the center to fruition. The fourth center is downtown and named after Helen Mills a longtime advocate of the community. The county had plans for a fifth center but unfortunately ran out of funds before that final project had begun. Today Dorothy is perhaps best known for the popular senior community center that bears her name--the Dorothy C. Benson Senior Multipurpose Complex. The senior community continues to enjoy the work of Dorothy and the Fulton County Commission on Aging. According to Dorothy the complex still hosts its annual Golden Games--or Senior Olympics--when local residents gather to partake in field games prior to the actual Olympics. The Dorothy C. Benson Senior Complex and the other senior centers in Fulton County continue to be thriving institutions that support the physical mental and spiritual health of all senior citizens in the community. The complex boasts planned activities in education hobbies health and wellness swimming recreation and more. In fact the center has become so popular that the front desk staff has to periodically check user I.D. cards to make sure those residents coming in are over 55 years old The center was designed for energetic active seniors and at 95 Dorothy still drives over to the center from Alpharetta to engage in some of its daily activities--including her favorite 2 hot breakfast--that she worked so hard to secure. B The Humble Rise of Historic Glenridge Hall An Interview with Wilbur and Hilda Glenn B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of Interview 1994 One of the most historic homes in Sandy Springs was demolished in April 2015. Glenridge Hall a 12 000-square-foot Tudor-style manor was construc ted by T h o m a s K . Glenn beginning in 1929 and was completed in 1933 amid t he Great Depression. The Glenn family enjoyed Glenridge Hall and its many extravagances for many year s until the family sold the property i n t h e 195 0 s . The site which originally included a f ar mhouse was eventually designated as an historic landmark. Wilbur Glenn son of Thomas K. Glenn and Wilbur s wife Hilda remember the property was more than just a weekend getaway...it was home. Glenridge Hall s beginnings can be traced back to 1915 when Wilbur s father Thomas Glenn Major R. Dregg Glenn and his sister Mrs. Walter Clifton bought a farm with a farmhouse on Old Log Road in Sandy Springs. Thomas had begun his career as an executive secretary at the Atlanta Electric Street Car Company which is known today as G e o r g i a Po w e r. He finis hed his career as president and chairman of Tr u s t C o m p a n y of Georgia which is now SunTrus t Bank. Being the most successful of the three Thomas b oug ht out his partners and began to consolidate land around t he old homestead. Wilbur recollects Father bought them out and he s t ar te d adding to the property about 400 acres out here. And as far as Glenridge Drive is concerned it was formally the Old Log Road. I have seen deeds to that effect. The homestead stood out on a ridge thus giving Wilbur a natural name for the future mansion. The [way] it got to be Glenridge Drive was that [my brother] Wadley had come out here to survey this land over towards where they were going to put Glenridge Hall. He did it and I 17 At this time the Glenn family was living in a house on the corner of Myrtle and 8th Streets in Atlanta. Wilbur his brother Wadley father Thomas and mother used the farmhouse and Glenridge property as a weekend summer home prior to the mansion s construction. Wilbur recalls We had a farmhouse there where Abernathy Road is now. It was an open hallway about 15 or 20 feet wide with four rooms on each side. And the tank in one room that furnished the water which was furnished by a ram. Down there you could hear that ram going at night. The hydraulic ram or hydram is a water pump sometimes used in rural areas where water pressure tends to be very low. The hydram transports water to a destination higher in elevation than the water source. In the Glenn s situation the hydram became one of the most useful technologies to supply water to the farmhouse and then later the mansion. Wilbur claims [I] don t know how it does but it pumps water up that hill. The boys Thomas and their mother would routinely stay in the farmhouse on the weekends until mother passed away in November 1914. When Thomas remarried his second wife Elizabeth he began construction on the historic Tudor-style mansion. Once the mansion was constructed it operated as both a weekend getaway as well as a home for Wilbur his wife Hilda and his brother and sister-in-law Wadley and Frances. Wilbur only lived in the home for nine months. Hilda remembers [We] married in September and Pearl Harbor was in December. Shortly after that Wilbur went down to Florida for officer s training school. So we stayed on the base during that time. While in Florida we had help at Glenridge Hall. Wilbur had flowers planted all out on the terrace. He had people to come out and plant all the landscaping. It was just real beautiful. When Wilbur and Hilda returned from Florida they lived in the mansion long enough to build their own home permanently leaving the house in 1951 for Wadley Frances Thomas and Elizabeth Glenn to inhabit. Despite the 2015 demolition of Glenridge Hall the legacy of Hilda and Wilbur continues to live on through the flowers that he planted for her. The flowers were relocated to the gardens at Heritage Sandy Springs and continue to thrive in their new home. Glenridge Hall s beginnings can be traced back to 1915 when Wilbur s father Thomas Glenn Major R. Dregg Glenn and his sister Mrs. Walter Clifton bought a farm with a farmhouse remarked to him that we or they ought to name this Glenridge Hall G-l-e-n-n I had that in mind recalls Wilbur. Taking a cue from his son Thomas K. Glenn had the county change the name of the road from Old Log Road to Glenridge Drive. N download transcript M A Nurse on Horseback An Interview with Annie Heard B Date of Interview June 10 1976 Before Sandy Springs became a series of paved roads and large ranchAtlanta from the Confederates. Let me tell you something...I found style homes it was a rural heavily-wooded area with nothing but this mini ball in the garden. It must have been shot out of a cannon dirt roads connecting a string of small family-owned farms. Farmers when Scofield s army crossed the river from Cobb to Fulton. A lot of who cultivated crops as well as managed livestock mills and the them swam the Chattahoochee and came up to my father-in-law s occasional distillery dotted the landscape along the Chattahoochee house to camp. It wasn t burned but other houses were. There was River. The name Heard rings a bell of familiarity for many residents as a breastwork all across this hill Annie recalls hearing about her then both Heards Ferry Road in-laws property. Annie s and Heards Creek Road father-in-law John Heard are named after one of served 4 years in the the founding families Confederate Army and of the Sandy Springs returned to his land in community. Mrs. Carl search of new economic Heard or Miss Annie opportunities. John and Heard as she was more the family purchased commonly known came Isom s Ferry in 1868 and to Sandy Springs long transpor ted residents after her family acquired and travelers across the a stretch of land near Chat tahoochee River the Chattahoochee and until 1890 when bridges before many pioneers and improvements in settled the area. Annie s infrastructure made ferry Graduating class at Hammond School c. 1940s. f ather-in -law bought transportation obsolete. Back Row (L-R) Johnny Copeland Joan Gooch Elton Barfield Carl Heard the acreage along the Marilee Wood Judy Anderson Millwood Fields Wendell Summerour river through a federal When World War I broke Middle Row (L-R) Mrs. Martin Jimmy Daniel Peggy Hilderbrand Frank Self land grant at 1 per acre Ursula Wood Unkown Mary Jo Sentell David Douglas Helen Smith Juanell Finley out A nnie decided in 1821. After Annie s to move to Atlanta Front Row (L-R) Richard Cash Berry Jean Nash Fife Justine Dinsmore Rebecca marriage to Carl Heard and study nursing at Cole Willilams David Green Betty Ann Hill Gene Coepland the acreage her fatherGeorgia Baptist Hospital in-law pioneered would be her home throughout most of her life. It graduating in 1919. During this time Annie s first fianc was killed in was from here that she saw Sandy Springs as a place to nurture and action on the European warfront. It wasn t until after graduation and develop. moving to Sandy Springs that she would meet her future husband Carl Heard. Long before Annie and Carl were wed the Heard Family was one of the founding settlers of the Sandy Springs area. Annie s in-laws In the early 1920s Annie was the only nurse working in the Sandy were there when the Union Army crossed the river in their bid to take Springs area. She first worked for Dr. Dan Griffiths where she stayed 19 Annie learned to ride from her father. In order to keep her safe he always insisted that she only ride horses that she could mount from the ground. An accomplished rider trainer and breeder throughout her time Annie s favorite horse was her Arabian mare named Peach. Even though she could easily mount the horse from the ground she taught Peach to kneel so that she could get into the saddle. I guess I got the idea because I saw another horse do it...and all it took was a lot of patience she remembers. After 15 years Miss Annie left the field of nursing but continued to ride horses and serve the Sandy Springs community. Miss Annie worked for Fulton County for another 42 years in a variety of jobs including as a desk sergeant license inspector and even in the city commissioner s office. Throughout this time Miss Annie continued to ride horses until the age of 75 when a spleen operation made it impossible for her to get back up on a horse. Despite the operation Miss Annie continued to be the passionate eccentric woman her family and friends came to know and love. According to her son Carl Jr. she was also one of the first women in Georgia to learn to drive and own a car in Georgia. He recollects Mother had a lot of spunk. Carl Jr. remembers that once when Annie was much older she was driving toward a parking space when someone started to edge her out. The unfairness of it infuriated Annie so she for 13 years and then later for Dr. Louis Patton. Dr. Dan H. Griffiths was one of the first medical professionals to come to the Sandy Springs area and practice medicine. Dr. Griffith and his family lived in the bustling metropolis of Atlanta where he had an established ear nose and throat clinic. He would routinely bring his family to the remote countryside of Sandy Springs on vacation where he noticed what a lovely community it was in which to have a second home. After purchasing their home in Sandy Springs Dr. Griffiths saw the need for a drug store and opened one on the corner of Mount Vernon Highway and Roswell Road. This facility became the first health center available to residents. Eventually Miss Annie met her husband Carl Heard on the courthouse steps. After they were wed the couple built a red brick story-anda-half house on the Heard property. They moved into the home and welcomed a son Carl Heard Jr. Miss Annie continued to ride her horse Peach over 15 miles of trail along the 300 acres that Carl owned along the river to help those in need. Annie combined her training as a nurse and her experience as a former farmer s daughter to help the people of Sandy Springs. She recalls Lord of mercy I just don t know how many hundreds of children and old people I treated. They never would go to the doctor you know. During the Depression I guess it was--I m not quite sure--I must have given hundreds of malaria shots. I d get the medicine from Dr. McDonald and then I d just ride out and give it to the people. Miss Annie treated mostly low income and homeless who had set up camps near and along her family s land on the Chattahoochee River. She would simply ride her horse out there to treat the sick elderly and poor. Georgia Baptist Hospital 1928 stepped on the accelerator and whipped into the space damaging five or six cars as she did. When the police questioned her about her actions and if her foot had slipped she stated Hell no I stepped on it. She was taking my space and I would do the same thing again. She told the judge the same story during a 100 000 lawsuit brought against her--the judge eventually dismissed the case. Miss Annie was one of the few people early residents could turn to in times of illness or need. Miss Annie was known as the health department before any such entity existed in Sandy Springs. Through her work as a nurse Annie helped countless families when healthcare was limited not because she had too but because she wanted to give back to the community. Due to her dedication and nurturing Sandy Springs can fondly remember Miss Annie Heard as one woman who is proudly carrying on a family founding name and as the nurse on horseback. B N download transcript M Women s Devotion The Sisters of Mercy An Interview with Sister Denis Marie & Sister PeggyB Interviewer Melissa Swindell B Date of Interview February 9th 2017 Organizations of religious women such as nuns and Sisters have played a vital role in American society since the early 19th century dedicated to helping the poor and those in need. These founding faith-based communities influenced the formation of many educational and medical institutions. One such organization the Sisters of Mercy was established in 1827 in Dublin Ireland by Catherine McAuley who used her inheritance to help those who were economically poor. On September 24 1827 she opened the first House of Merc y on Lower Baggot Street. Catherine and other women like her initially intended to create a group of workers to educate women and girls while also providing shelter to all those in