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SANDY SPRINGS GazettE The Stories of Sandy Springs 1 Dear Friends Welcome to the Sandy Springs Gazette Volume III published by Heritage Sandy Springs. For years the stories you will read and listen to in this interactive publication sat on shelves in our library and archives waiting for researchers genealogists or interested readers like yourselves to explore them. As Heritage Sandy Springs updates our mission we are also updating our approach to sharing the history of Sandy Springs with our community. The purpose of the Gazette is to give life to the stories of our residents and to highlight them as they are remembered. While we do not authenticate the accuracy of any particular story we print we do strive to provide historical context for each of these memories. We have chosen to take the narratives of our community your stories and tell the history of our town through the lens of those who experienced it firsthand. History at Heritage Sandy Springs will no longer be relegated to a library shelf. We have created this collaborative publication for those of you who remember these stories events and locations and want to share our unique history with the next generation. Here is what you can expect from the Sandy Springs Gazette Every other Thursday Heritage Sandy Springs (HSS) will publish a new article the online Gazette based on oral histories from Sandy Springs residents accumulating a firsthand account of historic people places events and happenings in our community. You can receive notifications via Facebook and Twitter when the new articles have been published. Look for hashtag TBT (throwback Thursday) or SandySpringsGazette. Or you can sign up for our email list to get the latest information every other Thursday evening. (http ) In February we will publish the online stories into a full print journal so that you can give the Sandy Springs Gazette to someone who may not have online access. We look forward to welcoming you into the captivating and compelling history of our beloved community. Sincerely Keith L. Moore M.A. Director of Historic Resources P.S. If these stories spark memories or if you know of someone who would like to share an oral history of our community please feel free to contact Heritage Sandy Springs at curator or 404-851-1749 so we can arrange an interview for you. Table of Contents 3 A Woman of Word Part One...........................4 A Beloved Physician Ahead of Her Time........8 A Southern Education....................................12 Education in Earlier Days..............................18 Making the Countryside Home.....................22 Education Creates Opportunities in New Home..28 Memorable Service in a Forgotten War ...32 Anchored in the News..................................36 When Emory Doctors Went to War.......... 40 A Tasty Staple of Sandy Springs History....42 Sandy Springs Gazette Identity and Pride........................................ 46 February 2018 - January 2019 Volume 3 Issue 32 Breaking Barriers..........................................52 Publisher Heritage Sandy Springs Chip Emerson Alcohol Goes Undercover............................56 Call of Duty Back Home...............................58 Executive Editor Keith Moore Grit Gumption and Grace........................ 64 Call of Duty in Vietnam.............................. 66 A Fine-Tuned Life..........................................70 Associate Editor Stacey Hader Epstein Writer Keith Moore Save our Springs...........................................74 Thirty Years of Philanthropy......................78 Leisure & Learning in Early Sandy Springs.84 Preseving Sandy Springs.............................88 Like Father Like Son....................................92 A Non-Combative Hero............................... 94 Production and Design Multi-Media Editor Keith Moore A Family in Power........................................ 98 The Vietnam War....................................... 102 Contributors Melissa Swindell Karen Meizen McEnerny Leslie Walden Rachel Rosner Stacey Hader Epstein Jeff Kushner Tami Kushner Greg Marchand Richard Blount The Sandy Springs Gazette is published bi-weekly by Heritage Sandy Springs Article ideas are welcome. Please email inquiries to curator Copyright 2018 R2R Media Inc. All rights reserved. Reproductions in whole or part without express written permission of the publisher are strictly prohibited. This journal is available by digital download. Heritage Sandy Springs 6110 Bluestone Rd. Sandy Springs GA 30328 404-851-9111 Woman of the Word Part One An Interview with Patricia Templeton B Interviewer Stacey Hader Epstein B Date of Interview September 27 2018 Many children who spent their childhoods in the onceTricia s parents Bob Templeton and Lena Dot grew up in sleepy town of Sandy Springs during the 1960s and 1970s Chattanooga Tennessee and South Carolina respectively. and then moved away to see the world as young adults are Bob left his Tennessee home when he traveled to Atlanta to now retur ning attend Georgia to give back to Institute of the area that Te c h n o l o g y raised them. One (Georgia Tech). such original He fell in love Sandy Springer with Atlanta t h e Reve r e n d and k new he Patricia Tricia ultimately Te m p l e t o n wanted to make began her i t hi s h o m e. career traveling After he married t he wor l d as Lena the pair a journalist moved to and ad vo c ate Houston Texas Exterior of Ridgeview High School & parking lot as seen in Ridgeview before ultimately where Bob High School Yearbook Viewpoint Vol. 10 1978. Donated by Frances returning to worked as an McKibben courtesy of Stacey Hader Epstein. 2017.013.005 Sandy Springs as engineer at Ethyl a reverend in a Corporation beloved area church. While Tricia would eventually become and where the couple started their family. They welcomed an influential community member her path was filled with their first daughter Tricia in 1956. They did not like unusual turns and interactions that ultimately impacted the Texas remembers Tricia. My dad always had wanted to work she does today. live back in Atlanta after going to school here. So they 5 Ridgeview High School-Frances McKibben & students outside of school as seen in Ridgeview High School Yearbook Viewpoint Vol. 8 1976. Donated by Frances McKibben courtesy of Stacey Hader Epstein. 2017.013.018 moved back especially to be in Atlanta. The Templeton family which had grown to include Tricia s baby brother Damon relocated back to Atlanta in 1960. They settled in DeKalb County on Ashwoody Drive in the Oak Forest Hills subdivision off Ashford Dunwoody Road. At that time what eventually would become nearby Perimeter Mall was nothing more than a horse and cow pasture and Interstate 285 didn t exist yet. I remember them building 285 Tricia recalls. One of my earliest memories is we were coming back from Chattanooga. My dad decided to try out the new road they were building 285 and he went on the part that had not been opened yet and got stuck in the mud. I must have been about five years old. Tricia s formal education started at Montgomery Elementary School where she completed first through seventh grades. She began her sub-freshman year at Chamblee High School around the time her family moved into Sandy Springs proper. By this time the Templetons had welcomed two more children into the family Tricia and Damon s younger brothers Alan and Paul. The family moved a short two miles into Fulton County to a street called Crestline Valley Circle near Peachtree Dunwoody Road and Mount Vernon Highway. The street and surrounding neighborhood no longer exist instead the garden section of the Sandy Springs Home Depot store now sits roughly where they were situated. Tricia transferred schools and began her studies at Ridgeview High School in the ninth grade. Ridgeview was a terrific high school remembers Tricia. We got a great education there. When I look back from high school college graduate school I had good teachers. The biggest concentration of really excellent teachers was at Ridgeview especially in English and in social studies. Just really really good teachers. Ridgeview was one of several high schools in the Sandy Springs area and in 1974 was welcoming many fresh faces when nearby Sandy Springs High School was closing its doors. Ridgeview was still a fairly new school and Tricia s class was the second graduating class to have gone all the way through to the end of twelfth grade. For many Sandy Springers their early years at Ridgeview High shaped their lives given the large numbers of influential and remarkable teachers such as Frances McKibben. Frances McKibben taught many history courses throughout her tenure at Ridgeview and is remembered for her firm hand and her love of her subjects. Tricia recalls I remember two things especially that her teaching one was Woman of the Word Part One continued to Frances McKibben. The other thing that I really remember and had a huge impact on me is that I wanted to be a journalist. In fact that would be Tricia s first career [McKibben] in my senior year encouraged me to do an independent study on women in journalism. One of the things I did for that course was to go and interview women journalists in Atlanta. One I interviewed was Judy Woodruff. She was local to Atlanta and she was on channel five WAGA-TV. Then she went on to be a national journalist in one of the networks and then she was on CNN for a long time and now of course is on PBS. I ll always remember that I got to interview her and how gracious she was and how much time she gave me. The other was Celestine Sibley who was probably the most famous journalist in the city or one of them anyway. Certainly the most famous woman journalist who became a lifelong friend and mentor after I went down and interviewed her for Frances McKibben s class. After graduating from Ridgeview High in 1974 Tricia traveled to Athens Georgia where she at tended the Univer sit y of Georgia (UGA) and began her Article by Patricia Templeton Meeting with Davison Draws Mixed Reaction. The Red and Black (Athens) January 22 1976 82nd vol. num. 51 studies in journalism. Tricia states I was editor of the paper there which was called The Red that they had American history divided into I think three and Black and was a daily newspaper. That was where I sections. There was a quarter or a timeframe where you got my education and class was something we did on studied democracy one where you studied foreign policy the side which actually was incredible the paper came and one I think it was revolutions. Frances ensured that first. Tricia wrote several stories regarding the university all of her students had a well-rounded view of democracy and specifically the library which was experiencing severe and history s influence on contemporary society. I knew mismanagement. The Atlanta Constitution Atlanta s every detail about what was going on in Watergate thanks 7 morning newspaper at that time picked up and ran several of these stories. But her start was not so auspicious and she nearly quit the paper after her first year on-board. Tricia recalls Actually I was assigned an article right away. I did it and came back and they wanted me to redo it. I took that as a sign that I wasn t good enough to work which it sounds so ridiculous now. At eighteen I took that as a sign that I wasn t gonna [sic] be good enough to work for the Red and Black. Tricia returned home to Sandy Springs the summer after her freshman year unsure of her future in journalism. Her neighbor at the time Charlie Carnes who was in the state legislature and would later become a judge advised Tricia to reach out to one of her previous interviewees from her high school days Celestine Sibley. Celestine Sibley had told me when I interviewed her that after a year of college if I was still interested in journalism to get in touch with her and she would help me recalls Tricia. I didn t think she would remember me but Charlie said Oh you know I know her. Come with me and I ll reintroduce you to her. I went down to the state legislature with him when they were in session and Celestine was in the press box. Charlie left me with her and she pretended whether she really did or not I don t know but she pretended like she remembered me and was delighted to see me again and she helped me get a job that summer as a copy boy. Despite the gender designation of the position a copy boy was a person who retrieved coffee answered the phones and ran copy from reporters to the editor. In an age before technology made communication so easy copy boys helped newsrooms operate efficiently. Tricia recalls If people needed something from what they called the morgue which was the library where all the archives for the paper were I would go get it for them. I would go down to the press room and get the paper when it got off the press and bring it back up to the newsroom. Sometimes I worked from six o clock in the evening till two o clock in the morning. Sometimes three o clock in the afternoon till eleven o clock at night. I would sit around late at night [and] listen to mostly the men s stories of what it was like to work in the newsroom. It was a great summer though. At the end of the summer her superiors at the paper told Tricia to come back the next summer as a full intern. She returned to UGA and The Red and Black as a transformed journalist and more determined than ever. Those early years were crucial to Tricia s development as a young journalist. First at the paper at Ridgeview High and later at the Red and Black. She graduated from UGA in 1978 with a degree in journalism and began her