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1 GazettE SANDY SPRINGS The Stories of Sandy Springs Dear Friend Welcome to the Sandy Springs Gazette published by Heritage Sandy Springs. For years the stories you will read and listen to in this interactive publication sat on shelves in our library waiting for researchers genealogists or interested readers to explore them. As Heritage Sandy Springs updates our mission we are also updating our approach to sharing the history of Sandy Springs with the public. History at Heritage will no longer be relegated to a library shelf. We have created this interactive publication for those of you who remember these stories events and locations and want to share our unique history with the next generation. Here is what you can expect from the Sandy Springs Gazette Each Thursday Heritage Sandy Springs (HSS) will publish a new article based on oral histories from Sandy Springs residents. EachweekHSSwilladdthesestoriestotheGazette accumulatingafirsthandaccountof historic people places events and happenings in our community. Researchers and fans will have the opportunity to view and study the written transcripts and listen to the audio of actual interviews. YoucanreceivenotificationsviaFacebookandTwitterwhenthenewarticleshavebeen published. Look for hashtag TBT (throwback Thursday). Or you can sign up for our email list to get the latest information. (http heritagesandysprings.org ) We look forward to welcoming you into the fascinating history of our community. Sincerely Melissa Swindell Director of Historic Resources P.S. If these stories spark memories or if you know of someone who would like to share an oral history of our community please feel free to contact Heritage Sandy Springs at curator heritagesandysprings.org or 404-851-9111 ext. 2 so we can arrange an interview for you. Table of Contents Just Skimming Off The Ground ............. 4 The Family Behind the Burdett Legacy 12 Water Water Everywhere .................. 14 Work Work Baseball Work ................ 16 Shopping Takes Center Stage ............ 18 Living Off The Land ............................ 20 The Sandy Springs Garden Club ........ 24 Civil Rights Pioneer ........................... 26 One Family s Artistic Legacy .............. 30 One of the Good Ol Boys .................. 32 A Rose By Any Other Name ................ 36 A Renaissance Family ......................... 38 Front Lines Of The Civil War ................32 One Woman s Journey to Sandy Springs 44 The Judge with a Grudge .......................46 No Place Like Hammond ...................... 50 Down a Dark Hole ............................... 52 The Atlanta Georgian & The News ..... 56 Role Models for Life ........................... 58 Dear Old Golden Rule Days ................. 62 A New Life in the Land of Opportunity .. 64 First & Foremost ................................ 66 Making WAVES ................................. 68 Community by Association ............... 70 Courting & More ............................... 72 The Art of War ................................... 80 Whiskey & Tonic ............................... 88 Horses Wagons and Cattle Drives .... 82 Women in the Workforce .................. 84 Mail on the Rails ................................ 86 Through A Dark Lens ........................ 88 Subborn as a Mule ............................ 86 Glenridge Hall .................................. 94 Not Always the Worst of Times .......... 96 Copeland Road and the Ice Age ....... 98 Crossing the Chattahoochee ............102 Service on the Home Front ...............104 Prison Camps....................................108 Our Glass Artist ................................ 110 Down Yonder on the Chattahoochee... 112 Franklin Burdett 1st Postmaster .... 116 Howard Chatham ........................... 118 Radar Love..................................... 122 Naturalist Artist Athos Menaboni .. 124 Young Shenanigans in Burdal ........ 128 Williams-Payne House Families .... 130 Sewage to Moonshine .................... 134 Sandy Spring Dirt Road .................. 136 The Community That Raised Us ..... 138 Trail to a Cleaner Earth.................. 140 Cotton & Convicts .............................142 Sandy Springs Gazette March 2017 Volume 2 Issue 13 Publisher Chip Emerson Editor Melissa Swindell Production and Design FourWindsAgency.us Multi-Media Editor Melissa Swindell FourWindsAgency.us Contributors Dan Aldridge Susan Beard Cora Adams Kimberley M. Brigance Rachel Rosner and Karen Meinzen McEnerny Marsha Webb Nancy McGhee Fran Buttolph Melissa Swindell Tami Kushner Jeremy Katz Garnett Cobb Amy O Neal Jackie Este Susan B. Deaver Linda Campbell Russell Clayton Karen Meinzen McEnerny Burt Terrel Bill Wynne Virginia Allison Morris Moore Talk for SSHCF Anne Eldridge Valerie Biggerstaff Suzanne Blackwell Kimberly Brigance Dorothy Knight HeritageSandySprings.org The Sandy Springs Gazette is published weekly by Heritage Sandy Springs Copyright 2017 R2R Media Inc. All rights reserved. Reproductions in whole or part without express written permission of the publisher is strictly prohibited. This magazine is available by digital download. Article ideas are welcome. Email inquiries to mswindell heritagesandysprings.org Heritage Sandy Springs 6110 Bluestone Rd. Sandy Springs GA 30328 404-851-9111 5 Just Skimming Off the Ground It took 107 years to get the record straight that the first airplane flight in Georgia was also America s first flight by a single-wing aircraft. DAN ALDRIDGE T Saturday August 28 1909 Athens Georgia he double doors of Epps Garage were open allowing light to spill into the darkness outside just enough to see while loading the horse-drawn dray parked in front of the building. Two young men were loading a wing a rudder and tools for assembly into the dray. When they finished they closed the garage doors climbed aboard the dray and sat shoulder-to-shoulder for the one-mile ride. The two men had been up all night. They should have been exhausted but not a single yawn came from either for they were fueled by pure adrenaline. They d been close friends for almost five years and each knew the other s thoughts. For the past ten months they d worked nights and weekends in the garage on East Washington Street in pursuit of a dream they shared. Athens residents who d gathered to watch the loading fell in behind the dray and followed it to its destination where more spectators waited. Everybody was anxious to see the machine built by the two young men Ben Epps and Zumpt Huff. But far more exciting if all went well they would see what nobody in Georgia had ever seen before--the machine would fly. Epps-Huff II Monoplane and Ben Epps on Washington Street in front of the garage. Despite the notation 1907 this picture was taken in 1909. Misidentified for more than eight decades as the first plane to fly in Georgia Zumpt Huff s notes indicate that this plane never flew he referred to it as the partnership s guinea pig which taught the pioneering aviators a lot about aerodynamics. Benjamin Thomas Epps was born in Oconee County just south of Athens in 1888. He grew up in Clarke County and was educated in the local public schools. In the autumn of 1903 when he was just 15 he enrolled at Georgia Tech. The following year he was homesick not doing as well as he d hoped and he dropped out of school after fall exams. In January of 1905 he went to work at Morton & Taylor Electric in Athens. On his first day there he met a teenage co-worker with the most unusual forename he d ever heard Zumpt. Zumpt Alston Huff was born in Madison County just east of Athens in 1889. Like Epps Huff was a first child. He most likely received his education from his mother who d been a teacher in a one-room school house. At most he completed the equivalent of six grades. In the 1900 census he is listed as a farm laborer able to read and write. In 1904 his family moved to Athens where he also found work at Morton & Taylor which did electrical contracting work sold motors and generators and was an agent for Rambler Yale and Cadillac automobiles. The natural talent that Epps and Huff possessed when it came to working with electrical and mechanical contrivances flourished. In December 1908 Epps opened his own electrical contracting company and garage on East Washington Street. By that time Huff worked around the corner as an assistant projector operator at a motion picture theater. Both of the young men lived with their parents in Athens. Epps and Huff were captivated by motorcycles automobiles and all manners of transportation. It was a natural leadin to their interest in aircraft. They were fascinated by the Wright brothers and read every journal and article they could find detailing the brothers progress. Possessed by the exuberance of youth Epps and Huff began to envision building their own airplane. Their aspiration started as a dream developed into a passion and cemented the Epps-Huff partnership. Work on their first model aircraft began shortly after Epps opened his garage. It was to be a biplane designed after the 1903 Wright Flyer biplane. Epps and Huff worked nights and weekends and on May 13 1909 the Epps-Huff I made its public debut. It was placed on crates in front of the garage and photographed. Those citizens of Athens still unaware that the new partnership was building the first airplane in Georgia learned of it the following day when the Athens Banner announced Two Athens Boys Building Airship. Like the Wright Flyer the Epps-Huff I used wing warping LEFT Epps-Huff III monoplane in Lynnwood Park Athens on August 28 1909 beginning its takeoff run. Zumpt Huff (wearing derby) looks on. ABOVE The aircraft continuing its takeoff run from a different angle (at least two cameras were present that day). Ben Epps is on the pilot s bench immediately prior to becoming airborne. OPPOSITE A crowd of spectators converges on the Epps-Huff III after the plane flew 150 feet. This was its second successful flight the first having taken place at 3 a.m. that same morning when the monoplane flew 300 feet becoming the first monoplane to fly in the United States. to maintain lateral control roll. This technique patented by the Wright brothers used a system of pulleys and cables to twist the trailing edges of the wings up and down in opposite directions allowing the pilot to maintain control. Also like the Wright Flyer the Epps-Huff I was designed as a pusher-type in which the propeller faced aft (rearward) and acted to push the plane forward a suggestion made by Glenn Curtiss when he visited Athens. (Curtiss was a pioneer aviator and member of the Aerial Experiment Association which was building pusher-type planes.) Before adding the weight of an engine Epps and Huff decided to test their biplane as a glider. They hauled the EppsHuff I to the horse track at the old fairgrounds. A towrope was tied to the biplane and then to a Studebaker-E.M.F. 30 automobile chassis that pulled the biplane around the track. After weeks of testing the towrope broke and the EppsHuff I crashed reducing it to little more than a pile of splintered wood snapped cables and torn fabric. The pioneering aeronauts had learned a lot but they believed the twin fixedwing design was too rigid for wing warping. Epps suggested a different design a monoplane with a single fixed-wing design. Before the monoplane could fly Epps and Huff needed an engine. Weight was a critical factor in getting any aircraft off the ground. Most automobiles at that time were powered by water-cooled engines which were heavy. Epps wanted to use a lighter air-cooled engine like the ones that powered motorcycles. So the partners began looking for a lightweight motorcycle engine that could generate the power needed to get the plane in the air. They contacted Palmer Walthour who owned a bicycle shop in Atlanta. Walthour had exactly what they needed a used motorcycle with an Anzani two-cylinder engine owned by perhaps the greatest athlete in the world at the time. Walthour s younger brother was world-famous cyclist Bobby Walthour. Bobby was a superstar in motor-paced racing where bicycles raced behind pacer motorcycles. In 1905 after winning the world championship Bobby purchased two 7 pacer motorcycles from Alessandro who built the most The The monoplane had a single fixed-wing with a 35-foot span pacer motorcycles from Alessandro Anzani Anzani who built the most monoplane had a single fixed-wing with a 35-foot span and a cord length (the from the wing s wing s edge to powerful lightweight two-cylinder motorcycle engines in and a cord length (the distancedistance from theleading leading edge to the powerful lightweight two-cylinder motorcycle engines in the its edge) of eight feet. There was a single support beam worldshop near Paris France. France. Epps and Huff acquiredtrailing trailing edge) of eight feet. There was a single support beam in his shop near Paris Epps and Huff acquired its world in his one of these two-cylinderfrom Palmer in a trade for an forrunningrunning theof the span. Fabric was stretched across the pacers from Palmer in a trade an the length length of the span. Fabric was stretched across the one of these two-cylinder pacers undersidewing. wing. older model two-seat Cadillac. underside of the of the older model two-seat Cadillac. The Epps-Huff II monoplane also had a pusher-type NeitherNeither Epps nor Huff hadphotograph or drawingdrawing The Epps-Huff II monoplane also had a pusher-type Epps nor Huff had seen a seen a photograph or design with the propeller mounted the wing facing aft. of a monoplane but Epps nevertheless designed verdesign with the propeller mounted behind behind the wing facing aft. of a monoplane but Epps nevertheless designed his ownhis own verA rudder skinned in cloth cloth was positioned sion. Salvaging parts from the damaged Epps-Huff I the A vertical vertical rudder skinned in was positioned ten feetten feet sion. Salvaging parts from the damaged Epps-Huff I the avia- aviation pioneersbuilding the Epps-Huff II monoplane. By began building the Epps-Huff II monoplane.behind behind theSix feet Six frontin front wing was a double-doubleBy the wing. wing. in feet of the of the wing was a tion pioneers began plane elevator shaped like a box kite with and bottom early summerit1909 complete with the Anzani Anzani engine. elevator shaped like a box kite with the top the top and bottom it was complete with the engine. plane early summer 1909 was horizontal planes in cloth. cloth. horizontal planes skinnedskinned inThe The monoplane used wing for conBen Epps (L) and Zumpt Huff (center wearing derby) inspect damage monoplane used wing warpingwarping for conBen Epps (L) and Zumpt Huff (center wearing derby) inspect damage trol. The undercarriage consisted to the Epps-Huff III in Lynnwood Park on the day of the record flight. trol. The undercarriage consisted of threeof three to the Epps-Huff III in Lynnwood Park on the day of the record flight. bicycle wheels set in a formation. bicycle wheels set in a triangle triangle formation. There was a bench bench under the There was a wagon wagon under the wing where the upright midway wing where the pilot satpilot sat upright midway between the front wheel back between the front wheel and theand the back wheels. wheels. Overall the Epps-Huff a had a Overall the Epps-Huff II had II heavy unwieldy appearance. heavy unwieldy appearance. Epps and Huff installed the Epps and Huff installed the Anzani Anzani engine and then the monoplane engine and then tested tested the monoplane on the on the red-clay in front of the of the red-clay street street in front garage. Huff later recorded his memories garage. Huff later recorded his memories of the We Rode [sic] this plane of the testing testing We Rode [sic] this plane up and up and down Washington Street from in down Washington Street from in front offrontgarage to the intersection of the of the garage to the intersection of College Avenue. Here weto learnto learn College Avenue. Here we began began the problems of an aeroplane the problems of turning turning an aeroplane around around once [sic] we would head head once [sic] turned turned we would down[sic] on[sic] on Washington Street down West West Washington Street too [sic] here we faced our probtoo [sic] Pulaski Pulaski here we faced our prob- lem again turning it rode on bicycle wheels [sic] We were taught how fragile a bicycle wheel was when out of its forks onto an airplane. Up and down Washington Street we would ride the plane makeing [sic] improvements...[Ben] did get it to skim off the ground each had his turn while the other observed trying to fathom our trouble. It would not rise over a foot or two from the ground the motor either conked out or starting [sic] to slow down. It became apparent that the Epps-Huff II was not capable of sustained controlled flight. The guinea pig as Huff referred to it proved too heavy unstable and unwieldy to fly. The plane needed reconfiguring. So in late July of 1909 the partners began working on the Epps-Huff III another pusher-type monoplane that looked similar to its predecessor. But this model was smaller lighter better balanced and more stable. The single beam running the length of the wing was replaced with two beams. More cabling was added but instead of relying exclusively on wires to support the load of the wing struts were attached to the underside of the wing on each side of the body and anchored to the undercarriage. These struts kept the wing from sagging at its tips improving the aircraft s lift ability. The same Anzani engine was installed. This lighter sleeker more stable model was destined to fly. As August drew to a close Epps and Huff completed work on the aircraft. This plane was worthy of more than a street trial. It would be tested in an open field. The location had been selected at the beginning of the partnership--an open area within the city about a mile west of the garage known as Lynwood Park. The citizens of Athens had been waiting since the newspaper article in May to see an airplane fly. The date selected was Saturday August 28 and word spread quickly. A large crowd was expected along with newspaper reporters and perhaps photographers. Whether the trial would be a success or a failure the outcome would be splashed across the state so Epps and Huff didn t want to disappoint. The sky was beginning to lighten as the dray arrived at Lynwood Park. The early start would avoid the heat that would set in by noon pushing the temperature to the mid-90s. More importantly the early start would ensure that the flight was in still air before rising temperatures kicked up winds that Epps-Huff I biplane on Washington Street near Epps Garage with Ben T. Epps (L) and Zumpt Huff (R) taken May 13 1909. The aircraft sits on wooden crates before the wheel undercarriage was attached. This plane was used solely as a glider. could affect control of the airplane. The park was a long rectangular parcel of land with an excellent site at the top of a hill for launching an aircraft. From there the park was a continuous downward slope over open terraced land. The dray was parked on the hill and unloaded. Epps and Huff made the final assembly and then rolled the monoplane into position. After a final check Epps climbed onto the pilot s seat. The crowd buzzed with comments and speculation as to whether the craft would fly. One person in particular was making sure he had a clear view a reporter with a notepad in hand. Epps positioned his hands and feet on the plane s control devices. Huff when he was sure Epps was ready moved to the front of the aircraft. He grabbed the propeller with both hands and at Epps s nod pulled down hard. The propeller began to spin and the engine spit clouds of exhaust. Huff signaled one thumb up before moving to the rear to watch. Epps revved the engine prompting spectators to cover their ears. The plane picked up speed but its forward movement wasn t smooth over the uneven ground. The observing reporter noted The monoplane got a bad start but succeeded in clearing the ground by about 1 foot and skimmed through the air above the ground for 50 yards. The machine bumped into a terrace and it was all over. The machine was not badly damaged. The headline for an article that ran in Monday s Atlanta Constitution said it all Flight is made by Georgia Man. The article then began Athens claims the first aeroplane flight in the state of Georgia. As soon as the plane hit the ground Epps cut the engine and jumped clear. Huff sprinted down the hill to check on him. As the crowd converged around the plane reality set in the Epps-Huff III had flown. Huff pushed through the crowd to assess the damage to the plane deemed it repairable and 9 rejoined Epps. The aero-partners were at the center of a tightly packed cheering crowd. The reporter likewise made his way to the center to add his congratulations and seek reactions The two young men...were well satisfied in getting the machine to clear the ground even for a small distance. On that first attempt the Zumpt Huff 1950s. Epps-Huff III Monoplane traveled 150 feet. The Epps-Huff partnership had thus traveled farther than the Wright brothers first-ever flight six years earlier which had covered a distance of 120 feet. While the Wright brothers had flown a biplane Frenchman Louis Bl riot piloted the world s first successful monoplane flight in April 1907. His flight was 20 feet after a 305 foot run. The Epps-Huff III had flown seven-and-a-half times farther. At the ages of 21 and 19 and without formal education or training in airplane design or aerodynamics Epps and Huff had accomplished something remarkable. They had financed the project solely from their own meager incomes and had no outside help other than the suggestion from Glenn Curtiss to face the propeller aft. They had relied on trade journals and their imaginations had drawn on their youthful experience and God-given talent and had persevered through sheer tenacity. On the Monday morning following the first flight in Georgia newspapers across the state carried headlines of the historic event. The Associated Press picked up the story and sent it across the nation. The newspaper with the biggest reporting coup was the Atlanta Georgian & News. After that newspaper s reporter interviewed Epps and Huff his article disclosed that while the trial on Saturday morning was the first public flight of the Epps-Huff III it was not the first time the monoplane had flown. The first flight had occurred earlier that morning during a private trial at Lynwood Park. As the day for the trial had drawn close Epps and Huff had second thoughts about a public trial without a previous test. At the eleventh hour they hastily arranged for the private test earlier that same day. The forecast called for clear skies no wind and most importantly a full moon. Epps went to the Athens Banner office located just around the corner from Epps Garage and invited Hugh Rowe the newspaper s proprietor and Thomas Reed its editor to the private trial. They were to serve as unbiased witnesses. The private trial was set for 3 a.m. No one would be on the streets to see them hauling the aircraft from the garage to Lynwood Park nor would anyone be in the park. The Atlanta Georgian & News was the only publication to report that Epps was not alone aboard the Epps-Huff III when Ben T. Epps Sr. 1931 by Arnett Studio of Athens. it made its first flight that morning. After cranking the propeller Huff ducked under the wing and squeezed in beside Epps on the wagon seat. [B]oth were aboard and the machine more than fulfilled the expectations of the young aviators the newspaper reported. Reed recalled the early morning event in a March 1 1949 column he wrote for the Athens Banner-Herald It was a clear night with a full moon an ideal setting for the experiment. We went out to an open field about a block or two beyond Milledge Avenue...the land selected was open with a fairly good incline to an open field down hill to the west. Rowe and myself simply stood by and watched to see what Ben was going to do with his machine...The machine got up about forty to fifty feet in the air and maintained its flight about one hundred yards. On its first flight the Epps-Huff III had performed superbly. It flew twice as far as it would later that morning during the public trial. The flight ended when the front wheel struck a terrace but the damage was insignificant. Epps and Huff hauled the plane back to the garage for repairs that were completed before the public trial at dawn. The aviators knew they d made the first flight in Georgia history. What they never knew was that their flight also had considerable significance outside the state of Georgia. Neither Epps nor Huff had ever heard of Dr. Henry Walden of Mineola Long Island New York a dentist with an office in Manhattan. Like Epps and Huff Walden had a passion for aviation. The first two aircraft that he built were pusher-type biplanes and both were failures. He switched to a monoplane for his third model. Like the Epps-Huff III the Walden III was a pusher-type design the undercarriage sat on three wheels in a triangle configuration and it was powered by a three-cylinder Anzani engine. During a trial run on December 9 1909 Walden succeeded in getting his fragile craft to rise a few feet off the ground sustaining a short controlled flight of just a bit more than 30 feet before the plane s one-gallon gas tank ran dry. For this achievement he received credit for making the first mono- Nine-year-old Evelyn Epps and her father Ben prepare to honor veterans killed in the SpanishAmerican War and World War I by dropping a large reef and flowers from the air onto Oconee Hill Cemetery in Athens. plane flight in America. But that was 103 days after the flight of the Epps-Huff III monoplane a fact destined to become misplaced history for more than a century. Walden s flight received the credit because the date of the flight in Georgia had been forgotten. After the initial burst of publicity associated with the flight of the Epps-Huff III the 1909 date wasn t accurately published again for scores of years. Inexplicably a 1930 article in the Atlanta Constitution stated that the flight had taken place in 1907. From that point until 2016 every publication stated that the Epps-Huff flight had occurred in 1907. The uncertainty about the actual date led to confusion about the event. So the flight of the Epps-Huff III wouldn t receive due recognition until I happened to begin looking into the matter almost exactly 100 years later. Intending to write a story in 2007 commemorating the centennial of the first flight in Georgia I began researching the Ben T. Epps Papers at the University of Georgia s Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Several photographs of the Epps-Huff II in a scrapbook in the collection bore handwritten 1907 notations. Further research indicated that date could not be accurate. Some of the buildings in the photos hadn t even existed in 1907. The most reproduced picture with the 1907 date showed Epps standing next to the Epps-Huff II with the signage of Epps Garage at 120 E. Washington Street but advertisements in the Athens Banner in 1907 and 1908 showed a different company advertising at that location through November 1908. Most significantly I then came across a copy of the August 30 1909 Atlanta Constitution article describing the EppsHuff flight and pinpointing its date as two days prior. With that date in hand I then found articles in other newspapers across the state along with Associated Press articles in newspapers in other states. These conclusively established August 28 1909 as the date of the historic first flight in Georgia. The 2016 publication of my book To Lasso the Clouds [Mercer University Press] helped bring the achievement by Epps and Huff to the public. Now the two pioneering aviators are receiving long-overdue acclaim for making the first monoplane flight in America. The Georgia Aviation Hall of Fame in Warner Robins is in the process of correcting its exhibit about the first flight in the state Zumpt Huff is to be considered for induction into the Georgia Aviation Hall of Fame (where he will join his former partner Ben Epps an inaugural inductee) and the Athens Historical Society will be conducting a fundraising effort to correct the two state historical markers in Athens-Clarke County that commemorate the first flight. Of even greater significance the flight is receiving national recognition. The February 2017 issue of Air & Space Smithsonian magazine provided a national platform to spread the word and both Ben Epps and Zumpt Huff will be considered for induction into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in Dayton Ohio Class of 2018. That will be quite an honor--and one long delayed-- for the two young men from Athens. After the groundbreaking Epps-Huff flight in 1909 the partnership would go on to build three more monoplanes before Huff moved to Atlanta in late 1910. Then after 1926 Huff moved to Florida to continue his work in movie theaters and the electrical business. He died in Jacksonville in 1975 at age 86. Epps continued working with planes creating six more designs while also running his garage in Athens. He died at age 49 in 1937 in a crash at the Athens airport while riding as a passenger in his plane that was being piloted by a prospective buyer. B Dan Aldridge is retired and lives in Winterville. He can be reached at danaldridgeauthor gmail.com. Visit his website danaldridgeauthor.com. 12 Article is being reprinted with the permission of Georgia Backroads magazine. GEORGIA BACKROADS SPRING 2017 11 Tuesdays 6 30pm Garnett Cobb Garden Room at the Williams-Payne House 6075 Sandy Springs Circle Franklin Delano Roosevelt visited Georgia forty-one times between 1924 and 1945. A native New A President in Our Midst Franklin Yorker FDR called Georgia his other state. Seeking relief from the devastating e ects of polio he Delano Roosevelt in Georgia was rst drawn there by the reputed healing powers of the waters at Warm Springs. FDR immediately took to Georgia and the attraction was mutual. Kaye Minchew Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas was an intelligent spirited woman born in 1834 to one of the Su er & Grow Strong The Life of wealthiest families in Georgia. At fourteen she began keeping a diary of her accounts of life Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas before during and after the Civil War. The war and its aftermath changed her life forever. (1834-1907) Carolyn Curry The story of the rst airplane ight in Georgia has not been told correctly in more than one hundred years. To Lasso the Clouds brings to light the complete incredible story of the two young To Lasso the Clouds The men from Athens Georgia who achieved their dream of ight. Beginning of Aviation in Georgia Dan A. Aldridge Jr. Myra Lewis Williams memoir is her own brand of un inching down-to-earth humorous Southern storytelling that she reveals how she crawled out of the darkness and came to stand in the light of The Spark that Survived building a new life for herself. Myra hopes that her story will show women that they are stronger Linda Hughes & Myra Lewis Williams than they know and that if she could overcome her own misguided decisions and life s most tragic misfortunes they can too. As Myra says This is a book about how to overcome life s worst tragedies and your own dumbass decisions. Mom s Soul Caf is a chance to sit and enjoy the now. This book weaves delightful stories of motherhood with spiritual practices. You ll laugh you ll cry and you will discover ways to nd your Mom s Soul Caf own Zen in everyday life. Step into Mom s Soul Caf to celebrate the soul in a unique and Jennifer Webb inspirational way. Titles Twilight February 7th March 7th April 4th May 2nd June 6th If you or someone you know is a local author interested in sharing your published writing please contact Melissa Swindell at 404.851.9111 ext. 2 or at mswindell heritagesandysprings.org. The Family Behind the Burdett Legacy An interview with Marty Burdett and Irene Burdett Maddox B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of interview August 28 1991 One of the most influential and well-known names in Sandy Springs history is without a doubt Burdett. The Burdett family has been a prominent and guiding factor in the community since its inception providing Sandy Springs with many of its first businesses and helping grow both the commercial and residential aspects of the area. The town was even once known as Burdal Georgia named in part for the Burdett family. That name unfortunately never caught on and the town was renamed Sandy Springs in 1941. However the Burdett name remains deeply rooted in Sandy Springs histor y. Siblings Mar t y Burdett and Irene Burdett Maddox remember what it was like growing up in such a prominent family. From business to barbeques to camp meetings they remember that the family always cared about the progression and development of Sandy Springs for all its residents. The Burdett family included eight children all of whom grew up on the Burdett family farm on Old Roswell Road. Two of the children--Irene Burdett Maddox and Luther Lamar Burdett--have vivid memories of growing up in the area. Irene was born November 14 1908 and was a lifelong resident of Sandy Springs. Her younger brother Luther better known as Marty to his friends and family joined the family eight years later. Their father managed the family s farm which provided cotton corn syrup chickens and cattle. The Burdett family operated one of the first stores in the burgeoning city. Stephen Burdett built and operated Burdett s Grocery at the intersection o f M o u n t Ve r n o n Highway and Roswell Road. His nephew John Franklin Burdett took over the store and ran it for many years. Originally a wooden framed building in the 1920s the store was eventually expanded renovated and replaced by a brick building in 1936. Once renovated it became more than just a general store providing the community with a plethora of services. Irene recollects On the corner first was...Nancy s service station run by George and Rachel and Sonny. And then next to them was Frank Burdett s grocery store. And then next to that was the Loudermilk grocery store. And upstairs I had a beauty shop up over the grocery store. And across from the beauty shop was 13 meetings were a fixed part of the community by the nineteenth century. Every resident always looked forward to the camp meetings in the fall as they signaled a time of rest merriment and worship after a summer of grueling labor tending crops millwork and taking care of family farms. Marty remembers that camp meetings were a time to enjoy the company of family friends and included a lot of arduous work preparing the area for the meeting. He recollects When the camp meeting started at the Sandy Springs Methodist Church on the Friday before the third Sunday in August the county would send their convicts out and clean off all the grounds and then the lady convicts would clean off all the cemeteries. But more than a reason to have convicts clean up the church and cemetery the camp meetings attracted guests that folks may have not seen for over a year. Marty recalls During the camp meeting you had kinfolks that you didn t even know you had to come and spend the week or the day or the night with you and get in on all this good food. They came from everywhere. Everybody on the campground had company from all over. I mean probably some they hadn t seen since last year. But it was a lot of fun. We enjoyed it. The best part of the camp meetings though was the opportunity to gather around the fire and eat. We had some great meals there recollects Marty. We always had the preacher and we had fried chicken. We d bring the live chickens from home and keep them in a cooper until we got ready to eat them and then we would kill em and dress them right there at the back of the tent. There wasn t nobody out in Sandy Springs that sold chickens at that time. That s right. If you didn t raise your own chickens you didn t get no chicken. first Dr. Woodson who had practiced there for several years. And then Dr. Crawford came and he was a dentist and he was also there for quite a while...[Later] I moved downstairs on the street level and had a shop next to the grocery store which then had been converted into an upholstery shop a furniture store. And also on the other side of my shop was L.T. Martin s repair shop auto repair shop. And he had quite a large business there and kept a lot of cars all around which occupied most of the parking spaces. The Burdett s grocery store sparked the commercial enterprise for which Sandy Springs is now known. From 1925 to 1930 the grocery store even operated as the town s post office. From 1903 to 1925 the mail was delivered once a week from Dunwoody until the grocery store offered post office boxes to the community. The newly-dubbed Burdal Post Office became a regular part of the store s function. It was not until 1930 with the initiation of rural mail delivery that citizens began getting their mail at their homes. Indeed the Burdetts offered the community many of its firsts. For instance Benjamin Franklin Burdett who was born and spent his entire life in the Sandy Springs area was one of the first commuters in town driving his Hanson Six automobile between Sandy Springs and Atlanta. B.F. Burdett was also one of the area s first developers. In 1903 he purchased the spring for which Sandy Springs is named and the surrounding property for 900. He would eventually help build the Brookwood Subdivision in 1910. For Marty and Irene growing up as a member of the Burdett family offered many opportunities for gaiety with family and friends. Camp Camp meetings were one of the main events to look forward to in the late summer and the Burdetts always made sure to participate. That was until the arbor burnt down in the 1920s. Marty remembers In the late 20 s...we came on up and we found the arbor and all the tents were on fire. Of course the Buckhead fire department was called. That was the only fire department up in this end of the county. By the time they got there those tents were gone. They d burned just they were full of straw and they burned just like lighter. The tents many families slept in were quite advanced for the once a year meetings--some of the more well-todo families even had a second story in them. Marty remembers They were called tents but they were actually small frame buildings...these things didn t have floors in them they had wheat straw on the floors. Then the beds for the ladies was a long frame built and bed with wheat straw on it and they put them feather mattress on it. That s where all the ladies slept and the men slept upstairs which was also on a long bed...we just slept on the straw I think. The church eventually rebuilt the tents and replaced them with new wooden structures. The straw was removed to create less of a fire hazard in the 1930s. Irene and Marty grew up part of a founding family who settled around a sandy spring envisioning and eventually creating a community characterized by hard work commercial enterprise and religious worship. Irene married her husband in June of 1939 and Marty married his wife Kathleen in 1939. The two continued to live and work in Sandy Springs fulfilling the legacy of the Burdett name. N download transcript M Water Water Everywhere An interview with Joseph Ambrose Alexander Martin B Interviewer Burt Terrell B Date of interview August 1994 In the early twentieth century one of the biggest concerns the Sandy Springs community faced on a regular basis was the potential flooding of the Chattahoochee River. Many residents lost more than their homes over the last century to the fast rising waters of the Chattahoochee and the river s slow recession that followed. Joseph Ambrose Alexander Martin was born in Old Milton County in Roswell on February 11 1912 to Ambrose Alexander Martin and Calistie Martin. His mother Calistie was born to George Martin in Douglas County on their 40 -acre farm down by the river. Joseph knew very little about his grandparents or the lineage of his mother and father but their reliance on the Chat t ahoochee stuck with him as a fond childhood m e m o r y. H e spent more than 68 years in the RoswellHolcomb Bridge community before moving fifteen miles away to Forsyth County. Martin grew up in a much simpler Sandy Springs the roads were unpaved several family members moonshined as a hobby and their life and leisure centered around the Chattahoochee River. The Chattahoochee River winds its way through Fulton and Cobb Counties producing a community whose life has centered around its waters for decades. The river gave residents the most essential necessities of life--food and water. Most of Sandy Springs earliest residents were farmers who relied upon the river s yearly flooding to enrich their farms. Floods brought nutrient-rich soil over the banks of the river replenishing farmland soil and making agriculture in the area a sustainable way of life. However sometimes the water would rise a little too quickly and would make traveling difficult. Joseph recalls Tom Campbell lived over there...going down to Horse Shoe Bend. I think he owned down to Horse Shoe Bend and maybe some of it. I d walk up there through the fall of the year and winter time and loose water would be coming out of the banks and running down the ditch. And I ve seen them creeks on the old road there from the cur ve up there above the house to the curve over there on the other wise of the house...all out in the bottoms. Occasionally the Chattahoochee would flood roads houses and even the bridges meant to traverse the water below but that never stopped Joseph. I ve told folks...my uncle lived down there one time. And the river d [sic] get up. I ve told folks I ve gotten in a boat at Island Ford up there and went down the river...part time I was on River Road and sometimes in high places I d have to...and go plumb to Big Creek 15 Sandy Springs expected and prepared for conditions like these and used the river to their advantage. Sandy Springs residents routinely drew most of their water source from the river specifically for use as an irrigation system to sustain their crops--the basis of their very livelihood. During the Great Depression the river and streams began to dry up leading to some of the hardest three years the community would experience. In 1925 in addition to the destruction of their crops by boll weevils the drought dried up much of the Chattahoochee and its tributaries that residents used during their everyday lives. Joseph remembers My dad and Vic toria Almand went to see my halfsister in Birmingham. Dad got back...they rode the train out there and back...said lots of them creeks there weren t no water in them. The river s going out there plumb dry. And I saw the creek going down by the house it d get spread out. I remember going down there with Dad. There s a rock on each side and it got so dry he went down there and put his heel on one side and his toe on the other. Many farmers lost their crops and eventually their farms abandoning them to become sharecroppers without the expense of owning their own land. Joseph s family stuck it out and remained in Sandy Springs even though there was little left without water from the river to irrigate their crops. Today the Chattahoochee River is no longer a crucial food supplier but its value as a source of water has never been greater. As early as 1904 Fulton County began to capitalize on the flowing waters of the river building the Morgan Falls Dam which helped regulate the flooding of the Chattahoochee and provided wealthier citizens with electricity through hydroelectric power. Throughout the twentieth century different towns contested the rights to the river s water and built dams to prevent flooding and to harness the water for themselves. Sandy Springs no longer experiences the flooding it once did thanks to the Buford Dam. On March 1 1950 in Buford Georgia construction began on the dam which created the Lake Lanier Reservoir roughly 36 miles north of Sandy Springs. Residents still enjoy the river for its natural beauty and Morgan Falls Dam still creates enough electricity to power 4 400 homes in the area. Today s residents however will never know what the area truly was like when one could walk along the road and grab a carp after a particularly large rain. in a boat he recollects. When the river flooded the residents stepped into their wading boots and hopped in a boat. Residents like Joseph became so accustomed to the anticipated flooding that many of them had boats tied up outside their homes in preparation for a surprise flood The river got up and...me and my cousin decided we d go down there to see how things re [sic] getting along. This guy lived there named Bill Andrews. He got us in the boat...come out there where we could get in the boat went riding around. I don t know whether to tell you or not. Most people might believe this is a lie but we rode through that house in that boat Got in the house and rode around in the house in the boat. Many community members saw the river flooding as both a positive and a negative. While it would affect many lives and take many homes some of the younger residents found new and innovative ways to go about their daily businesses--even if it meant waiting it out until the water receded. Joseph remembers My son up here on the Etowah back this side of Bucktown he was riding around here after big rains back there. He come in here he says I caught a great big carp up yonder right in the middle of the road. Creek went down...there s a creek run in there right at the river... Said he was driving along and looked over there and there lay a big old carp. He was still alive. He just got out and picked him up and put him back in the river. Joseph recalls many stories of men in his community taking advantage of the flooding as a clever way to catch fish. When the creeks would flood the carp would wash out onto the road and then when the creek would subside the men would go fishing. Most would put the fish back in the river but some would collect the fish and provide them to other residents who needed the food. The Chattahoochee River was known to flood every couple of years due to rainstorms and other natural disasters. Early residents of N download transcript M Work Work Baseball Work An interview with Clarence Haskell Perkins B Interviewer Burton L. Terrell B Date of interview February 21 1995 Clarence Haskell Perkins was born February 11 1906 at the Perkins homestead near the intersection of Johnson Ferry Road and Glenridge Drive. His parents Joseph Silas Perkins and Mary Lenora Ball Lamberth Perkins were founding members of the Sandy Springs community. The Perkins family operated both a cotton gin and sawmill at the intersection of Johnson Ferry and Glenridge Drive. The family had a small farm associated with the two mills and Clarence remembers that the work was hard. Well it was a rough life back in those days. A depression right on through I think. My father had a cot ton gin and saw mill...Well in a way it was a small saw mill he recollects. H e d s e l l -- he d cut the lumber-- cut the logs and haul them in-- make it into lumber--stack it and dr y it sell it on credit and never collect for it lot of times. That s a good way to go broke which he did. Clarence remembers that his father played a small role in helping build Sandy Springs in the early twentieth century. The area was large but the population was so small and the land was uncultivated. There was little to speak of in terms of buildings services or homes. Clarence remembers there were four buildings along Roswell Road when he was growing up Hammond School and three houses. The Perkins family and their neighbors such as the Burdetts Harrisons Reeds Douglass and the Powers were some of the oldest families in Sandy Springs. The neighbor kids were with whom Clarence worked went to school and church and occasionally would get to play baseball. Life in Sandy Springs was rarely leisurely for a growing young man. When Clarence finished his chores each d ay he had schoolwork to complete or his father would enlist him to help out at the cotton gin or the sawmill. His day hardly ever consisted of any thing but l a b o r. Well Sandy Springs--had a big old spring there and a marble wall around the springs. Water come bubbling up out of there. It furnished plenty of water. We had to haul water one season when everything got dry and the well went dry at the cotton gin. We had to haul water from that spring there to run the steam engine for the cotton gin. It was--it was a rough life remembers 17 recalls [For fun we] played ball shoot marbles have foot races. We called it townball then. When you were running bases you could throw the base--throw the ball and hit em running bases and they were out. That was called townball. It s similar to baseball...We didn t have any baseball field when I went to school there. It was just out in the yard--no layout at all--just get out there and put you a rock down there for the base. The kids in early Sandy Springs did not have much in the way of toys or sport equipment so they made things up as they went creating items such as balls and bats so they could play games together. Clarence recollects Well we made---lots a times out of an old black stocking. Took part of an old black stocking and wad and roll it up best you could then start tolling string around that. Roll it just tight as you could. Make it hard as you could then sew it with needle and thread keep it from unraveling. We made our own balls. If you was lucky enough to get a hold of a golf ball to put in the middle of it you were lucky...I made one once to try and see how hard I could make it and I made it hard. And I made me a brand new bat. We had a man working at the sawmill there he was a husky fellow. I got out there and I was going to throw the ball to him. He got--he swung away and he hit it. He had no more than hit that ball til it hit me right in the eye Knocked me down...From that day on I can t play baseball. I can t catch a ball. I dodge it every time. I m gun shy After Clarence s mishap with his homemade bat and ball he found other ways to fill his time between chores including shooting fireworks from a blank pistol or swinging through the trees near his home. Clarence remembers that it never mattered how you spent your time because every day was just another work day to the kids who grew up in early Sandy Springs. B Clarence. They worked on the Fourth of July and they picked cotton on Thanksgiving. On Christmas Clarence and other children might get some sweets and maybe a couple of firecrackers but he still had to cut wood hoe corn pick cotton and feed the animals. This was his daily routine before he could retire to bed and prepare to do it all over again the next day. When Clarence would get a small break from work he remembers that he either had to go to school or church. There was very little for kids to do other than keep up with their responsibilities. One activity that Clarence remembers all too well was getting into small skirmishes with his classmates. He recalls We didn t have much to do except kids getting in fights. I did my part of it. There was some older ones always wanting to agitate the young ones--get them fighting. They d take us and rub our noses together if nothing else to get us started fighting. Sometimes we d go home pretty bloody and muddy. We lived through it. Clarence doesn t remember anyone getting seriously injured. It was just a part of growing up in early Sandy Springs and trying to find ways to fill the time between chores. Recess however was the one time every day when Clarence could truly get away from all the work. He N N download transcript M M Sandy Springs Shopping Takes Center Stage An interview with Robert Ney and George Ivey B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of interview October 1997 Roswell Road and Mount Vernon Highway became the centers of commerce in Sandy Springs during the community s expansion in the post-war era. Country and general stores like Burdett s and gas stations such as Pure were the first of many businesses to establish themselves centrally along these roads bringing with them new opportunities for the quickly growing town. George Ivey and Robert Ney two late residents of Sandy Springs both saw the potential business boom within the community and became par t of the first group of businessmen to invest in the burgeoning town. George Ivey bought and developed the land for Sandy Springs first shopping center in 1954. Prior to the completion of Interstate 285 in 1969 one of the most traveled routes into Sandy Springs and Buckhead was along Roswell Road. Before it was the major traffic jam that it is today Roswell Road began as a simple country road--unpaved--with just a few businesses lining it. Robert Nesbitt Hardeman and his wife Thelma opened their general store along Roswell Road at Mount Vernon Highway in the early 1920s. Nesbitt also opened a hardware store along Roswell Road between Mount Vernon Highway and Johnson Ferry Road which operated until 1958. However the real commercial boom to the area occurred in the 1950s after an influx of residents bought and developed residential property-- and businesses followed soon thereafter. According to Ivey he surveyed Sandy Springs East Cobb and Dunwoody in 1954-- prior to purchasing the land--and found roughly 6 000 r e s i d e n t s . To d ay approximately 10 0 0 0 0 resident s live in Sandy Springs alone. Ivey purchased land lots consisting of eight homes facing Roswell Road bordered by Hild e b r and D r ive on the nor th and by Boylston Drive on the east. The Sandy Springs Shopping Center opened in 1955. Ivey constructed the center in an L shape with one free-standing building on the northwest corner of the property. When the shopping center initially opened Ivey recollects There was no water or sewage in Sandy Springs. 