need. After several years the Archbishop of Dublin recognized their work and recommended that they become a religious congregation to meet the needs of the people in the surrounding community. On December 12 1831 Catherine and two others became the first Sisters of Mercy. The Sisters of Mercy first came to the United States in 1843 at the request of the then Bishop of Pennsylvania. The community grew rapidly across the country in metropolitan areas such as New York City Chicago Little Rock San Francisco and Atlanta. Their dedication and energy to healthcare and education attracted numerous members to the order which includes today Sister Denis Marie Murphy and Sister Peggy Fannon who have both spent their lives as dedicated Sisters of Mercy by helping the residents of Atlanta and Sandy Springs through education counseling and nursing. After the Civil War the bishop of Savannah asked four Sisters of Mercy to travel to Atlanta to establish the city s first hospital. According to Sister Peggy Well the story goes that four Sisters of Mercy came from Savannah Georgia i n 18 8 0...a n d t h e y supposedly came with 50 cents in their pocket to start a hospital. [The] first hospital was a 10bed hospital and...it was just started in a house in the downtown area. Sister Cecilia Carroll and three other sisters came to Atlanta and opened the hospital. The original hospital was in a house on Baker Street and as it grew it began to take up an entire city block. Sister Peggy recalls The Sisters had great support from some of the big families here in town from the Havertys the Spaldings and I m sure there were some other families too who helped support the sisters and helped the hospital grow into a thriving institution. The hospital became the first permanent medical institution in the city 21 and by 1900 it opened a nursing s c ho ol w he r e more than 1 300 women were trained before it closed in 1974. Sister Peggy was enrolled in one of the last classes to graduate from the nursing progr am. She remembers [They] had a school of nursing also a three-year diploma school of nursing and I graduated from that school of nursing in 1968. [So] the students worked in the hospital and back then the nursing programs the students worked full [time]. Well we worked...several days a week with clinical instructors with us. We had like two weeks off in the summer and two weeks off at Christmas and that was it. You know we worked around the year. [In] the days when I was in the School of Nursing--I believe it was 1964-- they began an affiliation with Georgia State [University] and they helped get the nursing program started there. [So ] the students the year ahead of me and then from then on until 1974 when the school closed students went to Georgia State. And we took our science courses there. We took a couple of English courses. We took chemistry microbiology anatomy and physics. [It] was just 13 blocks down the street so we walked back and forth to school...during our freshman year and so we took classes there. So we had credits so that when we went back to school to work on our degrees later on we would already have some college credit which was good then. The number of hospitals grew throughout the United States into the twentieth century and many of them were operated by doctors with the help of nurses whom were still in school. However in the early 1900s formal learning was integrated with training programs within hospitals to add clinical experience to the regimen. By 1915 the Catholic Church operated approximately 541 hospitals throughout the country staffed primarily by Sisters and nuns. Despite the assumption that doctors retained unyielding authority within the hospital Sister Peggy and Sister Denis Marie remember that women carried several significant and authoritative roles throughout the hospital. Sister Peggy recollects Well when I was a young nurse we had Sisters who were nurses on almost every floor in the hospital and they were kind of the charge person. Sister Peggy has held several key roles in her 44 years with the hospital including head nurse in pediatrics while also mentoring countless other nurses as the hospital continued to grow in size. As women s roles expanded both in and outside of the hospital environment so too did those of the Sisters. Sister Denis Marie elicits You know previously nurses had to ask the doctor Is it all right to do this Gradually when they worked with the same doctors we knew what most of those doctors expected us to do. We didn t have to call them every time something happened. Sister Peggy continued I can remember years ago when I was a young nurse and the doctor came into the nurses station. And the nurses got up so he could sit down. That kind of thing. [But now] they respect the nurses judgment. I can remember sitting in one of the conferences with one of our doctors. He said to the nursing surveyor I depend on these nurses you know. They re the ones that are at the bedside 24 7. And I depend on what they are seeing and what they are hearing from the patient and the family to help me take care of the patient. And he said Sometimes they tell me what I should do. The nurses did become more autonomous. The role of women expanded rapidly in the Post-War era. Sister Peggy remembers the number of women entering the Sisters of Mercy dwindled as opportunities to enter vocations in law business and education increased without the need of support from religious entities. Women had the opportunity to develop skills in a variety of significant positions within Saint Joseph s Hospital even if they were not serving on the medical staff. For instance Sister Denis Marie a previous teacher served as a chaplain for 17 years and is currently a patient advocate. Sister Denis Marie remembers So I was a chaplain for about 17 years I guess. Some were sisters some weren t. Pastoral care had come about in about 1979 or 1980 for all Catholic hospitals. Then the Catholic Hospital Association required it. And so we were one of the first hospitals I think to have a formal pastoral care department in those days. But we were assigned to different areas and we carried beepers and we ran...But one of the main things about the chaplain is that they were considered part of the staff. And so whenever anything happened the chaplain went. If there was a code the chaplain went. Like many of the nurses the doctors trusted their judgement and appreciated their involvement in coordinating care for both patients and families. Before the formal pastoral care department was established the Sisters were always there to provide comfort in times of need or death. Sister Peggy remembers Sister Stella Maris was one of the first unofficial chaplains. If a patient passed away the hospital would call her even if she was not working that particular day and she would come from the convent down the street day or night to offer comfort. Sister Peggy recalls So that s been a custom long before there was a pastoral care department. That s true of all our hospitals...of the Sisters of Mercy. I remember when my mother died in Savannah at Saint Joseph s one of the sisters came and you know it wasn t just because I was a sister. They just automatically come. The Sisters of Mercy continue to be leaders in medical care for the Atlanta area. The dedicated work of many Sisters helped Saint Joseph s innovative medical personnel with many firsts in cardiology and robotic surgery. In 1995 Saint Joseph s was the first hospital in Georgia and the third in the world to earn the prestigious Magnet recognition for excellence in nursing care. Today Saint Joseph s has earned five consecutive Magnet designations. This distinction is the highest recognition for organized nursing services awarded primarily due in part to the Sisters who have dedicated their lives to religion and medicine. In 1880 the Sisters of Mercy opened a 10-bed hospital on Baker Street. Women s Devotion The Sisters of Mercy continued Saint Joseph s Infirmary was the first hospital in Atlanta. Over the years the hospital continued to grow and became known as Saint Joseph s Hospital of Atlanta enjoying an expansive practice of medicine. However the hospital soon outgrew its small downtown location. Sister Peggy recounts We had all kinds all services there. We had pediatrics and OB. When the board and administration started thinking about what they were going do. Were they going to stay downtown Or were they going move After an in depth study revealed that in 25 years the center of the city would be on the north side of Atlanta a move to Sandy Springs was planned. In preparation for the move in 1978 Sister Peggy recalls The hospital was being built in 1977. It opened on March 18th 1978 and we discharged as many patients as we could that were well enough to go home before moving day and moving day happened on a Saturday. They had all the ambulances available in the city to move the patients that remained in the hospital down there out here. I don t remember how many patients we moved but it was like a caravan from downtown that came up [Highway] 400... Over 130 years later Emory Saint Joseph s Hospital now has 410 beds at their present-day location in Sandy Springs. However after the move many of the nurses were concerned that the homeless population would not have anywhere to go for medical treatment. A small group of volunteers including nurses and physicians traveled back downtown to care for those in need. This group including the Sisters of Mercy were a primary force in serving the homeless population throughout the 1980s. Many of the nurses educated the homeless on proper hygiene and provided them with basic clothing such as socks. Eventually the Sisters brought in several new nursing graduates and they would in turn bring pharmacists to help dispense medication to those in the population who were sick. Sister Peggy remembers The Sisters who began Mercy Care started encouraging you know inviting other staff to come with them. And in the early 80s when I would go to the shelters...there was always a pharmacist who went and they took tackle boxes with medication in it and they would get a doctor to go too and so we would set up a clinic in the shelters. The nurses would sign them in check their blood pressure their vital signs and then tell the doctor what the issue was and he would see them and treat them. And then the pharmacist would dispense medication if they needed it. Mercy Care is an extension of the Mercy Mission which is to provide compassionate clinically excellent health care to those in need with special attention to the poor and vulnerable. The practice of treating the homeless in downtown Atlanta continued for several years until Mercy Care was able to build its own freestanding clinic. Sister Peggy recalls that they first had a rented space I believe downtown before they built. The clinic now sits on Decatur Street right there by the Martin Luther King MARTA station. They opened another clinic on Buford Highway in what is called Northeast Plaza. And they have a freestanding clinic in Chamblee that will open sometime in March 2017. It s near the Chamblee MARTA station. In the last couple of years they ve been fundraising to build another freestanding clinic. Sister Denis Marie added It has all become regular employees now it s not just volunteers. Throughout the twentieth century Saint Joseph s earned the reputation of being an exceptional institution. It was the first hospital to perform a coronary artery bypass surgery in 1957 the first to develop a comprehensive cardiac catheterization procedure in 1967 and the first to provide angioplasty as an alternative to bypass surgery in 1979 three monumental achievements in medicine all within a short twenty years. In addition to its remarkable advancements in research and patient care the hospital also began a system called shared governance which recognized the involvement and commitment of women and nurses in the field. Sister Peggy remembers [We] had a CNO Chief Nursing Officer who was here. And we had an associate or a vice-CNO that came. And they started shared governance. That was a new thing in nursing 23 in the hospitals throughout the United States. But that person c ame here and he wrote a book about it. He was doing h i s ... I t h i n k percent of hospitals nationwide possess this designation. Since the 1980s Saint Joseph s has had an active pastoral care department. The chaplains in pastoral care work in conjunction with the medical staff to ensure that patient care is congruent for both the patient under treatment and the family. Many of the chaplains make sure the volunteers working throughout the hospital would be exposed to some pastoral care--even if only to learn a family s needs when nurses or doctors were temporarily inaccessible. Sister Denis Marie began serving as a chaplain at Saint Joseph s Hospital in 1991. As a Catholic institution the hospital could not involve its patients in procedures that went against the teachings of Catholicism--such as abortion or tubal ligation--but it maintained its commitment to helping women in need and directing them to where they could receive the care they required. As a female chaplain Sister Denis Marie remembers there were seven or eight members of the pastoral care team You know. So at the time of a code the chaplain was there more to be with the family to try to get them away from them so that the beds so that... medical staff could work with them. And then you would I would be there to help...help them kinda keep them updated. You know...stuff like that. So if the patient was revived then we you know help them to deal with the fact that the patient might be sicker now than they were previously and that that kind of stuff. But it at a time of death the chaplain would help the family to offer to pray with them if they wished. But also to help them make