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Description: Nile Magazine Vol. 1 No. 2 May-June 2015 - Complimentary Edition

OSIRIS The Good Guys Always Win NI L E The New The So THAT S what it is NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU MAY JUNE 2015 COLOSSI RISE ANKH ABU SIMBEL SPHINX S NOSE Who s Responsible ISSN 2204-2776 Trouble at The Great NILE MAY JUNE 2015 FEATURES One of Egypt s greatest temples was built on shaky ground - and the worst damage was never fixed. 20 24 36 50 8 He built one of the ancient Wonders of the World but that s not what makes Ptolemy II famous. Even he could never have guessed what his greatest legacy would be. So what s with the nose We ll explore Egypt s greatest whodunnit . When was the nose knocked-off and who s responsible You may never look at the ankh in the same light again. What exactly is the ankh We explore one of ancient Egypt s most enduring symbols. We used to think of the Colossi of Memnon as sole survivors. Now more giants are standing proud. 2 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 CONTENTS 13 Horemheb Look at this mess Egypt had been badly neglected and Horemheb had a divine mandate to fix it. NILE MAY JUNE 2015 13 14 34 48 66 71 ON THE COVER SUBSCRIBE AND SAVE Get NILE Magazine delivered to your inbox every two months and save over 25%. Every 6th magazine is free Visit nilemagazine.com.au REGULARS 4 Map of Egypt 5 Timeline 6 From the Editor 72 Next Issue 73 Contact NILE 74 Contributors 75 Looking Back 14 Akhenaten By BETSY KELLEM What was he thinking What drove this eccentric king to rebel against everything he knew 34 Osiris The Lord of the Underworld knows a thing or two about death after all he s done it twice. 48 Kadesh tell the stories rule the Those who world and Ramesses II was a master at storytelling. 66 Meet the Photographer Manna Nader is prolific - and on a mission to share the rich history of his homeland. 71 Seti I s Stubble A rare unguarded moment for the king mourning the loss of his father. Robbed of his crown over the earth Osiris governed the realm of the dead with the same benevolence he ruled the living. Deceived and murdered by his jealous brother Seth Osiris gave Isis a son that would topple Seth and restore balance to Egypt. Read the full story on page 34. COVER PHOTO ANNE PETERSEN NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 3 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 ANCIENT EGYPT S prosperity rested on the surety of the Nile flooding and receding each year and leaving behind dark rich silt that fertilized the nation s crops. If the Nile was too low then crops failed and the responsibility would rest solely on the shoulders of the pharaoh charged as he was with maintaining harmony by keeping the gods happy. So when the Nile flooded on cue no one would be more relieved than the king. The annual inundation occurred around mid-July just after the appearance of Sirius the brightest star in the sky. This was celebrated with much fanfare as a time of rebirth and rejuvenation. The farmlands were fertile for another year and Egypt had been granted a new lease on life. The rising of Sirius and the Nile marked a new beginning they called Wepet Renpet or Opening of the Year . This was ancient Egypt s New Year s Day and was honoured with both sombre religious rituals and lavish boozy banquets. The king had done his job and Egypt had been saved for another year. It s hard to think of a better excuse for a party. Alexandria Rosetta Sais Tanis Avaris Bubastis Giza Abusir Saqqara El Faiyum Heliopolis Cairo Memphis Dahshur Meidum Hawara Beni Hasan el-Amarna Abydos Kharga Oasis Valley of the Kings Dendera Thebes Luxor Esna Edfu Gebel el-Silsila Kom Ombo Aswan Abu Simbel PHOTO NASA MODIS Land Science Team 4 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 TIMELINE KINGDOMS & DYNASTIES NILE MAY JUNE 2015 Year Ptolemaic Period 332BC-30AD Dynasty In This Issue ... Ptolemaic 30 20 25 Late Period 525-404 664-525 945-715 1069-945 1186-1069 27 26 22 23 21 20 19 18 15 16 17 13 12 9-10 11 7-8 A 3rd Int. P d 66 8 48 71 New Kingdom 1295-1186 1550-1295 2nd Int. P d Middle Kingdom 1st Int. P d 1650-1550 1795-1650 1985-1795 2125-1985 2345-2181 14 50 14 13 6 5 4 3 2 1 (A Abydos Dynasty) Old Kingdom 2494-2345 2613-2494 2686-2613 24 Early Dynastic Period 2890-2686 3100-2890 NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 5 FROM THE EDITOR Like father like son. Just like his father Khufu builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza King Khafre aimed high. He marshalled a huge workforce to raise his pyramid seemingly higher than his father s. It is in fact slightly smaller but built on a rise and at a steeper angle. And just like his father 12 year-old Dylan Burzacott finds himself roaming over the Giza plateau camera in hand. Dylan is standing by the giant tomb of Queen Khentkaus I likely daughter of Menkaure builder of the third pyramid at Giza. IN EGYPT YOU DON T NEED to step into a museum to learn about history. It s all around you. And it s a photographer s dream. Welcome to the second issue of NILE Magazine. A lot of the feedback we have received about the debut issue has been about the amazing images it s one of the things that set NILE apart. In this issue we feature Manna Nader an Egyptian photographer who is passionate about his country s rich heritage - and making it accessible to people around the world. You ll find some of Manna s wonderful photos scattered throughout this issue of NILE along with a get-to-know-you on page 66. Enjoy Jeff Burzacott editor nilemagazine.com.au 6 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 DR. STEVEN ZUCKER SMARTHISTORY A blameless life Hunefer enjoyed the prestigious title of Scribe of Divine Offerings in the court of King Seti I (ca. 1310 B.C.). His lofty status is reflected in the fine quality of his Book of the Dead which is now in the British Museum. Hunefer has very good reason to be smiling he has just passed the critical Weighing of the Heart ceremony. The Egyptians believed that the heart was the seat of all emotions and intellect and so carried the good and bad aspects of a person s life. To prove oneself worthy of a glorious afterlife the deceased s heart was weighed against the feather of truth. A blameless life would see the scales balance. If however the heart was heavy with sin a lurking monster would devour it and the deceased would die a second - and final - time. Here the happy Hunefer is led by Horus to his father Osiris seated in his shrine with Isis and Nephthys. In his hand Horus holds the ankh symbol of Hunefer s new-found eternal life. What is the ankh Discover the origin of this ubiquitous symbol on page 36. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 7 IT MUST HAVE BEEN HEARTBREAKING Soon after Abu Simbel was completed - a commanding royal presence at Egypt s southern frontier - DISASTER STRUCK GASTON BATISTINI 8 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 trouble at abu simbel GABRIEL INDURSKIS NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 9 FRANCIS FRITH 1856 TELL THE KING NOT LONG AFTER Ramesses II s temples at Abu Simbel were completed the area was shaken by a large earthquake. Amongst other damage inside and out the most obvious destruction was to the top of the second colossus. It had shattered across the torso and crashed to the ground. Given that Abu Simbel was on Egypt s southern frontier 1 100 kilometres from the royal palace at Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta one wonders whether his staff contemplated not telling the king at all. Would he ever find out The site of Abu Simbel was already hallowed ground when Ramesses II decided the site would make an ideal place for a powerful demonstration of pharaoh s reach. Four colossal 19.5-metre-high statues of Ramesses II were hewn from the cliffs their eyes angled downwards to confront travellers as they entered Egypt from the south. In the end a nervous courtier did inform the king about the devastation to his great temple and he ordered his local representative Paser the Viceroy of Kush to make repairs. The earthquake that had toppled the top of the second statue also separated the arm from the rest of the body of the third. Paser s solution was to support it with stone blocks upon which he inscribed the names and titles of his king. Clearly proud of his efforts Paser commemorated the restoration by erecting a statue of himself at the holy site. Paser s statue is now in the British Museum and we can still admire his handiwork at Abu Simbel today. Who s going to 10 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 GASTON BATISTINI A dilemma Lying in the sand in front of Ramesses II s great temple at Abu Simbel is the head of one of the colossal statues. It tumbled during an earthquake that hit Egypt shortly after Abu Simbel was completed. The Viceroy of Kush a man named Paser made emergency repairs to the temple at the time but lacked the means to fix the statue. The fallen head had to be left where it lay. 3 200 years later in 1964 the rising waters of Lake Nasser created by the new High Dam began to menace Ramesses II s temples. In a massive engineering project the monuments were moved to higher ground which was landscaped to resemble the original location. This was the ideal time to do what Paser wasn t able to fix the head back into place. However the decision was made to leave it as it was. After all the earthquake is part of the story of Abu Simbel and this is how Ramesses II s temple has looked for most of its life. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 11 THE FIRST EUROPEAN to see Abu Simbel since classical antiquity was the Swiss explorer Johann Burckhardt who found the temples almost completely buried by sand drifts in 1813. Burckhardt thought that the face of the left-most sculpture held the most expressive youthful countenance approaching nearer to the Greek model of beauty than that of any ancient Egyptian figure I have seen. Four years later treasure-hunter for hire Giovanni Belzoni spent a month having the sand dug away from the entrance anticipating fabulous riches inside. He was to be sorely disappointed. By 1838 when Scottish artist David Roberts drew this scene the temple had been largely engulfed again. Roberts used a little artistic licence and patched the damaged right arm on the third colossus eliminating the need for Paser s emergency repairs. SURPRISINGLY OLD When they notice them visitors often assume Paser s support blocks are a recent addition to support the aging statue however this repair work is over 3 200 years old. 12 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 King Horemheb on the 10th Pylon at Karnak Temple. PHILIPPE GOSSAERT GETTING IT BACK ON TRACK AKHENATEN THE HATED HERETIC pharaoh The 10th Pylon (ceremonial gateway) at had died just 13 years before Horemheb took the vast Karnak Temple complex had begun the throne. under Akhenaten s father Bizarrely Akhenaten Amenhotep III. Now King had renounced the age-old Horemheb set about religion and moved his court finishing it off as part of his from Thebes to his new city of program of restoring Egypt s Akhetaten dedicated to his neglected temples. supreme god Aten. By way of setting things Earlier Horemheb had right Akhenaten s temples at led Akhenaten s army and also Karnak were pulled down served the succeeding three with the blocks used as fill kings Smenkhkare Ay and within the shiny new pylon. As pharaoh Horemheb was entitled to a grand Tutankhamun before at last Today the pylon is in tomb in the Valley of the Kings. That meant giving up the tomb he d already ruling in his own name. an awful state of disrepair prepared at Saqqara. But before they Now reform was in the abandoned the tomb his masons needed but ironically Akhenaten s air and Horemheb wasted no to reflect their new king s regal status blocks inside have been look carefully and you can see a faint royal time in restoring Egypt s uraeus carved onto Horemheb s brow. preserved wonderfully traditional order. Horemheb NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 13 AK H E NATE N Pharaoh gender-bender sun-worshiper innovator A statue of Akhenaten in the less extreme style from later in his reign. The Louvre Paris (N 831) STORY BY BETSY KELLEM 14 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 IT S AMAZING THAT much interest persists in the ancient Egyptian ruler Akhenaten a king about whom precious little is clear no one knows when he was born or when he died why he made the sweeping theological and societal changes that caused many scholars to call him the world s first monotheist or even who his successors were. Still it isn t hard to see why the story s a sticky one and not least because company loves mystery. John Ray writing in History Today tossed off just a few of the speculations over which history has loved to ponder Akhenaten the ingredients are rich a tormented visionary a misunderstood poet ... a man out of his time. If Egyptian rulers were musicians this guy is Gaga in a meat dress. Akhenaten began life as Amenhotep IV son of the pharaoh who built the Colossi of Memnon. While he kept up the usual trappings of rule at first working in Thebes undertaking new temple building projects it soon became clear that the young king had a distinct agenda focused on one god - the Aten - the power and warmth of the sun and the sole giver of life. This colossal statue was carved when Akhenaten was still Amenhotep IV. It was raised in the Gempaaten ( the Aten is found ) Temple at East Karnak. Early in his reign the king singled out the Aten for special veneration. Unlike earlier kings who built temples dedicated to one god but included a wide variety of deities in that same complex Amenhotep IV s temples at Karnak were dedicated exclusively to the Aten. The statues there gave the king a brand new look an elongated face narrow eyes large fleshy lips and heavy hips and thighs. Egyptian Museum Cairo (JE 98915) CRAIG ELLIOTT NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 15 The king began to downplay historical modes of worship and minimized the role and reach of the priesthood not a way to make friends in a royal city built on order and tradition. The king adopted a new name Akhenaten or one who is effective for the Aten left the traditional Theban cities and set up a new distant capital city he named Akhetaten (now Amarna). Eventually Akhenaten did away with Amun altogether closing temples and hacking the old god s name from walls and carvings a particularly outrageous act to Egyptians who believed that to destroy a name was to extinguish that person in eternal time. Amarna took this common centuriesrefined Egyptian visual language and pulled it like taffy. Art suddenly became more angular more stylized exaggerated and yet in some ways more real (to wit pot-bellies). Akhenaten himself was typically portrayed in an overwhelmingly feminine mode curvy thighs and hips womanly breasts and elegant facial features. Moreover the panoply of animal-headed gods was replaced with one icon a sun disk reaching its many hands to earth where the king was now venerated as society s sole link to the divine Aten. There are many suggestions for why Akhenaten made sweeping changes to Egyptian society. Many are compelling and none are conclusive though in the end perhaps the likeliest is that the king was simply an eccentric narcissist given a whole lot of power. A colossal sandstone statue of Amenhotep IV Akhenaten from Karnak. The king is in the crossed-arm pose of Osiris god of the Underworld and rebirth. Egyptian Museum Cairo 16 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 The face of pharaoh. Ancient Egyptian artists rarely signed their work. As such we know the names of very few from throughout Egypt s history. One whose name has survived and deservedly so is Thutmose court sculptor for King Akhenaten. He was the artist responsible for the cache of remarkable sculptures discovered in his Amarna workshop in 1912 the most famous being the superb bust of Nefertiti. This plaster portrait of Akhenaten is one of the most life-like images of the king to have survived. Neues Museum Berlin (AM 21351) ICEGYSMO The Aten was the primary deity but the royal family were his representatives on earth and if the goal is to merge the king and the divine in aspect then you can start to see why Akhenaten really was less a monotheist than someone who had a particularly high opinion of himself. Here s why. The Egyptians believed that the world was created from formless dark waters called Nun. When a mound-shaped island of creation came out of the water Nun started to differentiate itself pairs emerged light and dark chaos and order male and female. A proliferation of deities and stories proceeded from there. In venerating the Aten and elevating himself as its liaison Akhenaten basically hit the cosmic rewind button and decided to think of himself and his wife Nefertiti as the first products of that squishy generative time at the beginning of everything. So since he precedes all other gods it isn t so much that Akhenaten believed in a single god as that he declared that none beside himself had yet come into being. This may be an explanation for why Akhenaten portrays himself as androgynous he possesses all qualities of life and creation including feminine fertility. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 17 Akhenaten Nefertiti (wearing her distinctive flat-topped crown) and three princesses beneath the lifegiving rays of the Aten. This is a detail from the Reward Scene in the Amarna tomb of Ay (Tomb 25) who would later take the throne and succeed Tutankhamun (Akhenaten s son). The king and queen are looking down from the palace window towards Ay who is receiving golden gifts in recognition of his fine work. This etching was made by Ernst Weidenbach around 1845 during the Royal Prussian Expedition to Egypt led by Karl Lepsius. It isn t certain when Akhenaten died nor where he was ultimately buried but kick the bucket he and his cultural experiment eventually did. The famous boy king Tutankhamun assumed power four years later and eventually began to restore the old theological order moving back to Thebes and paying honor to Amun. Amarna was over time dismantled and abandoned and references to Akhenaten were removed. But we still can t stop looking at photos of the meat dress. Betsy Kellem is an attorney-turned-writer. This article is adapted from her wonderful blog Drinks With Dead People . She calls it ... one long answer to that old party question if you could have a drink with anyone in history who would it be http drinkswithdeadpeople.com 18 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 THE 3 400 YEAR-OLD bust of Akhenaten s wife Nefertiti currently residing in Berlin s Neues Museum is as close as artifacts get to celebrity status in global culture and this isn t terribly surprising. The sculpture is uncommonly beautiful impressively old depicts an elegant and ostensibly powerful female royal figure and retains much of its original paint job. Thanks to these facts and the bust s notoriety and beauty Nefertiti is now mythologized as an ancient celebrity figure -- aloof mysterious commanding. The bust was first put on display in 1923 in Berlin and has been the subject of oohs and aahs not to mention arguments about ownership ever since. - Betsy Kellem NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 19 a p h a r ao h s l e g ac y Camel riders arrive at work for another day at the Giza Plateau thanks to a Greek pharaoh who lived 2 300 years ago. ERIC - FOTO BLITZ COLOR 20 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 King Ptolemy II could never have guessed what his greatest legacy would be IN 332 B.C. ALEXANDER THE GREAT swept into Egypt freeing it from Persian control and made it part of his growing realm. Nine years later he was dead possibly poisoned by one of the contestants for power after his death. Alexander s vast empire was too big for just one successor. Instead the conquered territories were split among his generals. One of Alexander s favourites Ptolemy Soter was sent to Egypt to serve as governor. Ptolemy eventually crowned himself king and founded the Greek Ptolemaic Dynasty. It lasted three centuries until as the story goes Cleopatra VII the last of the Ptolemies put an asp to her breast rather than surrender to Rome. At age 18 (290 B.C.) Ptolemy II was made his father s co-regent so as to guarantee his succession. This ensured a smooth transfer of power and ruled out any other claims on the throne. Ptolemy I had seen how Alexander s empire had crumbled after he had failed to nominate an heir. THE WALTERS ART MUSEUM BALTIMORE Many Egyptians viewed their new Greek kings as foreigners and so Ptolemy II worked hard to win over the powerful priestly elite. Royal portraiture was often made in the traditional Egyptian style and temples were restored and commissioned throughout Egypt. In traditional fashion Ptolemy II founded a ruler cult deifying his parents and instituted a priesthood in their honour - along with some generous funding of course. This granite head of Ptolemy II is in the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore Maryland. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 21 After his father s death (283 B.C.) Ptolemy II set about purging his family of potential rivals. This included banishing his wife Arsinoe I the daughter of King Lysimachus of Thrace one of Alexander s other former generals. Then in a move that shocked the Greeks Ptolemy II married his older sister Arsinoe II. The scandalized Greeks gave each of them the epithet Philadelphus ( brother sister loving ). Ptolemy II may have thought his name would echo throughout history for completing his father s grand building projects he finished the great Pharos Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world) as well as the Great Library of Alexandria. He might have hoped that his reputation for being a generous patron of poets and scholars would his greatest legacy having made Alexandria a brilliant centre of art and learning. Today however Ptolemy II s most enduring influence is almost as strongly identified with Egypt as its pyramids or famous Sphinx this king was the first to import camels into Egypt. The camels were part of a magnificent procession at Alexandria to celebrate Ptolemy II s accession to the throne and he soon organized a camel post to carry official messages up and down the Nile. Today their descendants carry tourists on bumpy jaunts around the Great Pyramids on the Giza Plateau. Whilst his descendents finished the job Ptolemy II began work on the Temple of Isis at Philae just south of Aswan. This was part of his large program of temple-building designed to endear himself to the population of what must have felt like an alien planet to the young Greek king. 22 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 Ptolemy II scandalized the Greeks by marrying his own sister Arsinoe and then added insult to injury when he minted a new coin featuring himself and his new sister-queen. While the Greeks viewed this as incest brother-sister marriages were a custom of the Egyptian pharaohs and the Ptolemies continued the tradition for generations. This gold octodrachma was minted in Alexandria around 260 B.C. On one side (pictured) it bears the profiles of Ptolemy II and his sister wife Arsinoe II with the inscription adelphon ( [coin] of siblings ). The other side bears the images of his father and mother Ptolemy I and Queen Berenice I with the word theon ( of gods ). This was a clever move by Ptolemy II it emphasized his royal descent and right to the throne and by portraying his deceased parents as gods he also promoted his own worship as a god. Mus e d Art Classique de Mougins MACM 2015 NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 23 Weather-beaten as it is the Sphinx probably held onto its nose for most of its life. Around 1 200 A.D. an Arab doctor from Baghdad wrote that its mouth bears the mark of grace and beauty ... it smiles in a gracious manner. What really happened to the Great Sphinx s nose The popular story is that it was being used for target practice by Napoleon s soldiers in 1798 when a lucky shot blasted it off. Although it s unlikely to be the case this particular rumour shows no sign of slowing down any time soon. 24 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 WHODUNNIT NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 25 WILL EGYPT PROSECUTE NAPOLEON FOR BREAKING SPHINX S NOSE SO READ THE 2013 HEADLINE when an Egyptian man demanded the trial of 19th century French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte on charges of blowing the nose off the Great Sphinx. Although he filed a complaint with the Egyptian Public Prosecutor s office calmer heads prevailed and the trial didn t eventuate. It does demonstrate however the dogged perseverance of the most famous story surrounding the most famous missing nose in history. This large human-headed lion stands before Khafre s giant pyramid at Giza. Few ancient monuments remain as enigmatic as the Great Sphinx. To this day people debate its purpose when it was built and what it meant to its builders. The most widely accepted scenario is that around 2 550 B.C. King Khafre gave the nod to a massive project to craft a limestone outcrop at Giza home of his giant pyramid into a colossal statue of himself with a lion s body. This was the embodiment of strength wisdom power and grace - what every good pharaoh should be. We don t know what they called it back then the Great Sphinx fails to appear in a single Old Kingdom inscription. Over the next 1 100 years the statue s origins faded and the Great Sphinx became a god in its own right. Khafre s statue was worshipped as Hor-Em-Akhet Horus in the Horizon symbolizing the rising sun that it greets each morning. 