career as a single woman traveling the Midwest and the South looking for a story. She first took a postgraduate fellowship with The Indianapolis Star which recruited roughly ten graduates from across the country to work during the summer in Indianapolis Indiana. Following her training at The Star Tricia moved to Greenville South Carolina to work full-time for The Greenville News. Tricia recalls I was working for The Greenville News full time but they had me covering two rural counties of South Carolina Oconee and Pickens Counties. I lived and worked they wanted you to live where you were reporting. I lived in Seneca South Carolina which is right across the line from Georgia. I had a portable computer that was in a suitcase that was two and a half feet wide and a foot and a half tall and probably weighed twenty pounds. Back in the age of suitcase computers and dial-up services Tricia traveled from county to county using a portable modem to submit her work. I was on the phone with my editors every day but I went into the main office maybe once a month. It was miserable. Tricia spent roughly sixteen months traveling to small towns covering county commissions school boards local police departments and even Clemson University. At the young age of twenty-two after having spent nearly two lonely years traveling around the rural south she decided to make a change. This becomes the first place where my story makes a strange turn. I was talking to a friend on the phone one night. Talking about how hard it was to be where I was. I said You know I think I ll just go and join the Peace Corps. It would be another year before Tricia actually followed through on that light-hearted threat by accepting a position with the Peace Corps that took her abroad. Her years traveling and volunteering would prove integral to her future career as a journalist and in turn as a future member of the clergy. Stay tuned for Woman of the Word Part Two coming in two weeks B A Beloved Physician Ahead of Her Time An Interview with Mary Denmark Hutcherson B Interviewer Keith Moore B Date of Interview June 29 2018 In the wake of World War II scores of families left Atlanta behind for the surrounding suburbs. Quaint homes on large tracts of land invited many Atlanta urbanites into a quiet countr y oasis. While the population of S an d y S p r ing s boomed in the pos t- war er a a m e ni t i e s a n d resources to serve the numbers of resident s were slow to follow. For ins t a nce long before S an d y S p r ing s was known for its hospitals and myriad medical of fices there were only a few individuals who chose to practice medicine and care for residents in this small charming community. Leila Daughtry was born February 1 1898 in Bulloch County west of Statesboro Georgia. It wasn t even a town in those early days just a small group of farmers living in what would eventually become the town of Portal Georgia. Like many children in the early nineteenth c e n t u r y L e i l a spent her childhood helping her parents raise her younger siblings. While at home during her first t wo years of grammar school she was homeschooled by her mother. She always said that she was very small and when Dr. Leila Daughtry Denmark it was time to start school she was too little to go by herself. So her mother schooled her at home recalls her daughter Mary Denmark Hutcherson. It wasn t until her younger sister Myrtis became of school age so the two of them could walk to school together that 9 Graymont about 35 miles west of Statesboro and mother took a teaching job in Acworth in northeast Georgia. The next year he moved to Atlanta to teach math at a junior high and she moved to Claxton Georgia. A true couple destined for each other Leila and John had an exceptionally long engagement. In 1924 John applied for a position with the Foreign Service which would end up taking him to Surabaya Java in the Dutch East Indies. Unable to take a spouse John and Leila postponed their nuptials for more than two years while he worked with the Foreign Service. Leila and John Eustace Denmark on their wedding day circa 1928. she attended a public school. After finishing grammar school Leila moved to the First District A&M School in Statesboro where she graduated in 1918 when she was twenty years old. From there she attended college at Bessie Tift College a women s Baptist College in Forsyth Georgia in Monroe County. She graduated in 1922 with the intention of becoming a teacher. Leila met her future husband John Eustace Denmark at a very young age. In fact the couple met in grammar school in Portal before going their separate ways for college. While Leila attended Bessie Tift for her undergraduate degree John went to college in Athens Georgia before finishing at the Georgia Military Academy in Milledgeville. Mary recalls He first went to University of Georgia. But he did not start immediately upon high school graduation because World War I was still going on and he thought he was going to be drafted. So he worked on the farm. When the war ended he then started college in 1919 and finished in three years. Despite their time apart Leila and John remained a committed couple. Mary remembers Neither one of them had a dime but they had secretly gotten engaged in 1921. So my father took a teaching job in a little community called Fortunately for many those two years apart set Leila on a noble path for the next eighty years. In 1924 she started medical school at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University. I ve always said I think it was about that time that Leila went over to the Medical College of Georgia recalls Mary. Having been spurned [by] Emory and this is a funny story she persuaded them to let her in. They did not want to but she says I have to come this year With her fianc abroad there was no time like the present to attend medical school. Leila had initially planned on attending Emory Medical School but the administration officials refused to let her study there because of her gender. Mary states Well this is the story as she told it and I guess it s true that [when] she applied to Emory Medical School they told her straight faced Now Miss Daughtry if we admit you we will have to have two medical schools. One for the women and one for the men. That did not set well with Leila so she turned around and sought admission to an accepting institution. She ended up at the Medical College of Georgia and had begun her medical degree studies when John returned to the states in 1926. However Leila was not quite ready to get married and abandon her education. She continued her studies while John found a job in the state banking department in Atlanta. In 1928 Leila was the only woman in her graduating class of the Medical College of Georgia in Augusta and she became the third woman ever to graduate from the school with a medical degree. In June 1928 Leila took her final exams graduated sat for her state medical boards and after nearly seven years of being engaged married John Denmark. Once married Leila and John moved to Atlanta where they rented an apartment off Piedmont Road before ultimately settling in the Virginia-Highland area of north Atlanta. John continued to work within the state banking system I think that s what my father did a lot of during [the Depression] years before he well maybe even after perhaps he and Mother were married was going to these small towns where the banks had failed and try to salvage what money they could for the depositors and so on recalls Mary. John eventually A Beloved Physician Ahead of Her Time continued was also the head doctor opening up the new hospital for children which would eventually become Henrietta Egleston Hospital. In 1928 the hospital opened in the Old Fourth Ward neighborhood and stood on what was then called Forest Avenue now Ralph McGill Drive. Leila was asked to be the first intern and the first medical resident there. She completed a sixteen-month residency there before traveling to Philadelphia for several months and finally returning to Atlanta. Leila and John purchased a home on Hudson Drive in the Virginia-Highland neighborhood which would be Leila s practice location for nearly twenty years. Leila spent many years dedicating her life to the advancement of children s medicine. She was very active in chemistry and physics research throughout the 1930s and from 1933 to 1944 she became known for researching the diagnosis and treatment of pertussis or whooping cough a highly contagious disease among children. Leila also helped develop the pertussis vaccine in 1935. Leila and her daughter Mary circa 1930s. took a position with the Federal Reserve of Atlanta while Leila began practicing medicine first as an intern and then as a medical resident at Grady Memorial Hospital. She ultimately became a pediatrician and began to practice medicine out of their home. In 1949 the Denmark family relocated a little further north to a booming community outside Atlanta called Sandy Springs. Having grown up on a farm John had always wanted to own a home in the country. Mary recalls In 1938 my father had wanted a fish pond and he found attractive land... [or] somebody found it for him on High Point Road which of course at that time was about a mile and a half south of While building her pediatric practice in their private home on the north side of town Dr. Leila Denmark became one of the first physicians on staff at Henrietta Egleston Pediatric Hospital when the facility opened on the Emory University campus. In November 1930 just two short years after marrying and starting her career Leila gave birth to daughter Mary. Mary recalls I was born at Emory Hospital in 1930. My mother at that time had just finished her residency in pediatrics. She came to Atlanta when she and my father married in 1928 after a whirlwind courtship of about seven years. She finished medical school took her boards got married all within about a week. She worked first doing some volunteer work down at Grady Hospital. Then also there was a baby clinic across from the state capital at the Central Presbyterian Church. It served the people who worked south of there people who were very poor and they needed a volunteer. She filled in there. The doctor who ran the clinic in the Presbyterian Church Leila with her daughter Mary on her wedding day circa 1955. 11 With so few doctors in the Sandy Springs community Leila became a well-known physician and quickly developed a loyal patient base. According to Mary their parking lot and driveway were full nearly every day. Leila and John spent nearly forty years in Sandy Springs connecting with the community through the Kiwanis Club and her private practice. She practiced medicine in Sandy Springs until 1985. By that time she had begun seeing the children of many of her original patients Dr. Leila Denmark as she examines a patient. Courtesy of the Atlanta-Journal Constitution. what is now Sandy Springs. At that time Sandy Springs was kind of a wide spot in the road. There was a store or two a gas station a small post office there was a church and there was a spring. The Denmarks purchased property off Glenridge Drive near High Point Road and what used to be called Ezzard Drive today known as Northland Drive. On the property at 5605 Glenridge Drive John built a small dam in the stream there and created a small pond for the family to enjoy. There was a house placed on the property and John and his brother also built a small cabin for family and relatives to enjoy as a weekend getaway. Mary remembers That was a kind of weekend retreat not to stay out there but to drive out on Saturday or Sunday afternoon and walk in the woods read the paper you know that kind of thing take maybe take a picnic. Leila established her medical practice in the main house on the property and despite there being a small population in the area in 1949 her patients began to find her. Mary recalls The front of the house was kind of catty cornered facing the intersection of High Point and Glenridge. The driveway came off Glenridge and down to the house and the two wings of the house were somewhat at angles. One wing was a carport and then a building that was my mother s office. There was also a room there for a live in maid which we did have temporarily but it didn t last very long. Later on Daddy used that as sort of an office. It was a nice house two story brick painted white. The office wasn t very big because she figured nobody would find her out there. But they did so In 1972 John s health began to deteriorate and Leila and John felt that their property was too expansive for an aging couple. John also yearned to return to a country setting as Sandy Springs was becoming much more urban and Leila was yearning for a house with columns. She d always wanted a house with columns recalls Mary. The couple began to sell off pieces of their property and by 1985 had relocated further north to Forsyth County. Leila reopened her medical practice in their new home and continued practicing medicine for another sixteen years. She became the world s oldest practicing pediatrician when she retired in May 2001 at 103 years old. Leila passed away on April 1 2012 she was 114 years and 60 days old. Leila Daughtry Denmark is one of the few supercentenarians known for something other than her longevity. She was a renowned physician well regarded for her approach towards finding a health problem rather than simply treating its symptom. She was among the first physicians in the U.S. to advocate against smoking while pregnant and she was a firm believer that high quantities of sugar were detrimental to one s health regardless of age. In 2018 both Sandy Springs and Forsyth County honored her memory and contributions to their areas. The City of Sandy Springs designated a road which connects Boylston Drive to Roswell Road between Hilderbrand and Hammond Drives as Denmark Drive. In addition a new Forsyth County high school which is located near her former home is named after her. Interes ted to k now more Dr. Leila Denmar k s accomplishments impact and leadership in her field will be chronicled in a Heritage Sandy Springs upcoming exhibit Grit Gumption and Grace The Women of Sandy Springs opening June 2019 at the Heritage Sandy Springs Museum. B A Southern Education An Interview with Katherine Geffcken B Interviewer Jeff Kushner B Date of Interview April 27 2018 Georgia s public education system which currently schools for local children. One such school was established includes approximately 1.6 million students throughout the at the United Methodist Church in Sandy Springs. state was established by the state s constitution in 1777. Not long after the state s first government-supported high It wasn t until 1858 while under the governorship of Joseph s c ho ol o p e ne d E. Brown in Augusta in that an ef for t 1783. Since those was made to early days the establish a s t a t e s p u b l i c comprehensive education system system for some has had a long of the state s and tumultuous children h i s t o r y w h i c h n a m e l y o nl y included historical Georgia s under funding. white children. G e o r g i a s f i r s t Following real at tempt to the Civil War provide more (1861- 65) all adequate financial s c hools were support for segregated by public education race and due occurred in 1822 to inadequate Katherine Geffcken (left) in school photographs from O Keefe Junior and Girls High circa w h e n a p o o r funding many 1939-1942. Courtesy of Katherine Geffcken. 