19 The center was on a septic tank and it had to be cleaned out every day. Subsequently sewage and water costs skyrocketed for the newly-opened shopping center. Ivey s solution help bring water and sewage to Sandy Springs from Poletown (located approximately two miles south of Sandy Springs) in an effort to urbanize and modernize the Sandy Springs Shopping Center. Robert Ney better known in the community as Bob was the first businessman to invest in the Sandy Springs Shopping Center in 1955. Ney was the owner of the Roswell Road Pharmacy which opened about one month before any other stores in the newly-developed shopping center. Bob remembers Next to me there was a Big Apple Grocery Store. Next to them was a Forrest Five-and-Ten which was a local chain of Five-andTens and next to him was Aldridge H a r d w a r e which was a local hardware store owned by a c o u n c i l m a n I think it was an alder man -- alderman and his two sons. Next to him I believe was a children s shop which was run by Mary Maglin. Next to her was a shoe shop I believe Swofford s Shoe Stop who later on moved to another shopping center. There was also a dry cleaner Lee Pinkard Dry Cleaners. The Big Apple Food Giant Grocery was the first major food store to open in the Sandy Springs area. The Alterman brothers launched the retail grocery business beginning in 1939. They opened their first supermarket in Atlanta on Marietta Street and named the store Big Apple after a popular dance of the time. The Big Apple opened in Sandy Springs in 1955 shortly after Ney opened his pharmacy and was even open late on Wednesdays to accommodate its shoppers. Many of the stores within the Sandy Springs Shopping Center were staples for the community. Before the amalgamation of small businesses within the community many businesses operated as multiple entities from single storefronts scattered along Roswell Road. With the increase of residents in Sandy Springs more business owners accepted the utility of the shopping center for the convenience it offered residents. Ney remembers the presence of a hobby shop Mary Brewer s Lady Shop Fowler s Jewlery Store and even a post office in the newlyconstructed center. Before so many businesses began capitalizing on the new development Ney remembers There was a Burdett Grocery Store [between Johnson Ferry Road and Mt. Vernon Highway on Roswell Road] I don t know anything about it when we first came out here. And there was another across from that... with the post office inside the drug store. In those days the mail delivery system was less sophisticated and residents had to travel into the town to pick up their mail from their box at the post office. However they did have somebody that delivered the mail directly to the shopping center to each store in the shopping center. It was a very small post office without a lot of services recollects Ney. The post office was not the only addition welcomed with the shopping center the first bank in Sandy Springs also made its home on Ivey s eight acres. Ney recalls I don t remember which part it was but there was a camera shop and I think the camera shop sold out to the fellow that owned it [ran it] and I think it became Bates Camera Shop. In Sandy Springs there were no banks and all the banking had to be done in Buckhead or further away so it wasn t convenient for banking service. C&S bank of Sandy Springs came in and they originally were in the shopping center where Mary Brewer s Country Shop was. I think she moved into another store and the bank came in there before the bank building was was bought. The First F e d e r a l Savings Bank o p e n e d briefly in the Sandy Springs Shopping C e n t e r before it was relocated to a free-standing structure in the late 1950s. Another convenient service for the community was a temporary library. As a public service Ivey donated building space within the shopping center for ten years as a temporary library and provided the utilities until the area s official library was completed in 1965. The Sandy Springs Shopping Center was a welcomed addition to the burgeoning metropolis. The center offered new business options to residents ranging from a grocery store with unheard-of hours for the era a pharmacy camera store hobby store and much more. The Sandy Springs Shopping Center with the help of George Ivey and Robert Ney was a staple in the Sandy Springs community for more than 60 years. B N download transcript M Timber & Taters Living Off the Land in Early Sandy Springs An interview with Francis (Morris) Norris - Part One B Interviewer Dorothy Knight and Garnett Cobb B Date of interview October 28 1981 Francis Morris Norris was born in 1914 in old Cobb County and moved to Milton County as a very young child. During the Progressive Era her family attempted to rebuild and reboot their lives following the reconstruction post-Civil War. The counties of her youth--Cobb and Milton--later merged into a larger Fulton County near her grandfather s farm. Francis spent her life in Fulton County and her family s legacy is evident in ever ything from old saw mills to the names of several local roads including Jett Road and Morris Road. Francis fondly remembers life as a young child with her grandparents in the early twentieth century. According t o Fr a n c i s h e r grandparents were the kind of people who built Sandy Springs from nothing but a field of timber an unpaved road and an empty canning jar. Francis grandfather had a very large family and a substantial piece of land where he lived with his 12 children and his wife Cherokee Jett Morris. The family farm was near to what is now Heards Ferry Road about where 285 is north of Powers Ferry Bridge according to Francis. The Morris family was full of tradesmen. Men would haul cut and deliver timber and clay bricks to the people of Atlanta to rebuild the city after the Civil War. Frances grandfather-- William Burney Morris--owned a uniquely large sawmill in Fulton County and provided timber to build many homes for his family and the community. He even used leftover timber from the mill to build an arbor for his family to use during church camp meetings. Francis family and other residents of early Sandy Springs led true pioneer lives. Typical of that time her grandfather and father worked outside the house while 21 tenants or sharecroppers to help farm the land but the children helped most the time. Francis recollects So we we d get out and go and get the apples and feed the pigs. And a cousin of mine had to wear the bonnet that my grandmother wore because Grandmother milked the cows. And if Grandmother was ill then Lorreen Swofford one of my cousins would get that bonnet and--she lived right down just the next house over on another farm--and she d get that bonnet and put on the bonnet and that would be all right for Bossie you know--they always called the cow Bossie That cow knew my grandmother. The children knew part of their time on the farm was dedicated to chores including helping their grandfather feed the animals and harvesting the crops. When Francis grandfather was not busy farming cutting timber running the mill or contracting for the county his favorite hobby was swapping. Francis remembers that he had a hobby of swapping animals for cars or work for food. She states [He] loved trading horses and cows. It was quite an experience to go to his farm because he had everything you know that was interesting. One time he swapped some sort of animal for an old Studebaker limousine in the early 1920s. My granddaddy could not drive this vehicle remembers Francis Until my father being a younger man and would always [drive] him if he had to go places took the Studebaker and he would put everybody in because it had this cute little--it was a seven-passenger--cute little seats in back. So we all would you know huff if we didn t get on the little extra seat. They would pull down from the back and you could put two more people in there. William Burney Morris never did learn to drive the Studebaker but it brought the entire family a lot of joy for the many years they owned it. Francis grandfather lived to be about 78 years old and always lived his life to the fullest. Well my granddaddy had a way of swapping. He was a horse trader...the family he did everything. But he was very energetic. Old tall fellow with a beard and I can remember so much. He would speak he d just about scare us to death because he he meant business when he said Do you know you d done ...So we were really fearful of Granddaddy Francis recalls. However Francis fondly remembers his enthusiastic and sometimes humorous ways including the time he the women took care of the home. These pioneers created their homes by cutting the timber or molding the bricks from red clay. They farmed fruits vegetables and meat to carry them through the entire year. Francis remembers Most people farmed saw-milled or truck-farmed. And truck farming--for those who have not gotten into it or don t know much about it--was vegetables and fruits in season honey pork and sometimes beef wrapped in white sheets. Oh yes and fresh chickens still on the foot. These would be all be hauled in the wagon to town and sold on...streets when there was a surplus. Francis grandfather was a tradesman swapping and selling the surplus from his farm including timber cotton and canned goods prepared by his wife. Francis fondly remembers her father s entire generation as a different breed of men. They worked tirelessly and took whatever work was available. She recollects I should go on and tell you that many of these young men my grandfather s generation were builders and and after the sawmill business subsided and the other thing I guess brick making and such was a little bit you know they went to work for the county because they needed people who were experienced with animals and sawmill work for the grading. My uncle Bard Morris was a driver of a sixteam mule outfit that graded roads all around through this county. When Francis grandfather was not farming he was making a wage any way he could to support the family--and always did very well for himself. William owned several parcels of land throughout the county some of which he used for growing cotton. He had a few Timber & Taters Living Off the Land in Early Sandy Springs continued laughed at waking up the household while roasting sweet potatoes for a midnight snack. During the early days of Sandy Springs the area s women always tried to make the best of their situations--especially Francis Morris Norris grandmother. No matter what the world threw their way --whether it was Yankee soldiers attempting to steal their food rationing of housewares inflicted by World War I or the dissolution of their possessions during the Great Depression--the women of Sandy Springs almost always found a way to make things work for their families. They were true pioneer women who made good use of ever y ounce of f r uit and ever y piece of the animal. Francis grandparents Cherokee Jett Morris and William Burney Morris lived on the family farm and provided their family of twelve with everything they needed to survive. Gr andma Cherokee provided many cheerful moments that Francis remembered for the rest of her life. A true Sandy Springs woman was one who knew her way around the kitchen and one of Francis fondest memories of her grandmother was her abilit y to cook. Cherokee always had something cooking on the large fire in the kitchen. If she wasn t heating up the large earthenware churn for canning she would be stoking the fire to feed the entire family. Francis remembers that although her grandmother was the matron of the kitchen everyone else pitched in to help her. While the commanding presence of Francis grandfather persuaded the grandchildren to complete their chores on the farm Cherokee baked treats for the children to bribe them into helping. [We] loved Grandmother recalls Francis She was [always] baking and she d bake cookies and she d bake crackling cornbread for us and she would do all those little things that kids love. But you would go out and sweep the yard for her after you you know had your treat and so forth. So that was one way of getting things done. While Francis recalls her time with her grandparents with fondness the Morris family often had to utilize every resource to ensure that everyone s needs were met. Despite owning their own property Francis recalls her grandmother acknowledging that the family owned very little else and had to make due with what was available to them. As Francis remembers ... my Grandmother used to say Well I don t know what we own. We re just land p o o r. H o w e v e r Fr ancis re me mb er s that Cherokee Morris owned a useful piece of kitchenware that was a centr al co mp o ne nt of t he family s everyday life an earthenware churn. Although t ypically used to make butter the earthenware churn enabled the family to make a variety of food items for long-term storage. Kraut was made from cabbage in large earthenware churns. And churns also was a big item i n t h e h o u s e h o l d. They were used for milk and curing pickles and also making the kraut. And this was all kept for the winter and that s the way the family survived remembers Francis. [My Grandmother] was just a real country cook and I do remember some things...I remember waking in the middle of the night and Granddaddy would be stoking up the fire big old fireplace...and she would have baked potatoes sweet potatoes and Granddaddy would get those sweet potatoes and put them in the fire and that was his midnight 23 snack. But he always had his coffee pot there too...and he never wasted a thing. Cherokee Morris became the matriarch of her family at a time when women in t he Sout h had to be creative in ord er to make a small amount of food last for a long period of time. Just as Francis grandfather drank every last drop of his coffee Cherokee made sure that everything the family grew harvested or slaughtered was used to its fullest potential. Francis recalls The ladies canned most everything for winter. The hogs were hung after slaughter and cut up for sausage lard and curing. The curing of the hams and the large pieces of meat was was what carried them through the winter...They dried the peas they dried the butterbeans. And my grandmother told [me] about drying leather britches. And leather britches was green beans dried and they would string them. Just hang them up like they did the red pepper for seasoning the sausage. Canning season was Francis favorite time of the year because it involved all of the children scavenging for fruits. Francis recollects The blackberry season was really fun because two or three mamas and sometimes a daddy would gather all the children in the neighborhood and go berry-picking. This was a hot summer day and you would just really work at it because we were this was our pies for next winter along with apples and things that mother peaches and such you know that you would can for winter. Canning gave the neighborhood time to engage in frivolity during a period when most of one s time was spent doing chores. Francis remembers her grandmother having more fun with the children than grandfather who often had to be the disciplinarian. When Francis and her cousins would stay at their grandparents house their grandmother would entertain in the children s room. Francis remembers And Grandmother she really tried to see that we had fun along with it. We had popcorn and peanuts and all the things you know off the farm. Francis loved her grandmother and would try to do everything she asked. After Grandfather William passed away the family took care of Cherokee until she eventually joined her husband in the Sandy Springs Methodist Cemetery. And then Grandmother was in ill health and there were several of the Morris ladies and my father and his brothers would go and get my grandmother and she lived with us for three or four months then she d go to someone else s house and live with them for...That [was] the way we took care of our elderly then. Cherokee Jett Morris and William Burney Morris taught their children and grandchildren the value of hard work and resourcefulness and the grandchildren-- especially Francis--remember them and their life lessons fondly. B Aid and Adorn The Sandy Springs Garden Club An interview with Marie Payne B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of interview June 14 1984 As early as 1926 Sandy Springs women began forming organizations and clubs to aid the city through decorating and beautifying the city s natural landscapes while also fundraising for local charities. The Sandy Springs Garden Club (SSGC) was founded in 1946 by Mrs. Marie Payne who became the first president. The Garden Club served as an impor tant social o u t l e t f o r m a ny women in the community. Marie s ef for ts through her first two terms as president of the Garden Club solidified the SSGC as one of the most effective and involved clubs throughout the entire state of Georgia. The first women s club in Sandy Springs dates to 1926 when several women formed the Women s Home Demonstration Club. Members of the club convened to discuss and share information related to improved canning sewing and gardening techniques. They would also gather to perform large garden tasks such as helping each other pick cotton during the end of the cotton season. In similar fashion the SSGC began in 1946 when 17 women gathered to set the by-laws and constitution of the Garden Club. The initial members decided on a series of programs that would set the pace for the club for years to come. Marie Payne recollects The club that year went all out for 100% registered voting and all member s went to the club house for the voting. We had five visitors. This particular year we [also] had an invitation to join the Federation for Garden Clubs which we did and have belonged ever y year. During Marie s first year as president Marie Payne of the SSGC she participated in the annual convention of garden clubs held in Augusta Georgia. Marie remembers [It] was reported that there were 270 garden clubs 8 467 members of garden clubs [from] all over the state of Georgia. That particular year for the convention 25 that way. Mrs. Marie Payne served as president from 1946 to 1948 since the club only allowed a two-term contiguous presidency. By 1975 Marie was once again president of the SSGC continuing its mission of philanthropy. The Garden Club held annual home shows of properties it landscaped and continued to donate profits from these shows to local health centers. Marie ensured that the club also gave back to younger women who aspired to continue work in horticulture and landscape architecture. In 1975 the Garden Club donated all the funds from its annual home tour to Dorothea Myer who attended the University of Georgia and was studying horticulture and landscape gardening. Marie remembers This was an inspiring year...Her father-it was during the Depression so to speak and there was no building going on--her father was a builder. Her mother told me they really needed that money for her to go back to school. She came to the Garden Club and gave us a wonderful program. She her aunt had let her have money to go to Europe to see the gardens and to study landscape gardening and she came and brought some film that she had made while she was in Europe. We thoroughly enjoyed it. By the end of Marie s second term as president the SSGC had 27 active members who actively participated in creating the Memory Garden at the site of the original Sandy Springs Library. The SSGC moved to its current home at the Williams-Payne House after 1984. Marie and her husband Major Payne sold the house to land developers in 1982. The SSGC approached the developers to purchase the home as a historic landmark in the community. The SSGC wanted to conver t the property into a Community Garden Center that would house community meeting rooms as well as serve as a permanent home for the Fulton County Federation of Garden Clubs. The developers--Portman-Barry--agreed to sell the home to the SSGC and even donated an additional 15 000 to help move the home to its current location next to the historic Sandy Springs. The Sandy Springs Garden Club continues to be an active leader in the community maintaining the Sandy Springs Library as well as the Williams-Payne House. Their dedicated members participate in classes to become master horticulturists and landscape architects. They donate their time and energy to organize flower shows that raise money to maintain historic landmarks throughout Sandy Springs as well as to donate to local charities. Marie Payne was instrumental in her efforts to establish the SSGC. Her influence has defined an organization that has benefited the Sandy Springs community for 75 years with many more to come. B November 1975 Garden Club Meeting Marie Payne seated everyone was urged to plant a Peace Rose and have a Victory Garden. The SSGC created and participated in many programs to aid philanthropic organizations including flower exchanges landscaping events flower shows rummage sales bridge parties yard sales and the creation and selling of a cookbook which helped garner donations for local charities in the community. The Sandy Springs Garden Club was the first civic organization established in the Fulton County area. One of the primary functions of the SSGC under Marie s presidency was philanthropy and community involvement. Marie recollects In November [1946 ] we held a Halloween carnival at Hammond School. Our project made 25.00 which of course went into the treasury. We were still doing decorating for the Boston General. During the holidays we gave poinsettias and wreaths to take out there...to Buckhead and the Red Cross wagon would pick up all these arrangements. Our club we voted to pay 10.00 to the health center for the worthy cause there. We worked on the drive having the driveway paved as it was so muddy up to the little house. In addition to donating their profits to local charities some of the garden clubs around Sandy Springs were the first advocates for environmental protection. Additionally they helped establish organizational infrastructure in the community by helping to create the Parent Teacher Association (PTA) at Hammond Elementary while also sponsoring smaller garden clubs in the area. The SSGC also helped found the Sandy Springs Women s Club in 1948 which would later help support the building of the Sandy Springs Library and become some of its founding members in 1965. Our Garden Club was instrumental in planting dogwood trees from the Methodist church from Sandy Springs Circle down beyond the Methodist church beyond the cemetery. I don t think many of them [the trees] are living today but they struggled because of the rains and then the drought and not being able to water them. But we tried anyway because so many of the people in Sandy Springs had wanted the dogwood planted down N download transcript M Civil Rights Pioneer An interview with Valerie Delaney B Interviewer Susan Beard B Date of interview 2015 The Civil Rights Movement in the American South was one of the largest and most successful social justice movements in modern American history. Black Georgians formed a large part of the movement for racial equality. Valerie Delaney was born in 1959 in Atlanta Georgia s McLendon Hospital and was only seven years old when she found herself a part of the movement. Valerie became a civil rights pioneer when she helped integrate at least three schools in At la nt a a n d i t s surrounding areas including Sand y S p r ing s . Valer ie grew up in Atlanta and began her education at East Lake Elementar y but transferred to Hammond Elementar y in Sandy Springs after her mother-- Jessica Ann Delaney--got a job at Sandy Springs High School teaching biology and physiology. Valerie s mother had been a biology teacher for Fulton County before she was transferred to Sandy Springs to help with the seventh grade. Valerie was the first black student among many of Fulton County s elementary schools first breaking the color line at Hammond Elementary in 1966. Valerie grew up and attended grade school during a tumultuous time for African American children. The effects of segregation and racism affected every man woman and child of color beginning at the earliest stages of education. School systems throughout the country were segregated from 1877 during the Reconstruction era and the passing of Jim Crow laws until 1954. That was when the United States Supreme Court handed down its landmark decision regarding racial segregation in schools-- Brown v. Board of Education--which declared state laws establishing s e par ate p ublic schools for black and white students as uncons titutional. It was not until August 30 1961 in Atlanta when nine s tudent s -- Thomas Franklin Welch Madelyn Patricia Nix Willie Jean Black Donita Gaines Arthur Simmons Lawrence Jefferson Mary James McMullen Martha Ann Holmes and Rosalyn Walton--became the first African American students to attend several of Atlanta s all-white high schools. Like many southern states white Georgians resisted the integration efforts and attempted to close schools rather than comply with the Supreme Court ruling. Despite these attempts Hammond Elementary integrated its campus in 1966 when Valerie first started to attend. Valerie remembers 27 Georgians--from Atlanta to the rural cotton belt-- pushed back against Jim Crow and racism through legal challenges demonstrations and non-violent protests. The most famous proponent of non-violent organization was Martin Luther King Jr. who brought national attention to the Albany Movement in Atlanta s southern neighbor Albany Georgia. From the fall of 1961 to the spring of 1962 a massive demonstration of black community members in Albany attempted to desegregate the entire community. More than 1 000 protesters were arrested in one week--including King. King took part in numerous demonstrations and was an instrumental factor in the Civil Rights Movement until his assassination on April 4 1968. Valerie remembers [One] of the things that happened while I was there was Dr. Martin Luther King was assassinated while I was a student at Hammond. And on the day of his funeral my mom kept me home from school. And when um when I went back to school I don t know if you remember but you have to have a note written from your mom explaining why you were out of school. And so uh my mom s note and now it s stuck in my mind. My mom wrote Valerie didn t come to school yesterday because of illness. She was sick of prejudice And that wh that stuck in my head from the day I saw it and I was like Wow. You know that definitely made an impact definitely. Valerie doesn t recall having any negative experiences with any of her schoolmates at Hammond however she transferred to Hartwell--an all-black school closer to her family s home within Atlanta--when she was in the seventh grade. She recounts I actually was kind of excited because um my mom told me I could go to the school in the neighborhood which was an all you know African American school. I didn t have to stick out. I could just be a kid in the in the neighborhood. [When] I started going to the other school which is Hartwell um I got teased about the way I talked because um they said I talked proper. I was like What do you mean I talk proper and my mom was like Just leave it alone you know [laughs] you ll never understand. Just wait until you get older and and you ll understand. And and it s the truth as I got older I understood what they were talking about. Lonnie King unidentified woman and Martin Luther King Jr. being arrested during sit-in demonstration protesting lunch-counter segregation Atlanta Georgia October 6 1960. her first day at Hammond very vividly I was [there] from age seven through age nine. [I] was terrified and my mother had prepared me for this she said Babe you re gonna be the only as she put it You re gonna be the only negro in the whole school so you need to behave yourself she recalled. In many instances of school integration the students were met with hostile and verbal abuse from parents as well as children. Valerie remembers [She] made it clear that I might have some problems and then I needed to know how to respond to them or how not to respond to them. She was saying that you know there ll gonna be the people who did not like the idea of me going to school there and their parents may be angry and they might say things. And um my response was to come to her about it and that she would deal with it from that point on. Valerie attended Hammond from 1966 to 1969 where she remained the only person of color among all of the students as well as the school s entire faculty. The fight for civil rights predated the city of Atlanta for many activists did not make the city a civil rights hub until the 1960s. However the efforts of many black Valerie routinely followed her mother from school to school within Fulton County her mother did not like the idea of Valerie being home alone or walking Funeral procession of Martin Luther King Jr. 1968 by herself. She allowed Valerie to attend Hartwell for one year while she taught at a different school but eventually moved her to a school closer to where she was teaching. Valerie remembers that she ended up attending another elementary school called Mount Olive. I went to Mount Olive and again back into that situation where in this instance yes there were teachers but I was still the first student. Yeah I was the only first black student. The first black student and the only one for a year. By the time Valerie entered high school she was finally able to attend a school where her mother did not teach--Harper High School. Valerie attended Harper High for one short year before two men attacked her and her friend Rhonda during their walk home. Valerie took her shoe off beat the men on the heads and she and Rhonda ran away unharmed. After the end of that school quarter Valerie s mother transferred her to Braidwood where she taught. Valerie joined 15 other students of color amongst the 1 200 white student body. For no other reason than following her mother s directions Valerie was a civil rights pioneer for Sandy Springs. Her mother simply put Valerie s safety first by keeping her close by while she herself was teaching at a nearby school. With her mother s help Valerie integrated Hammond Elementary School and other schools thus breaking the color barrier for other young children throughout Fulton County. Though the struggle for civil rights continues today young Valerie Delaney was on the forefront of the civil rights movement by simply wanting an equal education as that of her white classmates. Valerie Delaney s full transcript is available online. B N N download transcript M M 29 Tuesdays 6 30pm Garnett Cobb Garden Room at the Williams-Payne House 6075 Sandy Springs Circle Franklin Delano Roosevelt visited Georgia forty-one times between 1924 and 1945. A native New A President in Our Midst Franklin Yorker FDR called Georgia his other state. Seeking relief from the devastating e ects of polio he Delano Roosevelt in Georgia was rst drawn there by the reputed healing powers of the waters at Warm Springs. FDR immediately took to Georgia and the attraction was mutual. Kaye Minchew Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas was an intelligent spirited woman born in 1834 to one of the Su er & Grow Strong The Life of wealthiest families in Georgia. At fourteen she began keeping a diary of her accounts of life Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas before during and after the Civil War. The war and its aftermath changed her life forever. (1834-1907) Carolyn Curry The story of the rst airplane ight in Georgia has not been told correctly in more than one hundred years. To Lasso the Clouds brings to light the complete incredible story of the two young To Lasso the Clouds The men from Athens Georgia who achieved their dream of ight. Beginning of Aviation in Georgia Dan A. Aldridge Jr. Myra Lewis Williams memoir is her own brand of un inching down-to-earth humorous Southern storytelling that she reveals how she crawled out of the darkness and came to stand in the light of The Spark that Survived building a new life for herself. Myra hopes that her story will show women that they are stronger Linda Hughes & Myra Lewis Williams than they know and that if she could overcome her own misguided decisions and life s most tragic misfortunes they can too. As Myra says This is a book about how to overcome life s worst tragedies and your own dumbass decisions. Mom s Soul Caf is a chance to sit and enjoy the now. This book weaves delightful stories of motherhood with spiritual practices. You ll laugh you ll cry and you will discover ways to nd your Mom s Soul Caf own Zen in everyday life. Step into Mom s Soul Caf to celebrate the soul in a unique and Jennifer Webb inspirational way. Titles Twilight February 7th March 7th April 4th May 2nd June 6th If you or someone you know is a local author interested in sharing your published writing please contact Melissa Swindell at 404.851.9111 ext. 2 or at mswindell heritagesandysprings.org. One Family s Artistic Legacy An interview with Ethel Spruill B Interviewer Cora Adams B Date of interview June 22 1994 One of the oldest family names in Sandy Springs could be spelled four different ways but just about anyone who grew up in the city knows the Spruill family has been in Sandy Springs almost as long as the springs themselves. According to historic records Stephen Spruill Sr. came to the Sandy Springs area around 1820 making the Spruill family one of Sandy Springs founding families. For the better half of the twentieth century the family advocated on behalf of Sandy Springs residents and donated land to improve upon and enhance what is now a thriving metropolitan area. The Spruill name itself lives on throughout the community as a reminder of the family s history and contributions. Ethel Spruill was born Ethel Warren on July 13 1908 in Sugar Valley Georgia in Gordon County. Ethel attended school at Sugar Valley Boarding School and eventually went to high school in Chattanooga Tennessee. She graduated from Edmonson s School of Business in 1927. Her grandparents Mr. and Mrs. J.W. Warren helped Ethel s father raise her after her mother passed away in 1913 when she was only five years old. Growing up Ethel routinely visited Atlanta and its suburbs around the springs. She remembers We would come down old 41 unpaved and in old Maxwell loaded with family. We would come through Vinings Buckhead and Dunwoody to go to Norcross--we would usually stay a week. While they were in Norcross her family would visit typical points of interest such as the Atlanta Zoo and the Howard Theatre (later renamed Paramount Theatre). These early experiences motivated Ethel to move to Atlanta in 1928 shortly after finishing business school. Four years later she met her future husband--Steven Thomas Spruill. In 1932 through one of my employees I met Steven Thomas Spruill who was had a readymade family a landowner a farmer recalls Ethel. They married on February 7 1933 and moved to the old home-place on Ashford Dunwoody Road where they resided for 34 years. The Spruill family owned many large tracts of land throughout Sandy Springs and the Dunwoody area. At one point Steven owned land stretching from Long Island Creek to Mount Vernon Highway--which they lived on until Steven s death in 1967. Miss Ethel--as her friends and family affectionately knew her-- used her education and life experiences to further enhance the 31 half acres after it was surveyed to the Spruill Arts Center. The Spruill Arts Center had its beginnings in 1975 when a group of women began meeting in the Dunwoody United Methodist Church for painting classes. The classes quickly outgrew the space and the women were forced to move their group to Dunwoody Park on Roberts Drive. This meeting space would eventually become known as the North Arts Center. It was here that the classes began to flourish when the center developed ceramics programs in addition to its painting classes bringing in new artists and offering children s summer camps. In 1993 when the arts and education center needed even more space to keep up with its growth Ethel and Annie donated the town and county around Sandy Springs. From the time Ethel moved to the Sandy Springs area she quickly got involved with the Methodist Church and other activities to help improve the leadership of the town. Ethel remembers being involved in the church from her earliest years as a young girl visiting Sandy Springs and specifically the camp meetings held every fall. Well as a child well not as a child as a young girl from Norcross we d come down during the laying by season and go to camp meetings at Sandy Springs. And it was an unpaved road and there was shouting and they had about four services a day and especially on Sunday if we were down we would come to camp meeting. And there were horses and buggies and Ford cars everywhere recalls Ethel. Camp meetings were annual traditions and treats for all citizens of the town as they marked the ends of crop seasons. Ethel recollects [When] I first began coming to Sandy Springs it was a vacation time for people at laying-by that s when the crops were laying by resting they would come and camp from Thursday until I think Sunday. And you entertain the ministers and they had houses all out Mt. Vernon now where the preachers would stay and you would have the preachers entertain for meals. These early years were pivotal for Ethel as she continued her involvement with the Dunwoody United Methodist Church as well as joined the Ladies Club in 1950 to help promote and improve Sandy Springs. In 1970 three years after Steven had passed away Miss Ethel moved from their original house at 4681 Ashford Dunwoody Road to Riverside Parkway where she lived for 23 years. The original home-place on Ashford Dunwoody Road was rented to many tenants over the next twenty years until Ethel and her daughter Annie decided to do something with the house to honor their husband and father. Ethel recalls So nothing had ever been as a memorial to Spruill my husband who was known throughout DeKalb and Fulton Counties. So Miss Annie Spruill and myself decided as a memorial to my husband and her father that we would donate the old home and five acres--five and a Spruill home-place and its five and a half surrounding acres to the North Arts Center. The Center then changed its name to the Spruill Center for the Arts--serving as a place for fostering the arts as well as remembering one of Dunwoody s first and most long-standing families. Miss Ethel loved being involved with the community and helping others inside and outside Sandy Springs. She lived to help others and to preserve her family s history and influence in the area. Even after donating the family home to the arts center Ethel continued to bear witness to her family s and the area s histories by co-authoring the book The Story of Dunwoody in 1975. Ethel remembers [We re] real happy that we have a Spruill Arts Center. ... It is a museum. We have concerts there. We have showing of art and a beautiful gift shop. If you are interested in visiting the gallery that Ethel loved so much it is located in her historic home at 4681 Ashford Dunwoody Road. The Spruill Center for the Arts gallery hosts four to six exhibitions each year and promotes emerging artists established artists and artwork created at the Center s education center . The Spruill Center for the Arts Education Center is located at 5339 Chamblee Dunwoody Road and offers a variety of day evening and weekend classes throughout the year for adults teens and children. B N download transcript M One of the Good Ol Boys An Interview with Marla Cohen Discussing her Father Charles Cohen B Interviewer Kimberley M. Brigance Date of Interview December 17 2008 Charles Cohen never foresaw that his time in the U.S. Army would help define his life. He was born on July 31 1913 during World War I. Charles mother and grandparents raised him after his father passed away when he was just a child. Charles grew up in Altoona Pennsylvania where his family owned and managed a small coal mine. At age 29 he voluntarily joined the Army. It was his Army experiences during World War II that would characterize who he would become as a man husband and father. Early in his service Charles traveled to Wilmington North Carolina for officer training. It was there that he met his eventual wife. He was then sent to England before landing on the beaches of Normandy helping push back the Nazi military through France Belgium Luxembourg Holland and eventually into Ger many where Charles was one of the first four Americans in Berlin. Charles landed on either Omaha or Utah Beach on day four of the Normandy offensive. His daughter Marla recounts through his letters and stories that there were only a few snipers left in the area by the time he landed. Normandy marked a turn for the people of France as Germany had invaded and occupied the country during the previous four years. Charles recounts that the people of France were both elated and dismayed by the arrival of the Allied Forces. Between 1940 and 1944 the Vichy Government of France operated in the southern free zone of the country while the Nazi military occupied and controlled the northern part of France. While Paris remained the official capital of the country the then leader of the French State--Marshal Petain--and the authoritarian regime based itself in Vichy. Petain the leader of the Vichy government signed an armistice with Germany on June 20 1940 allowing the state to maintain control over the southern unoccupied areas. The government operated as a puppet government of Hitler and the Third Reich. The French State maintained only nominal sovereignty and the Nazis kept the French military as labor prisoners in the north. Charles had much trepidation towards the French for aside from the French Resistance many were only pretending to be allied with the Americans. Marla tells us The Vichy Gover nment. And he tells the story of once where he is approached by um someone supposedly wo r k i ng f o r t h e resistance. And in my father s in command of this unit and he comes to my father and says You know I know where there are Nazis that are are waiting to ambush the Americans. And I ll lead you to them. And so my father goes with this Frenchman and they get you know within you know the distance...striking distance of where the the Germans are. 33 And and he you know he would say It s like 99 percent boredom. Then there s one percent terror. And I know that one percent terror happened for him right around Christmas time and they were over there near the border. And the Germans had surrounded his his unit and I guess all of the Americans there and it was bitter cold. And they were not dressed at all and there were guns and yo you know cannons and everywhere. And he told me and I read in his letters...because he was you know he was like 29 years old and he was...At that point he was still a First Lieutenant. And all these basically kids. I mean they were 18 19 year old kids serving under him and they were terrified. And they would come to him and they told him they thought they were going to die. And in his letters he would say No boys. We re going to get out And my father takes the Frenchman aside and pulls out his pistol and puts the gun to the Frenchman s head. And says We re staying you know I m with you. If you re lying to me and we get ambushed you will be the first t to die. And a at that he he...The Frenchman was telling the truth. Not all French citizens trusted or participated in the Vichy regime. Many banded together and fought against the Nazis and the Vichy in the French Resistance. Using guerilla warfare tactics and underground newspapers the resistance helped aid Charles and other military units undermine the work of the Nazi regime in both the southern and northern occupied territories. Marla says that Charles used to practice his French while working with resistance fighters. One of the worst experiences that Charles had throughout his time in France was during the Battle of the Bulge. The Battle of the Bulge was the last major military offensive of the Germans attempting to push through the dense Ardennes region of Belgium France and Luxembourg to retake several of the western fronts from the Allied Forces. The battle took place from December 16 1944 to January 25 1945. Charles stumbled into this battle but he put his fear aside and did what he had to do. Marla tells us One of the Good Ol Boys continued of this. This is nothing. What with you know we re going to we re going to survive. We re going to get through out of this. And he would encourage these kids to to stay at their post and t to keep fighting um because they were. They were just scared young boys. The attack completely surprised the Allied Forces who believed the forest was impenetrable. American forces bore the heaviest casualties during this battle more so than any other battle during the war. Since Charles had enlisted in the military when he was 29 years old he was significantly older than many of the young men who were drafted. Consequently he acted as a father figure to many of the men in unit. Marla recollects that many men revered her father and remembers that if it were not for him they may not have survived. Charles unit landed in England stormed the beaches of Normandy fought through France and eventually pushed its way into Germany. Charles main mission was reconnaissance and to see if outlying Nazi regimes were waiting to ambush the Allied Forces as they pushed through occupied territor y. Charles also helped lead the raid and liberate one of the smaller concentration camps. He never told Marla the camp s name--unsure if he even remembered it himself-- but he remembers that the prisoners who were predominantly Jewish lo o ke d like w alk ing corpses. Marla states [The prisoners] found out that my father who was Jewish had led the raid. Which made them even you know more grateful and and proud and and they all wanted to come and personally thank him. And he said it was just...he said it was so hard for him because he was you you know he was just so appalled by what had happened and he didn t even know how to talk to these people or how to treat them because it was just such a such a horrible horrible event. American British and Soviet soldiers liberated the majority of Nazi concentration camps between 1944 and 1945. As the Allied Forces pushed the Nazis back into Germany Charles recounts that citizens of occupied countries always greeted them with graciousness and zeal. Towards the end of the war Charles was stationed right outside Berlin on the Elbe River. In one letter to his family Charles writes about the travels as they pushed the Nazis back to the center of Berlin We entered Belgium and afterwards came Holland and one liberated country seemed to try to outdo the other in its expressions of gratitude. Then came that which we ourselves looked to the most the beginning of the end for this long and bloody trail the entrance to German soil itself. We are no longer liberators. We are conqueror s enemies. These are not smiling faces we now encounter but sullen hard countenances beneath which lie a deep hatred for us the invader. Every step is now to be guarded for this soil is now strung with all types of mines and devices of death which this cunning savage has devised. All about us now--almost in our very midst--we now have the enemy. The minutes are passing quickly now and with them is passing the darkness of this night of 1944. The dawn must soon arrive. By this time the German forces had all but given up. According to Charles the Nazis knew the war was over and that they had lost. Charles and his company had strict orders to stay on the outside of Berlin. The Soviets were slated to invade and take the town and they had direct orders from both President Eisenhower and General Patton to stand down. However Charles being the adventurous guy he was thought he might do a little sightseeing while in Berlin. After his commanding officer denied his request Charles took matters into his own hands and went out anyway. According to Marla And so my dad and four other guys decided to take the jeep and to drive into Berlin for some sightseeing. So they were driving along the way and along the way they encounter 35 tells us Well they may and and so my dad had kind of um um a soft heart even though these guys were Nazis and they they they begged him because they said The Russians are going to kill us. Charles and the other Americans drove back to camp with the Nazi soldiers walking behind their jeeps. There was no sneaking back onto the base after that encounter. After the fall of Berlin in May 1945 Charles stayed in Europe for another year. As a high-ranking officer he was in charge of ensuring that the rebuilding efforts got underway smoothly. At one point he was slated to be sent to Japan but the dropping of the atomic bombs prevented that deployment. Charles was awarded the Silver Star for his many efforts and in recognition of all the lives he saved during the war. Marla recollects You know I don t think I could ever live up to the kind of man that he was. I don t know how he did it. But he did it. And then he came back and he was just a normal loving devoted husband and father. Just an everyday soldier of all the other great Americans that went out there and fought fought the good battle. Charles returned to the states in 1946 married the girl he had met in North Carolina and raised three children. He continued his love of adventure by becoming an importer and traveling extensively in both Europe and Japan. For a full account of Charles Cohen s adventures through Marla s retelling check out her transcript online. B Russian soldiers. And you know they can t speak but my father... my father was very good with languages and so he kind of um... he started bribing the solders and he had cigarettes and he gave them cigarettes and they said OK. Sure you can come on in. And so they entered the city of Berlin. And and like I said the Nazis still hadn t surrendered so while they were there there was still sniper fire going on. I ve seen pictures of the Reichstag. He went to the Reichstag. And he wrote his name on the Reichstag. Charles and the other three planned on sneaking back onto the base in the early hours of the following morning. Instead they happened upon a platoon of 1 000 Nazi soldiers who were terrified of the Soviet soldiers. In an effort to avoid abuse and possibly death by the Soviets they Nazis actually surrendered to Charles and three other American soldiers who happened to drive by drunk in a jeep. Marla N download transcript M Iconic VJ Day Photo A combined 70 million people fought in World War II from both the Allied and Axis Forces. That s roughly 7x the current population of Georgia or approximately 700x the population of Sandy Springs. 