26 PHOTO BOJKOVSKI NILE MAY JUNE 2015 Then there is a great silence for some Let s explore ancient Egypt s greatest who700 years until A.D. 77 when Roman author dunnit . What happened to the Great Sphinx s Pliny the Elder writes In front of them [the nose And who s responsible pyramids] is the Sphinx which deserves to be described even more than On July 1 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte they ... The face of the monstrous landed in Egypt with 400 ships and creature is painted with a ruddle some 45 000 men. His plan was [an ochre tone] as a sign of not only to see the Sphinx but to reverence. claim it along with the rest of The nose Pliny doesn t mention the state the country for France. However wasn t of the nose however as we ll see Napoleon also saw himself as a blasted away recollections can be highly subjecman of science so along with the tive. Across the years travellers have it was chiselled soldiers and cannons came a imagined a nose that wasn t there corps of 150 scientists engineers off or happily ignored the great wound and scholars with another mission to the face of the Sphinx for a more to conduct the first scientific study picturesque image. The images they have of Egypt s culture and history. The country s created of the Sphinx range from accurate exotic temples tombs and monuments were renditions to almost imaginary concoctions. recorded in meticulous detail. Despite the damage to the nose the face of the Great Sphinx is in remarkably good condition for bearing the brunt of 4 500 years of sand-storms. Luis P rez Contreras NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 27 Tour guides at Giza happily repeat the story that the one-metre wide nose was blown off when Napoleon s troops used it for target practice. Or that after studying the Sphinx in great detail and not finding anything broke the nose in frustration. However close examination of the nose reveals that it wasn t blasted away it was chiselled off. Someone pounded wedges that created deep grooves down through the bridge of the nose and under the Sphinx s left nostril to snap it off to the left. One of the leading players in the French mission to fully document Egypt and its antiquities was Dominique Vivant Denon. He gives us a particularly emotive description The expression of the head is sweet pleasing and tranquil ... the art has without a doubt a high degree of perfection. It hardly describes a statue with the nose blown off. However a drawing made by Denon clearly shows the Sphinx in profile sans nose. By the time the French arrived in 1798 the Sphinx s nose had been missing for some time. Let s consider the accounts of some earlier adventurers RIJKSMUSEUM AMSTERDAM A side view of the Sphinx which gives a faithful representation of the decay that has suffered and the character of this figure in the parts that are still preserved. - Vivant Denon This image comes from Denon s Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt during the campaigns of General Bonaparte in that country published in 1803. It shows the Great Sphinx at Giza being measured by French surveyors. 28 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 A.D. 1565 Johannes Helferich head spoke to the people thus believing that the statue was to rule. The woodcut he made for publication in 1579 is similarly fanciful the Sphinx has become female. Helferich thought the statue was an image of Isis and so took some liberties by depicting the Sphinx with a nose - and decidedly feminine features. The flaring lappets of the royal nemes headdress has become in Helfrich s eyes the female sphinx s hairdo. 16th-century German writer Johannes Helferich left this record in his diary that would have us believe that the Sphinx was hollow December 13 1565 ... we rose early and some of us rode to the Pyramids. As we approached the first thing we saw was a large head carved in stone. Inside it is hollow. You can go in and out through a narrow and hidden underground rock passage the entrance to which is farther away. It seems that the pagan priests coming from the hallway into the A.D. 1611 George Sandys George Sandys was an English traveller and poet and spent February 1611 in Cairo. Sandys did a terrific job of depicting the monuments fairly accurately. This woodcut derived from a sketch made by Sandys shows the flat top of Khufu s pyramid and the remnant smooth casing of Khafre s as well as a surprising amount of detail of the Sphinx. We can see the erosion of the neck with knobbly protuberances and the damage to the nose and headdress. Sandys Sphinx almost looks like a modern work it largely avoids the classical style influences that impact many of the contemporary renditions of Egypt. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 29 A.D. 1681 Cornelis de Bruijn Just over a hundred years later in 1681 the nose suddenly appears in full On 27th May 1681 Dutch artist Cornelis de Bruijn visited Giza and recorded the wear and tear on the Great Sphinx in great detail. The nose however is shown intact although as we ll find out it had already been gone for several centuries by de Bruijn s time. Now you see it ... In 1580 English writer Richard Hakluyt described the state of Great Sphinx of Giza Neare to these piramides appeareth out of the sand a great head of stone somewhat like marble which is discovered so farre as the necke joyneth with the shoulders being all whole saving that it wanteth a little tip of the nose. RIJKSMUSEUM AMSTERDAM 30 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 A.D. 1737 Frederic Norden Voyage d Egypte et de Nubie shows the Sphinx clearly missing its nose. This was some 32 years before Napoleon was born. So Napoleon is cleared - but if it wasn t Napoleon then who ... Now you don t One of the earliest images to clearly show the Sphinx without a nose was published by another military man Frederic Norden. He was a Danish Naval captain who published the story of his travels in 1755. This plate from Norden s William Perry Fogg s 1875 travel guide says Time and ill-usage have made sad havoc with the monstrous face but there is a placid beauty about its features ... The conception is a grand one and well calculated to inspire with terror the weak minds of its worshippers. It may be that local fear and reverence around the Sphinx may have been its undoing. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 31 The Culprit Although Napoleon often gets the blame for the current state of the Sphinx the most probable story is that it was an inside job . It seems the nose was knocked off by a Muslim elder in the 14th century A.D. considering it a sacrilegious idol. An Egyptian Arab historian al-Maqrizi wrote in the 15th century that the Sphinx s nose was destroyed by a Sufi fanatic named Muhammad Sa im al-Dahr. In 1378 he came across peasants praying to the Sphinx as a god and burning offerings before it in the hope of a good harvest. The locals believed that the Sphinx was the talisman of the Nile on which the river s annual flood depended. Outraged by this blasphemous show of devotion Sa im al-Dahr attacked the nose with something like a crowbar. This vandalism enraged the peasants and lynched the holy man burying him in front of the statue and begging forgiveness. Nevertheless the historian wrote the attack was followed by several years of crop failures and that ... the sand has invaded the cultivated land of Giza. Is this an absolute fact In the end no one truly knows what happened. However the Great Sphinx s nose does appear to have gone missing well before Napoleon Bonaparte s troops set foot in Egypt. Despite this the Napoleon story isn t going to go away anytime soon. Frederic Norden s 1737 Sphinx in profile. There is nothing ambiguous about this image the nose is definitely gone. 32 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 3 WILLIAM JOY WHEN THIS LITTLE FELLOW was carved the Great Sphinx still sported a nose. Perhaps this version was patterned after its colossal cousin. Just like the Great Sphinx this little sphinx is human-headed and wearing the royal nemes headdress. It is dated to the Late Ptolemaic to early Roman period - 1st century B.C. to 1st century A.D. Its owner likes to think that some Roman soldier stationed in Egypt laid a couple of silver denarii down to get it as a souvenir. It s impossible to know of course but no doubt visitors to Egypt in ancient times would have enjoyed buying something to take home just as today s tourists do. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 33 This striking Late Period (ca. 747 332 BC) statue of Osiris is in the collection of Chicago s Field Museum of Natural History ANNE PETERSEN BETRAYED BY HIS BROTHER OSIRIS CHEATED DEATH for just a few restored Osiris body bringing him back moments - but long enough for him to to life just long enough for Isis to conceive conceive a son. their son Horus. Long before the pharaohs ruled Having left his earthly kingdom Egypt the god Osiris sat on Egypt s to Horus Osiris now ruled the throne and presided over a peaceful underworld and judged the dead for Hatshepsut prosperous land watched enviously their worthiness to be granted hoped to by his brother Seth. eternal life near him. rise from the Mad with greed Seth killed Because of his glorious Osiris cut his body into pieces and resurrection and authority over dead scattered them throughout Egypt. the dead Egyptians were keen Their sister wives Isis and Nephthys to have themselves identified collected most of the body parts and with Osiris to share in his rebirth. Osiris 34 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 Two of the Osiride statues that stand on the northern side of the upper terrace of Hatshepsut s graceful memorial temple. They sport the Double Crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. STEFAN GEENS FOR MOST OF EGYPT S HISTORY the pharaohs enjoyed absolute authority. In the afterlife however the king had to appeal to a higher power - the gods. Along the upper terrace of Hatshepsut s memorial temple at Deir el-Bahri originally stood a long row of colossal Osiride statues over 4 metres high. The statues combine the face of the queen with the iconography of Osiris the curled beard crook and flail held across the chest and wrapped in mummy bandages. By assimilating herself with the god Hatshepsut hoped to rise from the dead with Osiris and inherit eternal life. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 35 ankh Key of Life Womb Sandal Strap the This has to be the most recognized and yet most misunderstood of all ancient Egyptian icons. So what exactly is the ankh 36 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 TOMB OF KHERUEF (TT 192) LUXOR PROF. RICHARD T. MORTEL RIYADH NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 37 THE ANKH I wonder if Wills s Cigarettes ever realized that their scriptwriter was making things up. IN THE 1920s THE BRITISH cigarette company released a set of trading cards depicting Lucky Charms . Amongst the various amulets and talismans from around the world one card featured the ancient Egyptian Ankh. The description on the back explains that the ankh was supposed to bestow upon the wearer intelligence power and abundance ... the loop representing a fish s mouth (supposed to give birth to water) and in this form represents the key of the Nile which inundates the country fertilizing the land and bringing prosperity. Perhaps it was Friday afternoon and he was in a hurry to get out. Maybe he just enjoyed an over-active imagination. Either way Wills s Cigarettes couldn t be more wrong. Even in the 1920s scholars knew that the ankh was a symbol for life . 38 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 Whatever its origins we know it means life . Pharaohs often have themselves portrayed as being given life by a god. This extends to the king the god s immortality as well as endorses their divinely-sanctioned right to rule. This detail now in the Louvre comes from a relief of King Ramesses II from his small temple at Abydos. Any visitor to ancient Egypt quickly feminine energy . Others see a combination notices that the ankh is everywhere. Tomb of the symbols of the male and female and temple reliefs abound with images of reproductive parts emphasizing a fruitful union pharaohs facing various gods with the ankh and the life-giving act of creation. being held to the king s nose a gesture that Then there is the idea that it represents the endows them with eternal life. rising of the sun over the eastern We know what the ankh horizon with the shaft symbolizmeans. But no one knows for sure ing the path of the sun across the What is the Ankh what it actually is. sky. This reflects the belief that A widely-held view is that it Ask 5 Egyptologists at the end of each day the sun represents a sandal strap with god Ra sinks below the horizon and you ll get 6 the loop going around the ankle. and into the underworld. After This is thought to be because a weary night s travel through different answers the word for the strap and for the dangers lurking there the life were the same so the image sun emerges on the eastern of the strap became a handy way of horizon. Each dawn becomes a triumph portraying the more abstract concept of life . of good over evil a daily symbol of Some have speculated that the ankh resurrection and new beginnings. depicts a stylized womb and therefore potent NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 39 THE ENERGY FLOW between earth and the heavens was decidedly one-sided. Whilst it was the pharaoh s role to make the gods feel loved and looked-after with daily adoration and offerings the Egyptian deities reciprocated with something much bigger than warm fuzzies and a full belly eternal life. On Earth the king wielded absolute power but a forever after in the hereafter was a gift that only the gods could bestow. Naturally the kings of Egypt believed in their unique righteousness only they could receive the life-giving gift of the ankh. However there was also humility in the gesture. Life was in the hands of the gods we humans were not in charge. Here King Tutankhamun receives the gift of eternal life from Hathor as the ankh touches his nose. This scene is from the burial chamber of his tomb in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor. 40 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 ANDREAS F. VOEGELIN ANTIKENMUSEUM BASEL UND SAMMLUNG LUDWIG MIRRORS WERE an essential part of the cosmetic kit for every wealthy Egyptian. Made from polished gold silver copper or bronze they were stocked in the tomb to ensure that the deceased could enjoy an eternity looking their best. When Howard Carter excavated Tutankhamun s tomb in the 1920s he found two elaborate mirror cases but no mirrors. Portable and precious they were no doubt spirited away during the two ransackings the tomb received shortly after the king was buried. This spectacular mirror case shaped like an ankh is one of the two Carter found covered in gold and inlaid with semi-precious stones and coloured glass. The artist was clearly enjoying a play on words when he designed this piece the Egyptian word for mirror was also ankh. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 41 NAKHY WOULD HAVE had precious little spare time on his hands. He lived in Deir el-Medina a guarded gated community on the west bank at Thebes. This was home to the elite artisans who worked on the New Kingdom royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings. When they weren t furnishing the king with his magnificent home for eternity the workers were allowed special access to the resources to prepare their own. This limestone stele likely came from 42 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 HEN MAGONZA Nakhy s tomb chapel where visitors could admire Nakhy in the company of the gods. This top section features Nakhy arms raised in adoration of Osiris Lord of the Underworld and Anubis God of Embalming. Anubis holds the ankh demonstrating that he commands the power of eternal life. Nakhy s fabulous stela is in the collection of the Egyptian Museum in Turin. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 43 is this the inspiration for the ankh In the fourth century A.D. - the waning days of Egypt s ancient religion - the Christian church in Egypt adopted the ankh as a form of the cross known as the crux ansata ( cross with a handle ). The ankh-cross is a symbol that has endured however it s hard to imagine that the founders of Coptic Christianity would be overly delighted in the newest proposal for the source of the ankh s shape and meaning. Gabriela Holzer 44 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 In the early 2000s Calvin W. Schwabe Joyce Adams and Carlton T. Hodge from the Universities of California and Indiana began looking for a more plausible origin of the ankh which would better explain both its shape and life-giving properties. Their research suggests that the ankh is actually a stylized bull vertebra seen in crosssection. From Egypt s earliest beginnings as a collection of small pastoral communities cattle were associated with wealth prestige and sexual vigour. Later kings wore a bull s tail hanging from the belt suggestive of a couple of important kingly traits being powerful and sexually potent. Texts reveal that the Egyptians believed that the bull s penis was connected with its spine and that the source of the animal s potency the semen came from the marrow inside. A vertebra from a bull combined the most potent force of life and creation with the kingly ideals of might and prestige. Besides as a symbol for eternal life a bull s vertebra does seem to make more sense than a sandal strap. You may never look at the ankh the same way again. JEFFREY ROSS BURZACOTT Deep inside the Temple of Luxor Alexander the Great clad in the royal regalia of a traditional king of Egypt receives the gift of life from the god Montu. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 45 3 100 B.C. the bull s tail a 3 000-year-old tradition One of the most ubiquitous Egyptian royal emblems is also one of the most unnoticed. The Narmer Palette was created around 3 100 B.C. at the dawn of the Egyptian state. It tells the story of a mighty pharaoh leading his men into battle and proving himself to the gods as a confident victorious warrior. On it King Narmer ruler of Upper Egypt smites the enemies of the Delta marshlands capturing northern Egypt and uniting the country - perhaps for the very first time. It is also one of the first depictions of the pharaoh wearing a ceremonial bull s tail. This presented the king as having the might and majesty of the bull willing to do battle to protect the herd. Over time depictions of the bull s tail became more stylized but the prowess and strength of the wild bull as well as its sexual vigour made the king-bull fusion a powerful kingly statement through to the end of ancient Egypt s long history. 46 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 35 B.C. The Temple of Hathor at Dendera is one of the best preserved temple complexes in Egypt. This is largely because it was almost totally rebuilt during the Graeco-Roman period between 125 B.C. and 60 A.D. It is likely that these latter-day pharaohs couldn t care less about Egypt s ancient religion. They were however concerned about their popularity. A number of temples like Dendera were restored or substantially rebuilt as a way of demonstrating the legitimacy of the new pharaohs to an often rebellious population unimpressed with what they saw as foreign rule. WAYNE WILLIAMS Around 3 000 years after Narmer s palette was carved his distant successor Cleopatra VII nominated her son as co-ruler. The Queen had the temple of Dendera decorated with this image of herself with Caesarion little Caesar . He had become the queen s co-regent as Ptolemy XV around 35 B.C. and is portrayed with the ancient royal emblem of the bull s tail hanging from the back of his kilt. Cleopatra hoped that Caesarion would eventually succeed his father Julius Caesar as the head of the Roman Republic as well as Egypt. Unfortunately Caesar never acknowledged Caesarion publicly. Instead he named his nephew Octavian as his heir. Caesarion Ptolemy XV was 17 when his mother committed suicide rather than surrender to Octavian. The teenager became Egypt s last independent pharaoh albeit only very briefly. Ten days later Octavian the future Roman Emperor Augustus had Caesarion put to death declaring Two Caesars is one too many. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 47 Those who tell the stories rule the world COREY GOLDBERG 48 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 Smiling and confident the great statue of Ramesses II at Memphis displays the ideal image of pharaoh. Ramesses the Great was a master of propaganda. JEFFREY ROSS BURZACOTT THE GREAT RAMESSES II splashed the gripping account of his most famous victory on temples at Abydos Luxor Karnak Abu Simbel and his own memorial temple the Ramesseum. Kadesh was a city in what is today Syria and the site of a major battle between the two superpowers of the day the Egyptians and the Hittites. The Hittites had long been causing trouble inside Egypt s borders and Ramesses decided he was going to deliver a blow to their empire by capturing their great city. It was a disaster. Ramesses took false intelligence from Hittite-sympathising bedouins and his troops were ambushed. The Egyptian forces became separated in the battle and were being cut down by the Hittites. That was until Ramesses himself launched into the fight and virtually singlehandedly seized a glorious Egyptian victory. By immortalizing his daring battlefield valour Ramesses was showcasing his control over the forces of chaos that prowled at Egypt s borders. This was a message aimed at the gods to prove his worth in their company. Trouble was it wasn t really true. Ramesses II s mighty victory was more like a draw with the Hittite king Muwatalli II also claiming victory. The stalemate eventually led to the world s first recorded peace treaty signed between the Hittite and Egyptian Empires. It was a great outcome really just not the over-hyped yarn that Ramesses would have us believe. (Facing page) This grand statue of Ramesses II originally stood in the Ramesseum the king s memorial temple at Thebes. Ramesses now dominates the Egyptian Sculpture Gallery in the British Museum (EA19). NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 49 THERE WERE SIX And then 500 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 Dagmar Krejc The COLOSSI have COMPANY The greatest temple Egypt had ever seen was swept away not long after it was completed. All that was left behind were two lonely sentinels that originally stood guard at the temple entrance. Or at least that s what we thought. Now more great statues are joining the Colossi of Memnon. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 51 KING AMENHOTEP III. A STATUE IN THE LOUVRE PARIS YVAN LEMEUR THE PHARAOHS HAD LEARNT their lesson. Within just a few hundred years of their construction each of the great pyramids lay barren picked clean for the treasures that the king had planned to surround himself with in the afterlife. The pyramids were many things giant stairways to heaven mighty tombs grand statements of royal power and symbols of the sacred ben-ben the first land to appear at the beginning of time. What they weren t was secure. Despite their impressive bulk and the careful precautions taken to keep the entrances hidden no pyramid has survived inviolate. Far from keeping the king s body secure the gleaming pyramids attracted all the wrong kinds of attention. 52 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 MARKH The site of Amenhotep III s once-grand memorial temple stands out against the lush irrigated fields on the West Bank at Luxor. The Colossi of Memnon are at the right-hand-side of the picture. To the left beyond the irrigation is the memorial temple of Ramesses II a king who happily plundered his predecessor s monument for his own statements in stone. Egypt s New Kingdom (ca. 1550 B.C.) saw a new way of thinking. The royal tomb would no longer be the ostentatious show of wealth. Instead it would be hidden and hopefully safe cut into the rock of a remote ravine that we call the Valley of the Kings. The old religious fundamentals hadn t changed however and a memorial temple was still required to serve for the cult of the dead king. Here the king s deified spirit was worshipped and offerings made to keep him well fed in the afterlife. In the pyramid age this temple was built at the base of the pyramid. Now with the tomb located in the hidden reaches of the Theban mountains the king s memorial temple was built well away from it closer to the Nile. Following this new tradition when King Amenhotep III took the throne around 1390 B.C. he commissioned a glorious memorial temple on the Theban plain. Amenhotep III was part of Egypt s 18th Dynasty and ruled at the height of Egypt s power. His vast empire stretched from Nubia in the south to Syria in the north. Tribute poured in and the king commissioned grandiose construction works. Amenhotep III enjoyed a long fairly trouble-free reign and so had the time and money to build for himself the most magnificent memorial temple Egypt had ever seen. In its day Amenhotep s temple was even larger