decisions where they wanted...the the person to be taken and things like that. So we we handled the chaplain handled all of that...kind of thing. So that s been a custom long before there was a pastoral care department. That s true of of all our hospitals I think...of the Sisters of Mercy. Saint Joseph s Hospital of Atlanta entered into a joint operating company with Emory in 2012 and the dedication of the Sisters and doctors to maintaining an excellent level of patient care has never wavered. Since 1978 the hospital has been at the forefront of medicine specializing in cardiac care orthopedics neurology vascular gastroenterology and primary care. Emory Saint Joseph s is also a designated location of Winship Cancer Institute the first and only National Cancer Institute-designated center in Georgia. With a current capacity of 410 beds Emory Saint Joseph s is one of the largest Catholic Magnet hospitals in the southeast and draws thousands of patients and researchers to interact with its stalwart staff. Despite going through numerous changes and growth the hospital has maintained its commitment to its Catholic beliefs including a universal prayer over the intercom system for all of its patients pastoral care provided by chaplains and the involvement of nuns in running the hospital. Sister Peggy remembers that there has always been a nun helping to guide the operations of the hospital either as a CNO through shared governance or even as the president of the hospital board--a practice that verifies the Sisters continuous commitment to the hospital. he was working on his Ph.D. And he wrote a book about it and they started shared governance here. So they gave the nurses input into what was going on. Before hospitals were structured in such a way that whoever was the chief nursing officer they wrote all the policies and the procedures and all of that. And so now the focus was get the nurses who were working in the hospital to have more say in what s going on. And and so they they started having shared gov- they developed the shared governance here. Sister Peggy is referring to Tim Porter-O Grady who wrote the aforementioned book and started shared governance at Saint Joseph s Hospital of Atlanta as one of the first steps in recognizing the intelligence and commitment of the many women and Sisters who sustained the hospital s daily functions. Shared governance is an important Magnet principle--another achievement of the local hospital--where the combined management between doctors and nurses promotes joint accountability and responsibility for making decisions that affect nursing practice. Subsequently the introduction of shared governance changed the nurse-patient relationship at the hospital. Saint Joseph s continues to operate on a shared governance platform to this day. The hospital is made up of several councils including the Policy and Procedure Council and the Education Council which give the nurses more input into the daily functions of their jobs their hospital and their patients. Sister Peggy recalls [B]ut you know it it s just...It was just a a whole different um approach to to...the nurse taking care of the patient. And the fact that they did recognize that the nurses were the ones...that they were invaluable. That what they saw and what they were doing for the patients was also helping. Not just what they were coming in orders they were writing when they saw the patient for 10 or 15 minutes you know each day. And and that was in 1990. And so we have received five um... [and were the] first [community] hospital...in the world. So we grew to be...We became the first hospital in Georgia to be to receive our Magnet certification. Or being magnetized as we call it. The State of Georgia has only seven Magnet hospitals and only seven N download transcript M Early Sandy Springs By the River An Interview with Ada Odessa Power Wilson B Interviewer Coy Wilson B Date of Interview circa 1967 Before Sandy Springs became the energetic and bustling Atlanta settled the area in 1827. Ada and her family moved to their new farm suburb it is today it was simply an unclaimed area of land waiting directly along the Chattahoochee River on February 28 1882 when for settlers to clear and cultivate its resources. Ada Odessa Power Ada was five years old. Traveling in those days was difficult and Ada was a member of one of the first families to settle in the area before remembers the move distinctly I reckon Pa with the wagons and he it became known had to come plumb as Sandy Springs. around by Grandma s The Powers family and Ebenezer Church first came to the there down that area when it was road to the old man just a barren track Sullivan s and turn off of land next to the and go down home Chattahoochee in the wagon and Ma River. Ada and us kids brought descended from not the cows and drove one but two pioneer em through that families in the Sandy path coming through Spr ings area as there to cross the she was the greatcreek and on up granddaughter of the hill home. I can Joseph Power and remember helping James Jett. Ada was Pa tote the meat out Family home of Samuel Alexander Power located on Sandy Plains Road (c. 1907). born in April of 1877 of the smokehouse Left to Right standing to Samuel Alexander and put it in the Samuel Alexander Power Tenny Power (second wife) Power and Eliza Jett. wagon to bring it...to Bill Power s daughter Ada Odessa Power Wilson Her stor y began move it. The family shor tly af ter her had one stubborn family relocated the family farm of Joseph Power from its original red mule to pull the wagon with all the family belongings. The mule location to beside the Chattahoochee River. was more than just their livestock he was also the family pet. Ada s father always used the mule to help pull the wagon and plow the The original Powers family farm was located at what is today Pitts fields but he also let the children ride him back to the farm at the Road near Georgia Highway 400. Joseph Power and Isabelle Belue end of a long day. Ada recollects Pa was plowing down there on the it. But it was made out of...wood you know. Well it was about two inches by two inches. And you just stacked them just like you was stacking wood and put mortar between them. Tween every one of them was mortar made out of mud just red mud and lime. Ada and her family lived in that one-room log cabin for many years before her father built a second much larger home. Houses and neighbors were in short supply in early Sandy Springs but family-- including cousins--always proved to be some of Ada s closest friends. Life by the river gave Ada and her family a place of solitude and quiet away from the farm. It also provided them with fish to eat when they had grown tired of sheep and vegetables. When Ada was free from helping her father with the plowing or other farm chores she would go fishing on the river with her friend Alma. Ada remembers But there was one place up there across from what we always called the big island that there never was no bottom found to it...That s one part of the river we stayed off of. That s right across the point of that island there next to Pa s land all right in there was anywhere from thirty-five to forty-fifty feet deep...But now up that river bank there that s where Alma and I always kept our set hooks and things. We d get in the boat you know and go all up in them willows. We d go along and tie our set hooks to them limbs. Ada routinely went fishing for channel catfish or blue catfish as she called them. Occasionally her mother would buy fish from some of their neighbors who happened to catch something other than a plain old catfish. I know once out there Grandma and Aunt Etta got a five-pound trout that old man Stroup got off his. They had told Cliff to get em a fish and bring it so he went to his trap that morning. He had a five-pound trout on it. And he got it and brought it. Told Cliff says I ve got you a fish now for your grandma. So Cliff says to me now you get ready and take this fish over to Grandma and Aunt Etta. I did. That thing they dressed it and it had eggs in it as big as that remembers Ada. Though the family did not technically own a boat for fishing on the river Ada remembers borrowing boats that occasionally came their way. Most of them were boats that got loose during a large rainstorm when the river would flood floating them down to the family farm. The family would wade into the river to grab them taking them back upriver to their rightful owners once they had used them to fish for an afternoon. Eventually Ada s father sold some of his lower property next to the river to Georgia Power. That interchange eventually led to the construction of the Morgan Falls Dam--which would supply power to the community for years to come. Despite the hard work Ada remembers her childhood with fond memories of fishing with her friends riding the family pet and all the hard work associated with sowing wheat and picking cotton. She and her family helped the town of Sandy Springs grow from uncleared land to the vibrant community it is today. B 25 Alma and Ada Power in front of the Samuel Alexander Power Home (c. 1930-50). river and he d always let us three young uns ride the mule home at dinner. Well there was one spring on the road. It never did have good water in it to drink. It just didn t taste right. And he d always stop there every day and let the old mule walk up in the edge of the spring and drink. Of course Cliff was in the front Alma next and I was in the back. The old mule walked up there in the spring and let his head down to drink. Every one of us went right in that spring there. It like to have tickled Pa to death The family shared its one-room log cabin with their pets and livestock who never wandered off despite no fencing around the family s acreage. The Powers property would eventually encompass more than 150 acres of land that Samuel Powers would cultivate farm and ranch to support the family. The land was bought from Old Man Minton according to Ada and the only thing that was on the land were trees and a log cabin that her father also purchased for an undisclosed amount. All Ada knew was that he borrowed the money from his sisters Etta and Margaret and would later work to pay them back. Ada s father farmed the land and ranched sheep to support the family. Houses in early Sandy Springs were rudimentary consisting of four walls two doors and a roof. Sometimes however these oldfashioned houses consisted of unique properties according to Ada There weren t nothing cleared only that...there was bout seven or eight acres down on the river there. What we called the old Ezzard place. There was an old man...he had one of these old-fashioned houses you know. It was...had two ends to it and an entry between it...between the rooms. And that s the only house that I ever remember seeing a wooden chimney at...Now you wouldn t believe N download transcript M 27 Just Skimming Off the Ground It took 107 years to get the record straight that the first airplane flight in Georgia was also America s first flight by a single-wing aircraft. DAN ALDRIDGE T Saturday August 28 1909 Athens Georgia he double doors of Epps Garage were open allowing light to spill into the darkness outside just enough to see while loading the horse-drawn dray parked in front of the building. Two young men were loading a wing a rudder and tools for assembly into the dray. When they finished they closed the garage doors climbed aboard the dray and sat shoulder-to-shoulder for the one-mile ride. The two men had been up all night. They should have been exhausted but not a single yawn came from either for they were fueled by pure adrenaline. They d been close friends for almost five years and each knew the other s thoughts. For the past ten months they d worked nights and weekends in the garage on East Washington Street in pursuit of a dream they shared. Athens residents who d gathered to watch the loading fell in behind the dray and followed it to its destination where more spectators waited. Everybody was anxious to see the machine built by the two young men Ben Epps and Zumpt Huff. But far more exciting if all went well they would see what nobody in Georgia had ever seen before--the machine would fly. Epps-Huff II Monoplane and Ben Epps on Washington Street in front of the garage. Despite the notation 1907 this picture was taken in 1909. Misidentified for more than eight decades as the first plane to fly in Georgia Zumpt Huff s notes indicate that this plane never flew he referred to it as the partnership s guinea pig which taught the pioneering aviators a lot about aerodynamics. Benjamin Thomas Epps was born in Oconee County just south of Athens in 1888. He grew up in Clarke County and was educated in the local public schools. In the autumn of 1903 when he was just 15 he enrolled at Georgia Tech. The following year he was homesick not doing as well as he d hoped and he dropped out of school after fall exams. In January of 1905 he went to work at Morton & Taylor Electric in Athens. On his first day there he met a teenage co-worker with the most unusual forename he d ever heard Zumpt. Zumpt Alston Huff was born in Madison County just east of Athens in 1889. Like Epps Huff was a first child. He most likely received his education from his mother who d been a teacher in a one-room school house. At most he completed the equivalent of six grades. In the 1900 census he is listed as a farm laborer able to read and write. In 1904 his family moved to Athens where he also found work at Morton & Taylor which did electrical contracting work sold motors and generators and was an agent for Rambler Yale and Cadillac automobiles. The natural talent that Epps and Huff possessed when it came to working with electrical and mechanical contrivances flourished. In December 1908 Epps opened his own electrical contracting company and garage on