70 years after V-J Day as the man kissing Ms. Greta Zimmer Friedman in the 1945 photograph by Alfred Eisenstaedt. It wasn t that much of a kiss Friedman said in an interview with the Veterans History Project. It was just someone celebrating. It wasn t a romantic event. Ms. Friedman passed away in 2016 at 92. LIFE Eisenstaedt (1945) George Mendonsa was identified in 2015 Hiroo Onoda In 1974 Hiroo Onoda was the last WWII soldier to surrender. Sent to the Philippines in 1944 with the Japanese imperial army Onoda spend three decades conducting guerrilla warfare and evading capture. With no comrades left Onoda was convinced to come out of hiding in 1974 by his former commanding officer to whom he handed over his sword and surrendered nearly 30 years later. Onoda was pardoned by the Philippine government and returned to Japan where he received a hero s welcome. Every Japanese soldier was prepared for death but as an intelligence officer I was ordered to conduct guerrilla warfare and not to die. I had to follow my orders as I was a soldier Onoda told CNN news in early 2014. A Rose by Any Other Name Wouldn t be Our Captain Steve Rose An Interview with Steve Rose B Interviewer Rachel Rosner and Karen Meinzen McEnerny B Date of interview August 23 2016 Some of the most treasured aspects of Sandy Springs are its strong sense of community and its feelings of safety among its residents. That sense of safety is primarily attributed to the 10-year-old Sandy Springs Police Department. Prior to Sandy Springs becoming its own city the area relied upon the City of Atlanta and the Fulton County Police departments to protect its residents from crime. Captain Steve Rose has served on the Sandy Springs police force since its establishment in 2006. For the past 10 years he has dedicated his career to building a sustainable and productive police force for the community. However Rose served the community long before Sandy Springs had its own force protecting Fulton County residents since 1979. As he remembers well the rapid growth of Sandy Springs necessitated a viable police department of its own. Steve Rose was born in North Carolina. His father was in the Army so the Rose family traveled frequently from base to base including to O k laho ma Nor t h Carolina and eventually ended up in Chamblee Georgia. Rose started his Atlanta-area policing career in the latter part of 1979. As he remembers ...We were of course Fulton County Police then. We had not been Fulton County Police but for the past four years because in 75 we split from the City of Atlanta who contracted with the Fulton County Police. When they transitioned to the Fulton County Police Department Rose and his colleagues only had 40 officers assigned to the north precinct compared to the 134 the city employs now. Rose recalls The police cars up here said Fulton County Police District Atlanta Police Department. It was kind of a strange decal on the side of the car. It was contracted so when the county commissioners started their own police department in July 1 1975. The Fulton County Police Force was established as a group of peacekeeping volunteers in 1900--46 years after Fulton County was founded. In 1947 Police Chief Clarence E. Mitchell began working on a plan to completely reorganize and improve the department. The city of Atlanta eliminated the Fulton County Police Department in Januar y 1952--along with a multitude of other public service programs-- and the police officers had four options join the Atlanta Police Department take another job within the county government retire or be terminated from their employment. From 1952 to 1979 the Fulton County Police were contrac ted through the Atlanta Police Department. When Rose joined the department he remembers Those were all former Atlanta police officers that just were asked Do you want to stay up here and work as a county police officer and they said Yes and so they had patches that said Atlanta Police Fulton County District and then eventually a Fulton County Police patch was made. The Fulton County Police District was always smaller than its Atlanta cousin. Rose recollects there were 40 police officers and only a few police cars. This combination made policing the community and protecting the residents difficult. Rose states We had one car north 37 one car east and one car west of 400. That s how you worked it. If you got a call up there you better know how to talk-- verbal judo was a skill that we learned up there. Then the panhandle had a car and you had two cars on this side of 285 and two cars on the other side of 285. We always ran one or two cars short. As the population grew the difficulty of protecting the different communities only increased. Rose remembers some of the major crimes he encountered as a rookie in the 1980s were routine burglaries. He remembers ... what happened in the 80s is the silver prices skyrocketed and there were so many burglaries involving silver that was taken from the home. I can remember that we had several arrests where it was family members stealing from them. In one instance police actually had to set up a roadblock on Heards Ferry Drive because there were so many burglaries coming from that area. Police eventually caught a kid with a pillowcase full of silver he had stolen from his parents. He was headed to The Prado shop Precious Metals to swap the silver for money. Rose remembers that a good friend of his was killed there in a burglary gone wrong. He recollects December 14th of that year a friend of mine David Hagins was killed at The Prado and he answered a burglary call on a Sunday morning at a business called Precious Metals. David made one serious tactical mistake. He spotted the burglar inside and he immediately went in after him and the burglar ambushed him and killed him. That was a very emotional education for me realizing that it wasn t all fun and games and that Sandy Springs--like any other metropolitan area-- could have serious calls and serious incidents that happen. As Sandy Springs and the surrounding communities continued to grow so too did crime rates. One particular area in the county known as Huntcliff had a population boom in the 1970s and 1980s that attributed to an increase in property crimes. Rose remembers There were several athletes lived up here. I think they lived here because it was close to the interstate it was close to being able to get to Atlanta. The nickname for Sandy Springs in the 70s and 80s was The Golden Ghetto. That was a well known phrase. Then in the 80s when all the dot com businesses took off you had these suddenly millionaire guys. They were quick to tell you how much money they had and so forth so we nicknamed them 10-Cent Millionaires. The majority of crimes in Rose s rookie years were property crimes and alcoholic incidents involving the area s nightlife scene. Many of the bar patrons in Atlanta and Buckhead would spill over into the area as the bars closed and residents would head back to their homes in Fulton County. Rose remembers the bars were always some of his favorite calls for he was most interested in who was doing the fighting and his own abilities to break it up. Over the years as the Sandy Springs area population expanded crimes statistics grew too. Rose was not surprised at the move towards Sandy Spring s becoming a city with its own police force. He recalls All that led up toward the incorporation process. We expanded quickly. We struggled to keep up with it in public safety. Our crimes were property crimes. We had violent crimes but mostly property crimes because there [was] stuff to steal here. We made a lot of narcotics cases out of there. Sandy Springs was starting to really blossom. Like I said the infrastructure grew the population grew and so we were always in a struggle to try to increase our police numbers and it was a losing battle. It was always a losing battle because as far as the...Fulton County police they always considered us the red headed stepchild up here. The reason was they said...you d have to understand Fulton County s makeup. They had a south precinct in Fairburn. They had a north precinct in Sandy Springs and they regarded us as living amongst the well to do who whined all the time about stuff and they didn t really have big problems up here which wasn t the case. Which I think was a fundamental reason why we ended up incorporated. The Sandy Springs Police Department became its own official entity on July 1 2006--and Steve Rose was a catalyst for its creation. Despite being close to his retirement Rose was recruited by his previous sergeant in Fulton County to be a part of the startup task force along with fellow community leaders including Jim Anderson and David Roskind. They would meet at Jim Anderson s office and talk about how they wanted to build the police department and expand its influence. Rose explains I had a legal pad and would make notes about how many cars and who we were going to get the cars from and who had the state procurement list to buy from. Yes every week we d meet for about three four hours a night once a week and try to build. He continues We sat and tried to figure out how we would start this department. They asked me what my theory was. I said Everything that we did in Fulton County we should do the opposite. .... We were looking at the needs of the people. We were looking at the fact that we had a lot of property crime that was never addressed here and that we would try to find a number. Our original number was 86 officers and 49 of them came from Fulton County because we wanted people that knew where they were. Today the Sandy Springs Police Department boasts 137 sworn officers that serve the community. Besides his current role as South District Commander of Sandy Springs Rose continues to improve the department. Over the last ten years he has proudly established programs to help build and maintain the force. I ran the intern program and we have an Explorer program which is the Scouts of America s version of police explorers. It s run by the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts. We have one officer we got from Explorers. When he was in high school he was in Explorer. He s now one of our officers. And one of my interns from Kennesaw State is now an officer--two of the best really. Another one of Rose s claims to fame is his crime blotter column in the Sandy Springs Reporter newspaper where Rose details area infractions sometimes in appropriately witty banter. Thanks in large part to Captain Steve Rose and his efforts the Sandy Springs Police Department continues to grow while it serves protects and educates our community s residents. B N download transcript M A Renaissance Family An interview with Jan Williams Collins B Interviewer Marsha Webb B Date of interview October 12 2016 Sandy Springs offers a plethora of opportunities to its residents its tight-knit community its wonderful school system and its many social and cultural activities that incorporate the area s history and heritage. In particular the arts opportunities that are available for residents to enjoy help make Sandy Springs a vibrant community. Jan Williams Collins has enjoyed and promoted Sandy Springs s heritage and arts for most of her life. She her husband Bill and their entire family are important contributors to Sandy Springs schools the arts and the overall sense of community that so many have come to know and love about the city. Jan Williams got her first taste of the arts as young child. Her mother who was a singer and musician in the Rogers & Hammer s tein music al Carousel exposed her to the arts. Jan never one to boast about her own voice picked up a musical instrument instead. She remembers When I was growing up I was in the Atlanta Youth Symphony as the principal oboist. Charlie Bradley who then moved to Sandy Springs was my teacher. We had the East Atlanta Elementary Band. That was one of the finest elementary bands in the country. We went all over the country performing. I probably played as difficult music there as I played in college. It was an unbelievable band. Jan performed in the band and orchestra through high school and into college. She attended the University of Georgia on a majorette and oboe scholarship. She remembers I would twirl during the football season. Then during the winter I was in the concert band and the orchestra and we toured also. Jan met Bill Collins in the midst of her college extracurricular activities. They were college sweethearts and married while Bill was a sophomore. They moved to Augusta Georgia where Jan helped send Bill to medical school while she taught English. After they both graduated they eventually moved to Rome Georgia where Bill completed his internship. The first of their two children Courtenay was born before they traveled to Florida where Bill was in the service. The Collins family returned to Georgia after two years for Bill to continue his medical specialty training in orthopedics at Georgia Baptist Hospital. Jan worked as a teacher her entire life and continued to support her family as both a teacher and a proponent for arts education. She taught subjects ranging from English to drama and helped shape the minds of every age of child from kindergarten to the 12th grade. A love for the arts always ran in the family according to Jan. Besides her musician mother and Jan s own musical background Bill had a lovely singing voice. Jan recollects Bill and I were very involved in the creation of The Atlanta Opera as it is today. He served on the board for a number of years. Bill was a true renaissance man. He loved it all. He had a beautiful voice. He loved the arts. Jan and Bill advocated for their children to continue the family s legacy in fine arts. Jan recollects We ve always told our children particular our boys--I have five grandsons--I said We must be renaissance men. You must be a scholar you must be an athlete and you must 39 be involved in the fine arts. So far they re doing it. Family was the most important thing to both Jan and Bill. According to Jan everything she and Bill did they did for their children. Jan recollects Oh I will be delighted to tell you about my children. I have two children Courtenay and Chip. Courtenay when we came to Sandy Springs she went right to Underwood Hills as a second grader and Chip went to Annie Howes Cook which was one of the very few kindergartens in Sandy Springs. Never did I even think that far enough to realize that my children would come back to Sandy Spring to raise their families. It just thrills me to no end. Courtenay and Chip attended Riverwood High School and Jan did everything she could to be a part of her children s lives. She remembers I was very involved in Riverwood. As I say I served as PTA president. In fact we had a huge wonderful chorale then that went all over everywhere. I was the chorale president and went and helped them set up for performances and that sort of thing. Jan was active at Sandy Springs United Methodist Church and also served as a docent at the High Museum of Art for over 10 years. Courtenay Collins attended Converse College earned a master s degree in fine arts from the University of Georgia and eventually attended the prestigious Julliard School in New York City. Jan remembers [She] came home one day and told us that she was going to audition at Julliard. We said Well where did this come from She said This is what I want to do. She went to Chicago. There were 2 000 that auditioned that day and they took 21. Courtenay was the only Southerner they took. We thought they would eat her alive. She was the only Southerner. Jan remembers Courtenay first fell in love with musical theatre after watching Jan s mother perform in Carousel. She initially studied opera following her father s fondness for that musical genre but she fell in love with musical theatre and made a noticeable career for herself. Jan recalls that after graduating [Courtenay] immediately went out to California and was cast as [the character] Christine in Phantom of the Opera and toured for a couple of years in Europe doing that. She came back to Broadway. She s had a wonderful career. We never knew that she would come back to Sandy Springs so it is our great joy that she is there. Chip also attended the University of Georgia earning his degree in law. But in true Collins fashion Jan insisted that all her children be involved in the arts in one way or another. She recollects We require everybody do something in musical they got to do it all. We said If you play football you re going to sing like a bird. [Chip s] senior year he was captain of the football team and president of the chorale and starred in Fiddler on the Roof. He s got a great voice and very musical too. He and Courtenay performed together some. Jan was thrilled when Chip called to tell her he and his wife Gigi McLarty Collins were moving back to Sandy Springs. Jan remembers He came into practice here in Atlanta and was living in Buckhead in a little small house. They needed more space. He called me one day and says Mom we re going to be your neighbor. We re moving back to Sandy Springs. Of course that thrilled me [to] no end. He just loved loved loved Sandy Springs. They have four children. Chip was even city councilman. Bill Collins passed away in 2013. Jan still resides in Sandy Springs and continues to support the local arts scene. She and Bill were both on the board of The Atlanta Opera for a number of years and Jan was involved with the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra as a nod to her background as an oboist. Her children also continue to be actively involved. Currently Courtenay is preparing a holiday cabaret show at the Alliance Theatre in Atlanta. The Collins family is a true renaissance family. Jan Bill their children and now their grandchildren have made--and continue to make--their marks on the Sandy Springs and Atlanta arts communities. B N N download transcript M M The letters of Nellie Evins and Richard Burch Jett 1863-1865 The American Civil War is one of the most significant events knew they would eventually have to outlast the Confederate s that shaped the history and consciousness of the United attempts to continue the war. In Atlanta supplies became States. It was a brutal military conflict that involved multiple scarce and both Confederate and Union soldiers began taking states pitted against each other and numerous battles across necessary items and rations from civilians. In 1864 Nellie writes the landscape of the American south between 1861 and 1865. [I] have had hard times with the Yankee they took everything. The war took men of all ages out of their homes and thrust I [haven t an ear] of corn left. They took all my [wheat] they them into the militia and kill my hogs I have my cow militaries of the Union and the and steer and one [heifer]...I Confederacy. While only men [kept] floid [sic] horse in the were permitted to join their smoke house in the day and respective militias several put him in the garden of at women were documented night...I look everyday for the as disguising themselves as Yankee to take him. I rather men to fight in battle. Others he died than for the Yankee found roles as field nurses to get him. Nellie mentions while many others took over in a July 1864 letter that an the duties of their husbands acquaintance named Fanny bac k at home. Nellie also lost all of her oats when Evins Jett wife of Richard the soldiers came and took Burch Jett--both of Sandy them. Springs--did just that. When Nellie and Richard s descendants Elvie May Fuller Richard went off to war in At the outbreak of the war Jett (b. 1900) and Richard Burch Jett (b. 1893) on their 1862 Nellie devoted her life the South only boasted a wedding day in 1917. to providing and maintaining population of five million a home for her children while people including slaves while she anxiously awaited the return of her husband. the north had 26 million. Population alone gave the North the advantage in the war especially in 1864 as the South slowly The Civil War became a war of attrition. As the Union retreated to larger cities in an attempt to fortify their areas of outnumbered the Confederacy in population alone they manufacturing. Front Lines of the Civil War 41 While both sides suffered hardships throughout the war having the soldiers in Sandy Springs did have favorable aspects. For instance many women who did not travel with the company of the soldiers as nurses remained close to their homes providing services to both sides. Some offered medical care to those wounded in battle while others offered services as laundresses. Nellie writes to Richard about the positive side of having the Union soldiers in Cobb County We are getting on very well with our work. Tuesday after you left the wagons fell back to the vincetory [sic] from that to the river is a regiment of Calvary. There are more or less here everyday since they come I made 18 dollars washing and iron. In the North roughly 20 000 women joined the war effort with zeal volunteering to serve as nurses laundresses and matrons as part of the United States Sanitary Commission. In the South though burdened by a limited population women also volunteered in droves to help their boys. They provided nursing care out of their homes they cooked for them and they sewed blankets bags and clothes whenever supplies afforded them the opportunity. Nellie routinely offered services to the Yankees for two reasons protection for her family and an opportunity to make money in place of the profits she was losing from her stolen crops. Cooking Around Camp reenactment 2007 Women remained on the frontlines during the Civil War specifically when they refused to leave their homes and possessions. By 1864 and with a national election impending the Confederacy knew that it could win the war if it could just outlast the Union. With so many causalities on the side of the Union few believed the country would reelect the incumbent President Lincoln. As the Union attempted to break through the South s defenses the Confederacy dug in fortifying its cities of manufacturing that supplied the war effort. In Sandy Springs a large skirmish occurred at Isom s Ferry crossing in July 1864 when the Union attempted to cross the Chattahoochee River. The Union in an attemp to exploit a weak spot in the defenses of the Confederates used pontoon boats to cross the river and force the Confederates to retreat. As a woman protecting her home Nellie recounts to Richard this skirmish in her letter dated July 12 1864. She writes Dick and George [went] down to the field to get oats...they heard them talking and [couldn t] see them. Fanny said she never was so bad [scared] before...[They] put the militia to guard Power s Ferry the Yankee came to the ferry open their cannon on them [and] they run and left them cannon tents cooking vessels and everything they had. They never stop till they got to Atlanta. They Yankee just put in their pontoons. So many of them cross our men had to fall back. They said if they had put men there they never [would] cross. In Sandy Springs the Georgia Militia supported by Confederate General Joseph Wheeler s cavalry defended several ferry crossings by patrolling the river valley at Heard s Isom s and Power s Ferries. Power s Ferry had a two-gun battery stationed at the top of the hill with rifle encasements throughout the valley. Isom s Ferry only had a one-gun battery and was eventually chosen as the weak point on the Cobb County side. The Confederates were only able to fire off one shot before they were overrun by the Union and subsequently forced to retreat to Atlanta. Residents of Sandy Springs were left defenseless to deal with the onslaught of soldiers stealing from their crops and homes. Sweet Auburn Market Sweet Auburn Sandy Springs families homesteads during the Civil War Archive 1939 The Civil War touched the lives of millions of men and women particularly those living near the front lines. While Nellie was left to defend their home property and children Richard was having a vastly different experience during the war. Very little is known about Richard s specific movements after he left for the war in 1862 but he did routinely travel the numerous rail lines supplying the Confederate forces. The Civil War was the first war in which railroads became a significant factor and the use of railroads and trains to supply troops became invaluable during the war. While the growth of the railroad industry began in the 1850s by the outbreak of the war in 1861 there were more than 22 000 miles of track in the North and 9 500 miles in the South. Richard writes Company A left hire last Maisday [sic] morning they went to Cumberlan [sic]. Dick Owens and myself was sent to Charleston East Tennessee and [started] to exchange some gen carriages. We took them we had to wait for the freight train to come up from Dalton Charleston is 65 miles below Knoxville. We stood at the depot till the train come at nine o clock at night. The South was slow to recognize the importance of the railroad during the Civil War. Civilians ran many of the railroads coming from Chattanooga and Atlanta and the South did not approve of taking over businesses owned by civilians. The tracks were all different gauges ranging between four to six feet making it difficult for supplies and troops to readily travel across the vast landscape encompassing the war. Richard eventually traveled to Richmond via train and joined the front line battle. He stayed at Fort Gilmer just south of Richmond. Fort Gilmer was part of the skirmishes involved in the siege of St. Petersburg in September 1864. Richard writes We left General Earley s command in the beautiful valley of Virginia September 25th and came to [James] river September 26th. [We] remained till October 11. We turned over our horses and equipment and came to Richmond Virginia the 12th and taken charge of two siege guns with other light artillery. My Company B is all in side of Fort Gilmer and has charge of all the artillery in the fort--we are 7 miles south east of Richmond. We are on the front line battle. We are in site of the Yankees all of the time. Fort is held by the Yankees two thousand yards from Fort Gilmer and in full view of the Yankees. At Fort Gilmer Richard was a part of a salient attack by General Ulysses S. Grant of the Union Army at the Battle of Chaffin s Farm. The multiple clashes cost the nation approximately 5 000 casualties. Many of the offensives undertaken by the Union are considered Confederate victories but Grant s motives were to weaken the Confederate forces entrenched in Richmond in preparation for the siege of Petersburg which lasted from June 1864 until March 1865. 43 glad to see this cruel war come to a close so I should return home to my family. Don t be uneasy about me I haven t taken up with bad habits so commonly practiced in the army no and if it is the good will of almighty God for me to live to see this war end I hope to be a better man than when I entered the army. While the war cost numerous lives on both sides Richard lived to return to Nellie and continue their life in Sandy Springs. They rebuilt their farm raised their children and marveled in the adventurous spirit of family and friends in Sandy Springs. B Sweet Auburn Archive 1939 The war lasted for a total of five years but it has shaped the collective memories of not only the individuals who lived through it but also the memory of the United States. Richard and Nellie suffered extreme hardships albeit from largely different perspectives but they both made the best of their situations. Richard wrote to Nellie God knows I would be so N N N transcript of Nellie Evins Jett transcript of Richard Burch Jett download Reporter Articles M M M BATTLE OF ANTIETAM (September 17 1863 - Maryland) 23 000 soldiers were killed wounded or missing from both sides at the end of this battle - double the casualties of D-Day 82 years later. It was the bloodiest single day of the Civil War. INTERNATIONAL RANKS 1 3 of the soldiers in the Union Army were immigrants from Ireland Germany France Italy Poland England and Scottland. In addtion more than 180 000 black soldiers fought in the Union Army. 1 3 of the soldiers in the Union Army were immigrants from Ireland Germany France Italy Poland England and Scottland. In addtion more than 180 000 black soldiers fought in the Union Army. ARLINGTON PRIVATE ESTATE TURNED PUBLIC CEMETERY One Woman s Journey from Silver City to Sandy Springs An Interview with Lizzie McGhee B Interviewer Nancy McGhee Sandy Springs history began in 1842 with a church and a school at the corner of Johnson Ferry Road and Mt. Vernon Highway-- near where the springs still exist today. It was a rural village made up of farmers soldiers and religious affiliates. One later resident of the area Lizzie McGhee was born January 20 1887 just outside of Cumming Georgia. Lizzie lived in Sandy Springs from 1930 until she passed away on July 6 1988. She saw the rapid and monumental c hanges t hat s we pt through Fulton County and made Sandy Springs the city it is today. Lizzie married her husband Jim at the early age of eighteen. Jim McGhee was six years her senior but that didn t stop Lizzie from catching the man she had her eye on. After Lizzie completed high school in 1904 her parents intended to send her to Young Harris College a small liberal arts college located in the North Georgia mountains. The college was founded in 1886 by Minister Artemas Lester. As a circuit-riding minister Lester aimed to bring educational opportunities to residents of the Appalachian mountain region. However Lizzie had other plans opting to forgo the opportunity to study in order to marry Jim right after she graduated. She finally roped Jim in 1905 at her parents home in Cumming Georgia. The newlyweds moved into their own home in Silver City a town just outside of Cumming shortly after the wedding. According to Lizzie that was the happiest day of her life. While living in Silver City Jim and Lizzie had five children. Their first son Fain Cleveland was born in 1906. Their first daughter Bernice Roseland arrived five years later followed by Ruby Elaine three years after her. Lizzie encountered some medical problems after Ruby s birth and doctors did not believe she would be able to have any more children. However in 1922 Lizzie and Jim had their fourth child Tom Weyman and their fifth Laura Evelyn in Sweet Auburn 1925. Lizzie had a full-time Market job as a mother of five but that never slowed her down particularly her willingness to help Jim on the family farm. Lizzie remembers [I] would take the children out into the field...and put [them] under a tree. The family grew a multitude of crops including corn cotton and peas which they sold at their small country store in Silver City. They also stocked the store with eggs from their family chickens. 45 Mama Lizzie as she became known stayed true to her philosophy of life--clean living hard work and a good sense of humor. After Jim s passing Lizzie took over the full-time job of maintaining her home. She did her own yard work painted her own house and even though she disliked it she did her own cooking. Lizzie became a lifelong resident of Buckhead in the prime of her life. She was a sought after babysitter for children in her neighborhood as well as for her grandchildren and played baseball with her grandchildren until she was 90 years old. Maintaining her exploratory spirit through her twilight years she took her first airplane ride to visit family in Texas Sweet Auburn Archive 1939 Often Jim would have to travel to Atlanta to purchase dry goods and supplies for the store in Silver City. He hated that drive especially in the winter. In 1930 the family decided more or less on a whim to move to Roswell Road in Buckhead. Lizzie recounts My husband got tired of the roads and he came along here one day and they were having a sale (on land ) and he got out and liked it and bought it. Jim bought one and half acres at the corner of Roswell Road and Spruell Springs Road and built his family a five-room wood frame house. That is where Lizzie lived for the rest of her life. Lizzie and Jim continued their produce business at the local farmer s market in the heart of downtown Atlanta. The Municipal Market--in operation today as the Sweet Auburn Curb Market--opened in 1918 a year after the Great Atlanta Fire swept through the epicenter of the city. Many Atlanta residents began to regularly gather on the land cleared by the fire to sell produce and livestock. The Atlanta Women s Club-- seeing the need for a permanent location and building for the market--began a successful fundraising effort for a brick building that would eventually house the Municipal Market of Atlanta. The new and improved market officially opened on May 1 1924. For years Lizzie and Jim traveled to the market together to sell eggs and vegetables from their backyard. They continued this routine almost every day until Jim died in 1970 at the age of 88. at the young age of 95. Lizzie was an avid supporter of the Sandy Springs Historical Association and the St. John United Methodist Church and took part in the Thursday Luncheon Club every week. Lizzie became a role model of the community before it even had a name. She saw the town change from a simple rural village to the vivacious city that is now Sandy Springs. When asked if things had changed much since her childhood she recounts Things have changed right smart. Despite all the changes Lizzie could still remember her favorite poem from the seventh grade called Grandma s Beau --a piece of work that she could recount at request until the day she passed. Mama Lizzie s hard work and dedication was a shining example for her family and her community--and for that she will be fondly remembered. B N download transcript M The Judge with a Grudge Journalistic integrity has always played a role in forming the opinions of readers and observers. Though some whose names appeared on the printed page had the wherewithal to dismiss articles as poppycock there were others who took it to great heart when their moral principles were discreetly or openly questioned in print. In the latter part of the 19th century Judge John Berry of Sandy Springs found himself embroiled in such a matter as the victim of character assassination in an Atlanta newspaper. Judge John Berry came from one of the wealthiest families in Georgia. The son of Judge W. B. Berry of Newnan John Berry was a true intellectual who had traveled extensively in Europe. He was an amateur musician an artist a French s c holar and a lover of books. He moved to Sandy Springs when he was 29 ser ving as a law yer in the law firm of Bigby Reid Berry & Foote. Af ter Bigby retired from the firm Berry opened his own law office and practiced law until he was appointed a Fulton County judge--three years before his death. a genius tempered by the fact that he was heir to all the faults and consequent unhappinesses (sic) that fall to the lot of genius. The Looking Glass was described as a questionable journalistic iconoclast-given to political and social gossip that had best remained unprinted whose saving grace was the unquestioned brilliancy of its style. Stein s legacy seems to lie in his position as a disruptive journalist a well-known thorn in the side of many of Atlanta s gentlemen and public servants. These descriptions make it easier to imagine the man that stirred up so much trouble in Judge Berry s court with accusations of gambling corruption and illegal activity. On December 18 1897 Stein s paper published a damning article commentating on a recent arrest and prosecution of six gentlemen at the Kimball House a hotel and social house in downtown Atlanta near Five Points. The paper suggested that Judge Berry s court and the county s prosecutor Solicitor James F. O Neill had falsely convicted six gentlemen of a prominent Savannah political faction called the Citizens Club of gambling. Stein wrote the gentlemen were really together for the primary purpose of discussing the political situation [and] to classify them as gamblers was the height of absurdity and in no sense did such a game or gathering come within the spirit of the law. The men were taken to the police headquarters and according to Stein these quiet and respectable gentlemen-- probably none of whom had ever been in a gaming house in all their lives--were hustled out of their private apartment like so many malefactors. After the arrest the court fined the men to the fullest extent A gun was pulled a fight broke out and when the dust settled.. It is said of Judge Berry that he was one of Atlanta s most conspicuous social leaders. His term on the bench was one of turbulence with chaos marked by a certain individual whose fate was intertwined with his own. Orth Harper Stein was a well-known newspaperman in the city of Atlanta where he edited a paper called The Looking Glass from 1896-1898. The Atlanta JournalConstitution with what can only be said as conflicting views on the man described him as a remarkable man and 47 of the law of about 80 a piece--something Stein chalked up to a fat fee to certain hungry officials...[that went] into the inside pocket of the solicitor. He felt that the law was clearly stretched beyond all reason for the sole and simple purpose of extorting a few dirty dollars. After insisting injustice Stein continues to claim in his Looking Glass article that he had overwhelming evidence that both Judge Berry and Solicitor O Neill should be indicted for gambling at the Hotel Oglethorpe in Brunswick. 1898. Judge John Berry however had yet to settle the score. When Stein published a second harsh criticism towards Judge Berry in The Looking Glass a rag known for its sensationalist nature Stein was warned he had gone too far. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported that Stein had received anonymous letters warning him to be on his guard that Judge Berry would attack him at some unexpected moment. The very same day the article was released in the paper O Neill himself sought Stein out at the Kimball House-- where the original arrest took place--and struck him across the face after a verbal altercation. A gun was pulled a fight broke out and when the dust settled... In March 1898 Orth Harper Stein editor of The Looking Glass was past the trouble he had made for himself in December of the previous year. His and Solicitor James O Neill s trials for carrying concealed weapons and in O Neill s case assault and battery were settled in January On March 14 1898 two weeks after the publication of the second article Judge Berry attacked Stein in the dining room of the Kimball House first knocking him out of his chair with a ketchup bottle from the table. He then beat him with the butt of Stein s own revolver and kicked him in the face. As an audience of paralyzed bystanders gathered around them Judge Berry beat Stein to a chorus of Hit him John. Finally a police officer who happened to be enjoying dinner in the Kimball House dining room pulled Berry off of the helpless editor. After he was pulled off Berry kicked Stein in the head before calmly walking out The Judge with a Grudge continued Two days after the fight Stein s health took a turn for the worse. Doctors feared a concussion and that Stein would not survive the night. The trial which had been scheduled for the morning after the attack was postponed due to Stein s health. As days went by Or th Stein s health improved and eventually Berry and Stein were both taken to court and convicted. Judge Berry was convicted of assault and battery and fined 100 for the attack. Stein was again convicted of carrying concealed weapons and was also fined 100. Vindication was sweet for Judge Berry Stein resigned from his paper that April and later that year in June The Looking Glass folded. Stein ended up moving back to his native Louisiana and continued writing controversial journalism until his death three years later of consumption. Unfortunately for Judge Berry his life was cut even shorter exactly one year to the day after he assaulted Orth Stein Judge Berry suddenly passed away from heart trouble in his childhood home in Newnan Georgia. He was 38 years old. of the room with a look of satisfaction on his face...as he neared the door [he] said aloud the hound and proceeded towards the elevator. Stein appeared disoriented and was bleeding profusely from a contusion on his head when doctors arrived. When called on for his statement Judge Berry said to the Atlanta Journal-Constitution The editor of The Looking Glass for more than a year in fact since I have been upon the bench has been nagging at me using every effort on his part to bring me into discredit and to injure my character endeavoring to make the community despise and hate me. I have tolerated this as long as I could and I decided to take vigorous steps. I had heard that he boasted that he was a man who cared nothing for his own life and that he always went armed prepared to kill anybody who made an assault upon him in resentment of any articles in his sheet. Last Saturday he saw fit to print in his paper something which was intended to bring me into ridicule and contempt. Knowing that unless steps were taken to stop these onslaughts by a person of his character I realized that life would become a burden. Berry continued He made this attack upon me which was to humiliate me in pursuance of his steadily adhered to plan. The position which I hold has up to the present time prevented me from adopting the measures which are so painful but the point had been reached where no other alternative could have been adopted consistently with my self respect. A man cannot always sink his individuality in the position which he may occupy. Berry knowing fully that he had done wrong shortly thereafter made a full statement to a representative of the AJC and the police. Just as today s news comes from a variety of sources-- some of them more questionable than others-- Atlantaarea citizens in the late 19th century also relied on various periodicals from which to get their information. Sandy Springs resident Judge John Berry was a well-travelled and respected man and though he was a cultured gentleman he was not above retaliation when his integrity was questioned. Editor Orth Stein pushed the judge a bit too far with his newspaper s editorials which begs review of the old adage sticks and stones may break your bones but words can never harm you. When it came to these two adversaries words did indeed harm them. B 49 Supporting Heritage Sandy Springs and other non-profit organizations in the community that promote the arts heritage education the environment and social services in Sandy Springs. The Sandy Springs Society is committed to improving the community by identifying and supporting community needs and programs of broad interest through effective action. www.sandyspringssociety.org the colonial dames o america YE 125 ARS YE 125 ARS Actively promoting our national heritage through historic preservation patriotic service and educational projects. www.nscda.org No Place Like Hammond An Interview with Fred Hamrick B Interviewer Fran Buttolph B Date of interview February 21 1992 Sandy Springs while a relatively new city--having only received its incorporation in 2005--has a rich and vibrant history dating back to the late 1800s. In 1851 resident Wilson E. Spruill donated five acres of land to the Methodist Church near the springs for which the town is named. In that same year the first recorded school began educating children from nearby farms. The deed that donated the five acres of land for the Methodist church also stipulated that a building be used as a subscription school. The school that eventually was built to replace it at the junction of Johnson Ferry Road and Mount Vernon Highway was known as Hammond School. In 18 51 the Methodis t Church of Sandy Springs built a one - room log-framed building that operated as the school until 1897. Subscription schools like this single-room struc ture dot ted the landscape throughout rural communities. Parents paid nominal fees so their children could acquire the mos t basic of educations. Many local children attended the Methodist subscription school in Fulton County for only three to five months out of the year. Given that Sandy Springs encompassed primarily rural communities parents needed their children as extra hands for chores and labor especially during harvest seasons. The subscription school which was across from the church caught fire in 1897 and burned to the ground. The community rallied and replaced the subscription school with a four-room two-story building which they named Hammond School. The school was named after Nathaniel J. Hammond a well-known educator and lawyer in Fulton County. Over the next 74 years Hammond School would educate thousands of children making it one of the central public institutions in Sandy Springs history. Hammond School provided education to several generations of Sandy Springs residents as well as influencing the town s geography history and incorporation. Fred Hamrick was born in Fulton County--in what is currently Sandy Spr ings -- on April 29 1908 on Johnson Ferry Road. Hamr ick s pent his entire life in Fulton Count y and was involved in public work. Hammond School played an integral part in Fred s life having educated both of his parents his siblings and himself. Fred later was employed by the school working for the institution until the day it closed its doors. Graduating from Hammond School was a real honor particularly among rural families who had not previously been able to send their children to receive an education. During the Great Depression many families in Sandy Springs suffered real hardships and children were not able to complete their schooling. All of the Hamrick children were fortunate enough to have finished their education at Hammond School. Olan Flossie Hamrick Bertha Hamrick May Belle Hamrick Esther Hamrick Betty 51 Hammond was not the only school in the area but it eventually became the largest and longest-living. Prior to the construction of Hammond subscription schools such as Hickory Grove Crossroads School Liberty Hall and R.J. Guinn School helped educate children throughout Fulton County. Crossroads and Hamrick Hubert Hamrick (he s the baby) all followed in Fred s footsteps at Hammond School. Fred himself was also a legacy as his parents attended Hammond as a subscription school. Fred remembers there were always small classes while he attended Hammo n d an d he especially remembers that his favorite school pastime was to ring the bell in the tower. Well it was a large bell and it was in in the top of the schoolhouse in the tower with a long rope that came down into the lobby...Well they rang the bell as they took in school and they rang it for recess and then when school turned out they rang it again. Hammond School extended the normal school year from its three to five months to ensure that every child received a well-rounded and complete educational experience. Hamrick recollects We went for seven months for a short period of time then it changed over to nine months...