than the massive complex of the Temple of Amun across the river at Karnak. The king s temple was a glittering affair Amenhotep himself called it a fortress of eternity out of good white sandstone worked with gold throughout. Its floors were purified with silver all of its doorways were of electrum [an alloy of gold and silver] . NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 53 This image was taken in the early 1860s by English photographer Francis Bedford. Whilst the Colossi of Memnon themselves haven t changed much in 160 years the ground behind them is now populated with giant statues that Bedford wouldn t have known existed. The king went to his grave secure in the knowledge that his tomb was safe cut deep into the walls off the Valley of the Kings and his vast memorial temple would speak of his glory and sustain his soul for eternity. Amenhotep s glorious afterlife lasted less than a hundred years. Within a century of his death Egypt was hit by a massive earthquake shaking monuments up and down the Nile. One of the giant statues at Ramesses II s temple at Abu Simbel snapped off at the waist and Amenhotep III s great temple was devastated. The mighty pylons columns and statues tumbled to the ground and were happily carted off by later pharaohs for their own grand designs. Over time the scattered remains of the temple disappeared beneath the silt and soil and the only obvious sign that a great temple once stood there were the Colossi of Memnon. These giant seated statues of the king once fronted the temple s first pylon and became popular tourist attractions in ancient Greek and Roman times the feet and legs covered in ancient graffiti bearing the admiration of those early visitors. For a long time the Colossi of Memnon have been described as the sole survivors of Amenhotep III s great temple. The great surprise however is that much remained and today s visitors can now see Amenhotep III s other statues behind the great Colossi standing again. 54 NILE MARCH APRIL 2015 CARAVAN PASSING THE COLOSSI OF MEMNON THEBES - Jean-L on G r me 1856. Amenhotep III s great statues on Luxor s West Bank have been fascinating visitors to Egypt since classical Greek and Roman times. Since 1998 The Colossi of Memnon and Amenhotep III Temple Conservation Project led by Egyptologists Hourig Sourouzian and Rainer Stadelmann have been literally pulling Amenhotep s temple back out of the ground. The king s mansion of a million years is slowly being revealed from what was once thought of as a fairly barren landscape. One by one the shattered sculptures are being raised and restored in their original context. In time the whole site will be presented as a vast open-air museum. Dr.NairyHampikian thefieldmanager at the site feels that the reconstructed statues add to the area s attractions and to the understanding of Amenhotep s great temple The work would please the pharaoh as he contemplates it from eternity. Starting from the next page is a timeline of discovery reconstruction and erection at Kom el-Hettan the modern name for the area where Amenhotep III s great memorial temple is once again taking shape. WHY MEMNON The name Colossi of Memnon comes from the legendary King Memnon of Ethiopia who led an army from Africa into Asia Minor during the Trojan War against the Greeks but who was ultimately slain by Achilles. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 55 2002 IN THE EARLY 2000s the Colossi of Memnon were cleaned and their surfaces consolidated. Archaeologists also took the opportunity to probe around the bases of the statues. During this work they were surprised to find just below the surface a dozen large blocks that originally formed part of the body throne and base of the southern colossus. The hope is that some of the missing JAIME ROSLYN Workers prepare scaffolding around the southern colossus one of the original guardians to Amenhotep s great temple. stone from the statues faces may also lie buried nearby. 56 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 2009 A cast of the original head now sits atop the torso to greet the sun each day. AFTER 3 300 YEARS the great Colossi have had to start sharing some of the attention. These quartzite statues were originally almost 8 metres tall. They were raised in 2009 exactly where they stood in 1 390 B.C. between the column bases of what was once the great temple s Peristyle Court. The head for one of the statues was found nearly 200 years ago and is now in the British Museum (EA6). Thankfully a cast was able to be made and married to the torso so that the statue could look more complete. Archaeologists are hoping to reassemble as many statues at the site as possible to create a unique open-air museum. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 57 2010 MINISTRY OF STATE FOR ANTIQUITIES IN FEBRUARY 2010 a beautifully preserved giant head of Amenhotep III was dug out of the ruins of the pharaoh s memorial temple on the West Bank at Luxor. The head matched other parts of a colossal statue of Amenhotep III including the ceremonial beard found several years ago. For years it was assumed that aside from the famous Colossi of Memnon very little remained at the site of Amenhotep III s temple however recent excavations are unearthing a treasure-trove of artefacts. This magnificent granite head is over 2.5 metres long and is in line to be restored and re-erected. 58 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 2013 Here one of the giant feet is lifted onto a bed of sand close to the temple for restoration and reassembling. CLAUDIA ALI FEBRUARY 18 2013 saw a massive salvage operation for two new colossi which once flanked the northern gate of Amenhotep III s memorial temple. The fragments lay 2.5 metres below ground level on privately-owned land. Having survived over three millennia they were at risk of finally being destroyed by irrigation water and salt. MINISTRY OF STATE FOR ANTIQUITIES Rescue archaeology. The eastern statue as discovered needing saving from destructive ground water. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 59 2013 CLAUDIA ALI As is proper a watchdog for the precious pieces reported for duty immediately. Water water everywhere Today the greatest threat to Amenhotep s temple is groundwater that has been creeping up since the Aswan High Dam was completed in 1970. The Nile no longer surges over its banks each year flooding the fields before retreating. Instead farmers irrigate all year-round keeping the soil near archaeological sites soggy and carrying corrosive salts that eat away at the limestone and sandstone blocks and statues. 60 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 March 2014 MARCH 23 2014 The world until now knew two Memnon colossi but from today it will know four colossi of Amenhotep III Sourouzian told a press conference unveiling two new statues. 100 metres behind the famous Colossi of Memnon are the subtle remains of the second pylon. Now seated before it is one of the restored giants (left) very similar to the Colossi of Memnon. Over 11 metres tall this quartzite statue shows Amenhotep III seated with an almost complete figure of his wife Tiye standing by his right leg now covered OLAF TAUSCH up for protection. OLAF TAUSCH Unveiled on the same day was a striding statue of Amenhotep III that was retrieved from the ground a year earlier. This statue 13 metres high stands at the north entrance of the temple (See page 62). The King s Favourite Wife. This statue of Queen Tiye was unearthed in 2008. She was attached to the broken-off leg of the southern colossus at the second pylon. Standing beside her 15-metre-tall husband Tiye appears quite diminutive which is quite misleading because she is still much larger-than-life. Tiye s statue is over three metres tall. KAIROINFO4U NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 61 DECEMBER 2014 Workers by their feet provide a good sense of scale these statues are huge. Now they stand again after collapsing and shattering apart more than 3 000 years ago. BERNARD M. ADAMS NINE MONTHS AFTER the first northern statue was made whole and re-erected its twin was raised to join it where they fell at the northern gate of Amenhotep III s temple. Both colossi are monoliths of quartzite hewn in the quarries of Gabal Al-Ahmar near ancient Heliopolis and transported to Thebes. The statues represent the king striding forwards holding a papyrus roll in each hand inscribed with the royal name. The king wears the white crown of Upper Egypt and a pleated kilt held at the waist by a large belt