East Washington Street. By that time Huff worked around the corner as an assistant projector operator at a motion picture theater. Both of the young men lived with their parents in Athens. Epps and Huff were captivated by motorcycles automobiles and all manners of transportation. It was a natural leadin to their interest in aircraft. They were fascinated by the Wright brothers and read every journal and article they could find detailing the brothers progress. Possessed by the exuberance of youth Epps and Huff began to envision building their own airplane. Their aspiration started as a dream developed into a passion and cemented the Epps-Huff partnership. Work on their first model aircraft began shortly after Epps opened his garage. It was to be a biplane designed after the 1903 Wright Flyer biplane. Epps and Huff worked nights and weekends and on May 13 1909 the Epps-Huff I made its public debut. It was placed on crates in front of the garage and photographed. Those citizens of Athens still unaware that the new partnership was building the first airplane in Georgia learned of it the following day when the Athens Banner announced Two Athens Boys Building Airship. Like the Wright Flyer the Epps-Huff I used wing warping LEFT Epps-Huff III monoplane in Lynnwood Park Athens on August 28 1909 beginning its takeoff run. Zumpt Huff (wearing derby) looks on. ABOVE The aircraft continuing its takeoff run from a different angle (at least two cameras were present that day). Ben Epps is on the pilot s bench immediately prior to becoming airborne. OPPOSITE A crowd of spectators converges on the Epps-Huff III after the plane flew 150 feet. This was its second successful flight the first having taken place at 3 a.m. that same morning when the monoplane flew 300 feet becoming the first monoplane to fly in the United States. to maintain lateral control roll. This technique patented by the Wright brothers used a system of pulleys and cables to twist the trailing edges of the wings up and down in opposite directions allowing the pilot to maintain control. Also like the Wright Flyer the Epps-Huff I was designed as a pusher-type in which the propeller faced aft (rearward) and acted to push the plane forward a suggestion made by Glenn Curtiss when he visited Athens. (Curtiss was a pioneer aviator and member of the Aerial Experiment Association which was building pusher-type planes.) Before adding the weight of an engine Epps and Huff decided to test their biplane as a glider. They hauled the EppsHuff I to the horse track at the old fairgrounds. A towrope was tied to the biplane and then to a Studebaker-E.M.F. 30 automobile chassis that pulled the biplane around the track. After weeks of testing the towrope broke and the EppsHuff I crashed reducing it to little more than a pile of splintered wood snapped cables and torn fabric. The pioneering aeronauts had learned a lot but they believed the twin fixedwing design was too rigid for wing warping. Epps suggested a different design a monoplane with a single fixed-wing design. Before the monoplane could fly Epps and Huff needed an engine. Weight was a critical factor in getting any aircraft off the ground. Most automobiles at that time were powered by water-cooled engines which were heavy. Epps wanted to use a lighter air-cooled engine like the ones that powered motorcycles. So the partners began looking for a lightweight motorcycle engine that could generate the power needed to get the plane in the air. They contacted Palmer Walthour who owned a bicycle shop in Atlanta. Walthour had exactly what they needed a used motorcycle with an Anzani two-cylinder engine owned by perhaps the greatest athlete in the world at the time. Walthour s younger brother was world-famous cyclist Bobby Walthour. Bobby was a superstar in motor-paced racing where bicycles raced behind pacer motorcycles. In 1905 after winning the world championship Bobby purchased two 29 pacer motorcycles from Alessandro who built the most The The monoplane had a single fixed-wing with a 35-foot span pacer motorcycles from Alessandro Anzani Anzani who built the most monoplane had a single fixed-wing with a 35-foot span and a cord length (the from the wing s wing s edge to powerful lightweight two-cylinder motorcycle engines in and a cord length (the distancedistance from theleading leading edge to the powerful lightweight two-cylinder motorcycle engines in the its edge) of eight feet. There was a single support beam worldshop near Paris France. France. Epps and Huff acquiredtrailing trailing edge) of eight feet. There was a single support beam in his shop near Paris Epps and Huff acquired its world in his one of these two-cylinderfrom Palmer in a trade for an forrunningrunning theof the span. Fabric was stretched across the pacers from Palmer in a trade an the length length of the span. Fabric was stretched across the one of these two-cylinder pacers undersidewing. wing. older model two-seat Cadillac. underside of the of the older model two-seat Cadillac. The Epps-Huff II monoplane also had a pusher-type NeitherNeither Epps nor Huff hadphotograph or drawingdrawing The Epps-Huff II monoplane also had a pusher-type Epps nor Huff had seen a seen a photograph or design with the propeller mounted the wing facing aft. of a monoplane but Epps nevertheless designed verdesign with the propeller mounted behind behind the wing facing aft. of a monoplane but Epps nevertheless designed his ownhis own verA rudder skinned in cloth cloth was positioned sion. Salvaging parts from the damaged Epps-Huff I the A vertical vertical rudder skinned in was positioned ten feetten feet sion. Salvaging parts from the damaged Epps-Huff I the avia- aviation pioneersbuilding the Epps-Huff II monoplane. By began building the Epps-Huff II monoplane.behind behind theSix feet Six frontin front wing was a double-doubleBy the wing. wing. in feet of the of the wing was a tion pioneers began plane elevator shaped like a box kite with and bottom early summerit1909 complete with the Anzani Anzani engine. elevator shaped like a box kite with the top the top and bottom it was complete with the engine. plane early summer 1909 was horizontal planes in cloth. cloth. horizontal planes skinnedskinned inThe The monoplane used wing for conBen Epps (L) and Zumpt Huff (center wearing derby) inspect damage monoplane used wing warpingwarping for conBen Epps (L) and Zumpt Huff (center wearing derby) inspect damage trol. The undercarriage consisted to the Epps-Huff III in Lynnwood Park on the day of the record flight. trol. The undercarriage consisted of threeof three to the Epps-Huff III in Lynnwood Park on the day of the record flight. bicycle wheels set in a formation. bicycle wheels set in a triangle triangle formation. There was a bench bench under the There was a wagon wagon under the wing where the upright midway wing where the pilot satpilot sat upright midway between the front wheel back between the front wheel and theand the back wheels. wheels. Overall the Epps-Huff a had a Overall the Epps-Huff II had II heavy unwieldy appearance. heavy unwieldy appearance. Epps and Huff installed the Epps and Huff installed the Anzani Anzani engine and then the monoplane engine and then tested tested the monoplane on the on the red-clay in front of the of the red-clay street street in front garage. Huff later recorded his memories garage. Huff later recorded his memories of the We Rode [sic] this plane of the testing testing We Rode [sic] this plane up and up and down Washington Street from in down Washington Street from in front offrontgarage to the intersection of the of the garage to the intersection of College Avenue. Here weto learnto learn College Avenue. Here we began began the problems of an aeroplane the problems of turning turning an aeroplane around around once [sic] we would head head once [sic] turned turned we would down[sic] on[sic] on Washington Street down West West Washington Street too [sic] here we faced our probtoo [sic] Pulaski Pulaski here we faced our prob- lem again turning it rode on bicycle wheels [sic] We were taught how fragile a bicycle wheel was when out of its forks onto an airplane. Up and down Washington Street we would ride the plane makeing [sic] improvements...[Ben] did get it to skim off the ground each had his turn while the other observed trying to fathom our trouble. It would not rise over a foot or two from the ground the motor either conked out or starting [sic] to slow down. It became apparent that the Epps-Huff II was not capable of sustained controlled flight. The guinea pig as Huff referred to it proved too heavy unstable and unwieldy to fly. The plane needed reconfiguring. So in late July of 1909 the partners began working on the Epps-Huff III another pusher-type monoplane that looked similar to its predecessor. But this model was smaller lighter better balanced and more stable. The single beam running the length of the wing was replaced with two beams. More cabling was added but instead of relying exclusively on wires to support the load of the wing struts were attached to the underside of the wing on each side of the body and anchored to the undercarriage. These struts kept the wing from sagging at its tips improving the aircraft s lift ability. The same Anzani engine was installed. This lighter sleeker more stable model was destined to fly. As August drew to a close Epps and Huff completed work on the aircraft. This plane was worthy of more than a street trial. It would be tested in an open field. The location had been selected at the beginning of the partnership--an open area within the city about a mile west of the garage known as Lynwood Park. The citizens of Athens had been waiting since the newspaper article in May to see an airplane fly. The date selected was Saturday August 28 and word spread quickly. A large crowd was expected along with newspaper reporters and perhaps photographers. Whether the trial would be a success or a failure the outcome would be splashed across the state so Epps and Huff didn t want to disappoint. The sky was beginning to lighten as the dray arrived at Lynwood Park. The early start would avoid the heat that would set in by noon pushing the temperature to the mid-90s. More importantly the early start would ensure that the flight was in still air before rising temperatures kicked up winds that Epps-Huff I biplane on Washington Street near Epps Garage with Ben T. Epps (L) and Zumpt Huff (R) taken May 13 1909. The aircraft sits on wooden crates before the wheel undercarriage was attached. This plane was used solely as a glider. could affect control of the airplane. The park was a long rectangular parcel of land with an excellent site at the top of a hill for launching an aircraft. From there the park was a continuous downward slope over open terraced land. The dray was parked on the hill and unloaded. Epps and Huff made the final assembly and then rolled the monoplane into position. After a final check Epps climbed onto the pilot s seat. The crowd buzzed with comments and speculation as to whether the craft would fly. One person in particular was making sure he had a clear view a reporter with a notepad in hand. Epps positioned his hands and feet on the plane s control devices. Huff when he was sure Epps was ready moved to the front of the aircraft. He grabbed the propeller with both hands and at Epps s nod pulled down hard. The propeller began to spin and the engine spit clouds of exhaust. Huff signaled one thumb up before moving to the rear to watch. Epps revved the engine prompting spectators to cover their ears. The plane picked up speed but its forward movement wasn t smooth over the uneven ground. The observing reporter noted The monoplane got a bad start but succeeded in clearing the ground by about 1 foot and skimmed through the air above the ground for 50 yards. The machine bumped into a terrace and it was all over. The machine was not badly damaged. The headline for an article that ran in Monday s Atlanta Constitution said it all Flight is made by Georgia Man. The article then began Athens claims the first aeroplane flight in the state of Georgia. As soon as the plane hit the ground Epps cut the engine and jumped clear. Huff sprinted down the hill to check on him. As the crowd converged around the plane reality set in the Epps-Huff III had flown. Huff pushed through the crowd to assess the damage to the plane deemed it repairable and 31 rejoined Epps. The aero-partners were at the center of a tightly packed cheering crowd. The reporter likewise made his way to the center to add his congratulations and seek reactions The two young men...were well satisfied in getting the machine to clear the ground even for a small distance. On that first attempt the Zumpt Huff 1950s. Epps-Huff III Monoplane traveled 150 feet. The Epps-Huff partnership had thus traveled farther than the Wright brothers first-ever flight six years earlier which had covered a distance of 120 feet. While the Wright brothers had flown a biplane Frenchman Louis Bl riot piloted the world s first successful monoplane flight in April 1907. His flight was 20 feet after a 305 foot run. The Epps-Huff III had flown seven-and-a-half times farther. At the ages of 21 and 19 and without formal education or training in airplane design or aerodynamics Epps and Huff had accomplished something remarkable. They had financed the project solely from their own meager incomes and had no outside help other than the suggestion from Glenn Curtiss to face the propeller aft. They had relied on trade journals and their imaginations had drawn on their youthful experience and God-given talent and had persevered through sheer tenacity. On the Monday morning following the first flight in Georgia newspapers across the state carried headlines of the historic event. The Associated Press picked up the story and sent it across the nation. The newspaper