[We went from] 8 30am to 2 00pm I think. In the interest of providing the next generation with adequate schooling Hammond School helped extend the school year despite the need for children to work on the farms. In addition Hammond School boasted one of the largest libraries in the area during a time when many families did not have any other literature in the house besides the Bible. Hammond merged in 1924 thanks in large part to Annie Houze Cook an instrumental educator throughout Fulton County. She dedicated her life to teaching children and taught kindergarten at Hammond School. Fred does not remember Mrs. Cook but he remembers Mr. Beavis the principal Miss Maude and Minnie Kate Yates-- his first or second grade teachers. Fred s devotion to Hammond School led him to his job as the school s custodian in 1952. He and his second wife Mary Cash both worked in the school from 1952 until it closed in 1976. The last graduating class in the original brick building departed the school in 1959. Hammond School officially operated from 1905 to 1976 when the Fulton County School System sold it to regain a profit for the district. Mount Vernon Towers a residence for active senior citizens now sits where Hammond School once stood. While the school bell that Fred Hamrick fondly remembers may no longer toll for Sandy Springs children Hammond School will forever remain one of the most influential structures during the development of the city. B N download transcript M Down a Dark Hole Interview with Candace Apple B Interviewers Melissa Swindell and Tami Kushner B Date of interview October 18 2016 I am not a witch. Witch-friendly but not a witch says Candace Apple longtime-owner of the Phoenix and Dragon Bookstore. Many Sandy Springs residents drive past Candace s spiritual shop on Roswell Road daily but have never ventured inside including these interviewers. We walked in hoping for a spooky Halloween story but our expectations of Candace s store were completely unfounded. We were pleasantly surprised to learn about the store s messages of love compassion and healing. In addition Phoenix and Dragon is a gold mine of local history...and may well be sitting on top of one The Phoenix and Dragon is located in a cozy refurbished ranch-style house set back a lit tle f rom Roswell Road s busy traf fic. When we visited the bookstore Candace asked if we had heard about the hole in the basement. We had not and were immediately intrigued. Behind the house sits a small courtyard with a deck surrounding a silver maple tree. Candace opened a hidden door in the deck which revealed a ladder descending about ten feet underground. With flashlights in hand we lowered ourselves into an underground room that featured an additional hole another ten feet down and four feet in diameter. Having psychics around there is never a lack of opinions about something mysterious said Candace. So there s been everything from thinking people were hidden there during the Underground Railroad...There was a stagecoach that came up over near Glenridge [Drive] and then there s the stream. There was a bridge under Roswell Road and they could probably get away that way. Again that was one of the theories. Over the years other theories included people being imprisoned and tortured [and] a space ship being above and having a stream of energy into it. There s never a lack of possibilities. My personal preference said Candace ...you guys know that over on Glenridge there s a gold mine and it collapsed so I d like to think its tunnels to the gold mines. As we observed the darkness of the hole in the ground Candice continued About five years ago the hole shifted. The dirt on the bottom seemed to pull away from the sides. There had been another theory that it was a well and I was concerned that a thin layer of dirt may be over an old rot ten wooden cover to the old well. Since I did not want the danger of anyone falling through into the well I called an engineer to examine the hole. He discovered that the fill dirt went down ten feet at which point there seemed to be debris wood and other vegetation that was rotting in the last ten feet of what would have been a typical thirty-foot well and thus creating a disturbance in the top level. One of the fascinating things that I believe is evidence for the well theory said Candace is there is a long root from the silver maple [tree] going down the side of the well perhaps being drawn to the water. In addition to the very evident tree root the case for a well is seconded by its location. It is not unusual for a historic structure in Sandy Springs to be buried within the walls of a modern home. For example for many years the Wagon Stop House--a 19th century stagecoach stop--was hidden within the walls of a home at Glenridge Drive and Johnson Ferry Road. 53 Similarly Chattahoochee River ferry operator James Isom s 19th century home is located within a modern home in the River Chase neighborhood. While theories of dungeons and space ships might be more interesting to speculate chances are a well stood on the bookstore s property long before the renovated ranch-home to store-front ever existed. However Candace was able to confirm one local rumor after she found a bottle of moonshine in the piping of the furnace. There s only one bottle left. I didn t try it. As we made our way out of the musty and dark basement Candace mentioned that the kids [who once lived here] played in the hole...there was debris in it [when we moved in]. So we know that filled part was filled by 1950. That information led us to research more about the family who had lived here. The Allen family lived at 5531 Roswell Road in the 1950s-- about three occupants removed from Candace and her shop. At the closing on the property Candace said that Once [she] heard the story of the man who lived here [and that] he was indicted in the Temple bombing in 1958 [she] thought Do I want to walk away from the table now or is that why we are here Candace decided to close on the property in late 1995 a few months before the book The Temple Bombing by Melissa Fay Green was released. The mysteries that I had been wondering about the house and the family became public knowledge through the book Candace told us. From the book she learned that Wallace Allen met with Lester Maddox J.B. Stoner and other notorious Klansmen at his home on Roswell Road. While always denying his involvement in the Klan Allen s first lawyer during the criminal trial was Jimmy Venable an imperial wizard of the National Knights of the Klan. Green s book also mentioned that Allen had a German shepherd named Adolph as well as a portrait of Hitler that hung over the mantle in his living room. That is when Candace decided to paint the whole fireplace. The fireplace is the reason I was drawn to this place said Candace. It was something really special there in the middle of the house. We painted the fireplace lightened it up and our artist put a green man on the face and a little banner. She continued We didn t know what to write on the banner and [author] Gregg Braden came for a talk and one of his books talked about how compassion can change your DNA and can heal you. So we put wisdom through compassion on the banner which symbolizes Candace s mission. Our store [has always been and still] is very much about the celebration of diversity and spiritual diversity so it seemed fitting that where there was distrust and fear [from Allen] of the Jewish community and the African-American community that now it is a place to do healing. I see Atlanta as being a very complex tapestry said Candace very rich in history a center of commerce a center where people came from all over to move here. Yet at the same time there have been many tears in that fabric. Whether it started with the Civil War segregation or Jim Crow but Martin Luther King being here was a bright light but his being killed ... So it s a very complex mix. Atlanta s history as well as the store s physical history--both personal and national--continue to cause uneasiness for the owner. One of the things that I thought of after I moved in here was the issue of what if people come to see their old house What will I say to her if Mrs. Allen comes in As chance would have it Candace was not there the day [Mrs. Allen] came in but she said our bookkeeper who had worked with me on the purchase of the house was in the shop that day. They started talking and Mrs. Allen said I bir thed my four children here. At that point a customer came up to her and said You know I ve always felt the love in here and wondered where it came from and now that you said you birthed your children here and I hear the love in your voice and now I know where it came from. To me I couldn t have said anything better. That was the healing. The home and land needed healing. When Mrs. Allen came back and visited with me said Candace [she] brought her children. I told her what we were doing wanting to heal the wounds here. The way I put it to her was I knew that their family had suffered very much during that time. [Mrs. Allen] said that she wanted to be part of the [home s] healing and she came back and brought me a bookmark from the 150th anniversary of her Baptist church. Healing the home on Roswell Road has taken a long time but the perseverance shown by Candace and Down a Dark Hole continued others demonstrate what wisdom through compassion really means. All I know after thirty years of doing this said Candace it s not like I believe everything I read or everything I hear but I just watch and a lot of amazing things happen and I think anything is possible. The sad thing is you talk about the history of a community and you want all the pretty history. Sometimes it s not all pretty. However If everyone would do unto others as they would have them do unto yourself then we would all get along better. Sometimes I have trouble with people who are mean or not compassionate. And I realize there s love and there s fear and if people have hate and anger at other people it s usually because they re afraid. And that s the place I can get compassion. 1958. Atlanta Police found this letter when searching Allen s home on Roswell Road in Sandy Springs after the bombing of The Temple Atlanta s oldest synagogue. As the letter from Rockwell indicates Allen had ties to notorious segregationists. In her book The Temple Bombing Melissa Fay Green writes that Allen met with Lester Maddox J.B. Stoner and other Klansmen at his home on Roswell Road but always denied his involvement in the Klan. Whether he was officially a member or not he was indicted in The Temple bombing. During the civil rights movement era The Temple was unfortunately a prime target for extremist violence writes Edward A. Hatfield in his article Temple Bombing. Rabbi Rothschild used his pulpit and position to critique segregation in the region. While this stance won admiration from some quarters it aroused contempt from others. Speaking to his congregation in the wake of the 1957 integration of Little Rock Central High School Rothschild proclaimed We must resolve not to surrender to violence The Temple Bombing The big blast is all set for either next Sunday or Saturday. We will know tomorrow and keep you informed. But we want to have it Sunday if possible because the boys are coming down from New York for the work here no guts in the local citizens wrote George Lincoln Rockwell the soon-to-be founder of the American Nazi Party to Wallace H. Allen in 55 CLICK HERE TO ENLARGE Left to right George Bright Wallace H. Allen Luther King Corley Kenneth Chester Griffin and Robert A. Bowling. Photograph held at the William Breman Jewish Heritage & Holocaust Museum Atlanta Georgia October 17 1958 Image of Atlanta City Directory c.1950s or submit to intimidation. Five short months later on October 12 1958 just after 3 30 in the morning the explosion was heard. Within minutes the United Press International (UPI) received a call from the Confederate Underground in which they stated We have just blown up The Temple. This is the last empty building I ll blow up in Atlanta. Fifty sticks of dynamite were detonated which caused threatened Rabbi Rothschild among other incriminating evid e nce an d p revio u s arrests. Bright s initial trail lasted nine days and ended with a deadlocked jury in which nine jurors favored convicting Bright and three favored his acquittal. New York Times jour nalis t Claude Sit ton wrote that one of the proacquittal juror s told reporters The five men accused in the Temple Bombing leaving the You can t send a man to city jail on their way to the Fulton County Court House. Luthe penitentiary for life just ther King Corley is in the front (in shirtsleeves). The man in because he s a Jew-hater. the dark suit jacket is Robert A. Bowling. The man with the cigarette is George Bright. The man in the checked shirt is Bright s second trial began in Kenneth Chester Griffin. Wallace H. Allen is the man in the January 1959 with the State dark suit in the back on the left (white v-neck shirt no tie). waiving the possibility of Photograph held at the William Breman capital punishment. After ten Jewish Heritage & Holocaust Museum days in court and a two-hour Atlanta Georgia October 17 1958 jury deliberation Bright was considered not guilty and the prosecutor s office dropped charges against the remaining 100 000 worth four defendants. B of damages. For more infor mation ab out C andace A p ple and the Phoenix and Dr agon Books tore visit http www.phoenixanddragon.com Within days f ive s u s p e c t s including Sandy Springs resident Wallace Allen were in police custody. All suspects belonged to white supremacist groups including the National States Rights Party renamed the American Nazi Party and the Knights of White Camilla a Klanaffiliated organization. Although each man was indicted after the bombing only George Bright stood trial. Police had discovered a handwritten note in Bright s home that Atlanta Mayor William Hartsfield (left) and Rabbi Jacob Rothschild The Atlanta Georgian and News B Monday February 1 1909 B Suit About Grave Mrs. Heide Charges Deacon Mitchell With Slander Alleging that W.H. Mitchell deacon of the Sandy Springs church Oak Grove district charged her with having stolen the cemetery lot in which her husband was buried. Mrs. Wiedy Heide has filed a 10 000 slander suit in the city court against Mr. Mitchell. S he c har g e s t hat he accused her of the theft of the grave at the time she presented herself for membership in the Sandy Springs church and before all the congregation. And that he also stated at that time that she was seeking membership in the church for the purpose of being allowed to keep her husband buried in the church cemetery. Mrs. Heide also charges that Mr. Mitchell stirred up such strife and dissension that she was compelled to move her husband and carry him to Mount Perrin cemetery three miles distant where she had to reinter him at an expense of 16. The petitioner is represented by John. A. Boykin. Reprinted verbatim from The Atlanta Georgian and News dated Monday February 1 1909. Haunted Sandy Springs will be held on Friday October 28 from 6 00 p.m. to 10 00 pm. It is free and open to the public. The event begins at the Williams-Payne House (Heritage Sandy Springs Museum) where guests can enjoy live music psychic readings fire pit & s mores bar and Halloween treats. Complimentary beverages will be served and dinner will be available for purchase ( 5). Brave souls can also walk with ghosts through historic Sandy Springs Haunted Sandy Springs will feature ticketed tours of the Sandy Springs United Methodist Church Cemetery. Tours last approximately 90 minutes covering half a mile of haunted history. Tickets are 15. Tours are limited to 30 people per group and will sell out quickly Some mature content ages 16 recommended. Children must be accompanied by a parent or guardian. There are three time slots to choose from 6 00 p.m. 7 00 p.m. and 8 00 p.m. Free meal (burger or hot dog plus sides) included with ticket purchase. B http events.constantcontact.com register event llr jc9nbu bab&oeidk a07edai7bspe5fd84be Mr. William Johnson who kept a ferry on the Chattahoochee River in this county sickened died and was buried last Thursday evening near a Baptist Church seven or eight miles from Marietta on the Roswell Road. On Saturday last several of those who were present at the burial of the deceased passed by the grave on their way to an administrator s sale of the property of the late Daniel Haney and they discovered that the mound of Mr. Johnson s grave was not in that neat condition in which they had left it on Thursday evening but it was badly disarranged. This aroused the suspicions of those who observed these marks of the intruder and after the sale they agreed to disinter the remains of Mr. Johnson and see if he had been molested. Spades and shovels were wielded by strong arms and before the coffin was reached pieces of clothing were thrown out and when the coffin was reached it was found that the body of Mr. Johnson was missing and nothing but pieces of clothing which had been stripped from the corpse were in the coffin. The body snatchers had robbed the grave. Upon enquiry it was learned that late on Friday evening the day after Mr. Johnson s burial a white man and a negro man in a spring wagon crossed the ferry and inquired the way to the Baptist Church in that vicinity. About ten o clock that night they returned and crossed at the ferry on their way to Atlanta. So it is evident beyond a doubt that the white man and the negro were the ghouls who had disturbed the sacredness of the grave and stolen the body of Mr. Johnson. It is also rumored that the grave of Mr. Ed Dutton who was buried in the Marietta Cemetery last Thursday shows signs of being tampered with. It is believed by a good many that many a new made grave twenty and thirty miles in various directions from Atlanta has been opened by body snatchers to supply subjects for the dissecting rooms of the Medical Colleges in Atlanta. The ghouls receive 25.00 for every corpse of recent death. Body Snatchers in Cobb Reprinted verbatim from the Marietta Daily Journal dated Thursday December 18th 1879. Haunted Sandy Springs will be held on Friday October 28 from 6 00 p.m. to 10 00 pm. It is free and open to the public. The event begins at the Williams-Payne House (Heritage Sandy Springs Museum) where guests can enjoy live music psychic readings fire pit & s mores bar and Halloween treats. Complimentary beverages will be served and dinner will be available for purchase ( 5). Brave souls can also walk with ghosts through historic Sandy Springs Haunted Sandy Springs will feature ticketed tours of the Sandy Springs United Methodist Church Cemetery. Tours last approximately 90 minutes covering half a mile of haunted history. Tickets are 15. Tours are limited to 30 people per group and will sell out quickly Some mature content ages 16 recommended. Children must be accompanied by a parent or guardian. There are three time slots to choose from 6 00 p.m. 7 00 p.m. and 8 00 p.m. Free meal (burger or hot dog plus sides) included with ticket purchase. http events.constantcontact.com register event llr jc9nbu bab&oeidk a07edai7bspe5fd84be Role Models for Life An Interview with James Ambrose Williams B Interviewer Susan B. Deaver B Date of interview November 24 2001 When youngsters grew up in small towns especially in the early nineteenth century family was the core of their social lives. For many children growing up in places such as rural Sandy Springs camp meetings were some of the few social hours available to them--and these only occurred once maybe twice a year. Consequently for many children their parents became the most prominent influence in their lives. James Ambrose Williams was no different in that regard. The example his parents set for him and his siblings helped shape his own life and aspirations as a young boy. Through hard work and dedication James parents led by example and showed him that education is essential in life but even with obstacles anything is possible. tanks. So I have all all of my adult life since I got out of the service have been involved in water tanks. Jimmy would create a long and distinguished career working with municipal water systems and even after he retired he continued to consult for his former firm. Jimmy fondly remembers that his parents contributions helped pave the way for both himself and his family and he was very proud of their lives. James Theodore Williams--Jimmy s father--was born and raised in Sandy Springs. He was born May 18 1871. James T. wanted to be a doctor when he grew up and worked his way through school in hopes that one day he would attend medical school. Jimmy recalls James A mbros e Williams--or [He] was raised in Jimmy as he liked Sandy Springs...When to be called--was he was a little boy he This image of Coca-Cola bottling distribution in Gadsden AL in the son of James wanted to be a doctor. 1909 is probably a similar operation to the one that James T. Williams Theodore Williams. And when he finished owned and operated in rural Sandy Springs. Jimmy was born w hatever level of Gadsden AL c. 1909 copyright Jeff Brady July 6 1920 in school he had finished Newnan Georgia in the Sandy Springs and lived in both Dunwoody and Alpharetta. He served area...he got a job working on the railroad and incidentally as a second lieutenant in the US Army and in the Civil the railroad went right downtown through Dunwoody Aeronautics Association during World War II. After Jimmy village...But he was in an accident where he was on a train returned home from the war he began his career as a civil car which became loose from the engine at the top of a hill. engineer consultant. Jimmy recollects I was a consulting And the engine went on down the hill and the car finally engineer in the latter years and was with the firm of Jordan followed it down and hit the back of the other train. And Jones and Goulding. But my particular specialty grew out it injured his back and he was the rest of his life he had a of the fact that I started off in Newnan Georgia as in the very very bad back. And the older he got the more trouble engineering department of the R.D. Cole Manufacturing it became to him. But he still could play golf he recollects Company which were specialists in building water storage laughing. However James T. never let his injury slow him 59 bottling industry. According to Jimmy James T. literally gave away his bottling franchise in anger after World War I due to the excise tax on bottled drinks. Coca-Cola bought the franchise back and started bottling in the same factory. Jimmy recollects [I] do know that our house in Newnan backed up to his bottling plant where he bottled soft drinks including Coca-Cola and had the Coca-Cola franchise for several counties in that area down there. Bottling plants such as the one Jimmy s father owned operated throughout the country until the 1960s when changes in consumer needs and evolving distribution processes eliminated This image may be more of a large-scale cigar operations than the one owned by James T. Williams in rural Sandy Springs. Interior view of the Cuesta-Rey Cigar Company - Tampa Florida. 1929 Image Numuber RC03558 Reference Collection Burgert Borthers Photographs down. Jimmy depicts him as somewhat of a tycoon in Sandy Springs with his hand in a multitude of projects throughout the year s. These included several inves tment proper ties automobile dealerships cigar factories and a CocaCola bottling factory. It wasn t long after CocaCola was invented in 1886 that the beverage gained in popularity. It quickly became clear that those at the helm of the soft drink company lacked the capital to design and implement a national bottling system. Many entrepreneurs stepped in to help bottle and distribute Coca-Cola and large-scale bottling of the beverage began in Tennessee in 1899. By 1909 many Coca-Cola bottling plants operated as family-owned businesses and by 1925 there were more than 400 smaller bottling factories throughout the United States. James T. owned a bottling factory in the heart of Newnan--right in the middle of downtown. Jimmy remembers that the reason his father chose this spot was that the railroads all converged at that location which made distribution easier. James T. operated his bottling factory until the end of the 1920s. Taxes rather than the Depression led to his leaving the 1927 Willys-Knight Ad Saturday Evening Post the need for small bottling practices. Jimmy remembers that his father was an industrialist and despite giving away the bottling plant he had other business ventures to tend to. He also had a little cigar factory. A cigar factory was just a big room with tables in it and people in there hand-rolling tobacco leaves into a shape of a cigar remembers Jimmy. Besides his bottling franchise and cigar factory James T. also owned two car dealerships in Sandy Springs-- a WillysKnight and a Ford. Despite never realizing his early dream of becoming a doctor James T. instilled a sense of pride in his children about his life and achievements--and many of them were not business-related. Jimmy remembers Role Models for Life continued No I never got the sense that he was disappointed that he didn t get to go on to school. I do know. This was legendary that if you had a headache he could walk up behind you and put his hands on the back of your neck or head and do a little massaging. And he knew he had a knack for knowing how the nervous system comes to the surface of the body and I m not talking about faith healing or any mystic stuff here. I m just talking about real honest-to-goodness massage therapy. He just naturally could do that...But no I never heard him say anything that about never heard him complain about him not having had an education of some kind. Jimmy s dad always had his next move planned out. Eventually he claimed a manager position at the local golf club and even though his long-ago back injury made it painful he never stopped playing the game. Jimmy s parents instilled a strong belief in the value of education in all of their children. During a time when most children had limited access to schooling Jimmy and his siblings were able to access educational opportunities through their parents encouragement and support. In fact one of the most striking aspects of the Williams family is that Jimmy s father sent all of his children to college in an era when advanced education was not the norm. The majority of Jimmy s brothers and sisters and later Jimmy s own children would attend Georgia Tech. He remembers [My father] went to some sort of junior-type college or something when he was a young man. So yes I m very fortunate that all of all of them went to a college of some kind somewhere at some time. And if you heard my interview about Tech I m the one who almost broke the string. Because I found it extremely tough when I was up there as a freshman because you didn t learn how to study in high school you just didn t. 61 Despite those early struggles Jimmy graduated from the Georgia Institute o f Te c h n o l o g y with a degree in civil engineering. Jimmy s mother was one his primary ins pir at io ns for persevering through college in order to earn his degree. Jimmy s m o t h e r Luta Armstrong Powers was born February 20 1895 in Newnan Georgia. She spent a large part of her childhood in Franklin Georgia but Newnan always held a special place in her heart. She was a schoolteacher. We had moved to the Newnan Country Club back when I was five years old and that s the fall after I was six I started going to school and left her there in the country you know by herself and my daddy was up working at the golf course and so she decided to get a job teaching school. Coweta County--where Luta taught--was one of the foremost counties in the state of Georgia to make education a priority for all children. By 1879 the county employed more than 71 teachers. Luta s career as a teacher displayed her own commitment to help all children receive an education. As Jimmy remembers [S]he started teaching school and taught school at East Newnan until she retired many many years later. And she was a very loving person apparently because the little East Newnan community was a fairly poor community. And I have learned many stories about children who she bought sweaters for and socks for and shoes for and she was a member of the local sorority of teachers so they have a scholarship fund that was established well before the Hope Scholarship fund to assist promising students to get higher education...and it is the Luta Williams Scholarship Fund and I m very proud of that. Luta attended LaGrange College and received her degree in education. Jimmy remembers [One] of her good friends at LaGrange College was Maud Adams...[T] hey both took art while they were at LaGrange College. I think that s what young ladies did in college then. And finally Maud Adams became known as the Grandma Moses of the Valley because of the success of her art work...What she did for me was not paint something...[she gave] me a Daisy air rifle when her son went to school at Auburn and I was still around the house in Newnan. So I have one of the original Daisy. While Luta did not become a famous painter like her college friend she would go on to inspire others through her love of shaping the minds of her students. Luta became a member of the Alpha Delta Kappa sorority a national honorary organization for female educators. Established in 1947 the organization s mission is to support and recognize outstanding efforts by women in the field of education. Luta was honored by the sorority through the creation of a scholarship in her name--the Luta Williams Alpha Delta Kappa Scholarship--that continues to help future teachers in Coweta County fund their educational aspirations. To learn more about the James and Luta through the memories of Jimmy please visit his transcript online. B N download transcript M School Days Dear Old Golden Rule Days An Interview with Carrick Y. McGaughey B Interviewer Fran Buttolph In the nineteenth century educational opportunities in Sandy Springs were scarce. Residents who could afford to pay for their children s education would set up a classroom in a local church or barn and hire a teacher. The school year was a little shorter back in those days as parents relied on the labor of their children to help with farming chores during the summer months. By 1872 the Atlanta public school system made educational opportunities more accessible by opening seven grammar schools that offered a free education to all Atlanta children. Carrick Yeager McGaughey was born on Lombardy Way in Atlanta on June 1 1923. Carrick was lucky enough to be able to attend an Atlanta school despite living in Fulton Count y where educational opportunities were limited. In 1932 Carrick s father bought the family a weekend house half way between Sandy Springs and Dunwoody. Carrick along with many other notable individuals attended several beautiful and historic schools many of which are still standing and used to this day. One option for many children in Carrick s Sandy Springs neighborhood was the Garden Hills Grammar School. Garden Hills Grammar School is arguably one of the most beautiful examples of neoclassical-style architecture in the Buckhead community. Architectural firm Hentz Adler & Shutze designed the building which is still one of the most referenced buildings for principal architect Philip Trammell Shutze. Since the school opened its doors in 1938 it has welcomed more than 500 students annually. The McGaughey Family s weekend house in Fulton County afforded Carrick the opportunity to choose which school he wanted to attend. As Garden Hills was not yet open at the time of his enrollment Carrick opted to stay near Atlanta and attend Spring Street Elementary School. As he recollects because we owned two places I could have gone either to North Fulton--if I had I would have had to take the bus from Sandy Springs to North Fulton and they had Garden Hills Grammar S c h o o l r i g h t t h e r e Faculty Photo too. Carrick regrets not Spring Street School attending Fulton County schools and admits wishing he had chosen differently. Today Garden Hills boasts recent renovations which modernize the single brick building to accommodate its growing number of students. The Spring Street School opened in 1923 and was another Atlanta area grammar school that offered free education to Atlanta residents. Carrick decided to avoid the bus and attend Spring Street for his primary elementary education. Carrick was only one in a sea of students that passed through 63 houses Georgia Tech s custodial services and the university s ROTC program. Additionally the school s gym became home to the Georgia Tech volleyball team in 1995. The university renovated the gym into one of the best volleyball facilities in the entire Southeast. Henry Grady High School was one of the first two high schools established by Atlanta Public Schools in 1872. Originally the school was known as Boys High School and only opened its doors to young men. In 1909 the technical department of the high school separated from the main campus and in 1924 moved to its current campus site at 929 Garden Hills Elementary School the school s doors during the decades that Spring Street was in operation. I would have had to have taken that bus and gone in and to school and then taken it back every day. Well I decided since Dad still had his office in the city that it was reasonable--somebody decided but it suited me fine--that I still go to school with my friends in in in the Atlanta schools of which my grammar school was Spring Street School-- it had been built about seven years before I entered remembers Carrick. Carrick s brother was in one of the first classes to attend the school after it opened. The school was the first in Atlanta to be integrated and saw many notable individuals grace its classrooms including Yolanda and Martin Luther King III the children of Martin Luther King Jr. and Coretta Scott King. The school was closed in the mid-1970s yet the building still sits on its original lot at 1382 Spring Street. It currently houses the Center for Puppetry Arts. The center s Worlds of Puppetry Museum preserves some of the memories of the school with a chalkboard exhibit that lists classroom assignments from the entire nineteenth century by decades. Carrick continued his education at O Keefe Junior High School. O Keefe Junior High was also built in 1923 and is still visible at 151 6th Street in Atlanta. Scores of students roamed its halls between 1923 and 1973 when the last graduating class left for high school. Carrick recalls Anyhow I don t know how the years come out but I attended kindergarten and the sixth grade. Then the school system was a six-threethree in Atlanta at that time and so I went to junior high school--in other words changing locations buildings--at O Keefe Junior High School which is now the building s still there but it s owned by Georgia Tech. The school is currently in use by the Georgia Institute of Technology. It Spring Street School Charles Allen Drive. Carrick s last three school years were at Boys High. He remembers [It s] interesting to me and I will never forgive myself for doing this. It would have been much better for me to go to the Garden Hills School and North Fulton but as a child I didn t want to lose my friends. And then I don t even really want to put this on record I well I ll put it this way I didn t want to ride a school bus back and forth. Carrick eventually graduated from Darlington in 1941 on a scholarship and went on to become a loving husband father and friend to many in the Sandy Springs area. Many of these historical schools are still standing and have been renovated to serve the community. You can visit them and imagine what it was like to attend some of the first public schools in Atlanta schools that made education widely accessible to so many young and wide-eyed children. For more information about the Spring Street School http buzz.blog.ajc.com 2016 02 02 history-and-mystery-at-thecenter-for-puppetry-arts B N download transcript M A New Life in the Land of Opportunity An Interview with John Galambos B Interviewer Jeremy Katz B Date of interview September 23 2014 Following the end of World War II many survivors of the Holocaust looked to the West for the chance to begin a new life. With the promise of the American Dream guiding their way immigrants began to forge their own paths some of which led to places such as Sandy Springs. One of Sandy Springs s most well-known residents Dr. John Galambos immigrated to the United States in 1947 after surviving a German labor camp and the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Despite experiencing the atrocities of the Holocaust John never lost sight of his dreams--eventually earning a medical degree and building a fruitful career in the Sandy Springs area. John was born in Budapest Hungary in 1923. His entire family was from Budapest and most of them did not survive the Nazi occupation of Europe. Prior to 1943 Hungary was a prominent center of Jewish culture and heritage and thus a safe haven for Jewish refugees. More than 5 000 refugees from Austria and Germany migrated to Budapest before the war to escape early Nazi persecution. At first Hungarian Jews were relatively secure given Hungary s alliance with Germany and despite extreme anti-Semitism pervading much of Europe. Then in 1941 when Germany invaded Hungary John became one of the 25 000 Hungarian Jews interned by the Nazi regime. He was only 21 years old. John remembers Initially I was put in a labor camp and all with who were working. I volunteered for extra kitchen duty and apparently I was able to cut onions fast enough so I was selected to stay in the kitchen and became a cook. When we split up the large group into smaller groups and my group was sent out to a farm and they did farm work. I did the cooking and I did the stealing of whatever I could steal to cook to improve the menu. In the beginning labor camps dotted the landscape until Germany decided that Jewish labor was not productive enough. Shortly thereafter the Nazis moved John and many of his family members and friends into a concentration camp. Bergen-Belsen was a concentration camp in Lower Saxony in the northern part of Germany. Originally the camp was an exchange camp where the Nazis housed prisoners of war awaiting transportation to another concentration camp a labor camp or a death camp. John his mother father and several cousins ended up staying there for over a year until the 11th Armored Division of British forces liberated the camp. John recalls There it was absolute misery. We were given two meals a day black water--which was called coffee--in the morning and another liquid which called [inaudible] gemuese suppe that means dried vegetables soup in the evening most days. It was a starvation menu. The camp was very crowded. The bunks were...there were three layers done in a bottom a middle and a top layer which was designed for one person but we were double up on it because there just weren t enough at first. But gradually we got more and more room as people died. Most it was starvation and because of typhus. We had lice. We were there month after month after 65 month without changing our clothing. No washing so we were pretty filthy. We spent most of our time talking about food or hunting for rice but that was tough because we had no heat and it was wintertime snow on the ground and taking off your shirt and try to find a mouse and kill it with your fingernails. That was our entertainment. Most of John s family members perished in the camp but John was lucky enough to survive and was moved to a displaced persons camp shortly after liberation. John remembers being hopeful despite the deplorable conditions of the camp. Most of those who survived the Holocaust and Nazi persecution came out with a brand new look on life. Georgia. He later attended Emory University for his medical degree. He met his wife Eva who eventually became the first mayor of Sandy Springs at a fraternity party. He remembers She was the president of her sorority. They had an affair and the fraternity brothers took me and that s where I met Eva. The first thing she asked me was Do you have a dime She had a problem with the sorority house and she had to make a phone call. In order to make a phone call in those days you had to have a dime to put it in the public phone. She never paid me back. John worked his way through his medical residency and became a physician. He recollects I was gastroenterology and hematology. The division is called Division of Digestive Diseases within Internal Medicine. My particular specialty was liver disease so most of my publications were related to liver disease. John would eventually become a professor at Grady Memorial Hospital educating the minds of new doctors. He lectured on liver disease around the world including in England Germany Italy and Japan. John lived his life in the Sandy Springs area dedicating his time to teaching students and practicing medicine. John appreciated the opportunities that America offered an immigrant and survivor of the Holocaust. In his advice to future generation he states Get an education for the sake of knowledge not for having fun. Take advantage of t he o p p or t u nitie s that this country still Bergen-Belsen offers that in many concentration camp countries they don t Date Unknown have. Many survivors USHMM of t he Holo c aus t immigrated to the United States following their experiences of persecution in Europe and fearing a reprisal of the events of World War II. However many like John came for the opportunities that a new country afforded them the American dream. As John states America was to me the American South. What impressed me what I needed what I wanted and what I got was opportunity. That sink or swim. Here you can get an education work for it and I worked for it. John Galambos s full transcript which includes his amazing journey from Budapest to America is available online. B The adjustment period after the Holocaust was difficult for many Jews. Relationships changed and some survivors returned home to find that many of their family members did not survive and those that did were changed in mind and spirit. John remembers. I met some of the old friends but it wasn t the same - our feelings or relationship to each other changed. We all NARA had different experiences. ID 74106 A section of Bergen-Belsen We all wer e a li t t le concentration camp. unmetered. We all hated Date After April 15 1945 the circumstances we had to live in. He continues I met my ex girlfriend who survived. The relationships weren t what they were before. I know I changed. I couldn t fit in. I decided Let s start all over again. And starting over is exactly what John did. He did not let the Holocaust dictate the outcome of his life. He was only 22 at the time and remembers the exact moment when he decided to begin his life anew. As John recollects A high school colleague of mine met me who just came back from the West. He said I want to migrate to America. Why don t you come with me I said Migrate to America Maybe I ll have a chance to have a life. I don t have a chance here. The kind of life I have here I don t want. That s not the kind of future I want. I want to be a doctor. The only way I could is I have to go to America so I went with him. John migrated to Germany to obtain a student visa in order to travel to America. He worked briefly for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) spying on Russian activities in Germany. His work with the OSS helped him obtain his papers and scholarship to travel to America. In 1947 John landed in New York with seven dollars and a scholarship to the University of Georgia. He did not know a soul in his new country. John eventually settled in Athens Georgia where he obtained his undergraduate degree from the University of N N download transcript M M The First Mayor of Sandy Springs An interview with Eva Galambos B Interviewer Jeremy Katz B Date of interview September 23 2014 Sandy Springs has a long and vital history that has shaped the formation of a vibrant city and passionate community. One of the most influential participants in this legacy was the city s first mayor Eva Galambos. With Eva s guiding vision Sandy Springs became a self-governing municipality in November 2005 defining itself outside of the much larger Atlanta city limits. Eva Cohn was born in 1928 in Wiesloch Germany amidst the rising popularity of the Nazi Party. Her father a Jewish judge lost his job in 1933 as the Third Reich gained ground and Hitler began consolidating his power. As Eva remembers it her father s job loss was really a blessing in disguise as her family moved to Genoa Italy to escape the growing Nazi political influence. The family had vacationed in Genoa often and loved Italy but at the time they had no idea that Nazism would follow them to Italy as well. Consequently in 1939 Eva and her family immigrated to the United States--first to New York and then to Athens Georgia where her father became a professor. She recollects My father got a job at the University of Georgia through Harold Hirsch who was chief council for The Coca Cola Company and very involved in helping refugees. He put up the money for the professorship at the Georgia University law school. Despite the tumultuous backdrop of her early life Eva was able to enjoy a childhood filled with the slower pleasures of small town America. Athens was just an old Southern town small. I grew up with a tremendous amount of freedom. Most people didn t have their own automobile so we all rode around on bikes--just a lot more freedom growing up than my children had here in Sandy Springs recalls Eva. She was valedictorian of her class at Athens High School and received her undergraduate degree in business administration from the University of Georgia. She received her master s degree from the University of Illinois before marrying John Galambos a fellow student from UGA. Soon after Eva followed her husband to Atlanta where he pursued his medical degree. She recollects I got married. My husband went to medical school at Emory and I worked him through medical school. For several years Eva balanced her duties as a wife and mother before returning to school to earn her doctorate in economics from Georgia State University. Eva gained an interest in politics while living in Athens. Due to her father s career as a judge and a law professor Eva was exposed to many familial discussions regarding both local and international news and politics. As Eva pursued her educational and career development she fostered an interest in the political environment of her local municipality. As Eva remembers My first job was associate editor of the Journal of Labor which was the weekly newspaper for the labor movement. I had just finished my master s at the University of Illinois and I had a degree in labor and First & Foremost 67 industrial relations which was a very strange degree for a woman in the Atlanta area...Eventually I became involved in Sandy Springs s problems and I ran for the legislature but I didn t make it. Before becoming formally involved in local politics Eva noticed that the formation of the Sandy Springs tax code was manipulating the county s residents into paying fees that were not directly benefitting their municipality. Eva made it her goal to correct this injustice eventually organizing a movement to bring awareness about local tax law to Sandy Springs. She recalls It wasn t that I was trying to be in politics. It was that I was leading a movement to stop the exploitation of Sandy Springs by Fulton County. Every dollar that they levied for local services like police and fire 50 cents of it went down to South Fulton and we didn t get to see the full benefit of our taxes. I was able to document that. We just were not being treated right by the county. We also were being over zoned by too many apartments and we re still suffering from a surfeit of too many cheap too dense apartments. Eva began to garner support from other local residents to combat the mistreatment of Sandy Springs by Fulton County. Eva first formed a committee to begin the process of municipal incorporation--when cities towns or counties become self-governing entities under the state. Eva recalls I was the founder of the committee in 1975. We finally succeeded in getting a bill passed. In order to become a city we had to get a bill passed in the General Assembly. It was passed in 2005 when the Republicans took over the Georgia Legislature. It took twenty years for Eva and her committee to get the town incorporated as its own entity. State legislators representing Atlanta and southwestern Fulton County feared that the loss of tax revenue from the area would affect other parts of Fulton County. Consequently bills were introduced in the legislature to block incorporation in every meeting for twenty years--seemingly killing the movement Eva built to reorganize the tax code. Eventually the committee was able to push through a bill that allowed the incorporation of Sandy Springs to be decided by referendum. On June 21 2005 Sandy Springs residents took to the voting stalls to decide whether or not to incorporate themselves as an independent municipality. Eva remembers We of course had a very very animated referendum first as to did the [sic] people want the city. It was an unbelievable outcome. Ninety two percent voted yes which was a tsunami--which goes to show how frustrated we had all been with Fulton County. Residents subsequently elected a mayor and six city council members in November 2005 with Eva being elected by a wide margin as the first mayor of Sandy Springs. She recalls When we became a city we had to organize [the] police. That was the first thing we organized. Six months later we organized the fire department. We gradually got the whole city going and hired some wonderful companies to help us. Eva served as the mayor of Sandy Springs from December 1 2005 to January 7 2014. During her political tenure Eva developed an independently organized and operated Sandy Springs. However Eva attributes much of this success to the hard work of her committee and the passion of the city s residents. She recollects