decorated with zigzag patterns and a rectangular clasp bearing an inscription with his name. 62 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 JIGSAW PUZZLE The giant eastern statue at the temple s northern gate (pictured) was painstakingly pieced together from 73 large fragments. The western colossus comprises 88. Now that they are standing smaller pieces are being progressively added as they are identified as belonging to the pair. A giant KAIROINFO4U NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 63 ONTO A GOOD THING... WHEN AMENHOTEP III REMODELLED Luxor Temple he seems to have based it on the design of his memorial temple on the other side of the river. Today one of the most elegant features of Luxor Temple is a peristyle court known today as the Sun Court as the plaza is completely open to the sky. The king also created a Sun Court twice as large at his memorial temple on the other side of the river. Today only the column bases remain When you re 64 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 OGNEN BOJKOVSKI but his Luxor version gives us an idea of how it must have once looked enclosed by rows of towering columns. The Luxor Temple Sun Court is admired for its spare elegance but in Amenhotep s day the spaces between the columns were filled with large sandstone statues of the king. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 65 KAIROINFO4U For close to five centuries the village of Deir el-Medina sheltered the community of craftsmen building the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings. Irynefer served under two kings Seti I and Ramesses II ca. 1279 B.C. Here Irynefer drinks from a pool of fresh water beneath a Dom palm tree. 66 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 Ramesses III offers a sphinx to the god Amun (out of frame). This relief from a chapel in the Temple of Khonsu at Karnak reminds us of what a full-colour spectacle Egypt s temples must have been in their hey-day. KAIROINFO4U MEET THE PHOTOGRAPHER I HAD THE PLEASURE OF E-MEETING Manna Nader whose ancient Egypt photographic collection as Kairoinfo4u on Flickr is the most comprehensive to be found free online anywhere. I asked him about his motivation to create such a database of images. As a young man in the Spring of 1974 I visited Giza for the first time. Sitting on top of the Great Pyramid I looked down on the huge plateau and wondered what could induce the people thousands of years before to erect these gigantic monuments. What kind of kings did they serve Which sorts of gods did they admire Manna Nader Kairoinfo4U My fascination for ancient Egypt started on this day. Over the years I have had the opportunity to stroll around these fascinating sites and shared my enthusiasm with friends. Some friends in Germany gave me the nickname Kairoinfo which I retain with pride today. Some people are fortunate enough to visit Egypt regularly but for most it remains the trip of a lifetime. Others cannot get to Egypt at all. For them all I have the ability to contribute photos from Egypt s temples tombs and pyramids they can t get to otherwise. You can explore Manna s incredible portfolio at www.flickr.com photos manna4u. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 67 The Ramesses II Court at Luxor Temple 68 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 KAIROINFO4U NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 69 A B KAIROINFO4U C (Clockwise from top) A. From the tomb of Ramose (TT 55) at Luxor. Neby and Apuya Ramose s father and mother attend a funeral banquet in his honor. B. A scene from the tomb of Irynefer (TT 290) at Luxor. The five gods seven stars and sundisc are thought to represent a solar eclipse. C. A Luxor Temple relief showing King Tutankhamun. His cartouche has been erased and replaced with that of Horemheb (see story on page 13). 70 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 THE WALTERS ART MUSEUM BALTIMORE IN MOURNING AFTER THE DEATH of his father Ramesses I the crown prince Seti I entered an official mourning period which lasted until his father was buried and the new king took the throne. During this time one of the outward signs of Seti s grief over the loss of his father was to grow a stubbly beard. A number of these stubble-portaits exist although only in unofficial sketch form on ostraca - limestone flakes used for drawing or writing to save precious papyrus. In official depictions the king is always shown clean-shaven - perfect and worthy to join the gods for eternity. This sentimental little piece is now in the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore U.S.A. A pharaoh TEACHER S AID This sketch of Seti I was probably created by a master painter as a model for his trainee artists. Later it was picked up by a different teacher for a lesson on how to draw hands. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 71 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 IN YOUR NEXT NILE MAGAZINE The God s Wives of Amun True Girl Power. Olga Dantas meets the most prestigious priestesses in Egypt women whose influence sometimes rivalled the king. CHRIS IRIE Love Sex and One Night Stands The ancient Egyptians were a conservative lot or so people think. Charlotte Booth explores intimacy along the Nile. Trains Touts and Temples Sam Roberton s lively and engaging tips for visiting Egypt and getting the experience you came for. Egypt s Most Beautiful Tomb Some of Egypt s most beautiful reliefs are to be found in the Theban tomb of Ramose Chief Minister under King Amenhotep III. But why was the tomb never used SOLOEGIPTO Nile Style Artist Sandro Perovich brings personality (and drama ) to the famous figures in Egyptian history. His best works are your next NILE Magazine. Never miss an issue. Subscribe today by visiting nilemagazine.com.au. 72 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 SUBSCRIBE NILE MAY JUNE 2015 www.nilemagazine.com.au Published bi-monthly Next issue July August 2015 Get closer on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Be inspired on Pinterest CONTACT NILE EDITOR Jeff Burzacott hello nilemagazine.com.au editor nilemagazine.com.au SUBSCRIPTIONS AND CUSTOMER CARE subscribe nilemagazine.com.au www.nilemagazine.com.au ADVERTISING Heather McCutcheon advertise nilemagazine.com.au www.nilemagazine.com.au WRITING FOR NILE www.nilemagazine.com.au 2015 Nile Magazine. All rights reserved. ABN 35 116 652 067. ISSN 2204-2776. Published in Adelaide South Australia. The contents of NILE Magazine are copyright and may not be reproduced in any form either wholly or in part without the written permission of the Editor. Articles not specifically attributed are by the Editor Jeff Burzacott. At NILE Magazine we always strive for accuracy and fairness but if you do see something that doesn t look right please contact the Editor. One of the most ancient and ubiquitous royal emblems often goes unnoticed - the bull s tail. Find out more about the tail on page 46. This relief showing Amenhotep III comes from Luxor Temple. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 73 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 CONTRIBUTORS Some of the generous photographers whose work graces the pages of NILE Magazine. We are more than happy to share their blogs galleries and projects. 59 52 34 20 64 Claudia Ali has lived in Luxor since 2007. Explore her passion for writing and photography at www.leben-in-luxor.de Explore French photographer Yvan Lemeur s collection of images from The Louvre here. Anne Petersen has a wonderful set of photos from the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. Have a look here. The Foto Blitz Color images on Flickr make you go wow. Check them out here. Browse through Ognen Bojkovski s terrific DeviantArt page here. 74 NILE MAY JUNE 2015 Vintage Images of Ancient Egypt LOOKING BACK G. ERIC MATSON FARMERS CALMLY PLOUGHED around them paying little heed to their import - except when foreign tourists crushed the crop as they tried see the statues up close. Robert Hichens 1911. The famous Colossi of Memnon are often described as the last remnants of the great memorial temple of King Amenhotep III the rest being plundered and ploughed-under centuries ago. Whilst it isn t so obvious in this 1936 photo the site is actually littered with inscribed masonry blocks and pieces of statues which are slowly being reconstructed and raised where they once stood proud. Read the full story on page 50. NILEMAGAZINE.COM.AU 75 www.nilemagazine.com.au www.facebook.com Official.Nile.Magazine 76 NILE MAY JUNE 2015