with the biggest reporting coup was the Atlanta Georgian & News. After that newspaper s reporter interviewed Epps and Huff his article disclosed that while the trial on Saturday morning was the first public flight of the Epps-Huff III it was not the first time the monoplane had flown. The first flight had occurred earlier that morning during a private trial at Lynwood Park. As the day for the trial had drawn close Epps and Huff had second thoughts about a public trial without a previous test. At the eleventh hour they hastily arranged for the private test earlier that same day. The forecast called for clear skies no wind and most importantly a full moon. Epps went to the Athens Banner office located just around the corner from Epps Garage and invited Hugh Rowe the newspaper s proprietor and Thomas Reed its editor to the private trial. They were to serve as unbiased witnesses. The private trial was set for 3 a.m. No one would be on the streets to see them hauling the aircraft from the garage to Lynwood Park nor would anyone be in the park. The Atlanta Georgian & News was the only publication to report that Epps was not alone aboard the Epps-Huff III when Ben T. Epps Sr. 1931 by Arnett Studio of Athens. it made its first flight that morning. After cranking the propeller Huff ducked under the wing and squeezed in beside Epps on the wagon seat. [B]oth were aboard and the machine more than fulfilled the expectations of the young aviators the newspaper reported. Reed recalled the early morning event in a March 1 1949 column he wrote for the Athens Banner-Herald It was a clear night with a full moon an ideal setting for the experiment. We went out to an open field about a block or two beyond Milledge Avenue...the land selected was open with a fairly good incline to an open field down hill to the west. Rowe and myself simply stood by and watched to see what Ben was going to do with his machine...The machine got up about forty to fifty feet in the air and maintained its flight about one hundred yards. On its first flight the Epps-Huff III had performed superbly. It flew twice as far as it would later that morning during the public trial. The flight ended when the front wheel struck a terrace but the damage was insignificant. Epps and Huff hauled the plane back to the garage for repairs that were completed before the public trial at dawn. The aviators knew they d made the first flight in Georgia history. What they never knew was that their flight also had considerable significance outside the state of Georgia. Neither Epps nor Huff had ever heard of Dr. Henry Walden of Mineola Long Island New York a dentist with an office in Manhattan. Like Epps and Huff Walden had a passion for aviation. The first two aircraft that he built were pusher-type biplanes and both were failures. He switched to a monoplane for his third model. Like the Epps-Huff III the Walden III was a pusher-type design the undercarriage sat on three wheels in a triangle configuration and it was powered by a three-cylinder Anzani engine. During a trial run on December 9 1909 Walden succeeded in getting his fragile craft to rise a few feet off the ground sustaining a short controlled flight of just a bit more than 30 feet before the plane s one-gallon gas tank ran dry. For this achievement he received credit for making the first mono- Nine-year-old Evelyn Epps and her father Ben prepare to honor veterans killed in the SpanishAmerican War and World War I by dropping a large reef and flowers from the air onto Oconee Hill Cemetery in Athens. plane flight in America. But that was 103 days after the flight of the Epps-Huff III monoplane a fact destined to become misplaced history for more than a century. Walden s flight received the credit because the date of the flight in Georgia had been forgotten. After the initial burst of publicity associated with the flight of the Epps-Huff III the 1909 date wasn t accurately published again for scores of years. Inexplicably a 1930 article in the Atlanta Constitution stated that the flight had taken place in 1907. From that point until 2016 every publication stated that the Epps-Huff flight had occurred in 1907. The uncertainty about the actual date led to confusion about the event. So the flight of the Epps-Huff III wouldn t receive due recognition until I happened to begin looking into the matter almost exactly 100 years later. Intending to write a story in 2007 commemorating the centennial of the first flight in Georgia I began researching the Ben T. Epps Papers at the University of Georgia s Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Several photographs of the Epps-Huff II in a scrapbook in the collection bore handwritten 1907 notations. Further research indicated that date could not be accurate. Some of the buildings in the photos hadn t even existed in 1907. The most reproduced picture with the 1907 date showed Epps standing next to the Epps-Huff II with the signage of Epps Garage at 120 E. Washington Street but advertisements in the Athens Banner in 1907 and 1908 showed a different company advertising at that location through November 1908. Most significantly I then came across a copy of the August 30 1909 Atlanta Constitution article describing the EppsHuff flight and pinpointing its date as two days prior. With that date in hand I then found articles in other newspapers across the state along with Associated Press articles in newspapers in other states. These conclusively established August 28 1909 as the date of the historic first flight in Georgia. The 2016 publication of my book To Lasso the Clouds [Mercer University Press] helped bring the achievement by Epps and Huff to the public. Now the two pioneering aviators are receiving long-overdue acclaim for making the first monoplane flight in America. The Georgia Aviation Hall of Fame in Warner Robins is in the process of correcting its exhibit about the first flight in the state Zumpt Huff is to be considered for induction into the Georgia Aviation Hall of Fame (where he will join his former partner Ben Epps an inaugural inductee) and the Athens Historical Society will be conducting a fundraising effort to correct the two state historical markers in Athens-Clarke County that commemorate the first flight. Of even greater significance the flight is receiving national recognition. The February 2017 issue of Air & Space Smithsonian magazine provided a national platform to spread the word and both Ben Epps and Zumpt Huff will be considered for induction into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in Dayton Ohio Class of 2018. That will be quite an honor--and one long delayed-- for the two young men from Athens. After the groundbreaking Epps-Huff flight in 1909 the partnership would go on to build three more monoplanes before Huff moved to Atlanta in late 1910. Then after 1926 Huff moved to Florida to continue his work in movie theaters and the electrical business. He died in Jacksonville in 1975 at age 86. Epps continued working with planes creating six more designs while also running his garage in Athens. He died at age 49 in 1937 in a crash at the Athens airport while riding as a passenger in his plane that was being piloted by a prospective buyer. B Dan Aldridge is retired and lives in Winterville. He can be reached at danaldridgeauthor gmail.com. Visit his website danaldridgeauthor.com. 12 Article is being reprinted with the permission of Georgia Backroads magazine. GEORGIA BACKROADS SPRING 2017 25 Tuesdays 6 30pm Garnett Cobb Garden Room at the Williams-Payne House 6075 Sandy Springs Circle Franklin Delano Roosevelt visited Georgia forty-one times between 1924 and 1945. A native New A President in Our Midst Franklin Yorker FDR called Georgia his other state. Seeking relief from the devastating e ects of polio he Delano Roosevelt in Georgia was rst drawn there by the reputed healing powers of the waters at Warm Springs. FDR immediately took to Georgia and the attraction was mutual. Kaye Minchew Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas was an intelligent spirited woman born in 1834 to one of the Su er & Grow Strong The Life of wealthiest families in Georgia. At fourteen she began keeping a diary of her accounts of life Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas before during and after the Civil War. The war and its aftermath changed her life forever. (1834-1907) Carolyn Curry The story of the rst airplane ight in Georgia has not been told correctly in more than one hundred years. To Lasso the Clouds brings to light the complete incredible story of the two young To Lasso the Clouds The men from Athens Georgia who achieved their dream of ight. Beginning of Aviation in Georgia Dan A. Aldridge Jr. Myra Lewis Williams memoir is her own brand of un inching down-to-earth humorous Southern storytelling that she reveals how she crawled out of the darkness and came to stand in the light of The Spark that Survived building a new life for herself. Myra hopes that her story will show women that they are stronger Linda Hughes & Myra Lewis Williams than they know and that if she could overcome her own misguided decisions and life s most tragic misfortunes they can too. As Myra says This is a book about how to overcome life s worst tragedies and your own dumbass decisions. Mom s Soul Caf is a chance to sit and enjoy the now. This book weaves delightful stories of motherhood with spiritual practices. You ll laugh you ll cry and you will discover ways to nd your Mom s Soul Caf own Zen in everyday life. Step into Mom s Soul Caf to celebrate the soul in a unique and Jennifer Webb inspirational way. Titles Twilight February 7th March 7th April 4th May 2nd June 6th If you or someone you know is a local author interested in sharing your published writing please contact Melissa Swindell at 404.851.9111 ext. 2 or at mswindell heritagesandysprings.org. The Family Behind the Burdett Legacy An interview with Marty Burdett and Irene Burdett Maddox B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of interview August 28 1991 One of the most influential and well-known names in Sandy Springs history is without a doubt Burdett. The Burdett family has been a prominent and guiding factor in the community since its inception providing Sandy Springs with many of its first businesses and helping grow both the commercial and residential aspects of the area. The town was even once known as Burdal Georgia named in part for the Burdett family. That name unfortunately never caught on and the town was renamed Sandy Springs in 1941. However the Burdett name remains deeply rooted in Sandy Springs histor y. Siblings Mar t y Burdett and Irene Burdett Maddox remember what it was like growing up in such a prominent family. From business to barbeques to camp meetings they remember that the family always cared about the progression and development of Sandy Springs for all its residents. The Burdett family included eight children all of whom grew up on the Burdett family farm on Old Roswell Road. Two of the children--Irene Burdett Maddox and Luther Lamar Burdett--have vivid memories of growing up in the area. Irene was born November 14 1908 and was a lifelong resident of Sandy Springs. Her younger brother Luther better known as Marty to his friends and family joined the family eight years later. Their father managed the family s farm which provided cotton corn syrup chickens and cattle. The Burdett family operated one of the first stores in the burgeoning city. Stephen Burdett built and operated Burdett s Grocery at the intersection o f M o u n t Ve r n o n Highway and Roswell Road. His nephew John Franklin Burdett took over the store and ran it for many years. Originally a wooden framed building in the 1920s the store was eventually expanded renovated and replaced by a brick building in 1936. Once renovated it became more than just a general store providing the community with a plethora of services. Irene recollects On the corner first was...Nancy s service station run by George and Rachel and Sonny. And then next to them was Frank Burdett s grocery store. And then next to that was the Loudermilk grocery store. And upstairs I had a beauty shop up over the grocery store. And across from the beauty shop was 35 meetings were a fixed part of the community by the nineteenth century. Every resident always looked forward to the camp meetings in the fall as they signaled a time of rest merriment and worship after a summer of grueling labor tending crops millwork and taking care of family farms. Marty remembers that camp meetings were a time to enjoy the company of family friends and included a lot of arduous work preparing the area for the meeting. He recollects When the camp meeting started at the Sandy Springs Methodist Church on the Friday before the third Sunday in August the county would send their convicts out and clean off all the grounds and then the lady convicts would clean off all the cemeteries. But more than a reason to have convicts clean up the church and cemetery the camp meetings attracted guests that folks may have not seen for over a year. Marty recalls During the camp meeting you had kinfolks that you didn t even know you had to come and spend the week or the day or the night with you and get in on all this good food. They came from everywhere. Everybody on the campground had company from all over. I mean probably some they hadn t seen since last year. But it was a lot of fun. We enjoyed it. The best part of the camp meetings though was the opportunity to gather around the fire and eat. We had some great meals there recollects Marty. We always had the preacher and we had fried chicken. We d bring the live chickens from home and keep them in a cooper until we got ready to eat them and then we would kill em and dress them right there at the back of the tent. There wasn t nobody out in Sandy Springs that sold chickens at that time. That s right. If you didn t raise your own chickens you didn t get no chicken. first Dr. Woodson who had practiced there for several years. And then Dr. Crawford came and he was a dentist and he was also there for quite a while...