Getting a city off the ground [laughs] getting it rolling and getting a tremendous amount of civic involvement. The people feel strongly about wanting to come to meetings being heard and being involved and so there s a great deal of civic participation which I think is unusual and good. The efforts put forth by the committee to incorporate Sandy Springs did not go unnoticed. Officials from Japan and Northern Ireland met with Eva in Sandy Springs to learn from her efforts towards municipal incorporation. Fifteen months before she succumbed to cancer Eva left her mayoral office to Rusty Paul with a blueprint for the future. I want to impart a city where people participate and enjoy downtown and visiting with each other. I like the idea of the civic involvement and the city is small enough so you can get that. She continued We probably will never be much above 120 000. I think that might be as big as we ll ever get. That s a lovely size for participation. Eva s hopes that the community would dedicate its efforts toward a revitalized downtown are now being realized. With a nod to her vision Mayor Rusty Paul and the Sandy Springs City Council embarked on the development of City Springs in the summer of 2015. The center point or heartbeat of the city will include a performing arts complex city hall and municipal offices a large park and residential and retail establishments. Finally the city of Mayor Eva Galambos s dreams will include the kind of downtown and legacy she envisioned for her beloved city of Sandy Springs. B N N download transcript M M Making W.A.V.E.S. An Interview with Jean Taylor B Interviewer Kimberley Brigance B Date of interview December 16 2008 During World War II the United States military infrastructure Officers Training Corps]. He was called up in 1942. We were expanded rapidly giving many women the opportunity already married. He was called up and [he] had to go to to join a military branch. While women were able to join the East Coast to go to Europe so I went along with him. different military branches before the world conflict their Taylor s husband served in the Army for three years on the experiences changed drastically as roles previously filled by Eastern front. Jean stayed on the East Coast volunteering men opened for the first time to female recruits. Even areas for the WAVES. She recollects I had 30 days training at dominated and trodden by men for years gave indefinite Williams College. Some kind of training and that was it for assurances to women they 30 days...Then we I got could and would make a our permissions...all of difference to the United us. We had two European States effor ts in World gals and I think I have War II. Jean Taylor was some pictures of them. born December 7 1920 Then I found out that you in Ames Iowa six blocks know that wasn t enough from Iowa State University. just to be a commissioned The United States formally officer...that you should declared war on Japan on get a specialty. So I did...I her 22nd birthday. Soon was a paymaster. after in 1943 she enlisted in the United States Naval Military life opened up Reserve for women known a world of possibilities NARA as Women Accepted for for women. For Taylor it ID 520613 WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service) Vo l u n t e e r Em e r g e n c y allowed her to leave Ames units march in precise formations during a rally at the Washington Service (WAVES). Iowa and move to New Monument grounds celebrating the second anniversary of the establishment of the corps Washington DC. England where she became Jean Taylor was one of a paymaster traveling up approximately 86 000 women who volunteered for service and down the coast to different colleges to pay out other during the shortage of manpower beginning in July 1942. service members. Taylor a chemist by trade decided Most women who joined the military were single--as many she needed to be an officer--if only to keep up with her men would not allow their wives to enlist (or volunteer). husband who was also drafted as an officer. She received However Taylor married her husband on October 22 1942 special training that allowed her to obtain an officer position and when he left for basic training she followed him to the as paymaster. She recollects [I] went to a party of my high East Coast. She remembers What was I doing before the school and college friends in Ames. I had heard at the party outbreak of the war My husband was in ROTC [the Reserve that we who had all graduated from college could get a Making History 69 commission in 30 days. That sounded really exciting to me because here I was bored to death. The idea of getting a commission and being an ensign because I didn t want to be less than...I mean since my husband was a [laughs] commissioned officer I would not want to be less than what he was. So you see I took it very seriously and zoom. That s what I did. Early female enlistees in the Army Navy Coast Guard and Marine Corps all broke new ground for women entering military service as the war dragged on even if their commanding officers did not acknowledge their contributions. As a paymaster Taylor traveled from Harvard to Williams College even to North Carolina to make sure that officers and enlisted personnel received their payments on time. She recounts [I] was very popular and I got to go from each college...college college college like that. I was greeted warmly and since I liked figures and money and that sort of thing I just really enjoyed it. They were happy to have me come. They were very happy to have me come. Military life suited Taylor. She enjoyed basic training and she enjoyed her time off with other women in the WAVES who enjoyed their freedom from familial duties--sometimes for the first time. For many women--especially after 1944 when Congress ruled that Navy women would serve overseas in American territories--traveling abroad for military service meant exposure to both social and cultural differences in other parts of the world for the first time in their lives. Taylor remembers It was just great. I loved it because when I was growing up and I was in college I had lived at home all those years. I felt very...what would you call it I wasn t happy about it because I wanted to go away. When I finally got to go away to join the Navy that was really great. Boot camp was wonderful. While the WAVES opened up many experiences it also clearly delineated the hurdles women still faced particularly if they had already gained some level of notoriety working in a different field. The Manhattan Project was a res earc h and d evelo p me nt p roje c t under the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers that produced the world s first atomic bomb. The NARA projec t began at the ID 558579 Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer University of Chicago in atomic physicist 1942 as scientists began and head of the Manhattan Project. to develop research on plutonium reactions. The project encompassed more than 130 000 employees and cost 2 billion (equivalent to 26 billion in 2016) to complete. Many of the employees that helped on the project were at universities across the United States and many had no idea what they were working for I was just doing routine chemical work. Secret. Secret secret secret...When they bombed Nagasaki well it was a payday. I was really really busy paying. It wasn t until afternoon that I found out--that I was able to put the work down and to be able to hear about what was happening. That s when I found out that...I believe it was that day that I found out that it was the atomic bomb. Since I had been a chemist on the atomic bomb at Iowa State as my father had been. He wasn t a chemist he was an instrument maker. That was really very important to me that they had...[used my work.] Indeed Taylor worked on the Manhattan Project as a chemist and only found out about her contributions at a ceremony after the bombing of Nagasaki. She remembers That was so secret we didn t know anything. In fact it was so secret that after the war when they had this ceremony at Iowa State honoring the people who had been working on the atomic bomb guess who was there...my father. [laughs] I had been living with him and I didn t know that. Most of the employees on the Manhattan Project were men and many of them were not allowed to tell their wives or children about their work on the project. Taylor s work as a chemist no doubt impacted the outcome of the project itself but she didn t know this until after the bomb successfully ended the Pacific War. Women in the military served a multitude of roles. From pilots to machinists to chemists to nurses--they filled vital positions that helped the United States claim victory in World War II. Similarly Taylor felt her work was making a difference in the war effort [B]ecause of...although I had been trained there were a lot of people there who hadn t been trained. I felt like because there were so many things that women could do that I thought it was very important. Like many women Taylor served her roles as war bride military wife Navy paymaster and chemist with pride. She like many men displayed courage and endured sacrifice and gave us just a glimpse of the contributions that women made during World War II. B N N download transcript M M Community by Association An Interview with Dr. Robert and Verdery Cunningham B Interviewee Karen Meinzen McEnerny B Date of interview 2014 The vibrant community that Sandy Springs residents created has always been the town s hallmark. Although the town evolved from humble beginnings the hard work and devotion of its residents allowed Sandy Springs to evolve into the vivacious Atlanta suburb that it is today. Two lifelong Sandy Springs residents Dr. and Mrs. Robert Cunningham exemplify the ways in which community became central to Sandy Springs throughout its history. Dr. Cunningham was born January 23 1928 near midtown and his wife Verdery Cunningham was born not long after on December 12 1928 i n G e o r gia Baptist Hospital. They grew up in midtown a n d M o r ni n g s i d e respec tively and were lifelong Atlantans. D r. C u n n i n g h a m practiced medicine for over fifty years serving as the physician for the Sandy Springs High School football and baseball teams. Dr. Cunningham was also actively engaged in community events to help strengthen the bond between his family and the town of Sandy Springs. In 1964 Robert and Verdery moved to Loridans Drive at the corner of McClatchey Circle where they purchased a home from Howard Chatham in the Cherokee Park neighborhood. Sandy Springs community associations such as Cherokee Park have evolved since the 1950s. Community associations formed as councils of neighborhoods organized community resources to help homeowners navigate regulations local ordinances and placed residents in contact with local officials. The communities involved within each neighborhood council served to promote a united and vibrant Sandy Springs. The Cunninghams remember the neighborhood association as a conduit for community engagement. Robert recalls [I] think the interesting thing we would say about the neighborhood and we were trying to think about this...is that a dramatic change occurred in this neighborhood when a neighborhood association was formed. Because prior to that time we don t recall any neighborhood gatherings any cookouts any barbec anything else neighborhood wise. The first community association in Sandy Springs began as early as 1965 when the increase in suburban grow th catalyzed the need for organization and solidarity among neighbors. Robert and Verdery were happy to partake in community activities and their centrally located corner lot provided the neighborhood with plenty of space to play. [We] hosted at least three neighborhood gatherings here on this property because it was convenient number one it offered a big play area for the children. The associations continued to be an influential factor for Robert Verdery and other residents. The group allowed them to congregate with neighbors discover mutual hobbies and most importantly keep the neighborhood safe. Crime in Sandy Springs was relatively low especially in the mid-twentieth century. Everyone in the neighborhoods 71 knew each other so there was high likelihood that if some transgression occurred most residents would immediately know the culprit. Verdery remembers We didn t need the police. Everything was okay. Now another I thought cute thing and it shows you the difference in security is in 1964 when we moved in... nobody locked their houses and when I lived on Noble Drive I don t even know if we had a front door key. Maybe we did but we never even locked the house. The neighborhood was so close that they all kept an eye out for each other the police rarely had to inter vene. Rober t and Verder y s neighborhood was so quiet that they did not even keep their dogs on a leash. Our dogs ran free...and would sometimes go down to your creek and get in the creek or whatever but I don t even recall anybody walking through the neighborhood with a dog on a leash remembers Robert. Residents felt safe and secure so much that anybody could walk into a neighbor s house and make themselves at home. Verdery remembers You know you just open the door and come in and make yourself at home. Despite the tight knit community atmosphere fostered by Sandy Springs residents crime did exist. Robert remembers that one neighbor was taken to the bank at gun point to rob their account and another neighbor s car and golf clubs were stolen. He remembered Our house was broken into on three different occasions in the early years we didn t have any security. We never have and they came to the bathroom window on one occasion broke the door down [on another]. The carport was open. We had a dog but they managed to shut the dog up in the kitchen and got into the house. The Cunningham s lost family heirlooms including several Civil War pistols. The police force that patrolled Sandy Springs was small and lacked the manpower to follow up on cases like this. The Fulton County Police Department operated in Sandy Springs until 1952 when officers were dispersed throughout city of Atlanta districts or had their positions eliminated altogether. The limited police presence within Sandy Springs usually meant neighborhoods would watch out for themselves. Robert recollects Only on one occasion did...We suspect the police knew who it was but they didn t have the power to search the apartment where this young man lived. So it was dropped. Now one of the first policeman that did the analysis of our break in was later on killed while he was serving as an off duty policeman at a motel right near the Atlanta Stadium. However one of the most interesting cases of potential crime in the neighborhood involved Catherine Hopper. They remember The Hopper child who was about the age of Mary Katherine our daughter would frequently walk down Kitty Hawk Dr. coming down Mystic Place to get to the bus. [R]ight opposite our back driveway one day a man pulled up in a car and told her to get in the car and scared her to death...She apparently dropped down below the level of the window of the car and screamed or something some neighbors came out...and he drove off because that could have been a real tragedy and that was Catherine Hopper. The neighborhood councils provided residents with a sense security interaction and family. Well getting back to the neighborhood Robert recalled from my perspective the greatest thing that happened in the neighborhood was the association because...it brought people together and not only the annual neighborhood meeting but the other get togethers wine tasting barbecues and whatever. And we got to know so many more people... Yes agreed Verdery that we would not have gotten to know otherwise. The neighborhood organizations within these tight knit communities offered a sense of security as suburban growth brought more and more people to Sandy Springs. To learn more about Sandy Springs neighborhood councils and experience Sandy Springs from Robert and Verdery s point of view you can the Sandy Sprigs Council website at www.sandyspringscouncil.org and find out if your neighborhood is included. B N N download transcript M M How to Catch a Date in Rural Sandy Springs An interview with Harriet Chapman Elsbury & Ruby Hardeman Spruill B Interviewer Dorothy Knight B Date of interview 1981 During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries dating and social gatherings for Sandy Springs teenagers and young adults took quite a bit of effort. It was not that residents were unwilling to travel for meet-ups and events but rather rigorous farming life isolated many residents. In addition travel was not easily accessible. With such limitations dating in Sandy Springs proved even more difficult to navigate especially for young women. For these reasons young people in Sandy Springs would use almost any festive event as an excuse to invite a date even if strict customs made it difficult to be alone with one another. Siblings would chaperone all romantic outings often interrupting the date and putting constraints on simple behaviors like flirting and hand-holding. Courting someone during this time period implied rules curfews and supervision. However these strict social norms did not stop some Sandy Springs young ladies from taking advantage of any opportunity to spend a little extra time with the boys they liked. Harriet Chapman Elsbury and Ruby Hardeman Spruill remember having to be creative in order to date while growing up in Sandy Springs. Harriett was born at her home on Roswell and House Roads (now Windsor Parkway) and spent her entire life in Sandy Springs. Her father Dr. Chapman was initially the only doctor for miles in what was then DeKalb County. He delivered her and her eight siblings before their mother died in 1926. Harriet became the impromptu mother to her siblings--even though she was not the oldest. Ruby was also born and raised in Sandy Springs out on the family farm on Roswell Road. As it turns out Harriet s father delivered Ruby as a baby as well. The two girls grew up in Sandy Springs at a time when dating was not easy. Harriet eloped when she was old enough hiding her marriage from her family for over a year. As Harriet and Ruby remember Sandy Springs proximity to Atlanta afforded them dating oppor tunities that teenagers in other rural communities could not enjoy. In particular both women recall using camp meetings to spark relationships with boys they liked. Ruby Spruill (left) Courting & More Cour ting in Sandy Springs was not easy for most young women. Growing up in a rural community isolated by large farms did not allow many women to meet men aside from those involved on their farms. Ruby and Harriet remember that 73 meetings usually in late August when the family would rest after harvesting their crops. According to Harriet and Ruby there were not a lot of social activities aside from Sunday School and church at the meetings. During camp meetings boys and girls would take their breaks together to get a drink of water down by the spring. Harriet remembers Oh when we were teenagers that was just wonderful to walk with our boyfriends down to the spring to get water...They had a beautiful spring down there and they had a cover over it and that water was cold. The spring offered the perfect escape from the prying eyes of adults parents and siblings. It gave the teenagers opportunities to experience courtship while still in a controlled environment. Harriet and Ruby remember Well Ownes at camp meeting they d have services at eleven o clock. And they d have it let s see at eight in the morning... going on dates that included inevitable supervision and Sometimes they had early service and then they d have an curfews. Oh boy. I tell you they trusted us back then. eleven o clock and then you d break for lunch and then [But] girls were supposed to have chaperones and doubleyou d have another service about three...We just thought date remembers Harriet. Yes you couldn t go out just if we could just get our boyfriend to walk us down to the on a date by yourself you had to have...your sister had to spring and back during...you know we went we didn t go along with you or somebody. I didn t have a sister go during the services but maybe when they had their said Ruby so I d look around and see who was out on a break...Oh oh it was good behavior back then. We didn t date or I d see my oldest brother somewhere...circling know to do things. There is no record of when the first around watching While Ruby and Harriet never broke any camp meeting was held but the gatherings became a long rules the tradition was that boys should court women in a strict and controlled environment and approval from a girl s family was necessary for any successful relationship. As Harriet recalls rules around curfew were especially strict. We were supposed to be in at nine o clock and we d better be in. I never...I don t know whether I should tell this or not but one night I had a date with Porter House...about nine o clock my daddy called bedtime. He says Harriet it s bedtime. It s nine o clock. And Porter said Well Hon you got the bed fixed He didn t say it loud enough for [my daddy] to hear it. I don t know what he might have said [laughing.] Like many of their peers Ruby and Harriet would double-date with each other and other friends in Girls at camp meeting order to get permission from their parents to spend time with their boyfriends on the weekends. tradition and welcomed breaks from the rigors of farming and rural life. Ruby and Harriet remember them fondly as Camp meetings and church were routine places for a time when they could meet and spend time with their socialization and fraternization in Sandy Springs. Camp boyfriends in an environment that promoted courtship and meetings were religious gatherings that involved revivalunification. style preaching as well as socialization food and spiritual renewal. These meetings would generally last up to five Atlanta s proximity to Sandy Springs gave many citizens or seven days and gave isolated families and friends a cultural destination aside from spending weekends an opportunity to gather and reunite. Several religious around the spring. One of the most special places that denominations held and participated in annual camp Courting & More continued Fox Theater Atlanta one could go on a date in Atlanta was downtown to the Fox Theatre. Originally the building was intended for the headquarters of the Shriners--a Free Mason fraternity--but the organization lost its funding before construction was complete. Movie mogul William Fox then stepped in with the 2.75 million needed to finish the work. The Fox Theatre opened its doors to the public on December 25 1929 and operated for 125 weeks before the Great Depression took its toll shutting it until after World War II. During the early decades of segregation the Fox Theatre was actually one of the few theatres that was open to both white and black patrons even though it too was segregated. As teenagers Ruby and Harriet enjoyed going on dates to the Fox Theatre. They remember We went to church and you double-dated. But for a while I mean you know we were supposed to double-date everywhere we went. We were supposed to go to church. We [Harriet] went to one movie before we got married...down at the Fox Theatre and I haven t the vaguest idea what we saw. That was just you know...that was special really special when we went to the theatre. The theatre offered many teens an escape from their chaperones but it also exposed many rural citizens to the world s cultures outside of Sandy Springs and Atlanta. Today the Fox Theatre--exhibiting the same unique Moorish architecture and opulent d cor that thrilled Ruby and Harriet--is the only remaining movie palace in Atlanta. Another popular spot for youthful courtship was Jacobs Pharmacy one of the leading pharmacies in Atlanta. Pharmacies in the early nineteenth century were more like general stores that also dispensed medicine and pharmaceuticals. Open to both men and women pharmacies were often gathering spaces for people to get the latest news pick up medicinal and leisure items and enjoy some time at the soda fountain. Dr. Joseph Jacobs opened his original general store in Five Points which was (and still is) considered the heart of downtown Atlanta. By 1929 Jacob had opened eight additional stores throughout the city. One of the most popular hangouts for Sandy Springs teens was the location at the junction of Peachtree Street and Roswell Road in the heart of Buckhead. Harriet recalls We used to go to church on Sunday night and then go to Buckhead to Jacobs and get ice cream sodas. Ruby remembers That s right And they had lights across the road oh man That was special. Wasn t it though when we got electricity Jacobs offered some of the best ice cream 75 sodas one could get in Atlanta while allowing teenagers to participate in wholesome and supervised fun. The stores operated until they were sold after World War II. Camp meetings and theatres offered some of the more obvious dating spots but if the season for camps and revivals had passed young folks could meet someone new at parties or dances. In fact both Ruby and Harriet met their husbands at parties. Harriet recollects I met him [my husband] at a dance a square dance up in Alpharetta. I used to love to square dance. And I met him and I didn t see him again for oh I guess a year. And then I met him... we went to an allday singing up in Alpharetta and he was up there. And I went with another boy and I don t know I got mad at this other boy and he [my husband] brought me home. And I started dating him. Ruby met her husband J.C. at a Halloween party though she was too young to date him at that time. She remembers I met him at a Halloween party... at Paul Elbanks on Roswell Road. Right there where Wieuca Road is...I had on a little uh I had a lot of Halloween stuff. He wanted to take me home. And I said I m too young my parents won t let me date you ...we had to be grown before they d let us date back then. By today s standards dating and courtship were much more challenging for Ruby and Harriet. They never broke any rules but they certainly used every opportunity to spend time with friends and boys. Sandy Springs rural isolationism during their teenage years eventually evolved into further freedoms for the girls throughout the 1920s 1930s and into World War II. In 1929 when she was 25 Harriet and her boyfriend eloped to Center Alabama. She kept the marriage a secret for over a year before moving with him to a house on Glenwood Drive in Peachtree Hills. Harriet recollects My grandma [91 at the time] see that s the reason we didn t tell. I got home and my grandmother had fallen and hurt herself so bad so we didn t say a word about it. And he just went on home and I went home. I hid my wedding ring in my cedar chest and when I was at work one day Bernice got in there...and found the marriage certificate and my wedding ring and everything. Despite the strict super vision and rules about curfews Sandy Springs Buckhead and Atlanta of fered unique experiences for both Ruby and Harriet. Camp meetings dances par ties fount ain s h o p s a n d t h e occasional movie Jacobs Drugs Luncheonette Atlanta Jacobs Drugs Atlanta allowed Ruby Harriet and other young people in the area to date and court. And even though Ruby s brother stalked many of her dates she still enjoyed every romantic opportunity Sandy Springs and Atlanta had to offer. B N download transcript M The Art of War An interview with Holland Cox B Interviewer Kimberly Brigance B Date of interview December 18 2008 Holland Cox born January 1 1921 in Forsythe County Georgia served his country proudly during World War II as a Corporal in the 101st Army Airborne. Unlike many men his age he never volunteered for military service--he was drafted. Mandatory conscription or the draft became part of everyday life for men over the age of eighteen. Since World War I all men of legal age are required to register with the Selective Service so that in times of war the United States government can draft men into service to fight for their country. The United States Army drafted Cox in 1941 and he served his country in major military conflicts including D-Day and the Battle of the Bulge. World War II was the last war the United States fought that had positive encour agement from the general population. However not every man and woman who served in the armed forces during World War II was there of their own volition. Cox was one of the thousands of men drafted by the United States government after 1940 through the Selective Training and Service Act. One survey in a 1940s Life magazine actually proclaimed that 71% of the American public endorsed the draft. Cox was not one of them. He remembers I thought it was the worst thing I ever got into...I had never been away from home and to get into something like that. I rode boxcars from here to Nova Scotia Canada and caught the boat to Birmingham England for my basic training. Although before that we went to Camp Lee Virginia for two or three months and then on to Nova Scotia...my parents went crazy. They thought I d never be back. On June 6 1944 the The Allies Forces invaded of Normandy thus beginning the United States involvement on the western front. Operation Overlord the largest seaborne invasion in history began on a Tuesday morning as allied troops landed ashore at strategic points along Normandy s coast at Omaha Juno Gold Utah and Sword Beaches. The Allies landed amidst heavy gun and artillery fire from the Germans and many men lost their lives. Cox was a part of the rear echelon he recollects Going across the ocean wasn t all that bad cause we didn t think about it. It took about six seven days to get over there. When we went from England over to France on D-Day I was out there in the English Channel for thirty days... waiting for a beachhead to get es tablished. Operation Overlord was the large-scale operation to take the country of France and establish a well-patrolled stronghold. The operation took months of planning and the governments of the allied nations used multiple different operations such as Operation Bodyguard and Pointblank resulting in many troops like Cox waiting for their deployment. Cox remembers When [D-Day] started I was on the LST waiting to get the depot set up for the soldiers to meet in. Because it was about I guess five or six hundred of us. Or maybe more than that. But that was for the rear echelon. To back up for guys at the front lines. The landings along the 77 and we had to stay in there and couldn t get out. The Nazi s surrounded the town of Bastogne by capturing all seven of the main roads that converged on the small Belgian town. The siege lasted for seven days until Somehow Patton brought his army in there and run them Germans back to their part... We took them prisoners and killed a lot of them. We had to end it according to Cox. The 101st Airborne stationed at Bastogne lost 341 men during the seven-day battle but Cox was never worried. As he remembers I thought somebody would help us get out. We ran out of food you see. You d have all kinds of K-rations and C-rations but after a certain length of time you run out of all that stuff. And they dropped I think some K-rations into our part and we got taken care of. I was in there for...I don t know if it was two weeks or a week. General Patton s Third Army broke through the encirclement on December 27 1944 from the Southwest to resume command of the 101st airborne. The men in the 101st expected to be relieved and evacuated to the south with the wounded but instead Patton insisted that they be resupplied in order to defend the town. The men of the 101st including Cox fought tenaciously and faced the elite of the German military attempting to take the town of Bastogne. By pulling out soldiers from the front lines and resupplying combat forces Cox contribution helped push the Allied forces to a win. Cox returned home after German and Italian forces surrendered in April 1945 even though his parents never thought they would see him again and many of his friends did not return with him. He settled down in Sandy Springs married and had one daughter. Even though he thought being drafted was the worst thing that could of happened to him he was thankful he had the chance to serve his country. He recollects I can t say that it affected [my life] because I don t know the future but I can t say that I d have done a lot better if I hadn t went in service. I m glad I could serve my country. You can read or listen to Cox full transcript online or if you are looking for more stories like his and other veterans who served during World War II you can check out Georgia s Public Broadcasting oral history project. B beach on Normandy took six days to establish contact with soldiers across all five points of invasion. As part of the rear echelon Cox replenished the front lines with supplies at its most crucial point and even though he was never in direct fire his memory of D-Day was as unpleasant as many veterans. Cox recollects When I got over there I was driving a truck and hauling soldiers to the front lines. One of the guys that rode in the front with me [needed to stop] I don t know why take a leak I guess or something because that was a way out in the country...The man that was riding with me never did get back in the truck fell over dead. He heard the ammunition going off and he had a heart attack. Cox helped supply the bases established in Normandy as their truck driver before his commanding officer transferred him to haul soldiers and supplies to Bastogne Belgium. he small town of Bastogne is located inside Belgium close to the Ardennes Forest. The siege of Bastogne began December 20 1944. The town is situated inside the Ardennes Forest and was thought to be impenetrable by the German Forces. However German panzer tanks pushed through the forest attacking the town straight on and breaking through the Allied lines. The skirmish was part of the larger Battle of the Bulge where the German army was attempting to capture the Antwerp harbor--an important resupply station and airfield for the Allied forces. Initially the Germans were able to push back and surround the allied forces at Bastogne creating a Bulge in the defensive line. Cox recollects The fight was going on all around there. Somehow we were well-equipped enough to keep them running back. We got into that little town in Bastogne. And then that s when the Germans surrounded us N N download transcript M M Whiskey & Tonic An interview with James Wilborn & Franklin Self B Interviewer Karen Meinzen McEnerny B Date of interview June 6th Between 1920 and 1930 the United States saw massive cultural shifts. The Roaring 20s came to a screeching halt with the crash of the stock market and the onset of the Great Depression. During the 1920s religious fundamentalists began to worry that alcohol would corruption the nation and sought to eliminate alcohol making the country dry. In 1919 the United States government banned the importation transportation and sell of non-medicinal alcoholic beverages. This made it increasingly difficult to consume alcohol. Fulton County was not immune to the Temperance Movement. The crusade to rid Atlanta and its surrounding communities of alcohol began 33 years earlier in 1886 when the county passed its first prohibition legislation making Atlanta the first city to go dry by popular vote. The temperance movement was ver y strong in the r ur al communities surrounding Atlanta which felt that the corruption of the city was beginning to affect the surrounding towns. The vote to eliminate the sale of alcohol passed by a margin of at least 219 votes. Atlanta went dry in July 1886 when liquor licenses throughout the county would expire. James Wilborn or JW was born January 7 1928 in Fulton County Georgia in the midst of prohibition. JW grew up with his cousin Franklin Self who was also born in Fulton County four years later. The cousins grew up in Sandy Springs during a time when whiskey and tonics --even for ceremony and traditional purposes--were hard to come by. During the early stages of prohibition in Fulton County druggists and doctors could legally prescribe alcohol to treat certain conditions. Tonics and wine became very popular as temperance drinks in the early twentieth century they were of the few types of alcohol still legally permissible to drink produce and sell. Charles Thomas Swift of the Swift Package Company created the SSS tonic which stood for Swift s Southern Recipe. Swift developed the tonic from a Creek Indian recipe and he made millions on its production and sale. Confederate Colonel John Pemberton developed Coca-Cola as a nerve tonic from Swif t Package Company its secret ingredient was cocaine. The cousins remember Well people got hooke d on t hos e Coc a- Colas...where they had to have them. You know they had to have a Coca-Cola to get by the day...back then it was unusual for anybody to buy more than six cokes a week...It came packed six to a carton four cartons to a case. And you got six for a quarter. It was very unusual. You were having major company if you got one to two...more than a carton. Frank remembers selling the SSS tonic as a teenager at Hardeman Echol s grocery store. [SSS Tonic] was a company in Atlanta and [the tonic] was used for coughs and colds and most anything else that they decided you needed it for. It was an all-purpose tonic...probably [tasted] along the line of licorice. The purchase of tonics and wine would continue 79 at increasingly higher rates as Prohibition continued. For working-class residents who could not afford to buy a tonic or stockpile large quantities of alcohol producing liquor was primary option. muscadine grapes were common in Fulton County and throughout the South. Many residents if they had access to a vine would pick the grapes and create their own homebrewed wine. JW remembers My father-in-law had [a grape-vine] up in Buford. He had one as big as the whole end of this room...He could pick bushels of those things ever year. I like him but I didn t care much about making wine. James father-in-law never sold the wine but provided the family with wine for gatherings or celebrations. Many men and women throughout the country would begin to brew their own wine or beer at home as it was normally the cheapest option and easiest route for consumption. Residents of Fulton County used tonics and alcohol for a multitude of purposes. As the cousins remember grocery NARA 16647176 & LOCAL 58-GHF-9-6 Medical Perscription for Whiskey 1925 requiring whiskey. J.W. remembers The old Scots did and still do believe that the first person to come in your house on New Year s Day should be a man and not a woman. Should not be a short fellow. Should be black-headed or brown-headed not blonde or red-headed because that reminds them of the Norsemen that raided the coast there in the spring. A true first stepper had brought five gifts when he came in the door. He brought a loaf of bread to show that you had food for the families for next year. He brought a block of wood to keep the fires burning and keep the house warm. He brought a crock of salt to take the bitterness out of life. He brought a grain sprig to show that the spring would be coming and the ground would be clean again. Then a bottle of merry old Merry s Panther s Creek...Whiskey. Scotch Whiskey. First footer took the first drink and if he had other houses to go to by about 10 o clock he was pretty tipsy. That was one of the most important days and they really believed that. The use of alcohol was common for traditions holidays family gatherings and celebrations. However as Fulton County outlawed whiskey and beer in 1886 many residents would order alcohol from a neighboring county and have it delivered on the train. Tactics like this would continue until Sandy Springs found their very own supplier. The United States government effectively banned the importation creation transportation and sale of alcohol throughout the country with the passing of the Eighteenth Amendment on January 8 1919. The entire country went dry the following year until 1933. While many law-abiding citizens followed this band the Eighteenth Amendment also created an entirely new line of business bootlegging for those willing to pursue it. Bootlegging was a popular line of commerce for many working class individuals. It provided an opportunity to gain an upper hand against the prohibition Graduating class at Hammond School. The group was photographed to the side of the building next to the auditorium. Back Row L-R Johnny Copeland Joan Gooch Elton Barfield Carl Heard Marilee Wood Judy Anderson ---Millwood ---Fields Wendell Summerour Middle Row L-R Mrs. Martin Jimmy Daniel Peggy Hilderbrand Frank Self Ursula Wood Mary Jo Sentell David Douglas Helen Smith Juanell Finley Front Row L-r Richard Cash Berry Jean Nash ----Fife Justine Dinsmore Rebecca Cole ___ Willilams David Green Betty Ann Hill Gene Coepland stores sold Coca-Cola and many people would buy multiple cartons for parties. For the cousins alcohol was also part of their Scottish heritage. J.W. and Frank remember growing up and following several old Scottish traditions many of them Whiskey & Tonic continued laws while also making a potentially large profit. Sandy Springs is no stranger to its bootlegging outlaws similar to many other parts of the country at the time. As cousins James J.W. Wilborn and Frank Self remember Tubby Sewell was a local bootlegger supplying many re s id e nt s wi t h Whiskey. Tubby owned a Texaco service station in the late 1930s. The cousins remember it as Texaco filling station but they do not just remember Tubby as the owner of the Texaco. He was their bootlegger. They recall Tubby Sewell was our bootlegger. He made whiskey... and sold it. Everybody knew it. No secret about it. Tubby made whiskey. He had a still somewhere. And he could go down the road he had a ... 44 coupe. He could go down the road ninety miles an hour and turn around and meet the police coming back turn that thing around at ninety miles an hour right in the middle of the road. The cousins were not sure where Tubby produced his whiskey but they knew it was somewhere off Mount Vernon and Wittner Avenue presumably on Frank Tiller s 50 acres. remembers I don t think he ever got caught. He hired somebody to do all his hauling...If you needed a pint of whiskey why you called this number and he said put two dollars in the mailbox. When you went back by you...picked up your whiskey...Nobody ever really sold it to you. You just got it. O ne of t he pr imar y reasons Prohibition was NARA Federal Agents for Prohibition largely ineffective was that the country lacked efficient means of controlling production. Tubby had multiple stills throughout the Fulton County. JW remembers You did see one of those stills out there cutting out...It was the biggest mess. They had a sheet of metal and made a big vat. Yeah. They had this big ole vat and it was watertight around the bottom. They had it all caulked and everything. And they would put all of this stuff in there. Sugar and ah corn meal and all this stuff and it fermented and bubbled and it got bugs in it and mice in it. They would pull that stuff off of the bottom and that s what they ran through to make the liquor. That was a stinky and nasty mess you ever seen. Tubby may have been the primary bootlegger of Fulton County but he was not the only JW remembers Tubby as one around Atlanta. a gentle guy with a lead The cousins remember foot. Tubby...the guy that one bootlegger in that made liquor. Uh his Alpharetta used bees sister he used to bring to protect his stills. They her to school in the recalled mornings sometimes. Yeah they had to He carried me down have plenty of water. that road one morning They had a thing out and we got down there there that they called about half way and I the worm. They ran it said Lord if I ever get and heated it down out of this car I ll never at the bottom and ride with Tubby again. the steam went up in He was going about 95 the top and it would down through [Roswell come out the end NARA Federal Agents for Prohibition Road]...and you know and dripping whiskey that was my last ride out of it...They had with Tubby. Tubby was the main supplier of Whiskey a bunch of them up there in Alpharetta...They used during the 1930s for the entire town of Sandy Springs. JW to make good corn liquor up there in Forsyth County 81 whiskey in it and those had quarts and pints. And if you wanted a quart he would take the top off and get your bottle of whiskey. But if you would go out there those darn bees would eat you up. I mean they...he had smell and they knew him and they didn t bother him. Prohibition continued in the state of Georgia and throughout the United States until 1933. Despite efforts by both the state and the country alcohol consumption did not decrease in Fulton County between 1886 and 1933. JW and Frank remember men like Tubby and the Alpharetta bee man as providers of an economic and cultural necessity to the residents of Fulton County. Economic urgency also played a significant role as the Great Depression worsened and the alcohol industry provided jobs. Farmers and rural residents who initially had voted in favor of Prohibition saw a backlash on the agricultural business as wheat and corn are the primary ingredients in beer and whiskey. The nation voted and Franklin Roosevelt repealed prohibition on December 5 1933 with the ratification of the 21st Amendment. Today producing moonshine in private distilleries is illegal in the state of Georgia but Sandy Springs has a vibrant distilling brewing and winemaking industry. The city voted on June 24 2016 in approval of zoning amendments a l l o w i n g microbreweries micro-distilleries and wineries inside the city so luckily residents c an enjoy t heir libations openly and with friends family and cousins. B Illustration of a still and up in that area up there...He s just an old guy that used to have a bunch of honey bees out in the backyard. Had the hives and all that. Well the bottom had the bee s in it and the top of it he had...Ken had half a gallon of N N download transcript M M Horses Wagons and Cattle Drives An interview with Marion Blackwell Sr. B Interviewer Suzanne Blackwell B Date of interview June 28 1994 Cattle drives were a major economic stimulus and activity and four sisters were raised on a family farm in Roswell off across America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Hangin Dog Road. He helped raise the family as one of Between 1866 and 1895 cowboys herded approximately the men of the house through the Great Depression and 10 million cattle from different points across the south routinely helped run the family farm. The Blackwell family and west to major railheads and stockyards like those in usually had somewhere between 35-50 head of cattle Chicago and Atlanta. More locally farmers and cowboys which they acquired from anyone who would sell to them. around Sandy Springs would buy cattle in the area and then Once a year young Blackwell along with several hired drive them down ha n d s wo ul d to the Atlanta help his father stockyards to sell make the twoand have them day trip from butchered. This the farm on the ac tivit y was a cattle drive down major economic to the stockyards catalyst for many in Atlant a to farmers in the sell. Moving Miller Union Horse Barns c.1910 DEM.c.1930 Coutesy of the Atlanta History Center towns of Sandy the cattle was Springs Roswell and Buckhead never easy though as they also had but t wentieth centur y moder n to create makeshift corrals to contain conveniences would make cattle them. Blackwell remembers There drives increasingly difficult. Marion was barbed wire they had a rail fence Blackwell Sr. grew up on a family farm they d use a rail fence to hold it. and routinely drove cattle with his You had to use barbed wire to keep father from Roswell through Sandy Springs and into the the cows from pushing the rails in. However the most Union Miller Stockyards in Atlanta. important part of the drive was a well-trained horse. He continues I expect we could get anywhere from thirtyBlackwell was born in 1909 and first started to ride horses five to forty forty-five maybe. You had to have some help on the farm and participate in cattle drives when he good horses. Little Man was the horse that Blackwell was as young as 13 years old. Blackwell and his two brothers remembers best for he was the only herder who could ride 83 him. He recalls that the horse always took care of him and could herd the cattle better than all the rest. The Union Miller Stockyards were founded by Captain John Miller of Kentucky who had moved to Atlanta with his wife Mollie and their seven children in 1881. He founded the stockyards shortly after arriving initially focusing on the trade of mules. The stockyards expanded and eventually encompassed an auction mart butcher church hotel barns stables and pens for horses mules cattle pigs and other types of livestock. Railroads from all over the United States brought animals to Atlanta and local ranchers and cowboys would drive cattle from surrounding towns to the stockyard complex. Cattle drives in the twentieth century became increasingly difficult as modern convenience changed the way the businesses functioned. Automobiles bridges and people all presented obstacles to Blackwell from moving sometimes fifty cattle from Roswell to the Atlanta stockyards. In order to move them across the C h a t t a h o o c h e e R i v e r Blackwell and others would first assemble the cattle in the old square in Lower Roswell and then herd them down the hill to the covered bridge on Roswell Road. Blackwell participated in The bridge acted as the first yearly cattle drives with his difficult obstacle because family as long as the cattle the horses and cattle would sustained the family farm. spook when they saw the Eventually the need to drive 1863 Confederate States Tax for Luvisa Sentell on Neat Cattle Horses water through the cracks cattle by horse decreased and Mules and all Beeves sold or used by himself and holes in the wooden as the country continued bridge. Blackwell remembers The cattle didn t want to to modernize and thoughts turned to the possibility of get in that bridge and look down in the water so you had to entering World War II. Many farmers would simply haul drive a horse and it got kinda dangerous a little bit cause livestock to the stockyards in smaller numbers. The Miller you was riding that horse to drive the cattle and the horses Union Stockyards operated for five decades until it suffered were used to making them move the way they wanted them a major fire in the 1940s which burned a number of the to it wasn t too hard. But I knew when they would get down stables barns and pens used to house large numbers of to the river down there you had a time them things through livestock. Blackwell eventually left the farming and ranching there. Blackwell would actually blindfold the horses so they life behind to become a policeman and detective in Atlanta would not see the water through the bridge directing their but he still fondly remembers his childhood around the movements as they moved through the bridge. Stockyards. Only the main buildings of the Stockyards still exist and are currently under construction to be converted Once they made it across the Roswell covered bridge into retail and office space as well as a restaurant where the herders would take the cattle through Sandy Springs patrons can enjoy dining upon a little piece of history. B Buckhead and then on to Atlanta. You d run them things down [Peachtree Road] and they didn t wanta go there. I rode a horse and some of em drove a wagon with food and it was usually a pretty long thing. But they d gather these at least once a year up around Crabapple and Roswell and run it into the stockyard here in Atlanta Blackwell recalls. Buckhead s streets also presented the problem of modern day automobiles which would naturally spook the herd. Blackwell recounts multiple times when the cows would spook and start running through the yards of homes along Peachtree Road and he and the other cowboys would have to chase them down and drive them back into the herd. Blackwell remembers [The Stockyard] was below Atlanta I mean it was below where Roswell was on the far side of Aberdeen Angus cattle on the Watkins Farm the river. Cameron Crest in Sandy Springs Woman in the Workforce An interview with Helen Preissler B Interviewer Susan B. Deaver B Date of interview August 11 2000 World War II drastically changed the nature of gender roles and sexuality within the United States. WWII offered many women the mobility to leave the domestic sphere behind and enter jobs in the defense industry the military and the public service sector for the first time. However following the war the states expected women to return to the domestic realm as wives and mothers forgetting many of the opportunities they had discovered during the war. The period known as the post-World War II baby boom (1946-1964) transformed the lives of millions of women despite efforts of many women to stay in the workforce. Those who refused to leave their jobs were usually met with hostility from those men returning to the same sectors of industry and faced increased scrutiny from managers who could have terminated their employment without recourse. However some women like Helen Preissler refused to back down and with the encouragement of her boss was able to hold a position as an editor for more than 40 years with one of the most respected banking magazines in the south. Helen Preissler was born in East Point Georgia on June 9 1914 to Alice Eleanora Hildebrand Camp and John Paul Camp. Helen was a farm girl and she recounted her early years with fond memories as a daughter of a Georgia dairy farmer. Helen s father owned 36 acres in Doraville Georgia which he later sold to buy a larger 80-acre farm in Chamblee around 1923. Helen and her three brothers grew up in Chamblee on the family s dairy farm. Helen graduated from Chamblee High School and as she recollects [After graduation ] I wanted I had a scholarship to the University of Georgia but Mother and Daddy were poor as Job s turkey and they couldn t afford to let me go to college. So I took a business course with Creighton s Business College. Helen met her husband Tom at a party for Lawson General Hospital a designated US Army General Hospital that was once located on the current site of Dekalb Peachtree Airport. Tom was a barber in the Army. When the war was over he opened a barbershop near Georgia State University and then later at Tenth and Peachtree Streets. Helen learned the value of hard work growing up on a farm and she carried that ethic as a career woman during her marriage. Helen remembers [W]hen I finished business school I went to work for McFadden Business 85 Publications and I worked Helen went back to work on The Southern Banker to support her family. She which was a magazine for remembers Well I went the southern banks. And up to Haynes McFadden to my boss who was Haynes get a recommendation. He McFadden Sr. was secretary said If you re coming back of the Georgia Bankers to work you come back to Association. And he got work here. I ll give you your out this publication called old job back. And so that s The Southern Banker. And what I did...So I would then he evolved another drop my girls off at school public ation c alled The at nine or 8 30 and go on Southern Bankers Directory to work and then I would and it was a directory of all leave work at 2 30 in order southern banks and that s to be home with them when what that s what I became they got home at three. It editor of was The Southern worked out beautifully and Bankers Director y. The I worked that way for until Southern Bankers Magazine they got out of high school. and Directory a semi-annual And then of course I went publication was published to work then with the rest of as early as 1906 and the office. Helen continued remained in print through to work as editor of The William Haynes McFadden Sr. the t wentieth centur y. Southern Bankers Directory William Haynes McFadden Sr.