2018.009.012 school fund was of the schools established. However those benefits proved limited and could only afford to operate for three or four months out several towns and cities were forced to fund their own public of the year. In 1872 Georgia s education system finally 13 Elizabeth met William Gef fcken in 1924 and after a short engagement they were married by the end of the year. The couple lived in various apar tments throughout the northern Atlanta area and were still renting an apartment at the time they welcomed Katherine to the family in 1927. William Facade of O Keefe Junior High School as it stands today on the campus of Georgia Tech. Public Domain. Elizabeth and Katherine eventually moved into her grandmother s home began to develop under the leadership of the state s school shortly before welcoming Katherine s younger sister commissioner Gustavus J. Orr. By the early nineteenth Caroline to the family in 1932 in order to help take care of century Georgia s public schools primarily those in Elizabeth s aging mother. Katherine remembers When I Atlanta were taking shape to provide quality education was about four years old we moved back into my mother s albeit largely for white children. family home which had been restored after years of being rented out which was at 1276 West Peachtree Street on Katherine Allston Geffcken was one such lucky Atlanta the west side of West Peachtree between 15th and 16th recipient of the state s commitment to quality public Streets. Now there s a high-rise on that property. In education. She was born July 24 1927 in old Piedmont the 1930s residents in that particular area considered Hospital and attended many of Atlanta s most notable themselves part of the residential area on the north side. schools. Both of Kathrine s parents grew up in the South. The neighborhood had its own grocery store and many Her father William Gordon Geffcken had grown up in residents shopped at Hawk s drugstore but the area was Savannah and had attended Savannah schools before mostly compiled of large beautiful homes along Peachtree traveling north to attend Baltimore College of Dental Road. Although Katherine s father owned a car her family Surgery. The Baltimore College of Dental Surgery which routinely took the trolley around Atlanta. Not far from today is known as the dental school of the University of this lovely residential area was where Katherine began Maryland was founded in 1840 and was the first dental her education at the acclaimed Spring Street Grammar college in the country. My father went through Savannah School. schools and went to the Baltimore College he went there because his grandfather Johnson had been a member of The Spring Street School was built in 1914 in the part of the third class there and so forth remembers Katherine Atlanta known today as Midtown. The school served There was a tradition in the family. Katherine s mother residents of the nearby Ansley Park area who had Elizabeth Gadsden Robinson was the daughter of John complained to the Fulton County School Board for years Robinson. John was in the fertilizer business which was a about an overcrowding problem at Tenth Street Elementary lucrative business among the southern cotton fields prior School. The school board continuously denied their requests to the boll weevil infestation during the early 1900s. When for action until 1914 when the board finally approved the Katherine s mother was eight or nine years old her family construction of a humble brick school on Spring Street near traveled briefly to Savannah before John s company sent the corner of Eighteenth Street. At the time of the school s the family to Atlanta. According to Katherine He was head construction Spring Street and the surrounding area was of the southeastern division of a fertilizer company called considered rural with a dirt road. That locale would not the Morris Fertilizer Company and he worked here until become a major thoroughfare until the Second World War. 1925 when he retired. He and my grandmother went back Katherine recalls Well of course the term midtown didn t to Charleston where he founded his own company the exist but we lived in what was a residential area. I went to LoganRobinson with his friend Hampton Logan. He founded the famous Spring Street School which is now the Puppetry the LoganRobinson Fertilizer Company [which] was sold in Center. The Spring Street School drew from the Peachtree the 1960s or thereabouts to Armour and Company. A Southern Education continued Girls High School Atlanta Georgia circa 1925. Copyright Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive AJCP553-026e Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library. Ansley Park and Brooklyn Hills [neighborhoods] and was a wonderful grammar school. We regarded ourselves as living in a residential area on the north side of Atlanta. Spring Street Elementary School was always considered a special type of school especially by those who attended it. But after 1954 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools were unconstitutional in the case of Brown v. Board of Education the modest brick school would become infinitely famous. Indeed Spring Street Elementary School became the first elementary school in Atlanta to be integrated. The children of such luminaries as Coretta Scott King and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. as well as Ralph David Abernathy Sr. attended the newly integrated school in the 1960s. By 1972 Spring Street Elementary School was forced to close its doors. The Atlanta Ballet briefly utilized the vacant school building until 1980 when the building was purchased and converted into the renowned Center for Puppetry Arts. Following renovations in 2015 the fa ade of the original school building is now completely unidentifiable. After six years at Spring Street Elementary School Katherine entered junior high at yet another prominent local school that closed its doors in the late 1970s. Built as O Keefe Junior High School the building opened in October 1923 and would later become O Keefe High School. Katherine spent her junior high school years there in the late 1930s and early 1940s before moving on to high school. She recollects I loved O Keefe and I thought I had a wonderful time at [there]. One of the things I recall about that is that I got very interested in the school newspaper. The school newspaper at O Keefe was called The Log. We had a great time and every in those years at least every May there was a grand convention at the School of Journalism at UGA for all the school journalism groups. I remember my first trip to Athens was with The Log and we went over there and we won a prize. Of course I went to school before...You know I graduated high school in 1945 so of course it was all segregated. O Keefe Junior and then High School operated until the last class graduated in 1973. The building was sold in 1978 and the Georgia Institute of Technology consolidated it into its college campus where it remains today. The facility was spared destruction during highway construction just east of the building. Still visible from the interstate today the original building is still utilized by Georgia Tech. In 1941 Katherine began attending high school in one of Atlanta s four high schools for white students. As Katherine recalls Girls High School was the central high school Boys High was academic [and] preprepared for Ivy League schools as well as local schools Tech High which prepared for Georgia Tech in particular and there was Girls High for girls. There was Commercial High which obviously prepared [for] the business world. Girls High School was one of seven schools that opened in Atlanta in 1872 as part of the original public school system. Girls High was established in the John Neal William Lyon Mansion a spacious residence that was used by General William T. Sherman as his headquarters during his occupation of Atlanta during the Civil War. The site of the mansion at Mitchell and Washington Streets is now occupied by Atlanta City Hall. Katherine remembers My mother went to Girls High School too in its early days up when it was in downtown Atlanta. It was an absolutely magnificent education. Indeed considered a superb school academically Girls High was the only public high school in Atlanta exclusively for women and boasted that seventyone girls received diplomas from the school in May 1911. Elizabeth Geffcken s school was not the same one that 15 Katherine would later attend. Girls High relocated multiple times before settling in a new building at 745 Rosalia Street in Grant Park. It was at this location where the school officially opened its doors and was designated as Girls High School for the next twenty-two years. Katherine enjoyed many extracurricular activities while attending Girls High but she particularly enjoyed working on the Girls High newspaper. Having worked previously on the newspaper staff at O Keefe Junior High Katherine was adept at being a part of a journalism team. She recalls Well I went on with the newspaper business and I was on the staff of the Girl High Times. And again we went to Athens every May and we won prizes every year. The paper had a very high level of writing and Girls High had a trophy cabinet that was bigger than [most] bookcases and filled with silver cups. I had a column in the paper under a pseudonym of course. I did feature stories for the paper in my senior year. I was features editor and I had two but the one I did it my senior year was an inherited name because it was a column that was passed down. It was humorous actually but it s about things to do with Girls High but was humorous and the name of the writer was Dippy Dora. So every year there was somebody who wrote Dippy Dora. We had a wonderful adviser Ms. Jane Park she was a member of the English department and I think she probably decided that. But it was fun Girls High served as Atlanta s premier high school for girls for nearly thirty years at its Grant Park location. Girls High was highlighted in the 1930s after a visit from then-Presidential hopeful Franklin Delano Roosevelt. However by the late 1940s the idea of separating schools by gender began to wane and by 1947 Atlanta high schools had become coeducational. Girls High was eventually renamed Roosevelt High School after its most famous visitor FDR who had passed away two years prior. The former Girls High School continued operating as a co-educational facility until 1985 when it merged with Hoke Smith Technical School. Katherine (left) Elizabeth Caroline and William at Agnes Scott College Easter 1949. Courtesy of Katherine Geffcken. 