[Later] I moved downstairs on the street level and had a shop next to the grocery store which then had been converted into an upholstery shop a furniture store. And also on the other side of my shop was L.T. Martin s repair shop auto repair shop. And he had quite a large business there and kept a lot of cars all around which occupied most of the parking spaces. The Burdett s grocery store sparked the commercial enterprise for which Sandy Springs is now known. From 1925 to 1930 the grocery store even operated as the town s post office. From 1903 to 1925 the mail was delivered once a week from Dunwoody until the grocery store offered post office boxes to the community. The newly-dubbed Burdal Post Office became a regular part of the store s function. It was not until 1930 with the initiation of rural mail delivery that citizens began getting their mail at their homes. Indeed the Burdetts offered the community many of its firsts. For instance Benjamin Franklin Burdett who was born and spent his entire life in the Sandy Springs area was one of the first commuters in town driving his Hanson Six automobile between Sandy Springs and Atlanta. B.F. Burdett was also one of the area s first developers. In 1903 he purchased the spring for which Sandy Springs is named and the surrounding property for 900. He would eventually help build the Brookwood Subdivision in 1910. For Marty and Irene growing up as a member of the Burdett family offered many opportunities for gaiety with family and friends. Camp Camp meetings were one of the main events to look forward to in the late summer and the Burdetts always made sure to participate. That was until the arbor burnt down in the 1920s. Marty remembers In the late 20 s...we came on up and we found the arbor and all the tents were on fire. Of course the Buckhead fire department was called. That was the only fire department up in this end of the county. By the time they got there those tents were gone. They d burned just they were full of straw and they burned just like lighter. The tents many families slept in were quite advanced for the once a year meetings--some of the more well-todo families even had a second story in them. Marty remembers They were called tents but they were actually small frame buildings...these things didn t have floors in them they had wheat straw on the floors. Then the beds for the ladies was a long frame built and bed with wheat straw on it and they put them feather mattress on it. That s where all the ladies slept and the men slept upstairs which was also on a long bed...we just slept on the straw I think. The church eventually rebuilt the tents and replaced them with new wooden structures. The straw was removed to create less of a fire hazard in the 1930s. Irene and Marty grew up part of a founding family who settled around a sandy spring envisioning and eventually creating a community characterized by hard work commercial enterprise and religious worship. Irene married her husband in June of 1939 and Marty married his wife Kathleen in 1939. The two continued to live and work in Sandy Springs fulfilling the legacy of the Burdett name. B N download transcript M Water Water Everywhere An interview with Joseph Ambrose Alexander Martin B Interviewer Burt Terrell B Date of interview August 1994 In the early twentieth century one of the biggest concerns the Sandy Springs community faced on a regular basis was the potential flooding of the Chattahoochee River. Many residents lost more than their homes over the last century to the fast rising waters of the Chattahoochee and the river s slow recession that followed. Joseph Ambrose Alexander Martin was born in Old Milton County in Roswell on February 11 1912 to Ambrose Alexander Martin and Calistie Martin. His mother Calistie was born to George Martin in Douglas County on their 40 -acre farm down by the river. Joseph knew very little about his grandparents or the lineage of his mother and father but their reliance on the Chat t ahoochee stuck with him as a fond childhood m e m o r y. H e spent more than 68 years in the RoswellHolcomb Bridge community before moving fifteen miles away to Forsyth County. Martin grew up in a much simpler Sandy Springs the roads were unpaved several family members moonshined as a hobby and their life and leisure centered around the Chattahoochee River. The Chattahoochee River winds its way through Fulton and Cobb Counties producing a community whose life has centered around its waters for decades. The river gave residents the most essential necessities of life--food and water. Most of Sandy Springs earliest residents were farmers who relied upon the river s yearly flooding to enrich their farms. Floods brought nutrient-rich soil over the banks of the river replenishing farmland soil and making agriculture in the area a sustainable way of life. However sometimes the water would rise a little too quickly and would make traveling difficult. Joseph recalls Tom Campbell lived over there...going down to Horse Shoe Bend. I think he owned down to Horse Shoe Bend and maybe some of it. I d walk up there through the fall of the year and winter time and loose water would be coming out of the banks and running down the ditch. And I ve seen them creeks on the old road there from the cur ve up there above the house to the curve over there on the other wise of the house...all out in the bottoms. Occasionally the Chattahoochee would flood roads houses and even the bridges meant to traverse the water below but that never stopped Joseph. I ve told folks...my uncle lived down there one time. And the river d [sic] get up. I ve told folks I ve gotten in a boat at Island Ford up there and went down the river...part time I was on River Road and sometimes in high places I d have to...and go plumb to Big Creek 37 Sandy Springs expected and prepared for conditions like these and used the river to their advantage. Sandy Springs residents routinely drew most of their water source from the river specifically for use as an irrigation system to sustain their crops--the basis of their very livelihood. During the Great Depression the river and streams began to dry up leading to some of the hardest three years the community would experience. In 1925 in addition to the destruction of their crops by boll weevils the drought dried up much of the Chattahoochee and its tributaries that residents used during their everyday lives. Joseph remembers My dad and Vic toria Almand went to see my halfsister in Birmingham. Dad got back...they rode the train out there and back...said lots of them creeks there weren t no water in them. The river s going out there plumb dry. And I saw the creek going down by the house it d get spread out. I remember going down there with Dad. There s a rock on each side and it got so dry he went down there and put his heel on one side and his toe on the other. Many farmers lost their crops and eventually their farms abandoning them to become sharecroppers without the expense of owning their own land. Joseph s family stuck it out and remained in Sandy Springs even though there was little left without water from the river to irrigate their crops. Today the Chattahoochee River is no longer a crucial food supplier but its value as a source of water has never been greater. As early as 1904 Fulton County began to capitalize on the flowing waters of the river building the Morgan Falls Dam which helped regulate the flooding of the Chattahoochee and provided wealthier citizens with electricity through hydroelectric power. Throughout the twentieth century different towns contested the rights to the river s water and built dams to prevent flooding and to harness the water for themselves. Sandy Springs no longer experiences the flooding it once did thanks to the Buford Dam. On March 1 1950 in Buford Georgia construction began on the dam which created the Lake Lanier Reservoir roughly 36 miles north of Sandy Springs. Residents still enjoy the river for its natural beauty and Morgan Falls Dam still creates enough electricity to power 4 400 homes in the area. Today s residents however will never know what the area truly was like when one could walk along the road and grab a carp after a particularly large rain. B in a boat he recollects. When the river flooded the residents stepped into their wading boots and hopped in a boat. Residents like Joseph became so accustomed to the anticipated flooding that many of them had boats tied up outside their homes in preparation for a surprise flood The river got up and...me and my cousin decided we d go down there to see how things re [sic] getting along. This guy lived there named Bill Andrews. He got us in the boat...come out there where we could get in the boat went riding around. I don t know whether to tell you or not. Most people might believe this is a lie but we rode through that house in that boat Got in the house and rode around in the house in the boat. Many community members saw the river flooding as both a positive and a negative. While it would affect many lives and take many homes some of the younger residents found new and innovative ways to go about their daily businesses--even if it meant waiting it out until the water receded. Joseph remembers My son up here on the Etowah back this side of Bucktown he was riding around here after big rains back there. He come in here he says I caught a great big carp up yonder right in the middle of the road. Creek went down...there s a creek run in there right at the river... Said he was driving along and looked over there and there lay a big old carp. He was still alive. He just got out and picked him up and put him back in the river. Joseph recalls many stories of men in his community taking advantage of the flooding as a clever way to catch fish. When the creeks would flood the carp would wash out onto the road and then when the creek would subside the men would go fishing. Most would put the fish back in the river but some would collect the fish and provide them to other residents who needed the food. The Chattahoochee River was known to flood every couple of years due to rainstorms and other natural disasters. Early residents of N download transcript M Work Work Baseball Work An interview with Clarence Haskell Perkins B Interviewer Burton L. Terrell B Date of interview February 21 1995 Clarence Haskell Perkins was born February 11 1906 at the Perkins homestead near the intersection of Johnson Ferry Road and Glenridge Drive. His parents Joseph Silas Perkins and Mary Lenora Ball Lamberth Perkins were founding members of the Sandy Springs community. The Perkins family operated both a cotton gin and sawmill at the intersection of Johnson Ferry and Glenridge Drive. The family had a small farm associated with the two mills and Clarence remembers that the work was hard. Well it was a rough life back in those days. A depression right on through I think. My father had a cot ton gin and saw mill...Well in a way it was a small saw mill he recollects. H e d s e l l -- he d cut the lumber-- cut the logs and haul them in-- make it into lumber--stack it and dr y it sell it on credit and never collect for it lot of times. That s a good way to go broke which he did. Clarence remembers that his father played a small role in helping build Sandy Springs in the early twentieth century. The area was large but the population was so small and the land was uncultivated. There was little to speak of in terms of buildings services or homes. Clarence remembers there were four buildings along Roswell Road when he was growing up Hammond School and three houses. The Perkins family and their neighbors such as the Burdetts Harrisons Reeds Douglass and the Powers were some of the oldest families in Sandy Springs. The neighbor kids were with whom Clarence worked went to school and church and occasionally would get to play baseball. Life in Sandy Springs was rarely leisurely for a growing young man. When Clarence finished his chores each d ay he had schoolwork to complete or his father would enlist him to help out at the cotton gin or the sawmill. His day hardly ever consisted of any thing but l a b o r. Well Sandy Springs--had a big old spring there and a marble wall around the springs. Water come bubbling up out of there. It furnished plenty of water. We had to haul water one season when everything got dry and the well went dry at the cotton gin. We had to haul water from that spring there to run the steam engine for the cotton gin. It was--it was a rough life remembers 39 recalls [For fun we] played ball shoot marbles have foot races. We called it townball then. When you were running bases you could throw the base--throw the ball and hit em running bases and they were out. That was called townball. It s similar to baseball...We didn t have any baseball field when I went to school there. It was just out in the yard--no layout at all--just get out there and put you a rock down there for the base. The kids in early Sandy Springs did not have much in the way of toys or sport equipment so they made things up as they went creating items such as balls and bats so they could play games together. Clarence recollects Well we made---lots a times out of an old black stocking. Took part of an old black stocking and wad and roll it up best you could then start tolling string around that. Roll it just tight as you could. Make it hard as you could then sew it with needle and thread keep it from unraveling. We made our own balls. If you was lucky enough to get a hold of a golf ball to put in the middle of it you were lucky...I made one once to try and see how hard I could make it and I made it hard. And I made me a brand new