--Helen s boss--became the for 47 years until she retired. McFadden allowed Helen to sole owner publisher and editor in 1914. McFadden quite work a flexible work schedule in order to be both a mother literally shaped The Southern Banker with his own hands and a workingwoman in the post-war world. and those of editors like Helen. The magazine became an eloquent and well-written piece of journalism filled with Women such as Helen Preissler were inspirations to many articles regarding banks and news around Atlanta and later others who were unable--due to societal pressures--to the entire south. Many considered continue working once World War the magazine a por table II ended. Decades before it was bulletin board full of notices and commonplace Helen was able to announcements. Helen recollects tailor her career around her young [I] was news editor of The daughters schedules. When her Southern Banker for quite a while family was in crisis with the sudden and then when [McFadden] started death of her husband she was able publishing The Southern Bankers to return to her job as an editor Directory he made me editor of at McFadden Publications where the directory. And I worked there she remained until her retirement until I started having my babies in 1982. Helen s full transcript is Bank teller was the second monst common job for women in the 1950s according to ABC New s research and I stopped when I was pregnant available online where she recounts of Census Records runner-up to secretarial jobs. with Alice my oldest daughter. many memories of life on the dairy farm in addition to her years as a Helen took maternity leave to raise her two daughters workingwoman. The Southern Bankers Directory is also Alice and Jenny while Tom worked as a barber. However available for purchase online if readers are interested in McFadden often offered her small jobs on the side that she reading some of her past work. B could do from home. During maternity leave and to help make ends meet for her family Helen took jobs proofreading for the magazine. When Tom died of a sudden heart attack N download transcript M Mail on the Rails An interview with Benjamin Woodruff B Interviewer Anne Eldridge B Date of interview April 27 1991 The United States Postal Service has tirelessly delivered important documents letters and correspondence since before the United States declared its independence. The Second Continental Congress established the United States Postal Service (USPS) on July 26 1775 and Benjamin Franklin was the first postmaster general. Since then its couriers have tirelessly delivered the mail to patrons throughout the United States as well as abroad. Their motto-- Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds-- holds true even in the darkest times. Another Benjamin-- Benjamin Woodruff--served as postmaster of Sandy Springs from 1955 to 1964 and worked for the post office for 28 years as part of the greatest expansion of the postal service in U.S. history. to work ... whenever they were needed...So in the meantime I passed the examination for the Atlanta Post Office and all the work I got then was during vacation and Christmas time. Like many individuals during the Great Depression work tended to be scarce even in sectors funded by the government. However in the interim Woodruff continued to work as a substitute until something better became available--which happened to be working for the post office s railway division. [In] the meantime the examination for the Railway Post Office came up and I took that and passed it. And I decided that I would rather have the Railway Post Office instead of the downtown Atlanta Post Office. The mostly deciding factor was the Railway Post Office paid substitutes ten cents an hour more so I thought that ten cents an hour then meant a lot to me. Woodruff joined the Railway Post Office at the time when mail deliveries were finally beginning to pick up during World War II. Benjamin Woodruff born April 4 1898 in Merriweather County actually started his career as assistant store manager of Beaudry Motor Company selling Ford The Railway Post Office was Railway Post Office clerks. Courtesy of the vehicles. He lived on Sandy a subsidiary of the Main Post National Postal Museum Library Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Springs Circle for 36 years Office and began operating and saw many changes to the area during that time. Woodruff in the mid-nineteenth century. As Woodruff explains it took his first Civil Service Examination for a job as a freight Railway Post Office [sends] the mail out to the post offices carrier in Atlanta in 1936. This test determined whether an and the regular post office [sends] it out to the patrons... applicant would be able to work in government service. Even The Railway Post became an invaluable expansion to the post then it was never a guarantee that you would have a job. As office in the mid-nineteenth to early twentieth century. Highly Woodruff remembers Well at the time a person taking the trained postal workers like Woodruff would actually sort the Civil Service Examination if they passed they had to go on a mail en route to help speed up delivery to the appropriate waiting list. And they were acting as substitutes to come and main post offices. George B. Armstrong Chicago s post office 87 manager was actually the first person to establish the idea of the Railway Post Office operating between Chicago and Clinton Iowa in 1864. The Railway Expansion continued and by 1907 more than 14 000 post office clerks were providing service to over 203 000 miles of the country. Woodruff ran on the Southern Crescent Limited and the Piedmont Limited lines. As Woodruff remembers I d go up on the Crescent Limited and back on the Piedmont Limited to Charlotte North Carolina. First we went to Salisbury and we d turn around then and come back. We d go up one day spend the night and back the next. We d make three round trips and then have three days off. It d take nine days to make three round trips and then we d have three days off. Woodruff traveled from the far north to the southern coast sorting everything. The train I ran on ran all the way from New York to New Orleans and we--my section my crew ten men in our crew--we d set up a post office and we d work second class mail and newspapers and first class letters and registered mail recollects Woodruff. While the railway mail system was crucial to expediting men materials and correspondence prior to World War II the reliance of trains to move men and mail declined as the use of airplanes increased at the end of the war. As a theory postal service in mid-flight never made it past an experimental stage as men could not move efficiently. The railway mail system would soon decline and diminish in the post-war world and Woodruff would finally move to a permanent position in the Sandy Springs Post Office. The Sandy Springs Post Office was originally located in the back of Burdett s grocery store on Roswell Road. Frank Burdett was the original postmaster but in 1955 Woodruff was sworn in as postmaster of Sandy Springs. He remembers So...July the first 1955 I was sworn in as postmaster here. And I came from the Railway Mail Service on a year s leave they couldn t appoint me as a postmaster when I was already in the service there because I had to get annual leave a year leave or something. The pay within a local post office was finicky and very dependent on the amount of customers the postmaster served on a daily basis. Woodruff recollects Then the post office didn t amount to anything as far as pay was concerned because all the pay they got up until then was just pay from cancellations. See that meant cancellations and money order fees and that was...And I remember the postmaster ahead of me said one day he only made seven cents because he didn t sell but seven cents worth of stamps...In Sandy Springs all of the people who got their mail in Sandy Springs they had to have a box down there at the post office. They rented boxes and the postmaster got the box rent that was part of his salary. Woodruff saw the post office in Sandy Springs relocate to at least five different locations before he eventually retired in 1964. Benjamin and Thelma Woodruff The Railway Post Office catalyzed the expansion of the United States Postal Service helping make mail and communication more accessible to the average citizen. Benjamin Woodruff partook in that expansion as postmaster in Sandy Springs and helped deliver to citizens their letters cards and mail come rain snow sleet or shine. Woodruff gives a full account of his experiences in the postal service in his full transcript which you can read here. Additionally one of the original railway post cars is preserved and on display at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago Illinois. B N download transcript M Through A Dark Lens An interview with Bert Weston B Interviewer Valerie Biggerstaff B Date of interview December 18 2008 The United States officially joined the Allied forces on His family moved to Mount Vernon New York when he was December 7 1941 to help fight fascism in Europe. Many five. The Army commissioned Weston in 1940 but at the people know the horrific story of how the Nazi regime behest of his mother allowed him to first graduate college. persecuted anyone of Jewish descent but many are Weston began his service in 1941 and eventually attained unfamiliar with how far the mistreatment actually went. the rank of captain but served as a second lieutenant The Holocaust was the systematic bureaucratic stateduring the liberation. He served with General Patton s Third sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six US Army (TUSA ) 20th Corps and as he states We did all million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. During the rough work. You know doctors did the surgery...[we the era of the Holocaust German authorities also targeted did] the other side. Weston was not a doctor--although other groups because of their perceived racial inferiority he planned on attending medical school once the war was Roma (Gypsies) the disabled and some of the Slavic over--but instead he performed key staff functions such as peoples (Poles Russians directing medical service a n d o t h e r s ). O t h e r advising medical supply groups were persecuted training maintenance and on political ideological photography. Weston was and behavioral part of the 30th Hospital grounds among them which was a combat Communists Socialists hospital. Weston traveled Je hovah s W it ne s s e s all around Europe during and homosexuals. While World War II including historians continuously England France Germany d e b ate an d u ncover Belgium and Aus tria more data to indicate serving in a MASH unit a n a c c ur ate nu m b e r sometimes 30 miles in of men women and front of enemy lines. children affected by the Holo c au s t his tor ians One of Weston s most generally agree that the haunting experiences was Austrian civilians stack the bodies of Ebensee prisoners onto carts for transportation to a nearby burial site. Nazi regime and their his participation in the collaborators murdered liberation of the Ebensee at least eighteen million people. It took many years and forced labor camp. Hitler and the Third Reich established ongoing debate for many individuals to believe that anyone the Ebensee camp in Ebensee Austria in 1943. The camp would be capable of such atrocities. Bert Weston a resident provided slave labor for the construction of enormous of Sandy Springs served in the Army during the war. He underground tunnels in which Hitler planned to store Nazi helped liberate the Ebensee forced labor camp in Austria armament works. Prisoners would awake at 4 30 a.m. and and document many of the atrocities for the world to see. then work slavishly in horrifying conditions well past 6 00 p.m. As the Allied forces began to gain the upper hand Bert Weston was born May 9 1919 in the Bronx New York. in the Western and Eastern fronts prisoners soon began 89 Survivors from Ebensee are evacuated to the 139th Evacuation Hospital for medical treatment. working 24-hour shifts. Prisoners had little to no shelter from the harsh Austrian winters and many died due to starvation disease and horrendous living conditions. Weston remembers General Patton and Eisenhower... they all took the 80th infantry division that was going by on the highway. They diverted the trucks into the first camp that was liberated which was named Ohrdruf. And he d take them out of their trucks and had them march walk through the forced labor camp to see why they were fighting what they were fighting for. And Eisenhower was front and he uh when he saw the people there and everything and the graves and bodies all over the place he went over to the bushes and he threw up. American forces liberated the camp on May 6 1945 and Weston and his corps arrived the next day. See my outfit in the last week of the war the last day of the war we d liberated a concentration camp in Austria. We were on our way to Berlin but they wanted the Russians to get there first. So we went they rerouted us...southern Austria. And we were to take over the medical facilities of [the] concentration camp that had just been liberated a half a day before us. They broke broke into the camp and they liberated it and we came along and we rented the medical service there for the next two months remembers Weston. Weston arrived to see men and women wrecked by starvation and mistreatment. His medical unit carried a portable shower with them to help the prisoners clean themselves but Weston remembers that the cold water would occasionally do more harm than good as would offering the prisoners any kind of food. [T]he GIs would come by in trucks and they d throw candy and K rations to them. And they d [the prisoners] grab whatever they had and they d start eating them and so many guys died right on the spot Through A Dark Lens continued recalls Weston. For many liberation came too late despite doctors attempts to save them. However Patton strived to give a proper burial to all the deceased he could recover. Weston recollects General Patton was so upset with the concentration camps that he ordered everybody in the town next to the concentration camp to furnish a blanket and dig a grave. And they did. They came out there dressed in whatever they had on. Some guys were in their Sunday school clothes on and they came and they dug graves. In the days following the liberation friends and fellow inmates who survived erected monuments to honor those who had perished while the Allied forces attempted to make sense of and document the rising toll of death and destruction the Nazi regime had wrought. Like many camps throughout Europe Ebensee vanished after the war because the woman who owned the land before the Nazi occupation buried the graves monuments crematoriums and tunnels. A few years after the war Weston moved to Sandy Springs where he married and raised a family. He never did make it back to Ebensee but he made sure his experiences were memorialized. In 1986 by executive order of then-Governor Joe Frank Harris the Georgia Commission on the Holocaust was established with Bert Weston as one of the organization s founding members. Weston remembers Governor Joe Frank Harris of Georgia...was the first governor of the United States to set up a commission on the Holocaust. And I was one of the chartered members of the commission. We had the presidents of all the universities of the State of Georgia. At that time Dean Rusk was Secretary of State before he was a professor [at University of] Georgia back then after the war. And he was there at the meeting too. And we had liberators like myself there. And we had survivors of the concentration camp and some children of the survivors. And um I guess that s the first the first meeting we had was a luncheon meeting down in Buckhead. And they passed this clipboard around for people to sign who were willing to go to the schools and everywhere and tell people what the Holocaust was like. Because all of us were connected with the Holocaust. In 1998 the Georgia General Assembly voted to make the commission a permanent secular nonpartisan state agency. As per Weston s desire the commission was established to preserve memories of the Holocaust and to promote public understanding of its history. It does this through exhibits and programs. Sandy Springs first mayor Eva Galambos was a member of the Commission s board of directors. On behalf of the Georgia Commission on the Holocaust she was instrumental in relocating the exhibit Anne Frank in the World 1929-1945 to Sandy Springs where it remains today on loan from the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam. As for the remains of the Ebensee forced labor camp in 1997 Ebensee Mayor Herwart Loidl commemorated the hardships of the prisoners by uncovering some of the tunnels and installing memorial plaques. The underground chambers are accessible for educational and tourist purposes via the Lions Walk--steps carved into the rock by prisoners. Weston donated a large Children survivors stand in front of a barracks in the newly liberated Ebensee concentration camp. 91 number of the photographs he took during the liberation of Ebensee and as he got older he spoke widely of his war experience including to those at the Library of Congress. Weston s full oral history regarding his experience at Ebensee is available through the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum online at http collections.ushmm.org search catalog irn508966. You can also look at some of the memorable and chilling photographs General Patton insisted he capture by searching his name in their digital collections. B N N download transcript M M A survivor from Ebensee is loaded onto an ambulance by German military personnel for transportation to the 139th Evacuation Hospital for medical treatment. Photo Credit United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of Bert Weston Austrian civilians bury the bodies of former prisoners of the Ebensee concentration camp. Stubborn As A Mule An interview with Aubrey R. Morris B Interviewer Bill Wynne B Date of interview October 11 and November 16 1993 Unlike many localities associated with Atlanta Sandy Springs never had an industry that attracted many people. Roswell employed a good number of residents at its cotton mill but the majority of Sandy Springs residents were always farmers. Sandy Springs began to urbanize in the mid-twentieth century primarily after World War II. A few citizens bought cars in the early 1920s prompting the paving of the town s major routes. Roswell Road and Mount Vernon Highway are two of the most important roads in Sandy Springs not only because they were the first to be paved but because their modernization meant easier access to the businesses opening up along them. Before Roswell Road became the congestion of traffic that current residents have come to expect farmers would use horses and mules to pull wagons into town to sell produce meats and other wares--even if they did own a car. Roswell. Morris grew up in rural Depression era-Sandy Springs and remembers too well what it was like to see the slow urbanization of his town. His father was a farmer by trade a devout Methodist and provider. Morris father bought a forty-acre plot of land outside of Roswell where the family lived. He grew fruits and vegetables and raised livestock and when he had extra he would take his wares into town on a wagon. However Morris remembers his father s first job was working for the Sandy Springs convict camp. He recollects My father started out working in the Sandy Springs. His first job was for a man called Bub he called him Bub Clark who was the superintendent of the warden of the Fulton County Prison Camp in Sandy Springs. His job was to go out with prisoners to supervise them when they were grading the roads around Sandy Springs. They d be several crews and they had big strong horses. Many resident s remember Sometimes the grading was what is was like before Sandy heavy enough they would hitch Springs began to urbanize but four horses. Livestock was the only one can claim to have a lay of the land in Sandy Springs father who was the last man in and Morris distinctly remembers Aubrey Morris 2005 by Carrie Carden town to drive a mule team and the importance of mules and wagon up Roswell Road before horses especially to his father. the town paved it. Aubrey Richard Morris is probably best Farmers and businesses used livestock to survive at every known for his journalism career with WSB news and radio. facet of life until after the Depression when automobiles Morris was the news director of WSB radio for 2 years. He would become more widely available for purchase. Morris worked at The Atlanta Journal as in intern in the summer of recollects Well my father was the last man in Roswell 1944 and when he graduated in 1945--after the war--he to drive a team of mules into Roswell to deliver produce went back to the newspaper and began his career on the watermelon vegetables poultry and meats and things he very day he graduated. Morris was born January 11 1922 grew ... on his farm. I mentioned earlier he was a farmer and on a large farm in the Lebanon community right outside carpenter. So we we relied basically on mule power. Horse 93 power but we had mules. Livestock would eventually fall out of fashion as automobiles and industrial tractors would make farming more efficient but only if you could afford to own and drive one. Automobiles and machinery arrived in Sandy Springs during the early 1920s and 1930s. Morris father actually supervised the workers as they quarried and paved Roswell Road. Many farmers were able to purchase their first vehicle during the Roaring Twenties as industrialism and consumerism hit new heights but gasoline would be inaccessible during the Depression. Morris remembers [M]y father purchased ... an old A-model Ford at one time. We had a T-model Ford that he used for a number of years. This was in the late 20s when I was very small...I don t remember him driving [the A-model] very much because this was by then the beginning of the Great Depression...and he couldn t afford to buy the gasoline to put gasoline in the car so he parked it under a shed. Morris father eventually sold the Model A and returned to using livestock. Due to the inaccessibility of gas Morris father continued to use mules to carry his wagon and produce into town and according to Morris was one of the last people to drive a mule and wagon up the newly-paved Roswell Road. Due to its central location in Sandy Springs Roswell Road became the primary district of businesses in the early 1920s and 1930s. Roswell Road during my childhood in the 1920s Roswell Road was one of the first paved roads Morris remembers and therefore many of the first gas stations grocery and hardware stores opened up along Roswell and Mount Vernon Highway. Smith s Service Station operated on the corner of Roswell and Piedmont Roads selling shoes dry goods and groceries. Robert Nesbitt Hardeman and his wife opened up a general store at the corner of Mount Vernon Highway and Roswell Road in 1920. Morris recalls However at one time we did own an icebox and an ice man in in Roswell--[the] Gentry family ran the icehouse there. They would haul ice from Atlantic Ice and Coal Company in Atlanta. Haul it up Roswell Road by the truckload store it in sawdust--dust from a sawmill. They would store it and you would go in there and buy 20 pound or a 50 pound block of ice. You d take it back and back then everybody had a ice pick. Businesses such as these operated well throughout the 1920s. The aforementioned Ted Gentry built the Rock Inn Bait Shop located on Norcross Street in 1930 and used the building as a service station country store and icehouse. Ted Gentry also ran a second store on Mimosa Boulevard in Roswell which was the closest place Sandy Springs residents could buy ice for their icebox or refrigerator. Sandy Springs began to urbanize in the 1920s as paved and concrete roads helped catalyze the emergence of consumerism and businesses. Gas stations and general stores operated as important centers for the community along Roswell Road and Mount Vernon Highway. Not only did they provide goods and services to residents but Hardeman Echols 1920 they also functioned as gathering spots for men to discuss events of the town. World War II slowly stimulated the economy and Sandy Springs residents would either enter the war or remain back home to open more businesses such as Burdett s Grocery Store George Nance Pure Oil Fraser Plumbing and Heating Company the Roy Lewis Barber Shop and Taylor s Department Store. Roswell Road and Mount Vernon Highway will always be remembered as fundamental to the business district of Sandy Springs which helped stimulate economic growth and urbanization even if it did eventually stop Morris father from driving his team of mules up the road toward the Methodist church. B N download transcript M A Sandy Springs Treasure An interview with Frances Glenn B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of interview July 19 1995 One of Sandy Springs most historic mansions was a 12 000 square foot Tudor-style manor originally built for Thomas K. Glenn former president of Atlantic Steel Company. Until recently Glenridge Hall built in 1933 stood as a home entertainment hall and ode to historic Sandy Springs. Thomas bought the land in 1915 and between 1915 and 1930 developed it into a fully self-sustaining farm complete with stables gardens pastures and cows pigs mules horses chickens and about 12 beagles. From 1933 to 1946 Thomas and his wife Elizabeth enjoyed Glenridge Hall both as a quiet rural weekend retreat and as a setting for lavish social entertaining. The mansion of fered an extravagant experience in the middle of a rural setting and for Frances Glenn Thomas and Elizabeth s daughter in-law it was more than just a weekend retreat it was home. Frances married Thomas oldest son Wadley Glenn in 1942 and according to her Thomas Glenn played a major role in Atlanta s history. Mr. Glenn began his career as an executive secretary at the Atlanta Electric Street Car Company which is known today as Georgia Power. He finished his career as president and chairman of Trust Company of Georgia which is now SunTrust Bank. Frances recollects Thomas K. Glenn was the eldest son of a Methodist minister. He remarried in 1927 after his first wife died during childbirth and built Glenridge Hall as a wedding present for his second wife Elizabeth. Glenn and Elizabeth began construction on Glenridge Hall in 1929 on the land Glenn had originally purchased in 1915. I met Mr. Glenn in 1935. I was dating his son Dr. Wadley Glenn. At the time I was at Grady Memorial Hospital as an anesthetist. Coming out to Glenridge to ride with Mr. Glenn and Dr. Glenn we got to be very close. He treated me as I would think he would treat a daughter if he had one Frances remembers. We would go out to town and have lunch when Dr. Glenn was overseas. And I would come out to the country--it was the country then--and ride and have lunch out there. They started building that house in 1929 Glenridge Hall 95 but it wasn t completed until 1933. And they had musicals and he had a big barbecue place and the Skeet Club. And they would have parties like that. Every week they would have a Skeet Club shoot. The house was the pinnacle of extravagance during the 1930s. Family members would use the house on weekends as a retreat from the bustle of daily life retiring to the charming English-country home. Frances Glenn s husband Wadley was a noted engineer surgeon hospital administrator and World War II veteran. Dr. Glenn was a reserve officer in the Navy and immediately enlisted into the Army after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Frances recollects [I] was at Emory and he was in private practice but he joined up immediately and was sent to Pensacola Florida. He had asked me to marry him before he left. So we were planning to wait awhile but then he got orders that they might ship out any day...so I went to Pensacola. And Mr. Glenn Wilbur and his wife Hilda came down for the weekend. So we were married at Reverend Frasier s manse in 1942. Dr. Glenn was stationed in the South Pacific during the five years he was in service and operated as a flight surgeon with the Army on Okinawa. Frances remembers [He] was on Okinawa the day the Japanese signed the Peace Treaty. He saw them sign the Peace Treaty. Frances visited Glenridge Hall on weekends while Wadley was overseas and when he returned they made the house their permanent home. The 86-year-old mansion played an important role in the life of Frances and Dr. Glenn. It served as a weekend and summer retreat for Thomas and Elizabeth but for Frances Wadley and their children it was home. We lived on Shadowlawn first then we lived on Jett Road then we moved out to Glenridge. Hilda and Wilbur were living there at the same time. I don t think you could ever get along too well with your in-laws if you don t have the same thing like the same things. So we lived I guess together about a year...We lived-- Wadley and I lived in the Mr. Glenn and Mrs. Glenn s suites which was on the east end of the house. And Hilda and Wilbur lived on the north end recounts Frances. The couple welcomed three sons--Frances Raul and Kerney--who also had a chance to enjoy the home. Frances recollects Those boys had a wonderful life growing up out here. And I think they played at Glenridge Hall cops and robbers and everything else. The Glenns designed Glenridge Hall to look as if it was more than 400 years old. It was the only site in north Fulton County to be designated as a historic landmark. The property was showcased in several media outlets--including the movie Driving Miss Daisy two commercials five magazine articles and two books describing Atlanta s best architecture. The mansion was also rented by The Westminster Schools but as Frances remembers Westminster rented it for [dormitories]...[for] three or four years but they really tore it up. Those leaded glass windows they just mashed them in. It was in a terrible mess. The house was also used for a variety of community events. Due to family deaths and then the high cost of renovating the once glorious mansion the Glenn family s estate holders decided to sell the historic mansion and its surrounding properties to corporate concerns. The house was demolished in April 2015. The property is now being developed as the national headquarters for MercedesBenz USA but for 83 years it stood as a testament to the charming lifestyle many people sought in Sandy Springs. B N download transcript M Not Always the Worst of Times An interview with Pauline Polly H. Coleman B Interviewer Anne Eldridge B Date of interview February 13 1992 The stock market crash of 1929 was the worst financial crisis the United States had ever seen and signaled the 10-year depression that would alter the lives of countless Americans--including the residents of Sandy Springs. Affluent men and women lost their assets in the stock market crash which in turn filtered down to affect their businesses and the men and women they employed. The Depression hit Georgia especially hard as cotton--the states primary agricultural crop--plummeted to rockbottom prices. After multiple failed attempts by President Herbert Hoover in 1929 1930 and 1931 to correct the economic crisis the presidential election of 1932 brought Franklin Delano Roosevelt into office. Sandy Springs was not immune to the devastation of the depression and its residents did anything they could to survive while President Roosevelt worked to revitalize the economy. Pauline H. Coleman or Polly as no one ever called her Pauline lived in Sandy Springs from 1931 to 1974. She was born in Roswell on the DeKalb county line back when it was known as Dunwoody. She moved to Atlanta with her parents when she was five years old and then to Buckhead eventually moving back to Sandy Springs after she married George E. Coleman Sr. --in the midst of the Great Depression. George s parents and hers were close friends and the two friends started dating as early as Polly can remember. They married in 1928 when Polly was 16 years old and in time they raised four sons. George was a builder and developer. Polly in addition to being a wife and mother of four worked in the school as an aid in the first grade and kindergarten classes. Polly remembers [W]hen you raise four boys you work... but when the boys got old enough that I could be away when they came in from school I helped Miss Annie Cook in the kindergarten at First Baptist in Sandy Springs. Polly would help Miss Cook for about five years teaching all the boys in kindergarten and the first grade. Community was always important for Sandy Springs residents and even more so during the Depression. Polly recollects she had two ver y good neighbors Mrs. Bertha Townsend and Ms. Charles Jackson. [T]hey were the best things in the world to me. They took me under their wing and there had not been a baby in the Jackson family in 15 years. So they just took my baby over remembers 97 We didn t go hungry and uh like I said my husband well one Christmas I guess the worst Christmas there was during the Depression for us he sold Christmas trees on the street Polly recounts. He went out you see his Daddy had a real big farm I don t know how many acres he had but he had this huge farm and he could go up there and cut all the trees he wanted to and he sold Christmas trees on the street. It did not matter what kind of work was available as long as a person was resourceful enough to find a niche in the market. Fortunately George was only out of work for a few months while many men were not able to find work for almost a decade. While it was not easy Polly and George had some outside experiences that uplifted their spirits. Polly remembers And then President Roosevelt went in office about the time Richard was born and we couldn t decide on a name for Richard...and uh Dr. Azard kept sayin why don t you name him Richard Dealanor [sic] because he said we re going to have better times now...we names [sic] him Richard for Richard D. Russell and Delanor [sic] for Franklin Delanor [sic] Roosevelt. [Dr.] Azard wanted me to write to the President and to Richard D. Russell and tell them that we had the baby and had named the baby for them. And I thought well that s kind of foolish but I ll do it anyway and I had an immediate reply back from both of them. And a beautiful linen handkerchief from President Roosevelt and down in the corner in fine blue embroidery it had Happy Days are here again from Franklin D. Roosevelt. Polly saved those two mementos as they were a source of encouragement for her George and eventually the four boys. George went back to building and developing houses and Polly continued to raise the four boys. While it was not easy for most thankfully it was not the worst of times for Polly and her family. B Polly. She continues They lived there for many many years. Both of them did. And I every time something got wrong with the baby I would call on them...so I was a pest. Everyone tried to help everybody during this time of need. Many residents helped their neighbors out by offering work for trade when direct payment was not an option. Local physician Dr. Azard would only charge 25 to deliver community babies by making house calls. Dr. Azard helped deliver Polly and George s second son Richard. Polly recounts [W]hen Richard was born Dr. Azard charged 25 to deliver him and my husband went to Dr. Azard s house and did some work for him to pay him for deliverin Richard. So things were not easy I can assure you of that. As men continually lost their jobs and work became even scarcer some men would pack up and leave their families behind while others abandoned their trades and took any job available. Sometimes the burden of being a father and provider was so intense that many men would become transients traveling across the country to find work wherever they could if none was available near their homes. George stayed by Polly and their sons but he worked a multitude of jobs to help the family survive. [D]uring the Depression it was bad because there was not work for men to do and my husband just did odd jobs to keep us goin ...[for] people who needed things done around their house remembers Polly. George was the type of man that would do any kind of work according to Polly so while times were bad their family never starved. N download transcript M Copeland Road and the Ice Age An interview with Myrtle Copeland Reed B Interviewer Morris Moore B Date of interview Summer 1995 For close to a century Copeland Road in Sandy Springs [my grandparents] had a house there. They came from Forsyth was located just south of Roswell Road and I-285 between County and built this house that the youngest son and the Roswell Road and Lake Forrest Drive. Today you will find the youngest daughter were born there she recalled. I became same street listed on maps with a different name Northwood a member of Sandy Springs Methodist Church when I was Drive. The road originally named for the Copeland family that eight years old [in 1915] but I was living in Atlanta at that time settled there in the because my mother late 1800s became had to work. I spent renowned in the all my summers with 1970s and 80s as my grandmother an illegal drug- and and grandfather on crime-centered the farm. corridor. The street was renamed Each s u m m e r Nor thwood in Myr tle and her the late 1990s in f amily at tended hopes that a new the Sandy Springs name would help Camp Meeting re-identif y the just up the road neighborhood and This was an thus deter criminal interdenominational activities. In the c a m p m e e t i n g process of changing Presbyterians The ice house in Buckhead located on the corner of Pharr Road and Peachtree ca. 1945 names however B a p t i s t s the history of the Methodist... Copeland family and their daily life in Sandy Springs all but Everything was planned the whole year for the camp meeting disappeared. [in August]. [We stayed] in cabins called tents but they were just rough wood structures. And our tent had an upstairs to Myrtle Copeland Reed remembers the area s earlier days well it and all the men and boys slept upstairs and all the women On Roswell Road just below where the Perimeter crosses... and girls slept downstairs recalled Myrtle. [In preparation 99 for camp meetings we] would rob the bee hives well they d be about six jars of the very best [honey] that would be. My grandmother had two cupboards in the kitchen and one of them was the camp meeting cupboard. That s where the honey went and then all the best of the preserves and the best of the pickles and everything was put on those shelves. The garden was planted at a time that they knew would be ready to be gathered [for the meeting]. They d fatten the calves and butcher it and save the best hams. And then about two or three days before we moved into the tent they d start baking all kinds of pies and cakes. What I can t understand is why things didn t spoil. The answer to that was most likely in the ground preparations once at camp. When the Copelands arrived they dug a big hole and would get a bunch of sawdust and then they d get... it must have been five hundred pounds of ice. It would be two big clumps of ice and they d put it down in that hole with the sawdust. And that s where they kept the meat covered up Myrtle said. You went to Buckhead and got the ice. In the early 20th century it was not unusual for ice to be delivered to the camp meeting or to Sandy Springs residents. There is a long history of transporting ice from regions with cold climates and selling it in warmer regions where a high demand for ice was needed for food preservation. The shipping of ice from New England to the South and on to the Caribbean became popular in the early 1880s and thus spurred the development of industrial icehouses. From these warehouses ice was transported by ship or wagon to individual homes. Families in the city typically had small iceboxes inside their kitchens. It was common for these boxes to be made of wood and insulated with sawdust cork or even seaweed and lined with tin zinc or another non-corroding metal . Families in rural areas such as 1900s Sandy Springs might have had their own icehouse a building made specifically to store ice and food for preservation on their farm or plantation. Icehouses typically were of a vernacular style fitting the landscape of the farm. All were insulated similar to the small kitchen iceboxes with sawdust and non-corroding metals when available. Ice in the late 1800s brought in about four to six cents per pound and with the average urban American consuming approximately one ton of ice annually residents of that time spent about 100 on ice each year. In today s economy that would equal about 2 200 per year for ice. While ice was and continues to be an excellent method for preserving food farmers in rural areas used other methods for preservation as well such as smoking or salting meats and canning fruits and vegetables. Not only did the transportation of ice and its storage in icehouses throughout the South aid in food preservation but in the mid-1800s it also increased the availability of larger quantities of ice cream a tasty by-product of the ice and technological revolutions. Myrtle remembers the drugstore down on the right-hand side below Mount Vernon. We finally got a drugstore...before that you had to go all the way over Ice Delivery - NOT SANDY SPRINGS. It is an example Copeland Road and the Ice Age continued to Piedmont to Hunter s to get an ice cream cone. That was where a lot of the courting was done going over to the ice cream factory. Having an area drugstore was a big deal for Sandy Springs and residents would venture out to a small offering of other businesses too to stock up on supplies or to treat themselves to specialty items. Myrtle remembers there were three businesses in Sandy Springs between 1912 and 1920. One of them was just a tiny building where this lady that had never married. She had some drinks but I can t imagine how they would taste because they were not on ice we had no ice out there. [She also sold] ... Octagon soap powders and all kinds of tobacco. And I don t remember seeing any cigarettes I think most of them rolled their own then. And she would sell tablets and pencils and things like that. She continues Right on out beyond [her store] about where the [Mount Vernon] Presbyterian Church is Matt Acree had a blacksmith shop. And that was big business Because all the farmers had to have their plows sharpened and everything mended. And then out on Johnson Ferry at Glenridge .... Mr. Burdett had a gin and a sawmill. But those were the only three buildings that were in Sandy Springs other than the schools and the churches. As for Sandy Springs businesses none were on Roswell Road said Myrtle. They had a potato house a potato curing house. And it was out there where Mount Vernon and Johnson Ferry join. They lasted for a while... I have an idea that it was because of the temperature. It should have stayed at a certain temperature but we didn t have electricity or gas or anything then. [Then] I guess the first little store was the one that Mr. Burdett had and then I think Mr. Frank bought it. Then right across from that was the Hardeman store recalled Myrtle. Today Roswell Road is chocked full of all types of businesses and Copeland Road aka Northwood Drive is just a shadow of its former self. It is now home to a large portion of Sandy Springs Hispanic community which includes a mix of residential commercial and religious establishments. Though none of the area businesses Myrtle remembers remain in Sandy Springs today her family s name lives on in the memories of aging original Sandy Springs residents as well as in former map books of the region. B N download transcript M Copeland Road 101 Image of James Monroe Sentell. James was a Civil War Veteran. The Sentell family lived near the present day Mystic Drive and Roswell Road. Image of Samuel Wesley Power in his Confederate uniform. He holds a bible. He was the son of James Power who operated the Powers Ferry. Heros in Grey Image of James Addison McMurtrey. The image appears to have been made in a studio. He appears to be a young man. The image may have been made before he went to the Civil War. The family lived near present day Morgan Falls. Civil War image of John Thomas McElreath Jr. He holds a gun and appears to be in uniform. He may have served with a Forsyth Company before relocating to Oak Grove (Sandy Springs). Crossing the Chattahoochee An interview with Dr. Franklin Garrett B Interviewer Talk for SSHCF B Date of interview October 1994 The topographical composition of Sandy Springs catalyzed numerous historical moments within U.S. history. The Chattahoochee River splits the area into multiple islands requiring a multitude of bridges--or ferries--for crossing. During the Civil War Atlanta operated as a central supply hub to the Confederate Army. The centrality of its railroads enabled the city to supply the Confederate Ar my with ar ms supplies and soldiers consequently making it a target for the Union Army. The Union repeatedly forced the Johnston s Confederate Ar my of Tennessee to retreat during the Atlanta Campaign of the Civil War from May to September of 1864. As the Confederacy retreated further and further south in the face of successive flanking maneuvers the Union Army eventually ended up at Sandy Springs using many of the ferries to gain access to Atlanta. Dr. Franklin Garrett a historian by trade debunks some of the myths regarding the presence and destruction of the Roswell and Sandy Springs areas during the Union s occupation. Dr. Franklin Garrett was born in Milwaukee Wisconsin and arrived in Atlanta in 1914 as a young child. [W]e finally arrived in Atlanta during the week of May the 10th 1914 on the Royal Palm remembers Garrett. That was one of the fine Chicago to Florida trains that we used to have and I wish we still did. A prominent historian of the Atlanta area Dr. Garrett has written numerous anthologies regarding the historical necrology of Atlanta and surrounding areas. Dr. Garrett dedicated his life to learning the historical significance of Atlanta and its citizenry a n d co nvey i ng t hat importance to the Sandy Spr ings and Atlant a communities. One prominent feature he noticed regarding the Sandy Springs area is the influence of topography on the local history. [A]t the time this was there were a lot of farms a lot of farms in this immediate locality. I expect that our oldest road names are named for the Chattahoochee River ferries and grist mills. I lived on two I lived on Paces Ferry Road at one time and I now live on Randall Mill Road remembers Garrett. 