2018.009.025 A Southern Education continued After graduating from Girls High in 1945 Katherine did not travel far for college. She attended Agnes Scott College an all-girls college a short distance from her family s home. Katherine remembers My first year at Agnes Scott I was a nonresident. I went on the bus and the trolley out to Agnes Scott every day but the second year it was possible for me to move in [and] my sister was about to finish junior high at O Keefe Junior High. Agnes Scott College was founded in 1889 as the Decatur Female Seminary by Presbyterian Minister Frank H. Gaines. In 1890 the name was changed to Agnes Scott Institute to honor the mother of the college s primary benefactor Col. George Washington Scott. The name was changed again to Agnes Scott College in 1906. Today the school remains a women s college. Katherine attended the school from 1945 until 1949 and earned her degree in Classical Languages and Literature. She mostly studied Latin and Greek but was only one course shy of a third major in English. Katherine did not know what she wanted to do upon graduation and had a very hard time deciding in the midst of finishing up her senior year. Katherine remembers Well I had a very difficult time...I remember in June of 1949 because I graduated from Agnes Scott not knowing what I was going to do. I had deliberately done that because I was doing honors in my senior year and I couldn t possibly go through the rigmarole of figuring out what I was going to do at the same time. I had to focus on getting out of college doing my honors work my honors paper and getting out of college. And in the month of June after I graduated I had to decide whether I was going to do something academic. It was too late to apply to graduate school and Katherine was running short on funds so she decided she would follow in the footsteps of so many influential women in her life she decided to try to find a teaching job. Partly out of loyalty to my major probably I wrote to an Episcopal school staying within the church in some form recalls Katherine. Episcopal schools are everywhere and I ended up teaching Latin for two years in a school in Kenosha Wisconsin. At a boarding school for girls. And I needed to do that if I was going to go on and do anything further because in fact I had understood tacitly from my parents that my mother s income from her estate from my grandmother had paid for Agnes Scott but I was not going to get any more money. Katherine taught in Wisconsin for two years before reaching out to several of her previous professors at Agnes Scott. Several had been pressuring Katherine to continue her studies and go to graduate school. She recalls My undergraduate professors had always been gently pushing me to go to graduate school at Bryn Mawr. Bryn Mawr College founded in 1885 is a women s liberal arts college in Bryn Mawr Pennsylvania and is one of the Seven Sisters colleges. Among many things Bryn Mawr is known for being the first women s college to offer graduate education through a doctorate degree. When Katherine sought to attend Bryn Mawr had one of the finest classics programs in the country. It was also of course a supporter of women. So I applied to about four or five places but I ended up at Bryn Mawr. I actually spent eleven years at Bryn Mawr because I spent three years as a graduate student the second and the third year also as the graduate head [or warden] of Undergraduate Hall recalls Katherine. She then went overseas for a year as a fellow at the American Academy in Rome Italy and also as a Fulbright Fellow. When she returned to Bryn Mawr she came back as assistant dean of the college a position she held for three years. Then I took a year off. Then I was a parttime instructor in Latin and did my doctoral exams. Then I went back to being dean for two years and then I took a year off to do my dissertation. Then I did a year again as a dean and then I went back to Wellesley. As one of the Seven Sisters colleges Katherine easily transferred to Wellesley College a private women s liberal arts college founded in 1870 and located west of Boston in the town of Wellesley Massachusetts. Katherine was a part of the faculty at Wellesley College for nearly thirty-five years. Katherine retired from teaching Latin in 1998 but she maintains her contacts and talks to another classics professor nearly every week. Though she retired to North Atlanta Katherine remains on the faculty at Wellesley College as faculty emeritus. Never one to let her age define her at ninety Katherine still attends national and professional meetings and occasionally spends time at the American Academy in Rome in order to spend time with her current and past colleagues. From the beginnings of her schooling in the humble brick building on Spring Street to her position as a dean at a prominent Seven Sisters college Katherine Geffcken built upon her Atlanta public education foundation in order to help other young women find their passions like she did many years ago. B 17 d e s s i M u o Y s e i r o t S e h T d a e R Visit Heritage Sandy Springs to get your copy Volume 2 Education in Earlier Days An Interview with Francis Hardin B Interviewer Kimberly Brigance B Date of Interview March 20 2009 Up until the 1960s Sandy Springs had remained a sleepy Dunwoody areas. Her husband s uncle John Spruill lived rural community. Distant enough from Atlanta to endure in Dunwoody at the time and owned all the property on as a rustic municipality of farmers the community began Mount Vernon Highway from the DeKalb County border to transform from farmsteads to a localized suburban all the way up to the Hidden Branches subdivision. Having area when new residents many from California who such influential relationships helped Francis and her w e r e e m p l oye d husband set by Lockheed their own roots Corporation in Sandy Springs began purchasing al o ng o n e of land in Sandy the area s most Springs. Despite his toric roads the continuous Mount Ver non movement of the Highway. Now community farther John Spruill was away from its rural t he cousin to roots one Sandy S t e v e S p r u i l l Springer recalls the and it seemed ways in which the that Steve owned earlier resident s ever y t hing o n helped influence the right of the foundational Mount Ver non Class photograph of Liberty Guinn sixth and seventh graders taken at values of the city p r a c t ic all y Sentell Baptist Church circa 1947. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2010.105.001 that remain today. including the area w hic h is Francis Hardin now Perimeter settled in Sandy Springs in 1958. Her husband was familiar Mall recalls Francis. Steve also owned the Arlington with the area and had family in the Sandy Springs and Cemetery on Mount Vernon Highway and had the property 19 next twenty years during what was a significant transitional period in Sandy Springs. She officially retired from teaching in Fulton County in 1981. Look ing bac k on her teaching years Francis felt the community had a dif ferent feel to it that was evident in her students. She recollects I found that the people Article and image regarding the plan for the new James L. Riley in the area whose children Elementary School on Mt. Vernon Highway circa 1955. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2010.064.008 came to our school were ver y interested in the fundamentals. The that we wanted to build a house [on] but nobody in Sandy children had duties when they went home. They didn t Springs had county water with the exception of people on have air conditioning in their cars. They didn t have air Roswell Road. Francis and her husband wanted their house conditioning in their houses. And the children had duties at built along Mount Vernon Highway and were bound and home like pulling weeds and putting in fence and things of determined to get the area developed into a residential that sort. The parents were very practical people. During community. Of course like most of their neighbors they Francis s tenure at Liberty Guinn many of her students lived needed running water to make it happen. Francis recalls on nearby farms and performed chores at home. Francis So when we were ready to go to the county to ask the states When I taught at Liberty Guinn the children there county to run water out Mount Vernon I called Steve Spruill wore blue jeans and overalls and the people in Buckhead and asked him if he would be willing to sell a footage of frowned on that. They thought that they didn t want their Arlington Cemetery so that we could have county water children to play baseball games with them or any other coming out Mount Vernon. Steve said No I just got back kinds of games because they thought their dress was not from Washington and I tried to keep you from getting up to par. People just dressed differently at that time. A electricity out there so I don t want you to have running number of students who attended Liberty Guinn and other water. So those of us out here had to dig a well so we did. Sandy Springs schools later went on to have large impacts on the world. Francis remembers Once their house was built and established Francis decided to find a job outside their home. She had attended Everywhere I taught the parents were dedicated the Georgia State College for Women in Milledgeville to their children and wanted their children to be Georgia with the intention on teaching. After settling in the trained. That was most important thing for them Sandy Springs area she first taught sixth grade students was their education. They were never pampered at Liberty Guinn Elementary School. Francis remembers and they were never coddled. When they came I went to work at Liberty Guinn School which is on Long home in the afternoon they either went to Island and still exists [as Holy Spirit Preparatory School]. It swimmin [sic] to scoutin [sic] or do something was a dreamy little school and at one time had one grade worthwhile. I still keep up with some of those each. But Lake Forrest was being developed into houses parents and when I [show] a picture of my class at and the people who were moving into those houses in the James L. Riley my sixth-grade class I would point adjoining streets along there were coming here to work for out that one of those students is a [retired] judge in Lockheed because they were transferring from California. Cobb County one is an author Taylor Branch who The newly transplanted residents quickly overcrowded the is a Pulitzer Prize winner. small school at Liberty Guinn so much so that each grade level ended up with double classes. To ease the crowding James L. Riley Elementary School closed its doors in an additional school was built in Sandy Springs James 1986. The school was purchased in 1988 by nearby Holy L. Riley Elementary. Francis taught at both schools for the Innocents Episcopal School. The building was renovated Education in Earlier Days continued residents who instilled a strong sense of civic duty into the Sandy Springs community by raising their children to be respectful citizens with a desire to better their families and community alike. While Sandy Springs may be a bustling urban area today the city s essence has always been defined by a group of practical people trying their best to make it a community. B Fa ade of James L. Riley Elementary School February 1966. and used for both middle and high schools until a new middle school building opened in 2006. The Riley Building as it is known today was renovated again in 2015 and is now home to language choral and art classes for ninth through twelfth graders. The fa ade of Liberty Guinn Elementary School now Holy Spirit Preparatory School is still visible on Long Island Drive. In the late 1950s Sandy Springs consisted of a few businesses Nance s Filling Station Burdett s Grocery and Hardeman s Hardware. Early Sandy Springers attended local churches where church activities were central to daily life as well as primary social activities for both kids and adults. By the 1960s the influx of new residents to Sandy Springs soon altered the demographics of the once quiet community. The increased population boom ultimately brought with it a need for more streets a demand for department stores and restaurants and a strong market for more housing. But the core of the community as Francis remembers it stayed the same. Francis recollects It was the pride in what the parents did for them [children]. That s the important thing. The children were brought up with such values that I don t know how you would say it but the parents were basic people and the children were basic people. There was never anything showy or spectacular. There was no camouflage. Everything was just basic things. The children were not pompous the children were trained to be participating citizens good citizens and they were schooled in conforming to the laws. Indeed the stor y of Sandy Springs begins with a population that Francis recalls so fondly. It was these early Holy Innocents Episcopal School changing the name of the James L. Riley School. Holy Innocents took over James L. Riley Elementary School in 1988. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2010.056.009 21 d e s s i M u o Y s e i r o t S e h T d a e R Visit Heritage Sandy Springs to get your copy Volume 2 Making the Countryside Home An Interview with Katherine Geffcken B Interviewer Jeff Kushner B Date of Interview April 27 2018 Traveling around Sandy Springs today visitors are unlikely to originally built as country getaways for Atlanta residents still see charming bungalows stalwart farmhouses or winsome exist they re just slightly harder to find in this expanding country cottages reminiscent of its rural past. Today community. Sandy Spr ings is comprised Tw o early p r i m a r i l y residents to of modern the area were condominiums William Gordon large multi-use Geffcken and his d evelo p me nt s wife Eliz ab et h or contemporary G a d s d e n homes built in Gef fcken who the last fif t y were native years. Many southerners of t he s e new from Savannah proper ties are Georgia and double or even South Carolina triple the size of r e s p e c t i v e l y. the homes that William Gordon originally would Gef fcken or Exterior facade of the Kenstone Cottage circa 1935-1936. have occupied simply Gordon Courtesy of Katherine Geffcken the large plots was named after of rural land. Yet his godfather d e s p i te t h e s e W i l l i a m changes in a Washington city that is quickly becoming home to myriad transplanted Gordon who was the father of Juliette Gordon Low the residents and more modern infrastructure homes that were founder of Girl Scouts USA. Gordon Geffcken had been 23 The girls both at tended Spring Street Grammar School and O Keefe Junior High School. Eliz abeth and her daughters loved living in Atlanta and thoroughly enjoyed exploring the city via streetcar. They routinely rode the West PeachtreePeachtree RoadOglethorpe trolley which started its run downtown on Walton Street went all the way to Oglethorpe University before coming down West Peachtree Street and then went up on Peachtree Road to complete its circle. While the family always had a car Elizabeth and the William Gordon Geffcken at work on the Kenstone Gardens circa 1947. girls used the trolley to get to the Courtesy of Katherine Geffcken bank library school and of course Rich s depar tment store. While Elizabeth Katherine and Caroline trained as a dentist and first served in the United States loved city living Gordon had dreams of living in the country. Dental Corps during World War I. Having been inducted Katherine recalls into the United States Army National Guard at Camp Gordon Gordon was assigned to the Thirty-First Dixie Division and served in Normandy France. Upon his return in 1917 he had to decide whether to practice dentistry in Savannah or travel the not-so-short 250 miles to Atlanta. His daughter Katherine recalls He came back and the question was whether he would practice in Savannah or practice in Atlanta. He decided to come to Atlanta because he thought his boyhood experience in Savannah was so terribly hot. So he came to Atlanta because it was [cooler] in those days. Gordon thus established his dentistry practice in the Atlanta and Sandy Springs communities. Elizabeth Gadsden was a young widow when she met Gordon while visiting Savannah with her father who was in the fer tilizer business. The couple quickly fell in love and married in 1924. They welcomed their first daughter Katherine Geffcken on July 24 1927 at Piedmont Hospital in Atlanta and their second d a u g h t e r Caroline Elizabeth Geffcken a few years later on Januar y 15 1932. The Geffckens mad e t heir home in the area of Atlanta that is known today as the Midtown neighborhood. Well my father always had a yearning to own a place in the country and his first venture in this regard was not successful. I don t have any documentation on this but he bought down near Vienna Georgia he bought a pecan farm. I ll never forget that the tenant family that worked that farm was named Christmas which I thought was very interesting. At any rate he lost that farm in the Depression because it had no production of pecans as it turned out and it cost a lot of money and he couldn t pay the taxes. Katherine (left) Alma Mueller and Elizabeth Geffcken (right) on the Kenstone Grounds on their way to the a meeting of the Dunwoody Wednesday Afternoon Club September 1958. Courtesy of Katherin Geffcken Making the Countryside Home continued there. That long strip recalls Katherine. The Gef fc ke n s p ro p er t y stretched down as far as Roberts Drive to the current location of The Davis Ac ademy and across the street from Ebenezer Primitive Baptist Church and on the nor thwest corner across from what is now the Sandy Springs Fire Station No.1. Gordon purchased the large tr ac t of land 23.14 acres in April 1931 from Horace Thomas and J. M. Bearden for 3 0 0 0. D u r i n g t h e 1930s the family would routinely take the family car out to the country on Sundays to enjoy picnics under the large trees dotting the property. Af ter the family purchased the acreage in 1931 it took Gordon nearly eight years to finish the majority of Father s Day Card featuring the Kenstone Home. Created by Caroline the house which would Geffcken signed by Katherine and Caroline. eventually be named Kens tone. Gordon decided to begin Indeed the Great Depression greatly affected Gordon building the family s summer country cottage after a terrible and his plans for a country home. Katherine s grandmother ice storm hit the Atlanta area in 1935. During the storm had moved in with the family at the onset of the Great several pine trees fell which provided Gordon with materials Depression after her husband had passed away. I m sure for the framework of the house. Katherine recollects So that it wasn t my grandmother s money that enabled us the major shell of the house so to speak was constructed in to keep going recalls Katherine. My grandmother was that period of 1935 summer of 35 36. But the only part of very generous. In terms of that time we had...I think the the house that you could really go into was the living room thing that comes to my mind is that there was never a day upstairs which had a rough uneven floorboard and the on West Peachtree Street that somebody needing money rest of the house was a total kind of vacuum shell. Because desperately about to die of hunger didn t ring the front the second floor the floor hadn t been extended to the doorbell. My grandmother always gave the person a quarter bedrooms and so it was just a hollow. And that s the way it or something. was until the late thirties when he started into the second round of building. The outer walls of Kenstone were made Gordon Elizabeth Katherine and Caroline lived in a handful from logs and granite. Following the construction of the of different apartments throughout northern Atlanta before outer frame came the roof window frames fireplace front eventually moving to Sandy Springs. In 1931 I don t know porch and plank floor for the living room. Gordon eventually how he [my father] hit upon the acreage that he bought created terraced walls and steps around the house to but in 1931 he [bought] the acreage from the twenty-three encompass the rolling landscape and create the gardens the plus acres that extended from Roberts Drive along Spalding 25 Eventually as the house was being completed Gordon had a well dug that was roughly one hundred and s eve n t y - s i x f e e t d e e p a n d w e nt through solid granite native to the area. That well rarely produced enough water for the family to live in a normal way. We had to be very careful about not f lushing the toilet to o clos e to one another r e m e m b e r s K a t h e r i n e. Yo u couldn t have somebody flush the toilet and run Drawing of the turnaround (driveway) of Kenstone. Gordon drew this on a bath at the same the back of a manila envelope. Courtesy of Katherine Geffcken time. So we had to organize about it. It also had a family came to love so much. The property had no electricity brackish taste to me. My father who is super sensitive or running water when the house was first built so they used about everything to do with health had it tested once a kerosene lamps and the fireplace to light their home until year in the state where they test water. It always came back electricity became available in 1941. They had a well dug for as drinkable but to me it was not drinkable unless it had their water supply. Katherine remembers been in the refrigerator. By the time Gordon completed the mainstay of the home in 1939 or 1940 wartime gasoline Well the problem of water was studied for years. shortages were affecting the family and by 1942 they hardly It was one of the earliest problems that I recall. traveled to their property. At that point the Geffckens The endless discussion of rams because there is a decided to rent the home to a couple who worked at the spring on the property which is closer to Roberts Bell Bomber Plant. Drive and it s down the hill and my father s original intention was to use that spring water. He [even] constructed a spring house there. And in fact I don t know whether it still stands or not but I know it stood as long as maybe up to 2000. When Jim Perkins came to see me from the Dunwoody Preservation Trust we were talking about the property and it emerged that he had walked that property and seen the structure and thought it was a house. I didn t know that it was a spring house. So it was still standing there. There was a machine to pump water from that colored ram which my father thought that he was going to do up the hill. For some reason and I don t know the reason my father abandoned that idea. When World War II broke out the war economy brought the country out of the Depression. However everyday goods such as gasoline quickly became rationed. Unlike most medical doctors Gordon was unable to obtain rationing stamps in larger quantities. As such Gordon could not fill the family car with enough gasoline to make the trip out to the Sandy Springs property. Katherine recalls Well by 1945 the war was over so you could get gasoline again [and] we could drive out there again. My mother came to grips with the fact that my father longed to be out there. She did not...she was a city person. She wanted to stay in the city but she did not argue that with us. In 1946 Katherine entered her freshman year at Agnes Scott College and moved onto campus while her mother father and sister Making the Countryside Home continued finally moved to the country home her father had yearned for after nearly twenty years. The property was situated on a ridge that once offered views of nearby mountains. Thus they named it Kenstone a combination of Kennesaw Mountain which was visible to the northwest and Stone from Stone Mountain which could be seen to the south or southeast. Gordon enjoyed choosing unique materials for which to build Kenstone. The fireplace mantels were constructed from timbers recovered from Loew s Grand Theatre. Loew s Grand Theatre originally known as DeGive s Opera House was built in downtown Atlanta by entrepreneur Laurent DeGive in 1893. The Loews Corporation bought the building in the late 1920s and transformed it into the Loew s Grand Theatre best known for hosting the elaborate 1939 premiere of Gone with the Wind. During the transition Loews embarked on mild renovations to the theatre which would have made timbers available for Gordon to purchase. Despite the family taking up residence in Kenstone in 1946 Gordon s home projects and modifications were far from complete. After the family moved to the property the garage had yet to be finished and the gardens were ever adapting to the tastes of both Gordon and Elizabeth. The driveway turnaround was painstakingly designed and laid out by Gordon himself and then constructed with specific Belgian stones. Katherine recalls Well there were two versions of this. The earlier version of the what was called the turnaround had a much bigger flower bed in the middle that had Belgian blocks around it protecting it. And my mother had it planted with grass and at one time I think she tried roses and then portulaca and thrift around. But since people kept running over this curb because it didn t give enough turning space my father redid it. I think it was probably in the 60s that he redid it. My mother hated the idea because it meant the whole back was torn up You couldn t get in and out of the garage there for a while because that was the garage where the boxes made a family room. But he designed it and then he would go out there...My father worked very slowly but he was very precise and so he would lay the Belgian blocks. Indeed Gordon searched old streets of downtown Atlanta for blocks and bricks that had been dug up ultimately using them for the turnaround s circular design. Despite her aversion to moving to the country Katherine s mother Elizabeth made the most out of their new home. Though she had always had hired help in the kitchen previously Elizabeth no longer had help around the home once the family moved to Sandy Springs she became an accomplished cook and caretaker. Although living in the country Elizabeth remained a city gal at heart and sought reasons to go back to Atlanta as often as she could. Although Sandy Springs and Dunwoody had a few stores that were frequented by local residents the Geffckens shopped elsewhere. Katherine remembers Thompson s Grocery Store but that s not where my mother shopped. What my mother did for reasons I ve never understood my mother who d driven in Atlanta driven since she was in her thirties decided when we moved to Kenstone that she was not gonna [sic] touch the wheel The only explanation I even have for that is that...she must have had a terror. Either something happened or she had a terror of breaking down in an isolated spot because there were so many spots along Spalding there which were really isolated. So what happened...the pattern was that on Friday it was always Friday my mother would ride to town with my father. And she had a regular pattern. She went downtown she loved the Carnegie Library the old library. She would go to the library and check out books take books back. Then she d make a tour of the banks. My mother was a creature of the Depression because she had money in five to ten banks downtown not in one. Then she would often have lunch at Rich s which she liked to do. And then she would take the trackless trolley up Peachtree to her old shopping center that was around Eleventh Street between Tenth and Eleventh to Twelfth Street on Peachtree go to the Colonial Store and then my father would come and pick us up. What was once considered the countr y has grown exponentially over the decades and very few things remain the same from the time the Geffcken family built their home. However Ebenezer Primitive Baptist Church still sits in its same location at the corner of Spalding Drive and Roberts Drive (then known as Roswell-Dunwoody Road) and Kenstone largely remains the same as when the Geffcken s finally sold it. In September 1973 a year after Gordon had passed away Elizabeth sold the house to Rich and Lib Boggs who have cared for the gardens and historic home over the last four decades. Though the exterior of the home has been slightly renovated the interior mantels from the Grand Loew s Theatre are still intact and the turnaround that Gordon laid out by hand still