bat. We had a man working at the sawmill there he was a husky fellow. I got out there and I was going to throw the ball to him. He got--he swung away and he hit it. He had no more than hit that ball til it hit me right in the eye Knocked me down...From that day on I can t play baseball. I can t catch a ball. I dodge it every time. I m gun shy After Clarence s mishap with his homemade bat and ball he found other ways to fill his time between chores including shooting fireworks from a blank pistol or swinging through the trees near his home. Clarence remembers that it never mattered how you spent your time because every day was just another work day to the kids who grew up in early Sandy Springs. B Clarence. They worked on the Fourth of July and they picked cotton on Thanksgiving. On Christmas Clarence and other children might get some sweets and maybe a couple of firecrackers but he still had to cut wood hoe corn pick cotton and feed the animals. This was his daily routine before he could retire to bed and prepare to do it all over again the next day. When Clarence would get a small break from work he remembers that he either had to go to school or church. There was very little for kids to do other than keep up with their responsibilities. One activity that Clarence remembers all too well was getting into small skirmishes with his classmates. He recalls We didn t have much to do except kids getting in fights. I did my part of it. There was some older ones always wanting to agitate the young ones--get them fighting. They d take us and rub our noses together if nothing else to get us started fighting. Sometimes we d go home pretty bloody and muddy. We lived through it. Clarence doesn t remember anyone getting seriously injured. It was just a part of growing up in early Sandy Springs and trying to find ways to fill the time between chores. Recess however was the one time every day when Clarence could truly get away from all the work. He N N download transcript M M Sandy Springs Shopping Takes Center Stage An interview with Robert Ney and George Ivey B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of interview October 1997 Roswell Road and Mount Vernon Highway became the centers of commerce in Sandy Springs during the community s expansion in the post-war era. Country and general stores like Burdett s and gas stations such as Pure were the first of many businesses to establish themselves centrally along these roads bringing with them new opportunities for the quickly growing town. George Ivey and Robert Ney two late residents of Sandy Springs both saw the potential business boom within the community and became par t of the first group of businessmen to invest in the burgeoning town. George Ivey bought and developed the land for Sandy Springs first shopping center in 1954. Prior to the completion of Interstate 285 in 1969 one of the most traveled routes into Sandy Springs and Buckhead was along Roswell Road. Before it was the major traffic jam that it is today Roswell Road began as a simple country road--unpaved--with just a few businesses lining it. Robert Nesbitt Hardeman and his wife Thelma opened their general store along Roswell Road at Mount Vernon Highway in the early 1920s. Nesbitt also opened a hardware store along Roswell Road between Mount Vernon Highway and Johnson Ferry Road which operated until 1958. However the real commercial boom to the area occurred in the 1950s after an influx of residents bought and developed residential property-- and businesses followed soon thereafter. According to Ivey he surveyed Sandy Springs East Cobb and Dunwoody in 1954-- prior to purchasing the land--and found roughly 6 000 r e s i d e n t s . To d ay approximately 10 0 0 0 0 resident s live in Sandy Springs alone. Ivey purchased land lots consisting of eight homes facing Roswell Road bordered by Hild e b r and D r ive on the nor th and by Boylston Drive on the east. The Sandy Springs Shopping Center opened in 1955. Ivey constructed the center in an L shape with one free-standing building on the northwest corner of the property. When the shopping center initially opened Ivey recollects There was no water or sewage in Sandy Springs. 41 The center was on a septic tank and it had to be cleaned out every day. Subsequently sewage and water costs skyrocketed for the newly-opened shopping center. Ivey s solution help bring water and sewage to Sandy Springs from Poletown (located approximately two miles south of Sandy Springs) in an effort to urbanize and modernize the Sandy Springs Shopping Center. Robert Ney better known in the community as Bob was the first businessman to invest in the Sandy Springs Shopping Center in 1955. Ney was the owner of the Roswell Road Pharmacy which opened about one month before any other stores in the newly-developed shopping center. Bob remembers Next to me there was a Big Apple Grocery Store. Next to them was a Forrest Five-and-Ten which was a local chain of Five-andTens and next to him was Aldridge H a r d w a r e which was a local hardware store owned by a c o u n c i l m a n I think it was an alder man -- alderman and his two sons. Next to him I believe was a children s shop which was run by Mary Maglin. Next to her was a shoe shop I believe Swofford s Shoe Stop who later on moved to another shopping center. There was also a dry cleaner Lee Pinkard Dry Cleaners. The Big Apple Food Giant Grocery was the first major food store to open in the Sandy Springs area. The Alterman brothers launched the retail grocery business beginning in 1939. They opened their first supermarket in Atlanta on Marietta Street and named the store Big Apple after a popular dance of the time. The Big Apple opened in Sandy Springs in 1955 shortly after Ney opened his pharmacy and was even open late on Wednesdays to accommodate its shoppers. Many of the stores within the Sandy Springs Shopping Center were staples for the community. Before the amalgamation of small businesses within the community many businesses operated as multiple entities from single storefronts scattered along Roswell Road. With the increase of residents in Sandy Springs more business owners accepted the utility of the shopping center for the convenience it offered residents. Ney remembers the presence of a hobby shop Mary Brewer s Lady Shop Fowler s Jewlery Store and even a post office in the newlyconstructed center. Before so many businesses began capitalizing on the new development Ney remembers There was a Burdett Grocery Store [between Johnson Ferry Road and Mt. Vernon Highway on Roswell Road] I don t know anything about it when we first came out here. And there was another across from that... with the post office inside the drug store. In those days the mail delivery system was less sophisticated and residents had to travel into the town to pick up their mail from their box at the post office. However they did have somebody that delivered the mail directly to the shopping center to each store in the shopping center. It was a very small post office without a lot of services recollects Ney. The post office was not the only addition welcomed with the shopping center the first bank in Sandy Springs also made its home on Ivey s eight acres. Ney recalls I don t remember which part it was but there was a camera shop and I think the camera shop sold out to the fellow that owned it [ran it] and I think it became Bates Camera Shop. In Sandy Springs there were no banks and all the banking had to be done in Buckhead or further away so it wasn t convenient for banking service. C&S bank of Sandy Springs came in and they originally were in the shopping center where Mary Brewer s Country Shop was. I think she moved into another store and the bank came in there before the bank building was was bought. The First F e d e r a l Savings Bank o p e n e d briefly in the Sandy Springs Shopping C e n t e r before it was relocated to a free-standing structure in the late 1950s. Another convenient service for the community was a temporary library. As a public service Ivey donated building space within the shopping center for ten years as a temporary library and provided the utilities until the area s official library was completed in 1965. The Sandy Springs Shopping Center was a welcomed addition to the burgeoning metropolis. The center offered new business options to residents ranging from a grocery store with unheard-of hours for the era a pharmacy camera store hobby store and much more. The Sandy Springs Shopping Center with the help of George Ivey and Robert Ney was a staple in the Sandy Springs community for more than 60 years. B N download transcript M Timber & Taters Living Off the Land in Early Sandy Springs An interview with Francis (Morris) Norris - Part One B Interviewer Dorothy Knight and Garnett Cobb B Date of interview October 28 1981 Francis Morris Norris was born in 1914 in old Cobb County and moved to Milton County as a very young child. During the Progressive Era her family attempted to rebuild and reboot their lives following the reconstruction post-Civil War. The counties of her youth--Cobb and Milton--later merged into a larger Fulton County near her grandfather s farm. Francis spent her life in Fulton County and her family s legacy is evident in ever ything from old saw mills to the names of several local roads including Jett Road and Morris Road. Francis fondly remembers life as a young child with her grandparents in the early twentieth century. According t o Fr a n c i s h e r grandparents were the kind of people who built Sandy Springs from nothing but a field of timber an unpaved road and an empty canning jar. Francis grandfather had a very large family and a substantial piece of land where he lived with his 12 children and his wife Cherokee Jett Morris. The family farm was near to what is now Heards Ferry Road about where 285 is north of Powers Ferry Bridge according to Francis. The Morris family was full of tradesmen. Men would haul cut and deliver timber and clay bricks to the people of Atlanta to rebuild the city after the Civil War. Frances grandfather-- William Burney Morris--owned a uniquely large sawmill in Fulton County and provided timber to build many homes for his family and the community. He even used leftover timber from the mill to build an arbor for his family to use during church camp meetings. Francis family and other residents of early Sandy Springs led true pioneer lives. Typical of that time her grandfather and father worked outside the house while 43 tenants or sharecroppers to help farm the land but the children helped most the time. Francis recollects So we we d get out and go and get the apples and feed the pigs. And a cousin of mine had to wear the bonnet that my grandmother wore because Grandmother milked the cows. And if Grandmother was ill then Lorreen Swofford one of my cousins would get that bonnet and--she lived right down just the next house over on another farm--and she d get that bonnet and put on the bonnet and that would be all right for Bossie you know--they always called the cow Bossie That cow knew my grandmother. The children knew part of their time on the farm was dedicated to chores including helping their grandfather feed the animals and harvesting the crops. When Francis grandfather was not busy farming cutting timber running the mill or contracting for the county his favorite hobby was swapping. Francis remembers that he had a hobby of swapping animals for cars or work for food. She states [He] loved trading horses and cows. It was quite an experience to go to his farm because he had everything you know that was interesting. One time he swapped some sort of animal for an old Studebaker limousine in the early 1920s. My granddaddy could not drive this vehicle remembers Francis Until my father being a younger man and would always [drive] him if he had to go places took the Studebaker and he would put everybody in because it had this cute little--it was a seven-passenger--cute little seats in back. So we all would you know huff if we didn t get on the little extra seat. They would pull down from the back and you could put two more people in there. William Burney Morris never did learn to drive the Studebaker but it brought the entire family a lot of joy for the many years they owned it. Francis grandfather lived to be about 78 years old and always lived his life to the fullest. Well my granddaddy had a way of swapping. He was a horse trader...the family he did everything. But he was very energetic. Old tall fellow with a beard and I can remember so much. He would speak he d just about scare us to death because he he meant business when he said Do you know you d done ...So we were really fearful of Granddaddy Francis recalls. However Francis fondly remembers his enthusiastic and sometimes humorous ways including the time he the women took care of the home. These pioneers created their homes by cutting the timber or molding the bricks from red clay. They farmed fruits vegetables and meat to carry them through the entire year. Francis remembers Most people farmed saw-milled or truck-farmed. And truck farming--for those who have not gotten into it or don t know much about it--was vegetables and fruits in season honey pork and sometimes beef wrapped in white sheets. Oh yes and fresh chickens still on the foot. These would be all be hauled in the wagon to town and sold on...streets when there was a surplus. Francis grandfather was a tradesman swapping and selling the surplus from his farm including timber cotton and canned goods prepared by his wife. Francis fondly remembers her father s entire generation as a different breed of men. They worked tirelessly and took whatever work was available. She recollects I should go on and tell you that many of these young men my grandfather s generation were builders and and after the sawmill business subsided and the other thing I guess brick making