103 Some of the historical ferries were located in Sandy Springs and many of the contemporary roads are named after them. Johnson s Ferry (originally Johnston s Ferry) Power s Ferry and Pace s Ferry were some of the many ferries that operated around the Sandy Springs area. Pace s Ferry--operated by Hardy Pace--began during the Georgia Gold Rush in 1829. Hardy got the idea as he operated a stagecoach bringing travelers in and out of gold country and by 1830 operated the ferry as an important link between northwest Georgia and Atlanta. Garrett states Hardy Pace was the man who opened the Pace s Ferry across the Chattahoochee River which some of the Federal troops came across in 1864... The battle--or skirmish--of Pace s Ferry was fought July 5 1864 when Union General Oliver O. Howard seized a key pontoon bridge (at Pace s Ferry) over the Chattahoochee River. This enabled Federal troops to continue their offensive to capture the rail center at Atlanta--a major hub of confederate supply and support. Union troops encountered little resistance and despite Confederate attempts to burn the bridge the Union arrived in time to save majority of it. The Confederacy in a last ditch effort cut the mooring ropes confining the boat and let the boat drift into the middle of the river--halting an attack opportunity for the Union. The numerous branches of the Chattahoochee that cut across Atlanta Roswell Dunwoody and Sandy Springs supported the emergence of multiple ferries that hauled mules wagons citizens and soldiers between 1835 and 1900. Just upstream from Pace s Ferry James Power established Power s Ferry in 1835 which remained in operation until 1903 when a nearby bridge made the ferry less practical. The Union Army also utilized the Power s Ferry in 1864 during the Atlanta Campaign of the Civil War. Incidentally I understand that General Sherman crossed the Chattahoochee River personally at Powers Ferry recalls Garrett. He crossed the Chattahoochee River at Powers Ferry and he spent the first night what they called in the field that is in a tent where the Crossroads Church now is...The second night he spent at the Samuel House plantation...And while I ve known some descendants of the Powers family I never heard them brag about the fact that General Sherman used their ferry to get across the river. General Howard decided not to force a crossing at Pace s Ferry against the Confederate troops entrenched across the river. Instead Sherman moved his troops to Power s Ferry and outflanked them. This enabled the Union Army to continue to Atlanta and disrupt the confederate supply chain. Many see the Atlanta Campaign as a series of battles in which the Union Army either destroyed everything in its path or the Confederacy in a desperate attempt to prevent the Union from gaining control would burn it before they left. Garrett recollects this was not the case The object of the Union Army was to cut the railroads so they couldn t operate and the factories that made everything for the Confederate Army. And so those were destroyed. And a lot of buildings were accidentally burned but it was not just completely destroyed. Atlanta and Roswell incidentally are the same age. They were founded the same year 1837...Most people conclude that Roswell must must be much older because of the number of antebellum homes that are still standing there. [T]he high command picked out the best houses in Atlanta to stay in that s human nature. General Sherman picked out the Neal Home which was a two-story white-columned mansion where City Hall now is. And that building survived until 1926. The Union Army captured Atlanta on September 2 1864 effectively occupying and disrupting the supply chain to the Confederacy. The Union Army actually preserved the area as much as they could. The only damage the Union Army did in Roswell was burn down the mill and send the operators north. They didn t go around burning everybody s house down which seemed to be unnecessary in the first place according to Garrett. Johnson s ferry operated until 1903 and the names of Pace s Johnson s and Heard s all survive as reminders of the ferries that helped transform the historical events that occurred in the area. The use of the ferries by soldiers during the Civil War show the importance of geographical location for any military conflict. Dr. Garrett is to date the only officially-named historian of Atlanta. If you are interested in learning more about Atlanta s history Dr. Garrett s Atlanta and Environs A Chronicle of its People and Events remains the best reference for the city s history. Other noted works include Chronological History of the Coca-Cola Company 18861965 Vignette History of Atlanta and Yesterday s Atlanta. Garrett also recounted a comprehensive history of the necrology of Atlanta and Sandy Springs which is available online at http Garrett.atlantahistorycenter.com. B N download transcript M Service on the Home Front An interview with James T. Lamberth B Interviewer Virginia Allison B Date of interview December 1990 World War II was a crucial event for the twentieth James Tilden Lamber th was one of the men who century. The war catalyzed profound and permanent faithfully served his country during World War II through environmental social and cultural change helping shape domestically-based responsibilities. Born March 18 1902 the character of the United States and its citizenry. One Lamberth spent his life as a Sandy Springs resident. Raised of the largest battlefields by his gr andparent s d u r i n g a ny mili t a r y af ter his father died conflic t is the home of pneumonia he was f ront. Men women born nine miles above and children are often Buckhead on Roswell required to provide Road. Lamber th- -a milit ar y or technic al p lu mb er by t r ad e - ser vice ration food married his Milledgeville purchase war bonds girl named Rosa Belle or provide exemplar y Erwin when he was 21 notions of patriotism. years old. At the time During World War II I got married I worked the cultural landscape for Mitchell Plumbing of Americ a changed across the street from the d r as t ic all y fo r b ot h Decatur depot recalls men and women. With Lamber th. I drove a the war depar tment s Model T truck with Image Courtesy of New Georgia Encyclopedia dr af ting of over 10 solid rubber tires and a million men into military service women--for the first buggy chair...I also ran stand pipe for water meters on new time in American history--were actively encouraged to housing sites. Lamberth continued his trade at multiple leave the home to fill roles in both the military and war sites until the 1940s when he worked for the Bell Bomber industries. However some men were left behind having plant in Marietta--a large-scale military production site been determined as IV-F (i.e. vital to the war cause but throughout the war. not eligible for combat service) and served roles for the war industry from the domestic battlefront. Before 1942 Cobb County had a population of about 8 000 105 and relied heavily on its cotton production as a means of joined the workforce in unprecedented numbers. Bell gave economic support. Construction began on the Bell Bomber women the opportunity to work as secretaries engineers plant in Marietta Georgia on March 30 1942 transforming and in some cases afforded them managerial positions. the community into a major industrial center. The federal In February 1945 Bell employed 28 158 local workers--37 government provided 73 million dollars in federal aid for percent were women and 8 percent African American. construction the plant produced B-29 bombers covered Lamberth worked multiple jobs both in and out of Bell. more than In 1940-42 I was [also] 4.2 million an air raid warden he s q uar e fe et recalls. I walked Harold and employed Avenue from one end more than to the other every time 28 000 locals-- the siren went off to including see that all lights were Lamberth. out. Later when the all In the 40s I clear came I would go worked for the back visit and sell war Bell Bomb er bonds. plant in Marietta. The The U.S. government Building lacked encouraged participation 1 10 t h of a and support of the war mile being 1 on many different levels. mile under one The purchase of war roof. I worked bonds and the planting Image Courtesy of Kennesaw State University 10 h o u r s a of vic tor y day 7 days a gardens week for 14 we r e t wo months. I got 1 000 a year bonus for perfect of the ways attendance. I only took one day off to go to the state a funeral he remembers. There were 360 actively plumbers on the job. I worked along side air encouraged hammers on a catwalk. That is where I lost support. my hearing. I was given ear plugs to wear Lamberth but I was afraid someone would say duck remembers and I wouldn t hear. The Bell Bomber plant selling war was the largest aircraft production facility to bonds to Image Courtesy of Nasa.gov date in the Deep South and created over 668 ever yone of the Boeing Corporation s B-29 Superfortress Bombers in the town. I sold more war bonds than any one on this which ranked the plant among the 25th most productive side of town. Every house bought bonds including myself. plants during the duration of World War II. I came home from work one afternoon--heard something going on in the front yard. A short fat guy was playing Roll The bomber plant in Marietta allowed many men to Out the Barrel on the accordion. A catering truck was continue their tradecraft while learning and improving pulled up out front for the public. We had a celebration other skills. Lamberth remembers he learned to weld while for being a 100 percent block. The United States spent working on the catwalk and also states Volunteers were over 300 billion dollars funding the war effort and by 1946 needed to hook up air conditioners on the roof. Only three across the US American citizens such as Lamberth helped out of 135 on the payroll volunteered--I was one of three. raise 185 billion through the purchase of war bonds. Big Ike I was my own boss. I could do as I pleased had all the help I wanted to wait on me. Working for the bomber Victory gardens were also a popular mechanism of support. plant probably kept me out of the draft. Women also Due to the rationing of sugar butter milk eggs coffee Service on the Home Front continued and other foodstuffs the government encouraged citizens to become selfsustaining and supply their own provisions. Nearly 20 million Americans answered the call and began planting victory gardens in their windows backyards and any open space they could find. In Sandy Springs the state actually provided the means to create a garden for its citizens. Lamberth recalls At this time there were victory gardens along the side of the road--every where you went. The government donated the land seeds and fertilizer even plowed the ground. All you had to do was plant and look after. The government wanted everyone to raise their own food so there would be more to send to the troops. During the war it would have been hard to find fresh produce and it was a way for individuals to feel like they were doing their part. Lamberth says I wished I had a victory garden but I already had my own backyard one. Life in the United States changed drastically after the war ended. Food shortages still occurred women were encouraged to leave their jobs in factories and return to the domestic sphere--despite reluctance from the majority of women to do so--and the age of consumerism initiated at a startling pace. However for many in the Sandy Springs area life returned to normal. The Bell Bomber plant began to reduce its production levels and employee numbers as the Japanese were preparing to surrender. The plant is still in operation under Lockheed Martin aerospace company and 70 years later the factory remains a critical component of the aeronautics field. Today residents can enjoy seeing some of the planes produced there by visiting the Commemorative Air Force Dixie Wing Museum Image Courtesy of University of Wisconsin in Peachtree City or by attending one of the museum s air shows. Its annual WWII Heritage Days is a family-friendly event held each spring complete with WWII reenactments or as Lamberth fondly remembers to family and friends those days were ...the best of times. B If anyone has original photographs from Sandy Springs or the Bell Bomber Plant in Marietta during World War II we would love to obtain copies of original photographs or oral histories. Please contact curator hertiagesandysprings.org or 404.851.9111 ext. 2 N download transcript M the colonial dames o america 107 YE 125 ARS YE 125 ARS Actively promoting our national heritage through historic preservation patriotic service and educational projects. www.nscda.org Supporting Heritage Sandy Springs and other non-profit organizations in the community that promote the arts heritage education the environment and social services in Sandy Springs. The Sandy Springs Society is committed to improving the community by identifying and supporting community needs and programs of broad interest through effective action. www.sandyspringssociety.org Prison Camps An interview with Howard Marion Hardeman B Interviewer Bill Wynne B Date of interview October 6 1993 As industry and growth came to Sandy Springs in the early twentieth century the labor force demanded a certain level of output that law-abiding citizens alone could not meet. It is not well-known that the state of Georgia routinely employed the use of prisoners and chain gangs--a group of prisoners shackled together--to complete roadwork and to quarry rock which in turn enforced brutal race relations in the early twentieth century south. The use of prisoner chain gangs was a part of southern progressive reform as well as state- and countysponsored racial and economic modernization. Conditions for these prisoners were tough. They would work and quarry rock all day in the hot sun only to return day after day to repeat the process. In Fulton County state-sponsored prisoner and convict camps existed as a labor force from the 1880s to the 1940s. However at present many residents of Fulton County forget that a diverse community at one point chose to segregate prisoners use them to widen and construct roads and rent them out as laborers. While many residents choose to forget this piece of Sandy Springs history or just overlook its importance some residents like Howard Hardeman remember them all too well. Howard Marion Hardeman long time resident of Sandy Springs was born on March 31 1927 on West Wieuca Road half way between Roswell Road North Fulton Park and Lake Forrest Drive. He grew up near Wieuca Road and as an adult lived on Mount Vernon Highway. Howard s father owned a meat and poultry market in the old Municipal Market on Edgewood Avenue beginning in 1926 and Howard--after his enlistment in the Navy during World War II--bought the market from his father and operated it until 1957. As a child in Sandy Springs however Howard remembers the prisoner camp located near the field his father owned above their house. Well what stands out to me it was it was a very nice setting and the building was always real white he remembers. They was whitewashed I think not painted but whitewashed. And...Mr. Will Sentell was a guard over there at the time and two or three other people that I knew. Howard went to church with the guards and would often visit the prison to play with the dogs primarily them old bloodhounds. Convicts and prisoners were a source of cheap labor for Fulton County between the late 1800s to the 1940s. The warden and guards would typically segregate the inmates. Well there was a chain gang camp there. Where the soccer field is now was the camp for white prisoners. Then out on the road [West Wieuca] there was a camp for the black prisoners he recalls. Today that location is south of Hammond Drive approximately where the Hammond Exchange shopping center and Whole Foods is located currently. Convicts quarried stone from local pits at Lake Forrest Drive and Peachtree Dunwoody Road. The county also used chain gang inmates to build roads harvest crops and work in mills throughout Fulton County as a means for economic reformation and modernization. In 1916 the U.S. Department 109 of Agriculture used the convict camp on Powers Ferry Road in a research study. One of the most striking elements of the study showed that the Powers Ferr y Road experimental convict camp did not arm its guards the use of any whipping was prohibited and plain gray clothing replaced the convict striped suits. In exchange for obedience and labor the camp promised food clean and comfortable housing and airy quarters. There were no attempted escapes by the black inmates who were apart of this experimental camp and chain gang laborers within this camp completed the construction of Heards Ferry Road Hemphill Avenue and Powers Ferry Road at a cost of 9 204.60. The experimental camp only lasted until 1917 but the use of chain gang laborers and convict camps by Fulton County lasted until the 1940s. As a child Howard used to visit the prisoner camps with his father to play with the dogs and he remembers the way the guards would track escaped prisoners who could no longer cope with the working conditions. He recalls But they also had bloodhounds over there and occasionally prisoners would escape. Mr. Will Sentell was a guard over there at the time and two or three other people that I knew...And one thing that stands out in my mind was it would I guess in a kid s mind my dad had a there was a field right above our house about a couple Howard M. Hardeman acre field but he would plant it every year in rye...But nonetheless during one of the escapes they had the dogs over there and they were going up the little creek in front of our house and a bunch of us were standing out there talking to some of the guards--they were some of them there with shotguns. Along the road they had the dogs in there working trying to pick up the scent of this escaped prisoner. Well lo and behold they came down the creek came across the road and up into our field and that prisoner they caught him right behind where we were standing and talking He was laying down in the in that rye which was about three or four foot ah two or three foot tall. So we was right in front of him...But I always loved the dogs and I would go there quite often. Convicts and prisoners rarely enjoyed any kind of freedom or movement in the convict camps around Fulton County. Many prisoners would attempt to escape the brutal conditions of the typical convict camp located in the South and the armed guards would escort them back after using bloodhounds to track them down to continue their sentences. The state of Georgia outlawed convict leasing in 1908 but the era of the chain gang continued until 1955. Fulton County had multiple known chain gangs Utoy Sandy Springs and Roseland. The history of the convict camp in Sandy Springs tends to be overlooked by many residents today but is an important part of the area s history. The remains of the camp on Roswell Road--situated where Whole Foods Market now sits--are no longer visible. Though it s been decades since the last chain gang worked the area a few contemporary stories tell of prisoners haunting Powers Ferry Road. Since the 1940s several citizens have reported seeing the ghosts of convicts still chained together swinging their axes and attempting to level the road. So keep your eyes open during late night travels along Northside Drive towards Powers Ferry Road. You too may witness a ghostly line of convicts continuing their sentence or attempting to escape their cruel punishment in a nearby field of rye. B N download transcript M Photos Georgia State University Special Collection Our Glass Artist An interview with Hans Godo Frabel B Interviewer Melissa Swindell B Date of interview April 12 2016 After World War II Germany was divided into four occupation zones respectively controlled by the United States United Kingdom France and the Soviet Union. Originally temporary more permanent distinctions quickly emerged between former-Allied controlled territory and Soviet territory within Germany. A formal agreement was made in 1949 to combine the American British and French territories into the Federal Republic of Germany more commonly referred to as West Germany. In Jena East Germany a city with roughly the same population as Sandy Springs Hans Godo Frabel woke up in the middle of a night in 1949. He was only eight years old but his parents and four siblings were ready to cross the border into West Germany. They made it safely across the border and stayed with his m o t h e r s relatives. Frabel learned how to make scientific glass instruments and earned a degree in this trade. Soon after his internship Frabel was drafted into the German Army. A year before his enlistment the Sputnik satellite was launched and within the next couple of years construction would start on the Berlin Wall. In just two weeks the East German army police force and volunteer construction workers had completed a makeshift barbed wire and concrete block wall that divided one side of Berlin from the other. Before the wall was built Berliners on both sides of the city could move around fairly freely They crossed t he Eas t-Wes t border to work to shop and to go to the theater and the movies. Trains and subway lines carried passengers back and forth. After t h e w a ll w a s built it became impossible to get from East to West Berlin except through one of three checkpoints. At each of the checkpoints East German soldiers screened diplomats and other officials before they were allowed to enter or leave. Except under special circumstances travelers from East and West Berlin were rarely allowed across the border. During the height of the Cold War in the midst of securities and secrecies Frabel met Phillip Rudisill American Vice Consul at Frankfurt. Phillip was sitting alone at a table [in a bar] remembered Frabel and this woman was bothering him so he asked me to join his table. At that time Germans and American officials did not get along. Despite the differences In Germany they would stand by us with a stopwatch and everyone worked at the same pace. Frabel attended school in West Germany for the next seven years he never expected to attend college. His parents encouraged him to find a job that a machine cannot replace. Frabel became a glassworker following in his father s footsteps. At the age of 15 Frabel enrolled in an apprenticeship with Jena Glaswerkes in Mainz West Germany. At Jena Glaswerkes Frabel worked with borosilicate glass which was invented in 1887 by Dr. Otto Schott. This type of glass could withstand both extremely high and low temperatures which made it perfect for gas and petroleum lighting and chemical scientists. For the next three years 111 basis. Once completed with the day s assignment--usually by noon--Frabel was able to move onto his own projects. Using the same borosilicate glass which could be reheated multiple times thus making it an ideal composition for glass sculpture he would make small [artistic] sculptures for students and professors who would request gifts for their friends and family. Realizing Frabel s talent for glass sculpture Phillip Rudisill encouraged Frabel to leave his position at Georgia Tech and open his own studio and art gallery. It was Phillip s idea said Frabel. I created one-hundred sculptures and we opened a small gallery on Peachtree Street across from Piedmont Hospital. Within six months of opening lightning struck the building but everything was ok because glass survives heat. However with the building in need of repair Frabel moved his gallery into Lenox Mall. Frabel s shop in Lenox was in operation for about twenty years during which time he had two other locations at Underground Atlanta and Peachtree Center. When Frabel s galleries first opened in the 1960s and 1970s glass was not considered a serious art medium. However over the years Frabel has created one-of-a-kind works of art for President Obama Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko of Japan Anwar Sadat Pope Benedict XVI and Queen Elizabeth II which was one of Frabel s most memorable experiences. General Schwarzkopf was being honored by the Queen said Frabel who had created a piece specifically for the occasion. I spoke with the Queen for about five minutes recalled Frabel after which she reached into her purse for her speech. The only items in her purse were white gloves a handkerchief and her speech. B For more information about Frabel his studio and gallery visit http www.frabel.com in culture and background Fr ab el and Rudisill became fast friends. Then rather abruptly in January 1965 the American government moved Rudisill back home to Atlanta. He and Frabel remained in touch and five months later Frabel moved to Atlanta. Rudisill had secured a position for him at Georgia Tech making scientific glass instruments for the chemistry department. Unlike the German glaswerkes where every step of the process was timed for speed and efficiency glasswork in the United States was slower paced for Frabel. In Germany they would stand by us with a stopwatch said Frabel and everyone worked at the same pace. One of my co-workers repeatedly told me to slow down because at my speed they would expect higher production. At Georgia Tech glasswork was assigned on a per need Way Down Yonder on the Chattahoochee An interview with Ellen McElreath Spruill B Interviewer Burt Terrell B Date of interview May 3 1995 Since its establishment Sandy Springs has sat at the crossroads of industry and an agricultural environment. Once a rural farming community isolated by the Chattahoochee River it grew into a burgeoning metropolis for the better half of the last century sometimes plagued by the larger metropolitan area to the south--Atlanta. Yet in a period of growth Sandy Springs continues to find and distinguish itself as an autonomous c o m m u n i t y d i f f e r e nt ia te d by the connec tion to family. The railroad and Chattahoochee River have both been crucial to its success as they planted the seeds for industry and most importantly family and community development. From travel to recreation these two entities united generations across counties in Georgia. As an integral part of Sandy Springs the railroad brought passengers industry and supplies to Sandy Springs from 1880 to 1921. Little Buck or the Dinkey as many locals affectionately called it made runs to Sandy Springs twice daily from Chamblee. Ellen Spruill a longtime DeKalb County resident was born on September 27 1914 and remembers the train. She recalls Mother had a sister that lived down just beyond Dunwoody. I remember going over there riding that train one time going with Mother over there...Another time when I was lit tle my mother had an aunt who in lived in Gainesville...so we went up to Gainesville to see Aunt Ellen. I think we stayed a couple of days. It was a crisp fall day on October 20 1905 when the Dinkey pulled into Roswell Station--just short of the Chattahoochee River- - carr ying Theodore Roosevelt as its passenger. Normally the conductor would allow passengers to depart and unload freight to supply the community. But on this day the 26th president of the United States Theodore Roosevelt Jr. departed from the train to visit Bulloch Hall where his parents had been married in 1853. Theodore Roosevelt 113 was probably the most famous passenger but locals would use the train for travel to visit family and friends. The tracks remained into the 1940s and landowners plowed the tracks left behind. While it may only have carried one president to Bulloch Hall the Dinkey operated as a staple of Sandy Springs for all citizens and allowed them to travel to foster community and familial growth. Family has always been a unifying part of Sandy Springs history. Many of the families present in Sandy Springs today have roots that stretch back past the Civil War. Ellen s family the Spruills for instance have owned large tracts of land in both Dunwoody and Sandy Springs since 1905. Families began to settle the farmland north of Atlanta and because travel was not especially convenient at the turn of Ike Roberts a longtime the century children were resident of Roswell was the left to entertain themselves. sole operator and engineer Ellen rememb er s t hat for the train until 1924. the river played an The terminal for the train extremely important role was located on his farm in her childhood. It was a on land east of the river different albeit lazy type of bound by Roberts Drive. lifestyle she recollects. I John W. Ball 75th Birthday The train would stop on guess it was what you might the southeastern bank of Glenn Johnson Lillie Ball Lee Olin Carter Joseph Silas Perkins Henry Jones call at different times of Ball John cephus Ball the Chattahoochee and Eura Ball Eva Ball James Salatheil Perkins McElreath Curtice William Laster Ball the year kind of lazy quiet Ellen McElreath Era Clementine iola Perkins Myrtice taxis (wagons) would carry Johnson Vada Elrica Perkins Johnson Mindy Warnock Margaret Ball carter Lois Carter way of life. People visited Mary Lenora Ball Lambert Perkins Hattie Grace Perkins Elizabeth Ball Jones John w. passengers across the Ball Mary Melissa Ball McElreath Hattie Ione Martin Ball Sibyl Ball Illa Ball Mindy and things like that. I know Ball Elizabeth W. Threatt Ball Etha Roswell Bridge and up the Ball Beruna Ball Elmer Ball McElreath Threat JamesWlmer LesterAlethe S. Mary Ruth years ago there wasn t many Jones Ollie Hugh Montgomery Ball Perkins steep hill into Roswell. The McElreath Gladys Ione Perkins Edwin Jones Fred Ball J.W. Jones Clarence Haskell people that lived around Perkins Chloe Eugenia Ball Laura Ball Ferol Ball one car Roswell Railroad neighbors you know to operated for 40 years from 1881 to 1921 making its daily visit. Consequently many of the families only interacted run from Roswell Junction--later called Chamblee-- with each other. My parents always had time for us Ellen to the Roswell depot on the southeastern bank of the continued They d take us places and do things like that Chattahoochee River at Roswell Road and then back again. you know. They didn t say well I don t have time. They had It discontinued service in 1924. time. Because we didn t have children to play with they d When unable to travel many residents of Sandy Springs were left to their own devices for leisure and entertainment-- especially the children. Ellen recalls We didn t have any children--there wasn t any girls for us to play with. Sometimes a tenant farmer moved in next door and they d have some boys but there wasn t anybody to play with when we were growing up. And most of the people who visited would be schoolmates that John Thomas McElreath Jr. would come. We d go visit served in the Confederate Army schoolmates. Issac Roberts Home owner of the Sandy Springs to Chamblee Railroad Way Down Yonder on the Chattahoochee continued play ball with us and things like that. Family has always been a central aspect to life in Sandy Springs particularly before transportation was readily available to the masses. Family was the core of both recreational and industrial activities as parents and children often relied on each other for all facets of life. Along the river life was not always quiet and laid back. Recreational activities could only begin when all of the crops had been laid by. Ellen recalls My Daddy was a farmer...if he had all his crops ready...people would come family or friends would come and they d want to go down on the river and they d have a picnic [to celebrate the Fourth of July]. The Chattahoochee River offered recreation and relaxation to a communit y where both adults and children spent t he majo r i t y of their time working. As children Ellen recalls they routinely went fishing We fished in the [creek] branch. I fished in the branch and then I d go fishing sometimes in the river but with an adult. I wasn t allowed to go to the river without an adult. Ellen never caught anything in the branch but the river always provided something to look forward to. Whether it was related to work or to recreation the railroad and Chattahoochee River played significant roles in fostering familial and community growth for residents of Sandy Springs. While the recreation at the river is slightly more restricted and all that remain of the tracks of the railroad are all but buried under concrete and dirt the river and the railroad always brought visitors and activities for the residents and their guests. Ellen recalls A lot of people came on the river and fished. They would have boats and fish on the river...[but] there was very little traffic on the road allowing for that quiet lazy life that so many residents have come to know and love. Today residents and visitors can enjoy fishing at Morgan Falls Overlook Park the Morgan Falls Dam or floating down the river during the annual Back to the Chattahoochee River Race & Festival. This race is a more subdued cousin of the Rambling Raft Race which took place the third Saturday of May from 1969-1980. The race which was organized by several Georgia Tech Delta Sigma Phi fraternity members began as a challenge to local radio station WQXI. The event--more a floating spectacle than an actual race--eventually culminated in over 70 000 participants and 400 000 spectators along the banks of the Chat tahoochee in 1979 before it was scaled back in order to preserve the delicate balance of the river s plants and animals. Today an annual raft race is organized each summer by Chattahoochee Riverkeeper (CRK) a nonprofit organization whose mission includes protecting the river and its resources. In addition raf ter s not interested in an organized race can s till be seen lazily drif ting down the Chattahoochee River during Memorial Day weekend and on hot summer days. Even though the more subdued race and recreational floaters bring more participants than Ellen would probably prefer to see in her formerly quiet town they too enjoy the lazy type of lifestyle she remembers well. B N download transcript M 115 Frank Burdett st Postmaster & More 1 An interview with Lee H. (Jimmy) Burdett & Christine Burdett Melton B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of interview September 21 1993 John Franklin Burdett (Frank) served in World War I but that is not how he lost his arm. In September 1919 Frank and his new bride Nannie Lou Nance Burdett moved into their new home at the intersection of Johnson Ferry Road and Glenridge Drive-present day Aberdeen Forest subdivision. Frank installed a sawmill and cotton gin on his property. Then in May  he lost his arm in the cotton gin. Ten days after his arm was amputated he was driving his car [again]. Frank attended Hammond School at age six in 1904 when the school was a four-room wooden building two school rooms downstairs and one upstairs. He continued his schooling for seven years until his promotion to high school. However there were no high schools in Sandy Springs in 1911. There were no busses in Sandy Springs [either] and certainly not too many one-car families he said so the only alternative was to walk to Buckhead and ride a streetcar to Central High School (later Fulton High School) which was located on Whitehall Street. After high school Frank attended Oglethorpe University. Frank s life was nothing if not res olute and for this reason Sandy After his freshman year in college Springs Methodist Church and before enlisting in the Army recognized him in 1961 at Frank began cour ting Miss a special church program. Nannie Lou Nance. Word was Tonight we have a that on their first date Franklin most unusual program was showered with rocks. This Three generations Jimmy Frank & Luther announced the event s was proof he had probably emcee. We are going to present a This is Your Life of one walked off with another boy s best girl said the Sandy of the most deserving persons in our church. It is the life of Springs Methodist Church emcee. This did not frighten an ordinary person who has lived a humble and determined Franklin apparently it made him more determined as quite life... Tonight this your life Mr. John Franklin Burdett. soon he found himself engaged to Nannie Lou. According 117 to their eldest daughter Christine Burdett Melton They were married May 10 1919 at Uncle William F. Burdett s house on Mount Paran Road. A year after losing his arm in the sawmill incident Frank s mill was destroyed by fire. Following these two tragedies Frank Nannie Lou and young Christine moved to Chamblee where he was given a job wrecking old Camp Gordon. After three months in Chamblee their house was destroyed by fire [which] necessitated a move back to Sandy Springs. During the year 1921 Frank and the family moved five times. In 1924 life started to finally settle down for the young family. The Burdett s son Lee Hugh Jimmy Burdett was born and Frank took over his Uncle Steve Burdett s grocery store which he would operate for the next 41 years. The post office was located inside the grocery store recalled Jimmy [and] Dad was the first postmaster of Sandy Springs. [Frank also] owned and operated a Fulton County school bus from 1924 to 1954. Originally the bus brought students in from the crossroads area to Hammond School. women served lunch to the construction crews at the Glenn mansion and of course the mothers took their children with them and we enjoyed eating outside and playing games. Christine continued And I also have fond memories of camp meetings and living in the Burdett tent for ten days. Frank Burdett s family was fortunate enough to travel to camp meetings at Urpeth Lee Camps in Oxford Georgia and to travel for leisure to Chicago in the 1930s for the World s Fair [and on to] New York and Washington. Christine remembers summertime beach and mountain trips [but] a special treat all year-round was the Sunday afternoon ride with the family. It was mainly to the big city Atlanta of course and a stop at Jacob s the drug store which is at the triangle in Buckhead across from Peachtree Road. And a big treat was the ice cream at Jacob s. All of us had fun roller-skating on Mount Vernon Highway remembered Jimmy. It was a real flat smooth surface from Sandy Springs Church west to crossroads and there would be a group of us that would have a lot of fun roller-skating and we had lots of problems because we usually stayed too long. What s changed the most in Sandy Springs Jimmy asked out loud. Christine answered Well I was going to say about the people being different today... they re not so much family- or community-oriented... I think [the identity of the community has] especially changed with the closing of Sandy Springs High S c h o o l s a i d Jimmy. We as a community we had lots of fun with our children and in support of that school... we had a community feeling there that we ve sort of lost with the growth. B Burdett grocery store Frank who was a big proponent of getting an education not only drove the school bus for the Hammond School for 30 years but also served as a teacher for the Pacesetters Sunday School Class for more than 20 years. In addition he was a board member of the Sandy Springs Methodist Church for 35 years. He served on the church s finance and building committees during the construction of its educational building in the 1950s. Jimmy recalled that his mother was also very active in the church. She was a charter member and past president of the Women s Society of Christian Service he said. One thing that I still remember said Christine is that the N download transcript M Howard Chatham s Mark on Sandy Springs Part I An interview with James Howard Chatham B Interviewer Susan B. Deaver & Karen Meinzen McEnerny B Date of interview July 28 2004 The name Chatham Homes has conjured up positive images of quality homes in the north Fulton area for decades. However if Howard Chatham hadn t been draf ted during World War II there s a good chance he would have made his name in the retail business rather than in the Atlant a real estate arena. Due to a ser ies of career shif ts Howard Chatham became the developer that built not only many of the first neighborhoods in Sandy Springs but also the city s first skyscraper-- the Nor thside Tower Building at the corner of Roswell Road and Sandy Springs Place. According to the Atlanta Journal Constitution Chatham built more than 6 000 homes and developed more than 150 neighborhoods by the end of his career. However years before real estate development and construction were in his sight Chatham was making his mark at Woolworth s Department Store. [My first job was] at Woolworth s Department Store in Buckhead said Chatham. Of course Woolworth s not there anymore but I was the main man down there. I done all the cleaning. Get there early in the mor ning wash your windows clean the floors and then stock would start coming in so I d check it in and had to fill the counters for the [sales] girls as they needed it. I d get off work around eight or nine o clock at night and just appreciated that job. 119 Chatham quickly moved up Woolwor th s corporate ladder and it wasn t long before the company offered him a promotion in Newport News Virginia. Well they gave me that promotion and I told them that I was going to be drafted and wasn t no use for me going up there. But it was quite a promotion for me to get to go as vicepresident of a big store in Newport News. Woolworth s was good company [to work for] he continued. In fact Woolworth s sent me a newsletter every month all the time I was in the service. And you know that speaks well of a company. Chatham was drafted into the Army s Department of Transportation stationed in the United Kingdom during World War II. I was part of handling the troop movement Chat ham recalled. Like for the invasion of France I was they call it the regulating group. We had only three hundred men and seventy-five officers for it. It was kind of a hightech organization and our officers they got direct orders from Eisenhower you know about the troop movement t hat went through the UK. I stayed two and a half years over in the UK you might say until the war was over. [ When] I came back home I just didn t want to [go back to Woolworth s] Chatham said but they invited me to come down to go to work. I was just all mixed-up I guess when I came home so I stayed around the house there for a while until somebody else called me and want me to come to work. Within a year of returning from the war Chatham was hired by Fulton County to be a survey crew member laying out roads buildings and bridges. It wasn t long before Chatham realized the opportunities for career advancement were much different at the county than at Woolworth s. Even though he had training in the army and took a lot of correspondence courses...studying engineering for two years he knew it was time to move on. I told A.T. MacDonald Director of Public Works for Fulton County said Chatham and H.L. Frederick who was the Chief Engineer... I says You got men here you know college graduates head of the survey crews. I can t see where I m going.... I [wouldn t] ever get the opportunity to go anywhere here so I think I ll just quit. But in the meantime I was doing a little bit of house work around the side. As Chatham was preparing to leave his Fulton County job the chief engineer told him Well I tell you what I m going to do. Since you hadn t asked for nothing I m going to give you a leave of absence so that you could come back you know just where you are not within six months. I know you ll be back. But when I left there I didn t have no intentions of coming back said Chatham. So I bought me a little truck--paid 900 for it a little second-hand truck--put my tool box on there [and] the day I quit I didn t turn back. C h at h a m t u r n e d h i s attention to developing the community of Sandy Springs. Be sure to read next week s article to learn which city neighborhoods he built and to hear stories from his construction sites. B N M Howard Chatham s Mark on Sandy Springs Part II An interview with James Howard Chatham B Interviewer Susan B. Deaver & Karen Meinzen McEnerny B Date of interview July 28 2004 Howard Chatham had taken several engineering correspondence courses while serving in the Army. I studied engineering for two years just strictly engineering. So I could just about do anything in the way of laying out roads and figuring out dirt bridges and everything like that Chatham recalled and that was a real help to me when I started building houses. He approached building houses the same way he had built bridges. I leveled every floor you know how important it was to do it right get a good foundation. And I was the lead man out there--I did it all. I poured concrete dug septic tanks and dug wells he remembered. The first few houses on Hardeman Road [didn t] have water out there so I dug wells. Chatham began building houses based on plans he saw in magazines and became known for his ranch-style houses. Of course you know being in the business I could draw the plans myself but I d take stock plans and change them to fit what I think would work he said. I just got a magazine and started [on] the first house. [However ] you don t want them all alike. I ve always tried not to build two houses exactly alike. Unlike planned subdivisions such as Mount Vernon Woods early Chatham houses were built as needed. I built six houses to star t with on Hardeman Road Chatham recalled and I built Elden Drive just up the street I believe it s eighteen houses in there--but that s not part of [the] Cherokee Park [subdivision] which came along next. When interviewer Susan B. Deaver asked why he chose to name a neighborhood Cherokee Park Chatham replied 121 Cherokee Park was a good name...there was a Cherokee Park somewhere in the vicinity. That s where I got the name. Of course back then nobody had ever named a subdivision like they do now. [But the streets] Kitty Hawk Meadow Valley Mystic don t have anything to do with Cherokees Deaver continued. I think... I liked Mystic said Chatham. I seen a street up north that I thought was a pretty street and I just picked up that name. I just picked up names where it looked like it s been successful. If it s a good you know beautiful street or something and I tried to use those names. Kitty Hawk--I guess I got that from the Wright Brothers. Chatham continued building homes throughout Sandy Springs. The Brandon Mill neighborhood came next where Chatham built about a hundred and some houses followed by the Riverside Drive and River Shore Estates area. I bought 128 acres over there from Mr. Aaronson. Hal Aaronson he remembered and I know it came out in the paper as the largest real estate transaction in the city of Atlanta. As his reputation and company grew Howard Chatham continued to take a hands-on approach to his houses. Yeah but I laid out every house back then myself personally. I wanted every house square and I wanted it level and set on a good foundation he said It s the only way--you got to be there to know if all those things happen. In the beginning Chatham worked out of a little green house [off of Roswell Road just north of Hammond Drive.]