points due north. While the sand between the blocks has been washed away the memories of the hand-built home live on in the contemporary and ever-changing city of Sandy Springs. The Kenstone property is a designated historical landmark by the Dunwoody Preservation Trust and was placed on the market in the spring of 2018 to be sold to its next caretaker. B 27 d e s s i M u o Y s e i r o t S e h T d a e R Visit Heritage Sandy Springs to get your copy Volume 2 Education Creates Opportunities in a New Home An Interview with Lillian Mandyck B Interviewer Stacey Hader Epstein B Date of Interview June 27 2018 Over the past fifty years Atlanta has become known as a moving from out of state. While many Sandy Springers today city of transplanted residents. For decades people have cannot claim to be native those that have moved to the area been flocking to have t aken up the metro Atlanta the communit y region d ue to spirit with pride the area s boom and some like of multifamily Lillian Mandyck h o u s i n g have learned development s about the area transpor tation while educating infrastructure children about improvement s the h i s t o r y and vast array of culture and job opportunities. community that is This influx of nonSandy Springs. locals to the area Lillian Mandyck (left) and Pat Stowell in front of the Milk House at has been known Born to James Heritage Sandy Springs c. 1990s. Courtesy of Lillian Mandyck. to create an and Mildred inconsistency of Mook Lillian narratives between those who have lived in the area their was born and raised in Tampa Florida and considered her entire lives and the growing number of new Georgians family lifelong Floridians. After graduating high school 29 Lillian traveled four hours up the state s panhandle to attend requirements and was trying a case in the South Bend Florida State University in Tallahassee. She graduated with a courthouse. Lillian remembers One year at Thanksgiving degree in Spanish and returned to Tampa in search of a job. I stayed there rather than going to visit my family in Tampa. She quickly discovered that any job with a need for a Spanish Somebody a mutual friend said Why don t you sign speaker was filled by someone who was native to that up to be on the jury for this case So I did. When it was language. So Lillian turned her sights toward other areas over... cause I had a mutual friend that was dating a boy that where her degree might be beneficial. She recalls Actually was involved in the trial too he said to this mutual friend it was not planned that way...I don t know if you know Tampa Ask that girl on the jury if she wants to come to a party at the but there is a lot of Spanish population there. When I got house after the trial. So he did so I said yes and we did. back to look for a teaching job they were all filled by Spanish A short seven months later Larry and Lillian were engaged. native speakers. I got into elementary school and loved After Larry finished the bar exam and gained entrance to the it. That was where I belonged really. After I think it was Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) the couple was married three year s on May 4 of teaching 1963. Shor tly I took a job t h e r e a f t e r in Manheim the Mandycks Germany with reloc ate d to the army in a Alexandria dependent V i r g i n i a school and where Larr y taught there finished his for a year. training at the Lillian traveled FBI. His first throughout assignment Germany and as a new FBI Europe with special agent her fellow was in the teachers Atlanta area. many of whom Af ter Lillian b e c a m e f i ni s h e d o u t l i f e l o n g the school year friends. One in Alexandria friend Carolyn she followed Walton had Larry to returned from Atlanta where Europe prior she got a job Twenty Year Service Award presented to Lillian Mandyck for her dedication to the to Lillian. at Hawthorne Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System c. 2012. Courtesy of Lillian Mandyck After Carolyn Elementar y received her master of arts degree from Northwestern School in DeKalb County. The newly married couple lived in University in Evanston Illinois she took a position as a drama an apartment in the Buckhead neighborhood. teacher in South Bend Indiana. With an urge to travel and see the world Lillian quickly followed. She was coming back Lillian and Larry continued to travel throughout the U.S. to Dallas it was [her] hometown but she was obligated to before they ultimately settled down in Sandy Springs. Lillian take this job in South Bend at a high school recalls Lillian. and Larry welcomed their first daughter Maura while living She said Why don t you come with me and teach there in Atlanta in 1965 and shortly before Larry was transferred to So I applied for an [elementary] job in South Bend Indiana Nashville Tennessee. Lillian remembers and was accepted sight unseen. It was a wonderful school one of those big old brick elementary schools and most of Actually we were really transferred first to Memphis the children s parents had gone to that same school. It was but we only stayed there for a week. We spent the wonderful. whole time with [Maura] as a baby in the baby carriage Unbeknownst to her Lillian would meet her future husband while in South Bend. Larry Mandyck a student at the Notre Dame Law School was finishing the last of his degree in the back of our Volkswagen with our dog. We had a terrible time finding a place that would take in the dog and everything. Finally the FBI decided that they didn t want us to stay there. We were to go to Nashville which Education Creates Opportunities in a New Home continued in their school. I went and I taught second grade there for a good while and loved it. After I retired I even went back and substituted there. It was so nice because the kids all knew me and I knew them. All I had to do when I go into the classroom I would say I used to teach here. I never had a minute of discipline trouble. They knew I knew the way to go. Lillian retired from teaching fulltime in the early 1980s after both of her daughters had graduated from school and gotten married. Never one to sit idle Lillian found other ways to fill her days many dedicated to the continued education of children. Lillian soon connected with Junie A copy of Crafts by the Springs written and created by Lillian as part Brown the executive director of her work with the Heritage Sandy Springs Museum children tours. of a new non-profit organization dedicated to preserving history suited us fine. I always think of that day as the day the in Sandy Springs the Sandy Springs Historical Community earth caught fire. That was the hottest town I ve ever Foundation (now known as Heritage Sandy Springs). Lillian been in Memphis. We went to Nashville and just learned recalls She [Junie] and I worked together. That was when to love it. We were there for ten years. We had almost the Williams-Payne House was just becoming available to us. felt like we d like to stay there but a transfer came in for We would meet and we decided on school tours. Shortly Atlanta and we were happy to head there. after forming in 1985 the organization s staff consisted While in Nashville Lillian and Larry welcomed their second almost exclusively of volunteers many retired teachers daughter Kathleen whom they adopted through the and it relied solely on the dedication of residents like Lillian Catholic social services of Nashville. During those ten years to create its education programs. Originally the Williamsin Nashville Lillian took a break from teaching to concentrate Payne House built in the 1860s was styled as a period house on raising their two daughters and taking care of their family. museum to reflect the years in which Jerome and Harriet Williams occupied it. The volunteers wore costumes to reflect With a new transfer to a familiar city Lillian Larry Maura the appropriate fashion of 1860s farm life and Fulton County Kathleen and the family dog packed up and headed back to transported students to the house for weekly tours. Lillian Atlanta. Knowing that the Mandycks had previously lived in recalls It was decorated as it would have been back in the Buckhead their realtor took the family a little further north day. That was such a wonderful experience for the children. to the burgeoning community of Sandy Springs. The family They couldn t get over some of the furniture that was in the purchased a home on Hillswick Court just off Dalrymple house. For instance there was a straw mattress on the bed Road. We were excited because we had real close friends that they all got to touch. Those tours were wonderful we here from Notre Dame Law School. They were my older thought. We walked through and talked to them the whole daughter s godparents. We just have always been very close time. But the churning of the butter for years when they had family almost friends. We came back and that s it. The real the [Sandy Springs] festival two of us would be on the back estate agent showed us Sandy Springs. I hate to admit it porch of the house churning butter. Everybody loved that but the reason we jumped on the house it was because it butter even the adults would line up for it had a pool Lillian recalls fondly. When Kathleen entered the third grade Lillian decided it was time to go back to teaching. She was a substitute teacher in schools throughout the Sandy Springs area until a friend told her of an open job. She recollects I had a friend that was active at Holy Innocents [Episcopal] Church. She heard about an opening The foundation offered a number of tours throughout the week. Lillian helped create the popular program known as Stories and Crafts by the Springs. In the summertime we would hire a professional storyteller remembers Lillian. She would come and I would think of a craft. We d sit outside 31 and do a craft and one of them was butter churning they got to do that. One was candle making all different kinds of crafts that I thought of. We would take them down by the springs and [teach] them that Mount Vernon was an Indian trail and everything. Lillian worked with Garnett Cobb and Marie Payne both influential women in the history of Sandy Springs to conduct tours and generate stories and crafts by the springs. She even helped develop what was known as the history trunk a collection of items that was used in local schools to visually tell the history of Sandy Springs. Going hand in hand with Lillian s passion for education was her volunteer work with Atlanta s public library system. Lillian began volunteering with the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System in 1992 tutoring adults through The Junior League of Atlanta. Before long Lillian was involved with sorting books for the library system s annual book sale. Lillian recalls Then I found out about the book sales that the downtown library had and for a couple of years I worked on theirs downtown. The old Sears building [on Ponce de Leon Avenue] was empty and they stored their books there. We would go over there even in the wintertime it was freezing cold in there and sort books and everything. Then I realized that I should be involved in the Sandy Springs Library so I came out here and volunteered. Indeed Lillian began helping the library system s Sandy Springs branch sort books for its annual sale. She even got Larry involved when he became the unofficial driver of the truck that moved the books from storage to the library s sale. It didn t take long before Lillian was named president of the Friends of the Sandy Springs Library or FOSSL for two terms. Her crowning and lasting achievement however was the placement of the bronze Storytime statue that sits in the front of the library. The statue features a young boy reading a book to several small animals. Lillian worked tirelessly to procure art for the Sandy Springs library branch after realizing that it was one of the few libraries in Atlanta without any outdoor art displays. She remembers I noticed that all the other libraries had some kind of art in their yards so I was just determined that we were going to have it too. I had a couple of other people that worked with me and we found an artist that had done quite a lot of the statues that are in front of the [Dorothy Benson] senior center they show a grandmother with some children. I got that artist s name and I kinda had the idea of what I wanted it to be. We went to him my husband and this other couple that were involved in FOSSL. He drew up a picture of what he thought it should look like and we loved it and we made a few changes. They always teased me a lot because one of the animals looked like it didn t have pants on Even though it was an animal. They never let me forget that I insisted that he change that Lillian worked for nearly six months to get the statue placement approved by Fulton County. One office would approve it and then require she visit yet another office for its approval. As Lillian states I said it took as long as it did to birth a child. Still you have to have the approval of the next one. The statue was dedicated in June 2004. Lillian still lives in the same home on Hillswick Court even though it no longer has a pool and over the years has continued her involvement with a number of groups and programs primarily related to the education of children. She taught English as a Second Language (ESL) courses in the basement of her church. Currently she volunteers at St. Jude the Apostle Church and continues her work with the Sandy Springs Public Library as a volunteer in the FOSSL bookstore. In recognition of her tireless efforts on behalf of the library Lillian was recently awarded a certificate for twenty-six years of service. Lillian and Larry have both left their marks in history and in the community. The whimsical Storytime statue by artist Greg Johnson the result of Lillian s efforts is still a welcome addition to the library s entrance. In addition there is now a colorful Japanese maple tree next to it planted in memory of Larry Mandyck who passed away in 2011. When Lillian isn t busy with her volunteer work she spends time with her daughters and occasionally drops by Heritage Sandy Springs the spot where she first become involved with her adopted city for a visit. B Storytime by Greg Johnson the statue procured by Lillian. The Japanese maple planted in honor of Larry is visible next to the statue c. 2018. Courtesy of Stacey Hader Epstein. Memorable Service in a Forgotten War An Interview with Clifford Mott B Interviewer & Author Will Greer B Date of Interview July 19 2018 Called America s Forgotten War the Korean War is often Not all of the fighting took place overseas either. Though overshadowed by World War II and the war in Vietnam. not quite like World War II the Korean War also saw a Forgotten however does not mean insignificant. Three nationwide collective effor t. President Harry Truman year s of bit ter m o b i l i z e d fighting between the National 1950 and 1953 Guard of ever y p r e s e r ve d t h e state. Factories independence p r o d u c e d of South Korea. w e a p o n s Almost one ammunition and million soldiers supplies. The from more than war also saw t went y nations a widespread joined forces to e f f o r t by t h e stem communist armed ser vices invasions by to refurbish North Korea and weapons that China. Americans had been formed a mothballed after majo r p ar t of Wor ld War II. Interior of the Lockheed Bomber Plant 1951. These B-29s came back t h a t c o ali t i o n Clif ford Mot t to the Lockheed Plant at Marietta to be equipped with more powerful supplying nearly was part of that engines diner radar and increased fire power. AJCN146-025a Atlanta 400 000 soldiers effort. Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Copyright Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library. of whom more than 35 0 0 0 ultimately los t their lives. Ser vice runs d e e p i n C li f f Mott s bones. Born in Norfolk Virginia in 1923 Mott s father was a sailor for the U.S. Navy. Mott moved around 33 a lot as a child before settling in Tampa Florida to attend college. Not long after war broke out in 1941 he volunteered for the army. I was just one step in front of being drafted he recalled. During college Mott had worked at an airport so he hoped to become a pilot. The army satisfied that hope and Mott flew bombers and transport planes in the Pacific Theater of World War II. After the war he returned home to marry Mary Cribb and to study to become a doctor attending both the University of Tampa and the University of Hawaii. All this time Mott remained a reservist in the air force. When North Korea invaded South Korea in June 1950 Mott was called up from the reserves. Whereas he d flown combat missions during World War II this time his assignment was different. Mothballed aircraf t needed to be refurbished for new duties and Mott was to ferry these aircraft across the United States. On one flight to Ogden Mott and his crew were cleared to land until an emergency on the runway forced them to orbit. A fighter squadron had been training in the area when one of the pilots had passed out in the cockpit. The incapacitated pilot s wingman had to guide the plane to a safe landing. As a result the runway was closed to other planes. All the while Mott and his B-29 were circling the airfield. By that time we had been orbiting for almost an hour Mott remembered. They never cleared us to land and we lost an engine. Soon after another engine began throwing oil. They radioed the control tower that the plane had an emergency but the tower said they couldn t land. Rather than crashing Mott and his crew decided to try for a landing anyway. As the plane approached the runway the engine that had been spilling oil also failed. As the plane skidded onto the runway Mot t was wor r ied it would explode. We got it to stop Mott said and we didn t know if it was going to blow up or not so we had to bail out. While the plane was still rolling Mott and his crew jumped out of the bomb bay twelve feet to the ground. A fire crew raced to the scene and prevented the plane from exploding. Mott and his crew survived thankfully uninjured. We re getting ready to land we pull up our flaps and no flaps just a grinding sound. One hundred fifty some odd miles an hour and no flaps. We went to pick up the war-wearies Mott recalled. We d get the planes taken out of the cocoon put the air in the tires and gas in the tanks for a one -time flight and you d take it to the bases to be taken care of. A cocoon was the protec tive wrapping that shielded mothballed planes from the element s. Before f light Mot t and his crew needed to make the aircraft ready to fly. Often Mott flew B-29s from a field in Pyote Texas to Ogden Utah so the massive bombers could be refitted as tanker aircraft. Such work could be dangerous. These were aging aircraft full of highly flammable fuel and they didn t always last the trip. If a plane caught fire or anything said Mott they d been set up there for a number of years out in the desert so if anything happened to it you d just bail out and leave it and it could happen anywhere. Mott ran into this situation more than once. Not lo ng af te r w ar d Mott had another close call this time with a smaller B-26 bomber. On a flight from Mississippi to Miami Flor ida the landing flaps on the aircraft malfunctioned. Mott remembered the crash landing in detail Getting ready to land we pull up our flaps and no flaps just a grinding sound. One hundred fifty some odd miles an hour and no flaps. You declare your emergency. You re going to circle. You re coming in they got that field open for you and you re red hot. You come in. You re landing about well over 120 miles an hour. You burn out the breaks and [the] nose wheel collapsed. You skid on the runway a while. Fire everywhere and you ve got full gasoline on Memorable Sevice in a Forgotten War continued B-26 Marauder of the 599th Bomb Squadron 397th Bomb Group 9th Air Force. Nicknamed Big Hairy Bird December 1 1944. Courtesy United States Army Air Force public domain. board. You go down to the end of the runway. It tips up like and there s a big ditch down there. Then you get down there and the fire wagon s there and a couple of the chase cars and [they] get us. Mott and the crew managed to safely escape the plane but their ordeal was not finished. The officers commanding the base separated each crew member and interrogated them individually. They question us Mott recalled What were you doing What happened to each one. Later on the crew learned that someone had put a handful of nuts and bolts into the gearbox that controlled the flaps. It was a sabotage Mott said. When the Korean War ended Mott returned to school. When he couldn t raise enough money to go to medical school he refocused his studies toward business. He was briefly called back into service during the Cuban Missile Crisis but mostly he was able to focus on his career and his marriage. He went to work as a manager for Sears Roebuck and Company. Still service remained a significant part of Mott s life. He rose through the ranks of the Scottish Rite Masons playing the French horn in its orchestra. Ultimately he became the organization s national president to the southern territory. His wife Mary belonged to Daughters of the Nile an offshoot of the Masons for women. Today on the campus of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria Virginia a bench bears the name of Clifford Mott and his wife Mary. The bench honors the service Mott and his wife contributed to Masonic organizations throughout their lifetimes. Mott moved to Atlanta in 1963 first settling in Chamblee then moving to a house on Ashford-Dunwoody Road in Sandy Springs or as he recollects North Atlanta. By that time he was a merchandising manager for 169 stores for Sears Roebuck and Company. He continued to work for Sears until he retired in 1984. In retirement he continued his work with Scottish Rite hunted deer and travelled the world with his wife. Clifford Mott currently resides in the Dunwoody Pines Retirement Community. B 35 d e s s i M u o Y s e i r o t S e h T d a e R Visit Heritage Sandy Springs to get your copy Volume 2 Anchored in the News An Interview with John Pruitt B Interviewers Jeff & Tami Kushner B Date of Interview April 19 2018 On July 4 1964 a newly arrived 22-year old gofer a term put in its place. I have no memories of it. I have memories of the used in the media business to define an errand runner with photographs of me and my mom and dad outside the house. no title or position headed out on a news assignment for Following that Dad became a salesman and he was traveling the WSB-TV newsroom. He was instructed to help veteran a lot around the South so the family ended up in an apartment reporter Dave Riggs haul equipment to cover a speech by on Ponce de Leon Avenue. He continues We had a street or then-Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett at a rally in southeast trolley car which ran up and down Ponce on tracks with electric Atlanta. Barnett s white pro-segregation audience had wires. We would ride [it] occasionally. But you could walk assembled to protest almost anywhere. I the newly signed Civil don t recall having any Rights Act when they fear of crime or you suddenly discovered know ill-doing. Even a group of black though we lived in counter-protesters in what is now practically their midst and began at the heart of the city beating them with it wasn t in those days. feet fists and folding It was a little further chairs. The untrained out. There was still gofer was tossed a green space places to camera and told to play parks nearby. get film of the melee. His dramatic footage As a traveling of the beating made pharmaceutical the network news that s a l e s m a n J o h n s night and so began father would routinely John Pruitt s 46-year tr avel during the career as a steadfast week leaving John John Pruitt publicity anchor shot from WSB TV Action News circa 1960s. and resolute journalist. and his mother Sara in their tiny third-floor John L. Pruitt III was born May 2 1942 in Seneca South apartment. When John was in the third grade his father s work Carolina. When he was just a few months old his parents Sara took the family to North Augusta South Carolina. John recalls Nickles Pruitt and John Lamar Jr. moved the family to Atlanta I went to the third and fourth grades [in North Augusta] before to a house on Powers Ferry Road in what is now Sandy Springs. we moved back to south DeKalb County Atlanta in the early At that time Mom and Dad were renting. My dad worked for 1950s. By the time Sara John Jr and John returned to Atlanta the Bell Bomber plant now Lockheed in Marietta recollects they had welcomed two additional boys to the family George John. We rented that house there and it was there until and Alan. John Jr. continued to work in sales and like many recently [when] it was scrapped and a new huge...mansion was women in the 1930s Sara became a teacher. She taught at 37 fourteen. Well my father who was an Eagle Scout believed very strongly in his scouting experience [it] had been very formative for him as a young man in South Carolina and had taught him a lot and helped mold him into a fine man recalls John. So he believed in that and he got me into it and once he had done that of course I had to do better than he had done so I certainly had to make Eagle so I worked hard at it. But had a great time. It was a terrific experience. We had a good troop [that] was in Decatur Troop 163. We did camping trips a lot up at Lake Allatoona and we went to Bert Adams of course which is now Cumberland Mall. Many scouts in the Atlanta area attended Bert Adams Scout Camp over the course of its existence. They would sleep in Adirondack huts work on merit badges canoe learn life-saving skills in the wild eat in John Pruitt at a Boy Scout Ceremony receiving a God and Country Award. John pictured with several friends in the scout uniforms May 1957. the camp dining hall and of course partake in camp sing-alongs. One of the highlights of the week remembers John was the hike to the top various elementary schools in Fulton County including Bassett of Mount Mell Wilkinson to watch the sunset over the skyline of kindergarten and later first grade at Kittredge Elementary for Atlanta. And it was a spectacular sight. But it wasn t much of a the next thirty years. skyline. The most prominent feature of the skyline of Atlanta in those days you ll never guess what it was It was Darlington John didn t attend any of the schools where Sara was a teacher. apartments He first attended Highland Elementary on Highland Avenue in Little Five Points and then when the family returned from South Before he knew it John had graduated high school and left Carolina he attended Tony Elementary School. When John Atlanta to attend Davidson College what was then a private graduated from Tony Elementary in the seventh grade the all-male liberal arts college in the heart of Davidson North family moved to their home in Druid Hills which was a drastic Carolina. Having no preconceived notions of where his change in lifestyle from what John remembers as a more rural studies would take him John decided to pursue an academic environment. John recalls Well Druid Hills was a difficult high background in history