and such was a little bit you know they went to work for the county because they needed people who were experienced with animals and sawmill work for the grading. My uncle Bard Morris was a driver of a sixteam mule outfit that graded roads all around through this county. When Francis grandfather was not farming he was making a wage any way he could to support the family--and always did very well for himself. William owned several parcels of land throughout the county some of which he used for growing cotton. He had a few Timber & Taters Living Off the Land in Early Sandy Springs continued laughed at waking up the household while roasting sweet potatoes for a midnight snack. During the early days of Sandy Springs the area s women always tried to make the best of their situations--especially Francis Morris Norris grandmother. No matter what the world threw their way --whether it was Yankee soldiers attempting to steal their food rationing of housewares inflicted by World War I or the dissolution of their possessions during the Great Depression--the women of Sandy Springs almost always found a way to make things work for their families. They were true pioneer women who made good use of ever y ounce of f r uit and ever y piece of the animal. Francis grandparents Cherokee Jett Morris and William Burney Morris lived on the family farm and provided their family of twelve with everything they needed to survive. Gr andma Cherokee provided many cheerful moments that Francis remembered for the rest of her life. A true Sandy Springs woman was one who knew her way around the kitchen and one of Francis fondest memories of her grandmother was her abilit y to cook. Cherokee always had something cooking on the large fire in the kitchen. If she wasn t heating up the large earthenware churn for canning she would be stoking the fire to feed the entire family. Francis remembers that although her grandmother was the matron of the kitchen everyone else pitched in to help her. While the commanding presence of Francis grandfather persuaded the grandchildren to complete their chores on the farm Cherokee baked treats for the children to bribe them into helping. [We] loved Grandmother recalls Francis She was [always] baking and she d bake cookies and she d bake crackling cornbread for us and she would do all those little things that kids love. But you would go out and sweep the yard for her after you you know had your treat and so forth. So that was one way of getting things done. While Francis recalls her time with her grandparents with fondness the Morris family often had to utilize every resource to ensure that everyone s needs were met. Despite owning their own property Francis recalls her grandmother acknowledging that the family owned very little else and had to make due with what was available to them. As Francis remembers ... my Grandmother used to say Well I don t know what we own. We re just land p o o r. H o w e v e r Fr ancis re me mb er s that Cherokee Morris owned a useful piece of kitchenware that was a centr al co mp o ne nt of t he family s everyday life an earthenware churn. Although t ypically used to make butter the earthenware churn enabled the family to make a variety of food items for long-term storage. Kraut was made from cabbage in large earthenware churns. And churns also was a big item i n t h e h o u s e h o l d. They were used for milk and curing pickles and also making the kraut. And this was all kept for the winter and that s the way the family survived remembers Francis. [My Grandmother] was just a real country cook and I do remember some things...I remember waking in the middle of the night and Granddaddy would be stoking up the fire big old fireplace...and she would have baked potatoes sweet potatoes and Granddaddy would get those sweet potatoes and put them in the fire and that was his midnight 45 snack. But he always had his coffee pot there too...and he never wasted a thing. Cherokee Morris became the matriarch of her family at a time when women in t he Sout h had to be creative in ord er to make a small amount of food last for a long period of time. Just as Francis grandfather drank every last drop of his coffee Cherokee made sure that everything the family grew harvested or slaughtered was used to its fullest potential. Francis recalls The ladies canned most everything for winter. The hogs were hung after slaughter and cut up for sausage lard and curing. The curing of the hams and the large pieces of meat was was what carried them through the winter...They dried the peas they dried the butterbeans. And my grandmother told [me] about drying leather britches. And leather britches was green beans dried and they would string them. Just hang them up like they did the red pepper for seasoning the sausage. Canning season was Francis favorite time of the year because it involved all of the children scavenging for fruits. Francis recollects The blackberry season was really fun because two or three mamas and sometimes a daddy would gather all the children in the neighborhood and go berry-picking. This was a hot summer day and you would just really work at it because we were this was our pies for next winter along with apples and things that mother peaches and such you know that you would can for winter. Canning gave the neighborhood time to engage in frivolity during a period when most of one s time was spent doing chores. Francis remembers her grandmother having more fun with the children than grandfather who often had to be the disciplinarian. When Francis and her cousins would stay at their grandparents house their grandmother would entertain in the children s room. Francis remembers And Grandmother she really tried to see that we had fun along with it. We had popcorn and peanuts and all the things you know off the farm. Francis loved her grandmother and would try to do everything she asked. After Grandfather William passed away the family took care of Cherokee until she eventually joined her husband in the Sandy Springs Methodist Cemetery. And then Grandmother was in ill health and there were several of the Morris ladies and my father and his brothers would go and get my grandmother and she lived with us for three or four months then she d go to someone else s house and live with them for...That [was] the way we took care of our elderly then. Cherokee Jett Morris and William Burney Morris taught their children and grandchildren the value of hard work and resourcefulness and the grandchildren-- especially Francis--remember them and their life lessons fondly. B Aid and Adorn The Sandy Springs Garden Club An interview with Marie Payne B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of interview June 14 1984 As early as 1926 Sandy Springs women began forming organizations and clubs to aid the city through decorating and beautifying the city s natural landscapes while also fundraising for local charities. The Sandy Springs Garden Club (SSGC) was founded in 1946 by Mrs. Marie Payne who became the first president. The Garden Club served as an impor tant social o u t l e t f o r m a ny women in the community. Marie s ef for ts through her first two terms as president of the Garden Club solidified the SSGC as one of the most effective and involved clubs throughout the entire state of Georgia. The first women s club in Sandy Springs dates to 1926 when several women formed the Women s Home Demonstration Club. Members of the club convened to discuss and share information related to improved canning sewing and gardening techniques. They would also gather to perform large garden tasks such as helping each other pick cotton during the end of the cotton season. In similar fashion the SSGC began in 1946 when 17 women gathered to set the by-laws and constitution of the Garden Club. The initial members decided on a series of programs that would set the pace for the club for years to come. Marie Payne recollects The club that year went all out for 100% registered voting and all member s went to the club house for the voting. We had five visitors. This particular year we [also] had an invitation to join the Federation for Garden Clubs which we did and have belonged ever y year. During Marie s first year as president Marie Payne of the SSGC she participated in the annual convention of garden clubs held in Augusta Georgia. Marie remembers [It] was reported that there were 270 garden clubs 8 467 members of garden clubs [from] all over the state of Georgia. That particular year for the convention 47 that way. Mrs. Marie Payne served as president from 1946 to 1948 since the club only allowed a two-term contiguous presidency. By 1975 Marie was once again president of the SSGC continuing its mission of philanthropy. The Garden Club held annual home shows of properties it landscaped and continued to donate profits from these shows to local health centers. Marie ensured that the club also gave back to younger women who aspired to continue work in horticulture and landscape architecture. In 1975 the Garden Club donated all the funds from its annual home tour to Dorothea Myer who attended the University of Georgia and was studying horticulture and landscape gardening. Marie remembers This was an inspiring year...Her father-it was during the Depression so to speak and there was no building going on--her father was a builder. Her mother told me they really needed that money for her to go back to school. She came to the Garden Club and gave us a wonderful program. She her aunt had let her have money to go to Europe to see the gardens and to study landscape gardening and she came and brought some film that she had made while she was in Europe. We thoroughly enjoyed it. By the end of Marie s second term as president the SSGC had 27 active members who actively participated in creating the Memory Garden at the site of the original Sandy Springs Library. The SSGC moved to its current home at the Williams-Payne House after 1984. Marie and her husband Major Payne sold the house to land developers in 1982. The SSGC approached the developers to purchase the home as a historic landmark in the community. The SSGC wanted to conver t the property into a Community Garden Center that would house community meeting rooms as well as serve as a permanent home for the Fulton County Federation of Garden Clubs. The developers--Portman-Barry--agreed to sell the home to the SSGC and even donated an additional 15 000 to help move the home to its current location next to the historic Sandy Springs. The Sandy Springs Garden Club continues to be an active leader in the community maintaining the Sandy Springs Library as well as the Williams-Payne House. Their dedicated members participate in classes to become master horticulturists and landscape architects. They donate their time and energy to organize flower shows that raise money to maintain historic landmarks throughout Sandy Springs as well as to donate to local charities. Marie Payne was instrumental in her efforts to establish the SSGC. Her influence has defined an organization that has benefited the Sandy Springs community for 75 years with many more to come. B November 1975 Garden Club Meeting Marie Payne seated everyone was urged to plant a Peace Rose and have a Victory Garden. The SSGC created and participated in many programs to aid philanthropic organizations including flower exchanges landscaping events flower shows rummage sales bridge parties yard sales and the creation and selling of a cookbook which helped garner donations for local charities in the community. The Sandy Springs Garden Club was the first civic organization established in the Fulton County area. One of the primary functions of the SSGC under Marie s presidency was philanthropy and community involvement. Marie recollects In November [1946 ] we held a Halloween carnival at Hammond School. Our project made 25.00 which of course went into the treasury. We were still doing decorating for the Boston General. During the holidays we gave poinsettias and wreaths to take out there...to Buckhead and the Red Cross wagon would pick up all these arrangements. Our club we voted to pay 10.00 to the health center for the worthy cause there. We worked on the drive having the driveway paved as it was so muddy up to the little house. In addition to donating their profits to local charities some of the garden clubs around Sandy Springs were the first advocates for environmental protection. Additionally they helped establish organizational infrastructure in the community by helping to create the Parent Teacher Association (PTA) at Hammond Elementary while also sponsoring smaller garden clubs in the area. The SSGC also helped found the Sandy Springs Women s Club in 1948 which would later help support the building of the Sandy Springs Library and become some of its founding members in 1965. Our Garden Club was instrumental in planting dogwood trees from the Methodist church from Sandy Springs Circle down beyond the Methodist church beyond the cemetery. I don t think many of them [the trees] are living today but they struggled because of the rains and then the drought and not being able to water them. But we tried anyway because so many of the people in Sandy Springs had wanted the dogwood planted down N download transcript M The Heart of Our Community since 1984 OV E R yEARS We have enriched the quality of life for Sandy Springs residents and visitors through cultural historical and educational opportunities. And we ll continue to do the same for generations to come. We are Heritage Sandy Springs. And we are the Heart of Our Community Since 1984. Hours of Operation 6110 Bluestone Road Sandy Springs GA 30328 Office Hours Monday-Friday 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. Park Hours Dawn until Dusk Daily Get in touch Phone 404-851-9111 Fax 404-851-9807 information heritagesandysprings.org www.heritagesandysprings.org