. And I built a little two story house a little later. I was moving up a little bit then he said. Then I decided [that] Sandy Springs needed a skyscraper. That s when I built the C&S building [that was the first skyscraper in Sandy Springs with the first elevator as well]. As Sandy Springs continued to grow Chatham s skyscraper played a part in maneuvering around Sandy Springs infamous traffic along Roswell Road. In the 1960s helicopters would land on the tower s roof to collect the bank s papers for transport. Chatham continued to make his mark on Atlanta s real estate landscape and by the end of his career he had built more than 5500 homes and developed more than 150 neighborhoods. Howard Chatham passed away on January 1 2014. Chatham s son David continues his father s vision as a real estate developer in north Fulton County. Chatham s son Ken maintains a plant nursery his father developed on a farm off Crabapple Road. B To read more about Chatham s legacy by clicking here. Radar Love An interview with Tony Garstin B Interviewer Melissa Swindell B Date of interview March 28 2016 Forming a music band was a dream of many high school students in the 1960s but Sandy Springs native Tony Garstin made his dream a reality that has lasted 50 years. When Garstin was a junior at Sandy Springs High School (present day City Walk Shopping Center on Hammond and Sandy Springs Circle) he and his friends Doug Booth Al Carmichael Jack Duncan Billy Grove and Jimmy Cobb put their musical talents together to create the band Radar. as the Catacombs Coffee House--a well-known hippie hangout near downtown Atlanta. They also performed at the Winder Roller Rink in 1967. After two years of playing together as Radar band member Al Carmichael moved to Michigan and Arthur Offen a graduate of The Lovett School and a Buckhead native joined the group. My mot her- in law taught at the Atlant a College o f A r t s a i d Gar s tin and his Garstin and she friends practiced introduced us their music in his to O f fen. Not basement near long after Offen the intersection of became a member Hammond Drive of Radar the band and Hilderbrand met Alex Cooley Drive. As Garstin the legendar y remembered concert promoter his parents were and some would good sports about say the unofficial those prac tice mayor of Atlanta sessions. I don t music. Cooley is see how my credited by many parents managed in the music world to put up with as the man who us he recalled. brought rock and We played loud roll to Atlanta . as crap. And the Atlanta was not Tony Garstin (clockwise from top) Arthur Offen James Cobb and Chris Cornish circa 1970. neighbor s were on the mainstream pret t y smooth mu s ic to ur for about it too. In those early years Radar performed at national artists Garstin recalled. It wasn t until 1969 at the proms and other dances at Sandy Springs High School. [inaugural] Atlanta International Pop Festival that the music It wasn t long however before the young men took scene in Atlanta started to gain attention. That year Radar their show on the road playing at fraternity and sorority opened for the Allman Brothers Band at Piedmont Park and parties teen clubs churches and coffee houses such for Fleetwood Mac at Oglethorpe University. 123 With Cooley s support Radar was soon the opening act for musicians and bands such as B.B. King Procol Harum Jefferson Airplane Steppenwolf Frigid Pink It s Beautiful Day Three Dog Night The James Gang Mahavishnu Orchestra Ravi Shankar Canned Heat Ted Nugent Grand Funk Railroad The Eagles and Spirit. At each of these concerts it was the job of opening acts to warm up the crowd get their focus toward the stage and prepare the audience for the national artist said Garstin. In the beginning we were paid 300 per show. It was rare for opening acts to be paid but we were easy to work with on time not stoned and engaging. Radar members performed together for 30 years with their most notable appearance being at the Second Atlanta International Pop Festival in 1970. After three record deals in the 1980s the band moved on to play at private events one-night shows weddings country clubs and corporate events. By the late 1990s the group had traveled up and down the east coast-- from New Jersey to Mississippi -- playing original and cover songs. After a short hiatus the band has reunited and is bringing its Radar 1.0 tour to local Atlanta venues. B N M Video produced by Southern Heritage VP Starrs Chris. Alex Cooley (1939-2015). New Georgia Encyclopedia. 07 December 2015. Web. 28 March 2016. http www.georgiaencyclopedia. org articles arts-culture alex-cooley-1939-2015 Ben Saunders and Beth Davenport at the Sandy Springs High School Prom in 1969. They were at the Georgian Terrace Hotel on Peachtree Street in Atlanta. Naturalist Artist Athos Menaboni B Guest Author Russell Clayton B Athos Rodolfo Giorgio Alessandro Menaboni was born on October 20 1895 to Averardo a successful ship supplier and Jenny Neri Menaboni in the Italian port city of Livorno. As a result of his father s work young Athos frequently received exotic animals given to his father by clients. Athos thus developed a lifelong fascination with birds and other animals which later became the subjects of his paintings. At the age of nine he began a formal study of art with private teachers including marine painter Ugo Manaresi muralist Charles Doudelet and sculptor Pietro Gori. He later attended the Academy of Fine Arts in Florence. moved to Atlanta in 1927 after working for two years as a real estate art director in Florida. Menaboni worked with Atlanta s Philip Shutze one of the city s leading architects on decorative painting projects at the Swan House and other area residences as well as in public buildings such as The Temple and the Capital City Club. Menaboni also worked with architect Samuel Inman Cooper to decoratively paint the breakfast room of Glenridge Hall in Sandy Springs. Other early commissions included restoration work on Atlanta s Cyclorama mural decorative painting of the lobby ceiling in the Rhodes-Haverty Building and murals in the home of R. J. Reynolds on Sapelo Island. During his first year in Atlanta Menaboni left Italy in 1920 Menaboni lived in a downtown Northern Cardinal and Dogwood Oil on gessoed paper c. 1960 spending time in North boarding house. It was there Courtesy of the Russell Clayton Africa before immigrating where he met his landlord s to the United States a year later. He settled in New York niece Sara Regina Arnold of Rome Georgia. They where he decorated and sold candles to churches. He were married a year later. After honeymooning in Italy 125 the couple lived in a small apartment on 11th Street in downtown Atlanta. Following Menaboni s 1937 sale of the two cardinals painting his wife Sara mailed his portfolio to her sisterin-law in New Jersey. She in tur n found interest for Menaboni s work at several major museums and galleries in Bos ton and New York City. He painted a pair of cardinals for a wall in his living room which gained notoriety when close friend and interior designer Molly Whitehead Aeck p ur c has e d it for a client. From this point Sara reading to Athos while he for ward Menaboni works at Valle Ombrosa c.1942 steadily refined aspects Courtesy of the Troup County Archives of his art for which he is now famous naturalistic oil paintings of birds. He developed a technique he called the undercoat method. This technique which closely resembled watercolor when dry used turpentine to thin the oil in paint. This allowed Menaboni to paint birds in layers on paper thus giving the feathers translucency detail and depth. Following Menaboni s 1937 sale of the two cardinals his wife Sara mailed his portfolio to major museums in New York City. The American Museum of Natural History the Kennedy Galleries and the National Audubon Society hosted exhibitions of his work. During his exhibition at the Kennedy Galleries a patron purchased his painting Mourning Doves in Longleaf Pine for Robert W. Woodruff president of The Coca-Cola Company. The painting was reminiscent of scenery at Ichauway Plantation the Woodruffs Newton Georgia estate. When the painting was gifted to the Woodruff family Mrs. Woodruff learned the artist Menaboni was a Sandy Springs resident. She arranged for him to illustrate the Woodruff family s 1941 Christmas card. Henceforth Menaboni s illustrated aviary cards became a Woodruff family tradition for more than 40 years. From the late 1930s onward Menaboni broadened Eastern Bluebird and Cherokee Rose Oil on illustration board c. 1942 Courtesy of the Russell Clayton his range of media. During this time he painted his countless landscapes seascapes botanicals nature studies and surreal fantasies on a variety of materials including silk wood Masonite cork and paper. In 1939 he created fifteen mirrors produced in reverse painting on glass (before it was silvered) for a windowless dining room at Atlanta s Capital City Club. The Menabonis purchased six acres of land on Cook Road (now Crest Valley Drive) in Sandy Springs in 1939. Three years later the couple built a home on the property naming it Valle Ombrosa or Shady Valley after Menaboni s Naturalist Artist Athos Menaboni continued favorite boyhood holiday destination in central Italy. Their estate became a bird sanctuary complete with its own aviary and included a bonsai greenhouse. Valle Ombrosa would remain their home for the rest of their lives. From the 1940s through the 1960s Menaboni s work proliferated. He created prints for the National Audubon Society in 1942 and in 1950 Menaboni and Sara published Menaboni s Birds. His paintings illustrated the text written by his wife and the volume was voted one of the Fifty Best Books of the Year by the American Institute of Graphic Arts. It was also in 1950 that Time magazine declared Menaboni the heir of James Audubon an apt designation given the fact that he would eventually p ai nt m o r e t ha n t wo hundred different species o f b i r d s . M e n a b o n i s recognition in Time was one of many acknowledgements he received during his 63-year career in Atlanta. Menaboni went on to receive awards from the Sara and Athos Menaboni enjoying American Graphic Society nature at Valle Ombrosa c. 1945 Courtesy of the Troup County Archives the American Institute of Graphic Arts the Georgia Writers Association the Art Directors Club of New York the Atlanta Beautiful Commission the Capital City Club the American Institute of Architects the Italian Cultural Society the Garden Club of Georgia and the Office of the Governor of Georgia with the Governor s Award in Visual Arts. Following his Time magazine recognition in 1951 Menaboni was commissioned by Mills B. Lane Jr. president of Citizens and Southern National Bank to paint murals in Atlanta and Albany Georgia bank buildings and to create an eggshell-mosaic for the branch in Decatur Georgia. During the height of Menaboni s career-- between 1953 and 1969--he created advertisements for Prudential Insurance Company contributed illustrations to The World Book Encyclopedia and designed calendars for The Coca-Cola Company. In addition Menaboni designed fourteen covers for The Progressive Farmer magazine and two for Sports Illustrated magazine. Menaboni s Birds was reissued in 1984 using the original text with 31 new full-color reproductions. Menaboni also illustrated several other authors books including Never the Nightingale by prominent Atlanta poet laureate Daniel Whitehead Hickey. Menaboni suffered a stroke in May 1990 and passed away on July 18 1990 at the age of 94. A memorial service was held days later at the Ida Cason Callaway Memorial Chapel at Callaway Gardens. The eulogy was delivered by Elizabeth C. Harris Georgia s first lady. Menaboni s wife Sara passed away three years later on August 10 1993. Menaboni s works have been exhibited throughout the United States in ar t museums galleries and natural history exhibitions. Locally Menaboni s art has been featured at Callaway Gardens the Marietta Cobb Museum of Ar t Emor y University Kennesaw State University the High Museum of Ar t and the Atlanta History Center. St. Simons Island Oil on canvas art board 1930 Courtesy of the Russell Clayton Guest author Russell Clayton a retired educator from Marietta Georgia was a friend of the Menabonis. In 2014 he curated Athos Menaboni Six Decades of Painting in Georgia for the Albany Museum of Art (Albany Georgia). Last year he curated Athos Menaboni Georgia s Own Artist as Naturalist for Berry College (Rome Georgia). 127 Currently he is planning a Menaboni exhibition for fall 2016 in Livorno Italy the first one outside of the United States. He is also collaborating with Callaway Gardens (Pine Mountain Georgia) on several Menaboni projects there. Major Menaboni art collections can be found at Kennesaw State University (Kennesaw Georgia) Callaway Gardens the Atlanta History Center and the Stark Museum of Art (Orange Texas). Menaboni s works are found in many more museums and institutions across Georgia. Archive collections are housed at the Troup County Archives (LaGrange Georgia) Emory University (Atlanta) and at the University of Georgia (Athens). B Sara and Athos Menaboni at Valle Ombrosa 1987 Courtesy of the Troup County Archives Magnolia Grandiflora Blooms Oil on illustration board c. 1950 Courtesy of the Russell Clayton Belted Kingfisher and Lily Pads Oil on Nakora wood c. 1965 Courtesy of the Russell Clayton Young Shenanigans in Burdal Georgia An interview with Wade Nance and Harold Bales B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of interview April 21 1998 From 1903 to 1925 mail was delivered once a week to Sandy Springs from Dunwoody Georgia. In 1925 Burdett s Grocery Store on Roswell Road became the official post office for the newly dubbed Burdal Georgia. Burdal was a composite of two area families names-- the Burdetts and the Dalrymples. Though the name Burdal was used when sending mail through the United States Post Office it never caught on as a town name among the public. Once and always Sandy Springs the community s na m e w a s of f i c iall y reinstated in 1941. Wade Nance a lifetime Sandy Springs resident was bor n in Burdal Georgia in 1933. One of his closest friends and childhood par tners-incrime Harold Bales live d nex t d oor on Mount Vernon Highway. Bales recalled that they pitched horseshoes together and played marbles played cowboys and Indians and we used the outhouse as a jail. Or as Nance delicately put it our bathroom was right in the middle of Sandy Springs. When they weren t busy defending the frontier and throwing hostile enemies in the local outhouse jail the boys played baseball. Nance and Bales lived across the street from the ball field on Mount Vernon Highway. Bales remembers that more often than not a foul ball would come across the road into my mother s flower patch. And boy somebody would catch fits about stomping on her flowers The baseball field was like a square with the border s on Boyls ton D r i v e H i l d e r b r a n d Roswell Road and Mount Vernon Highway. We would have little inner-city games recalled Bales or inner county games. We would play baseball in Dunwoody and then we d play Roswell. We d all have a good afternoon of play ball and fighting [Click for larger image and names] and fussing and arguing with Mr. Fuller [he] would always umpire and nobody agreed with him at all. The younger boys played ball in the cow pasture on the corner of Johnson Ferry and Roswell Roads. Alfred Holbrook and his family lived in the first house on Johnson Ferry Road and they had a cow pasture they kept a milk cow tied out there all 129 the time. Well the younger crowd would be out there in their little cow pasture there at the corner and play baseball. And you d never guess what they used for bases. And it had to do with the cow. As the boys matured so did the games or practical jokes. A lot of times we would ride to Buckhead to [North Fulton] High School recalled Bales. All of the boys sat way back in the back of the school bus and we figured out how we could run a string up through [the seats] pass it on up to the driver s seat and somebody would tie it about the choke button on the old school bus. Well when we d get down to where on Roswell Road where Weinstock s Roswell Roads and this was about the time that north Fulton County was still quite rural and you had feed trucks that would come into Atlanta and carry feed back to north Fulton County south in the county and wherever because people still had a lot of hogs and cows and chickens and so forth. So we got the idea one night to take a fertilizer sack and fill it up with pine straw and then we were going to tie a rope to it and pull the same trick. We were out there at the corner of Abernathy and Roswell Roads up on a high bank and we heard this fertilizer-feed truck coming down the hill. It was coming down the hill [northbound along Roswell Road] toward Abernathy. The feed truck came by and we could hear its brakes just a-squeaking and a-squalling and sure enough he got stopped and he came back and just about the time he reached down to get the feed sack we pulled the string. Oh Did we ever get cussed out Of course we went flying back to our cars and jumped [in] and went down Abernathy to Glenridge to Mount Vernon and back to Roswell Road and I think Marty Burdett was running the drugstore at that time and of course we all congregated around the drug store. B [Click for larger image and names] Florist was [Roswell Road between Mount Paran and Maryeanna Drive] when we started up that hill some of the boys would pull that string. Of course it pulled the choke thing out and the old school bus would go dead and we d have to crank and crank to get it going again. We were always up to some kinds of tricks and stuff said Bales and we had heard about a boy putting ladies pocketbooks out in the road and tying a string to it. And then the first to come by would come to a screeching halt and of course when they d get out to pick up the pocketbook you d jerk the string. Of course then a lot of people would get mad but some of them would laugh with you. Well we did one better. At the corner of Abernathy and N N download transcript M M The Williams-Payne House Families An interview with Jacqueline (Jackie) Estes Elliot B Interviewer Anne Eldrige B Date of interview April 1991 Walter Jerome Williams was a DeKalb County resident when he purchased the south half of land lot 19 in October 1878. He soon became known in the whole community as the man [who] always dressed in a fresh white shirt a tie and high silk hat and shined shoes recalled his daughter Alice Williams Estes. This was what he called dress for the day every day with no more important business than sitting on the front porch. In the later years of his life being no longer able to work in the fields himself he spent his time overseeing his children s work. He had bells on the mules Alice remembered and [he] knew by the tinkle which mule it was and which boy was working it. No sound from the mule meant trouble for [that] boy. Alice s daughter Jacqueline remembers hearing stories about her mother being kept out of school so that she and the other children could work in the fields if not their own fields hired labor for other fields. They just made pennies as Jackie recalled the story and then he [Jerome] would take the money. They never got to keep the money. That being the period that it was in of course that was never questioned. The father had the right to do this but it did not endear him to his children. Farming 100 acres was their means of a good living. They raised cotton corn wheat and sugar cane. There were vegetables almost year round turnip greens cabbage and peas and tomatoes. Everything that could be canned was put up for the winter. Likewise all the fruits available peaches apples pears cherries and grapes were canned. Alice was the fifth of six children born to Jerome and Harriet W illia m s b u t h e r daughter Jackie Williams-Payne House 1940s recalls that there was enmity between [her grandfather Jerome s] first family and the second. In 1868 Jerome married Susan Cobb and they had six children. One year following Susan s death Jerome married Harriet and Jackie believes that the enmity had something to do with the fact that the second family felt they were shortchanged 131 not only emotionally but maybe materially by this first family. As I grew up and talked with my mother Jackie said I remember my grandfather. He was a very sweet man. He always treated me well. [My mother] said He was When my grandmother died she was laid out and that was when they bring you and (say) Kiss your grandmother good-bye. You know here s this dead body... [the body] was catty-cornered in the bedroom. Harriett was buried next to her husband Jerome in the Sandy Springs United Methodist Cemetery. Major and Marie Payne purchased the Williams farmhouse in the early 1940s. After moving it nearly 80 feet farther back from the recently widened Mount Vernon Highway they remodeled the house extensively inside and out including adding a basement removing the front porch adding rooms and rearranging the placement of walls doors and windows. In addition to restoring the Williams-Payne house Major Payne operated a real estate business. Marie Payne was active in local society contributing her time and talents to garden clubs and various cultural societies. She often entertained at her home on Mount Vernon Highway and continued hosting social events after she relocated to Aberdeen Forrest. Despite their move the Payne family retained ownership of the Williams-Payne House on Mount Vernon Highway. It stood vacant for a few years and in 1983 was used for a time as a halfway shelter. By 1984 the exterior of the house was in a rundown condition but the original interior remained fairly stable. When Marie Payne passed away in December 1984 the Sandy Springs Historic Community Foundation (presently Heritage Sandy Springs) had plans in the works to move the Williams-Payne House from Mount Vernon Highway to its current location at the corner of Sandy Springs Circle and Sandy Springs Place. On October 9 1985 the house was moved about a mile and a half between midnight and 5 00am. Community volunteers under the watchful eye of restoration architect Lane Greene stripped it down to its 19th century components. When sheetrock was removed in the living room the unpainted outline of the original family clock was still visible above the mantel--evidence that when the Williams family painted their parlor (the only painted room in their home) the mantel clock had not been touched. Instead of wooden interior window castings a contrasting Jackie Estes Williams Family 1907 one of the meanest men who ever lived. Let s get this on the record. It would seem that he was a very controlling very hard man. Jackie s grandparents died only two weeks apart in 1936. Her grandmother Harriet passed away first. They did not expect my grandfather to die she recalled but he gave up the Jerome & Harriett will to live when Harriett died. Now this would seem like a great romance but it was not a great romance on my grandmother s side. I think my poor grandmother had just worked herself to death she continued. That s what men did in those days. They went through several wives. The wives were worn out with childbirth and work so they killed off their wives literally. Then they would have to seek another wife to help with the family and to have other children so they could work the place. He was about 20 years older [than Harriet] but she looked as old as he did when she died. Totally worn out. I was told that Harriet was the belle of the county and they didn t understand why she married Jerome...it didn t matter if you were the belle of the county. If you were not married and someone who had a little money say a house you married them -- even if they were widowed and had children because this was a woman s place in life. Williams-Payne House today The Williams-Payne House Families continued color was painted around the parlor windows to give them a faux finished look. The original heart pine flooring was uncovered and later restored after the Payne s remodeled wooden floors were removed. The floor plans of Jerome Williams house and its subsequent additions during his second marriage re-emerged. Contractor George Simpson removed the remodeled parts of the home leaving the original three rooms and the two additional rooms later added by Jerome Williams. [Click here to see floorplans] Over the years other historic structures were relocated to Heritage Green. The Well Shelter The Well Shelter had been used both by the original Williams Family and the Payne Family and is probably as old as the house itself. The Outhouse An authentic outhouse was moved to Heritage Green to complete the recreation of the farmhouse property. Unfortunately the majority of the original wood rotted before the outhouse could be reconstructed. However the seat and the door were still usable and with new wood the outhouse was completed. A lock was added to the outhouse door soon afterwards when visitors to the park mistook it for a working bathroom The Milk House In 1988 The Sandy Springs Arts and Heritage Society obtained the oldest known structure in Sandy Springs the Burdett Milk House and donated it to the Historic Site. James Franklin Burdett had built the milk house around 1860 on his farm on the southwest corner of Mount Paran Road and Lake Forrest Drive. The wooden outbuilding was 10by-15 feet with wooden steps down to a 10-by-15 foot rockwalled cellar where vegetables dairy products and other perishables were protected from summer heat and winter frost long before electricity was available. Fulton County moved the milk house to the Historic Site in 1990. Soon after the Arts and Heritage Society raised funds and recreated its rock basement and cedar shake roof. It was donated to Heritage Sandy Springs by Ed and Emily Montello who have owned the Burdett Farm since the 1960s. B N N download transcript M M Milk house Milk house today 133 Supporting Heritage Sandy Springs and other non-profit organizations in the community that promote the arts heritage education the environment and social services in Sandy Springs. The Sandy Springs Society is committed to improving the community by identifying and supporting community needs and programs of broad interest through effective action. www.sandyspringssociety.org the colonial dames o america YE 125 ARS YE 125 ARS Actively promoting our national heritage through historic preservation patriotic service and educational projects. www.nscda.org Sewage To Moonshine B From the Archives at Heritage Sandy Springs B On Januar y 16 1919 Congress passed the 19th Amendment banning the manufacture transportation and sale of alcohol. However 11 years before the National Prohibition Act (Volstead Act) was passed the State of Georgia passed local prohibition in 1908. Most people today believe this was an extreme measure to curtail drinking. What most people don t realize is that by the 1830s the average American (15 years and older) was consuming close to seven gallons of alcohol per person per year. That s approximately 4.5 gallons more than what the typical American consumes today. Many factors that contributed to the high levels of alcohol consumption in early America were deeply rooted national infrastruc ture issues. From the colonial period through the Civil War the absence of sewer systems in most American cities meant that sewage was strewn through the unpaved streets. This sewage was then absorbed into the ground causing city wells to produce unclean and often foul smelling water. Unclean water spread cholera and yellow fever throughout the nation. Additionally in a time before refrigeration other beverages such as milk would often spoil before they could be delivered through city neighborhoods. While living in the countryside provided some relief to the issues of cleanliness and spoilage alcohol consumption was a way of life before prohibition. It was safer and therefore typical for both adults and children to drink hard cider beer or liquor. Eventually women s organizations began to rally around temperance - abstinence from alcoholic drinks. In 1874 the National Women s Chris tian Temper ance Union (WCTU) was founded to protect the home from the patriarch s consumption of alcohol. For women in an era before suffrage rallying around social reform issues increased their political visibility. As such local chapters of women s organizations began to crop-up around the country. The WCTU established their first Georgia society in 1880 and by 1885 voters Police Chief Rowan in The Atlanta Georgian throughout Georgia could vote their county dry. The WCTU along with the fraternal Anti-Saloon League (ASL) founded in 1893 were influential in bringing about prohibition. By 1907 the majority of Georgia counties were dry and by 1908 the entire state was under the law of prohibition. 135 In 1911 The Atlanta Georgian p u b l i s h e d t h e a r t i c l e Drinking on Decrease Declares Chief Rowan Marked Contrast Between the 1910 and 1911 Camp Meetings at Sandy Springs. Chief Rowan commented that There certainly seems to be less drinking now than when prohibition first went into effect in Georgia. One strong evidence of this fact is the contrast of last year and this shown at the Sandy Springs camp meeting. Last year  we made 42 cases for drunks on the Sunday meeting. This year  on the Sunday meeting we only made three cases and only one of them was for a drunk. The article continued to state that The Sandy Springs meeting grounds are in the north side of the county and are well known for the large meeting there each year. Before this year quite a number visited the place on Sunday to make merry by getting drunk. The law does not allow for liquor to be carried to a camp meeting not even in one s buggy and the Sandy Springs grounds take in the vicinity for a mile and a half on either side [of approximately Mount Vernon Highway to the north Sandy Springs Circle to the west Hammond Drive to the east and Roswell Road to the south]. Georgia was not unlike the majority of states in the Union. Prior to 1919 and the ratification of the 18th Amendment 33 out of 48 states were already under the law of prohibition. On January 17 1920 when prohibition went into effect the remaining 15 states were forced to comply. Prohibition lasted thirteen years and was repealed in 1933 by the passage of the 21st Amendment. While alcohol consumption initially rose after the repeal in the long term American society saw its overall reduction though not its disappearance. This is probably why at the end of the 1930 s Jac q ueline E s te s Elliot recalled that a lot of the 1940s Still Bust men the brothers and uncles drank. I m sure it started off with apple cider. There was a lot of drinking. A lot of people don t want to say that. They probably didn t even admit it. But yes they did. There could easily have been stills [remnants from the Prohibition era]. Many rural families continued to produce and consume moonshine after prohibition ended. In the 1930s a notice was nailed to a tree on the former Mitchell-Tiller proper ty (southwest corner of Mount Vernon Highway and Glenn Errol Drive) notifying the current landowners that the proper ty was being seized for illegal moonshine production and would be sold at auction. With this action enforced Frank Tiller Jr. was able to purchase the land at auction and return it to his family. About a decade later in the 1940s police came across an operational still in Sandy Springs. While we do not have the records to indicate its specific location or ownership we were able to obtain the photographs of the investigation. In the decades following the 1940s moonshine and stills became less visible Warrant of Seizure Stills as our country prepared for and entered World War II. The population of Sandy Springs began to grow as a bedroom community to Marietta s Bell Bomber Plant and more neighborhoods meant less forests in which to hid stills throughout the countryside. While today it is hard to imagine someone operating a still in Sandy Springs it was not unusual in the early 20th century. B Sandy Springs Dirt Road An interview with Laura Snipes B Interviewer Garnett CobbB Date of interview August 15 1997 Approximately 100 000 people live in Sandy Springs today. During the weekday that number doubles as people commute into or through Sandy Springs. It s almost hard to imagine a time when traffic was not a problem in this community but Tillie Womack Hindman remembers the early 1900s when only one car drove through the streets of Sandy Springs. Benjamin F. Burdett owned a Hanson Six automobile recalled Hindman and he was the first to commute by car from Sandy Springs to Atlanta. Benjamin F. Burdett a native Sandy Springs resident built his home at the present day site of Mount Vernon Presbyterian Church. Laura Snipes recalled that the colonial mansion was built around 1900 on a four hundred acre plantation. It was the first brick house in Sandy Springs and the bricks for it were made on the property. There were eleven rooms [in two stories] nine of which had identical mantles and large mirrors. Sixteen years later Burdett sold his home and moved his family to West Peachtree and Eleventh Streets while still maintaining a weekend retreat in Sandy Springs on Riverside Drive. Benjamin F. Burdett owned a Hanson Six recalled Hindman and was the first to commute by car from Sandy Springs to Atlanta. The Burdett Mansion as it became locally known changed hands many times over the years. In 1955 Laura Snipes and her family moved into the Mount Vernon Woods neighborhood across the street from the Burdett Mansion. At that time the Mansion and only thirty-nine of the original four hundred acres were left intact. Within the year the present owners the Sewell Family sold the Mansion and seven and a half acres to the First Presbyterian Church of Atlanta. In those days in 1955 Snipes remembered that Roswell Road was a two lane road to the country and the subdivision [Mount Vernon Woods] where we selected our lot to build only had two paved roads. We selected a lot on Vernon Woods Drive which was a dirt road at the time so we were surprised after everything was graded and paved over and we saw our lot as it really was because it had been woods when we selected it. When Snipes and her family moved into their home there were very few houses completed in the neighborhood so the community was very friendly she recalled. We had lots 137 of parties and good times because the community and our churches were the only social activities available to us. There were several churches but not many large congregations. The church my husband and our family and I joined was Mt. Vernon Presbyterian Church which met at Hammond School when it was first organized in the early 1950s. Roswell Road was a two lane road to the country. When the group grew large enough and wealthy enough to purchase property the First Presbyterian Church of Atlanta sent a group to Sandy Springs for the purpose of establishing the first Presbyterian Church in the community. They purchased the Burdett Mansion. Snipes told us that eventually they added more buildings [to the property] and as the church grew we needed a permanent sanctuary and Burdett Manson Mt. Vernon Presbyterian Church which met at Hammond School when it was first organized. N N the old colonial mansion was torn down much to everyone s regret. A new sanctuary was built in 1969 and our church has since added many new facilities a large recreation facility and a big fellowship hall said Snipes. In 1972 the Mount Vernon Presbyterian School was founded. Currently they serve 932 students from six weeks old through the twelfth grade. B download transcript M M Mount Vernon Woods Home Mount Vernon Presbyterian Church Hanson six The Community That Raised Us An interview with Morris Moore B Interviewer Susan B. Deaver B Date of interview November 16 2003 Today if you drive through Sandy Springs along Roswell Road you will pass no fewer than fifteen supermarkets. There are the traditional Kroger and Publix stores organic and locally sourced Whole Foods Trader Joes and now Sprouts. There are even international grocers La Canasta specializes in Latin American foods Shahrzad stocks Persian products and Bakkal International has Mediterranean goods. In the 1950s Sandy Springs the view was much different. There was one grocery store Frank Burdett s Grocery. We could ride our bikes to the corner [of Mount Vernon Highway and Roswell Road] park it and go across to Mr. Frank s grocery store said Morris Moore. I couldn t couldn t cross Roswell Road on the bicycle. Noooo. At that time Roswell Road was two lanes and we couldn t cross that at all. everything if we were going to have cube steak for supper or pork chops all we had to do was tell Bob Kirk who was the butcher that Mother wants enough steak for supper and he knew exactly how much to give me. And I would sign the ticket. If we bought candy or anything he didn t think Mother really wanted us to have Mr. Frank would ask if we had permission. And we knew to tell him the truth because on Saturday he went through every ticket and [would say to Daddy] Now they said that they could have this piece of candy. And if we had not told the truth we would have been caught. So we had a community that raised us. The Sandy Springs community began to take its own unique form in the middle of the 20th Century as more and more families moved out of the city into the suburbs. At the center of the community were the schools. When my sister started at Hammond Elementary remembered Moore I was the big brother. Every morning when we arrived at school I walked her to her classroom and then I would go to mine. After about a week of doing this Mrs. [Betty] Tiller my sister s first grade teacher came out in the hall and put her The schools were a part of the community social services as well as the educational experience They had a charge account at Mr. Frank s grocery store Moore recalled. And Daddy went to the grocery store every Saturday and paid of the week s account. So if Mother needed anything from the store we were allowed to go to the grocery store and Mr. Frank would charge it to us. We didn t have to make decisions because they knew 139 arm around me. She said Now your sister s going to have to grow up so you can t walk her to her classroom anymore. You re going to have to start letting her come alone. So at that point I had to start letting my little sister go to her classroom alone. Mrs. Tiller and I still laugh about that. Moore continues The schools were a part of the community social services as well as the educational experience. There wasn t much to do in Sandy Springs then. I mean we d have little parades and the high school band always marched. The Glee Club the cheerleaders and majorettes were always a part of that. There were no movies no anything else. So the big thing was high school football on Friday nights and Sock Hops afterward. But the odd thing in my senior year at Sandy Springs High School we did not even win a football game. In f a c t t h ey did not even score a point that entire year. So I guess that s our claim to fame. At our first reunion which we Mount Vernon Highway was sold and became Sandy Springs Chapel and Funeral Directors. It became a funeral home. I didn t really want to have much to do with that. However that summer I was working with my father in the heating and air conditioning business and I had already decided that that definitely wasn t going to be my career and we put the heating and air conditioning into the funeral home. Knowing the owners of the funeral home they started asking me to come over and do little odd jobs. So I helped unload some of the equipment as it came in cutting the grass washing cars and all those things while I was in high school as a part-time job. I became interested So we had a community that raised us. Burdett s Grocery Store 1939 had at ten years one of the props was a big scoreboard at the Burdett s Grocery Store end of the room with a zero under Home Team because that had become the joke. When I was a senior in high school he recalled the house that was at the corner or Sandy Springs Circle and in what was happening so I decided that maybe I wanted to be a funeral direc tor. I went to Mr. Hammond Elementary School pre-1970 Foster who owned the funeral home and told him. Since I was only seventeen when I graduated from high school he suggested that I work a year to see if it was really what I wanted to do and then I could either pursue my career in the University of Georgia with teaching art or I could go to mortuary school. I worked that year and that was 51 years ago and I ve been here ever since. B Frank & Nannie Lou Nance Burdett c. 1930s Mount Vernon Towers N N download transcript M M Trail To A Cleaner Earth An interview with Jack Elrod B Interviewer Garnett Cobb & Amy O Neal B Date of interview February 3 1992 Twelve year old Ed Dodd traveled from Georgia to Pennsylvania in 1916 to attend one of the first sessions at the Dan Beard Outdoor School for Boys. Dan Beard was on the founding board for the Boy Scouts of America and an inspiration for Dodd and his comic strip Mark Trail. In a conversation with Jack Elrod illustrator of the Mark Trail Comic he remembered that Dodd liked the camp so much that he went back every year. And his association with Dan is what really got him interested in animals and the outdoors. Dodd attended the Dan Beard Outdoor School for Boys until he was old enough to work for him as a camp director. Eventually he spent a couple of years at Georgia Tech in the 1920s but left to study at the Art Students League of New York. From there he moved out west became a guide and worked on a ranch. By 1946 Dodd returned to his native Georgia and launched the Mark Trail comic strip. My association with Ed began in 1950 recounted Jack Elrod. I had just gotten out of art school. Ed had an apartment on old Penn Avenue in Atlanta. I had just gotten married and my first job out of school was with Ed. He also had a man named Tom Hill a Sandy Springs man. The strip started in 1946 and had been going about four years before I started. My job when I first started was doing the backgrounds. Tom Hill started working on the Sunday page and Ed would write the daily feature. Ed only worked a half a day. He would get up about 6 00 and write the feature and Tom Hill and myself would come in about 9 00 and his secretary and we would have some coffee and then go over the script and Tom and myself would illustrate it. Ed spent the rest of his time the afternoon working on his farm. At the end of 1950 Ed had purchased a property in Sandy Springs Georgia which was about 130 acres. It was on Brandon Mill Road. At that time Sandy Springs was just a wide place in the road. It had a service station and a hardware store and a post office and a drug store but that s about all. Ed built a cabin and a lake on his property to begin with. He had an old wood stove in the cabin and we would do a little fishing and have lunch at the cabin and go back to Penn Avenue to work. By 1954 Ed s ranch-style house was completed on his Brandon Mill Road property and farm hand Hubert Hamrick moved his family into the cabin. Hubert and his wife and children took care of the farm planted crops every year and Ed had several horses that he took care of. Hubert s At that time Sandy Springs was just a wide place in the road. 141 helped identify Mark. Smoking a pipe used to be macho and real outdoorish and it helped identify him from a distant shot. If you could see Mark and if he had a pipe you knew it was Mark. So I wrote the young man back said Elrod and told him I thought it was a great idea and that I was going to let Mark stop smoking. And his dad happened to be a doctor and he sent the letter to a smoking group in Washington called Action on Smoking. They gave it to the Associated Press and the next day I started getting calls from radio stations. The day after that I had three television shows wanting to do a TV short about Mark not smoking. That was one of the best things that got publicity. Once Mark stopped smoking I got a letter from one lady I think it s great that you let Mark quit smoking but he s been living with that girl for 40 years. When you gonna let them get married In 1993 Mark and Cherry were married after 47 years of dating. With momentous changes in the last two decades the 2000s were no different. In 2010 Elrod hired artist James Allen who took over the Sunday page. In 2014 Elrod retired and Allen formally succeeded him. B Left Tom Hill. Right Ed Dodd. parents owned the property across from Ed and ran [Brandon s] mill. We never saw the mill but we saw the spot where the actual mill was Jack Elrod reminisced. Hubert and his family lived on the property until Ed sold it in 1978. The year 1978 was a pivotal year for Ed Tom Jack and the Mark Trail comic strip. Ed retired and moved to Gainesville Georgia. Tom had a heart attack and passed away. Jack kept the comic strip going. I tried to keep the same general idea of conservation that Mark Trail had since it began said Elrod which was to preserve the woods waters and wildlife for future generations Elrod recalled. In the midst of the reemergence of the conservation movement in the 1970s Elrod understood how much more powerful conservation was in the 1970s than 1950s when the comic began. With the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970 and other changes to the politicalenvironmental landscape Elrod mentioned that there are now more people interested in conservation because they realized we ve got to preserve our natural resources and take care of them. Otherwise future generations are going to be in a lot of trouble. One of the most significant changes to the Mark Trail comic noted Elrod was that Mark stopped smoking in the mid-1980s. I received a letter from a young man. He said Why do you let Mark smoke He says smoking is bad for the birds and it pollutes the air. And the only reason we d let him smoke up to that time is it N N download transcript M M Click here to read more about Jack Elrod. CLICK FOR FULL ILLUSTRATION Daniel Carter Beard (centered) 1937 Jack Elrod Cotton & Convicts An interview with Hugh Sentell B Interviewer Linda Campbell B Date of interview February 19 1992 U.S. Senator James H. Hammond of South Carolina declared that Cotton is king in 1858 arguably the mid-point of cotton s 100 year reign in the Southeast. Despite a drop in production during the decade following Hammond s speech due to the Civil War cotton regained supremacy in the years leading up to World War I. Hugh Sentell remembers that right after World War I cotton in the spring was selling for 40 per pound so he stopped attending school after the seventh grade to help his father on their Sandy Springs farm. My daddy decided he d plant everything in cotton recalled Sentell. I quit school to help him plant it and work on the farm. Selling their cotton crop required t he Sentells and other Sandy Springs farmers to travel to markets in Atlanta Roswell or Marietta. Sandy Springs was predominately farm land and bartering occurred primarily for sustenance rather than cash crops like cotton. According to Sentell people growing their cotton sold it at Roswell and Marietta. They would cross the covered bridge into Cobb County. They had to get up and leave real early of a morning to carry cotton to Marietta to sell it because if they came back of a night somebody that lived over there would rob them. Sentell remembers going over there with my daddy a time or two to sell cotton and we would be sure we got back across that bridge in the daytime cause several people got held up there coming in of a night. They d work all summer and make the cotton carry it over there and sell it and come back with their little money and people would take it away from them right there on the covered bridge. Luckily Sentell never mentioned that he or his father were stopped by robbers on the road to Cobb County. However he does recall that by the time their cotton crop was ready for harvest it would only bring in 6 per pound [not the 40 as promised and then only if you could find somebody to buy it. So when we got ready to pick it you couldn t sell it at all. So he lost out on that said Sentell. There is no mention in Sentell s memoirs if this loss was related to a market flooded with cotton or to the scare from the boll we evil e pid e mic. Between 19 14 and 1923 farmers across Georgia like Convict Camp the Sentells lost a combined average of 3.9 million acres each year. The boll weevil though only about 0.2 inches in length can travel approximately 100 miles per year feeding on cotton buds and thereby infesting and killing the crop one plant at a time. After the loss in cotton Hugh Sentell s father sold their farm and moved the family from the Sandy Springs Dunwoody border to Mount Paran Road. My daddy went to work for Fulton County after he lost 143 everything in that cotton Sentell recalled. He went to work driving a team of mules for the convict camp. The camp was down below the spring [corner of Roswell Road and Hammond Drive]. He was paid 35 a month to go to work at sunup and work til sundown. He worked below the spring for quite a while and when the camp moved from there to Chastain Park he moved. There he did truck farming [as opposed to mule farming] for them and grew the vegetables for the camp. Then he moved from there on over to Wieuca Road where the camp was. He stayed there and looked after farming at that camp until he retired. and is probably the type of penal system that Sentell remembers his father working with. Eventually as in the case of convict leasing the harsh treatment of prisoners was again brought to the public s attention and by World War II chain gangs had almost completely disappeared. Unfortunately so much of history is wrought with topics that we would rather forget. Covered bridge robbers epidemics convict leasing and chain gangs capture our attention as part of a time gone-by but it was only a couple of generations ago that this was taking Right Hugh Sentell place here in our own neighborhood. This Sentell told us that back then the convict camps they really unsettling history seems locked in a distant past but next worked the prisoners. Convict camps similar to the one time you drive down Roswell Road past Hammond Drive Sentell mentions were unfortunately not unique to Sandy think about the prisoners many of whom were innocent Springs or Georgia but spread throughout the Southeast. citizens caught in a world of hate and Jim Crow s system Beginning in the 1860s after the Civil War convict leasing of prejudice. For Sentell and his family there is no record became a source of revenue for the state. Convict leasing of prejudice. His memoir simply describes a family losing was finally outlawed in 1908 due to the pressure of social their farm and a father taking a job to make ends meet. It is rights groups and an economic recession in 1907 that stories like this that once you scratch the surface you begin made convict leasing impractical for private companies to to see just how complex and interwoven history becomes maintain. Following in each of our lives. B the ban of convict leasing chain gangs sprang up on roadsides across Georgia and the Southeas t. Chain gangs las ted for s ever al dec ades N N download transcript M M Buckhead Cotton Exchange Roswell Bridge 1920 The Heart of Our Community since 1984 OV E R yEARS We have enriched the quality of life for Sandy Springs residents and visitors through cultural historical and educational opportunities. And we ll continue to do the same for generations to come. We are Heritage Sandy Springs. And we are the Heart of Our Community Since 1984. Hours of Operation 6110 Bluestone Road Sandy Springs GA 30328 Office Hours Monday-Friday 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. Park Hours Dawn until Dusk Daily Get in touch Phone 404-851-9111 Fax 404-851-9807 information heritagesandysprings.org www.heritagesandysprings.org