and English. John remembers I school experience for me because I was moving from an area had done some writing. I d been a reporter on the school where I really had a great group of friends. We d been together newspaper. So I thought I could write. I [even] won a writing for a long time. We moved in the middle of my ninth-grade prize in my senior year. So I when I graduated with a history year and here I am at Druid Hills High School which was very degree what do you do with a history degree right You re cliquish [and] somewhat snobby. It took me awhile to adjust. not gonna [sic] teach and I had no idea of teaching. But I Despite having to fit himself into a high school environment knew I could write so I went in search of a newspaper career that was less than welcoming John did well in high school and couldn t get anyone to hire me. In 1960 John began which as he recalls was probably my saving grace. John searching for a job as a journalist. He looked into positions at was an excellent student. He became president of the National the Charlotte Observer and the Atlanta Journal-Constitution Honor Society during his senior year he was the sports editor before finally landing an interview with a man named Ray Moore of the high school yearbook and even found time to run track in the WSB newsroom. John recollects Ray interviewed me and cross-country. I ran the half mile [or] the 880-yard dash and we had a really stimulating interview. We discussed War as they called it recollects John. I think 2 09 was my best and Peace that we ve both read. I liked it and he didn t but he time. [Which] you know in today s times it would not be that hired me just to be a gofer in the newsroom. I mean I had no good but this was a long time ago. But we had a good team. title no position just whatever came along...sweeping at the We were state champs four years running also in cross-country editing rooms whatever. That was my inauspicious entree into state champs four years running .I truly enjoyed the track team the world of journalism. It was during his initial time at WSB experience. I still have some friends that I keep in contact with in 1964 that John would attend a rally witness the beating of who ran track with me. Amongst John s many extracurricular African-American men by pro-segregationists and catch it all activities in high school was his involvement in the Boy Scouts on a film reel that would ultimately land on the evening news. of America a group he enjoyed throughout his childhood. He John recalls proudly achieved the rank of Eagle Scout by the time he was Anchored in the News continued and took the kids out. My film was on the network news at night NBC nightly news. I came home at night and I said Man this is a great job. I mean I m sitting here and I witnessed history. I ve got a camera I m telling the story and it s going all over the world. So it was at that point in my life that I said This is a career I think I was born to be in and can love. John Pruitt pictured for the Druid Hills High Schools Track team circa 1960. LBJ signed the Civil Rights Act in 1964 into law and on the fourth of July of 1964 there was a big rally of segregationists at old Lakewood Stadium in southeast Atlanta. Well I had only been on the job for a few days. Just you know in this new world boggled by all I was seeing and really doing this cleanup work and whatever needed to be done. We sent a crew out to cover the rally. And I was assigned to work with a much more experienced cameraman reporter because in those days you shot your own film. I went with Dave Riggs to this event...and he set up the tripod on the field to record the speeches from Ross Barnett the governor of Mississippi and a number of segregation speakers. I was just helping Dave carry stuff when four young black college students came into the crowd to protest and the crowd went crazy and started beating them up. Not just with fists. With metal chairs. I mean it was unbelievable. I was about thirty yards away and we were on a football field. The crowd was in the football stadium and there was a chain link [fence] separating the field from the stadium. So we were safe but the crowd was going crazy. The camera was on the tripod and Dave Riggs my senior experienced reporter gave me a Bell & Howell silent camera which I ve never even seen before knew nothing about them. He said Push this button go and see what you can get. So I ran up to the fence and I could shoot through the fence and these kids were backed up against the fence and I thought these guys are gonna [sic] die. But I shot it the cops came in and busted it up However John had an impending commitment to the United States Army as an ROTC member so he knew he would have to serve in the military for two years before he could continue his work at WSB. In January 1965 John joined the U.S. Infantry and was ordered to Korea right before the United States began its bombing campaign of Vietnam. Of John s 200 classmates 20 of them went to Korea while the remainder were quickly sent to Vietnam. John served with the U.S. Armed Forces Korean Network the television and radio network of the military. He remembers It was a string of networks involving radio and TV all over South Korea. I wasn t on the air. My job was to travel around to these various sites in a quiet remote sitting on hilltops all across Korea in microwave sites to broadcast a signal to the troops in the valleys. My job was to go and inspect those places and it was a harrowing job because there were no roads in Korea. I mean they were barely passable in some cases. John remained in Korea for thirteen months before returning to Fort Gordon in Augusta Georgia to serve his remaining seven months in the army. By 1967 John had returned home to Atlanta to continue his career in journalism at WSB and to marry his longtime girlfriend Andrea. John and Andrea had met in 1962 through a youth program at Decatur Presbyterian Church. Andrea followed her own career path that took her first to Georgia Women s College in Milledgeville and then to Georgia State University before she accepted a job with Delta Air Lines. Andrea continued to work for Delta while John was in the military. They were married in 1969 started a family and eventually made their way to Sandy Springs. Jon recollects We came to Sandy Springs in 1983. After Andrea and I were married we lived in Avondale Estates for seven years. My wife grew up in Avondale Estates. Then we moved to Druid Hills and we were there for gosh from 77 through 83. So we were there for a while and of course I grew up in Druid Hills. We moved from south DeKalb to Emory Road near the Emory campus. So Sandy Springs seemed a million miles away. But we were living in a ranch house on Barton Woods Road. The house was too small for us and we were in search of something bigger. And in Druid Hills you couldn t find anything bigger that we could afford and what we could afford would require another huge amount of money to bring it up to a living standard. So we broadened our 39 For forty-six years John was a steady voice in a changing and often chaotic world. Atlantans trusted his calm delivery as he covered major s to r ie s t hr o ug ho u t several decades. John also led a rich personal life with Andrea. The couple has now been m a r r i e d f o r t y - ni n e years and have raised two daughters. After being in the center of the news cycles for so long John is enjoying his retirement. John Pruitt interviewing President Jimmy Carter circa 1978. As a grandfather he sometimes har kens search and found out about a lot that was for sale and back to his Eagle Scout roots taking his grandchildren and a subdivision being developed in Sandy Springs which golden retriever for hikes in the woods around his house during seemed like a real leap for us to move from Druid Hills all what they call Pop s Adventure Hikes. While today he may be the way to Sandy Springs. But we built our house there out fishing in Montana Alaska or perhaps enjoying a family and we have been extraordinarily happy. We ve been vacation at the beach in South Carolina John Pruitt is fondly there almost forty years. remembered by his viewers as the trusted voice of Atlanta television news. B John s career also progressed rapidly following his successful coverage of the riotous rally in 1964. He was soon assigned to a weekend anchor job at WSB and never looked back. From July 1964 to December 17 2010 John Pruitt steadfastly reported both local and international news most of the time in his role as a reporter and as a weekday anchorperson during prime time hours. His job allowed him to cover some of the most historic events in Atlanta history and to meet many people who later became renowned in their own right. Local folks such as a college professor in west Georgia named Newt Gingrich and a peanut farmer from South Georgia named Jimmy Carter. John covered Sam Nunn s initial campaign to be Georgia s U.S. Senator. John was present for the Civil Rights movement and watched as the black leadership of Atlanta led the way for the entire country. He also attended the funeral of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. John recalls The south Atlanta in particular greater Atlanta has been such a fertile field of history and news from Carter to King to the Olympics. So much has happened here and I loved my job. I loved being in a TV newsroom. I loved walking into a newsroom at two o clock in the afternoon and just getting the immediate vibe. All these people and they re all younger than I am working hard. They re intelligent. They re driven. They re bright. They re curious. They can be abrasive but they re all working together to produce a live hour of unrehearsed news. And the very process of putting all that John and Andrea Pruitt circa 2000s together and airing it and usually it s flawless. When Emory Doctors Went to War Guest Author Render Davis In April 1917 shortly after America s entry in the Great War a call went out from the US Army and the Red Cross to medical schools across the country. Doctors and nurses would be urgently needed to staff hospitals in support of the hundreds of thousands of newly enlisted d o u g h b o y s who would soon head overseas to join British and French Allies fighting Germans in t he trenc hes snaking across Europe. W hen Emor y medical school Dean William Elkin received t he r e q ue s t he turned immediately to Edward Campbell Davis to organize the schools medical unit. Davis a professor at the school and cofounder of Atlanta s Davis-Fischer Sanatorium (later Crawford W. Long Memorial Hospital and now Emory University Hospital Midtown) had served as an army surgeon in the Spanish-American War and retained his military rank. Without hesitation he began assembling a team of Atlanta s and Georgia s prominent physicians skilled nurses and other staff. Every doctor and every nurse that can be spared must be sent to France and they must go at once wrote Cora Harris a n ote d At la nt a journalist. T he initial c all was to organize a five -hundredbed hospital to be funded through popular subscription. Recognizing the scale of this endeavor in August 1917 the federal government appropriated 40 000 to equip the Emory unit soon to be officially designated Base Hospital 43. A local fundraising campaign by the Atlanta newspapers netted 7 000 which was used to purchase a full outfitted ambulance. 41 the Marne River. Soon the hospital s census exceeded s eve n h u n d r e d most injured by gunshot and shrapnel wounds wit h d ozens of other s suf fer ing from poison gas. Finally in April 1918 unit officers received instructions to report to recently constructed Camp John B. Gordon (the present site of DeKalb Peachtree Airport) for basic training. They also learned that the unit s hospital would be increase to one thousand beds. A medical unit originally staffed and outfitted for 500 patients welcomed the war s end with more than 2 000. That June unit members boarded the SS Olympic (sister ship of the ill-fated Titanic) for the voyage to England arriving in Blois France late that month. Emory Unit Base Hospital 43 of the Allied Expeditionary Force was now operational. By mid-July causalities began arriving by train from evacuation hospitals near the battle lines at Chateau-Thierry and along To meet the growing number of casualties two principal surgical teams were organized the first under the command of Davis the second under Charles Dowman. In August a surgical team was deployed to staff Mobile Hospital 1 providing front-line care for American soldiers fighting in the Meuse-Argonne offensive the climactic battle to end the war. Twice during these final months Base Hospital 43 s capacity was again increased to meet the desperate need the day before the Armistice was signed ending the war the hospital was serving 2 237 patients. The Emory unit remained in France caring for ill and wounded soldiers until relieved from duty on January 21 1919. They returned home to a rousing welcome at Camp Gordon that March. Although the Emory Unit received citations for meritorious service from General John Pershing French Field Marshal Ferdinand Foch and others the greatest compliment may have come from a patient a young army lieutenant E.H. Jefferies from New York who wrote Atlanta you can be proud of Emory unit and if you think you have any more like it send them along but you have to go some to keep up with Emory. God bless the people of the South. From a Northern Yank. In September 1942 the Emory Unit would be reactivated for service in World War II as General Hospital 43 serving in North Africa and France. Author Render Davis 73C grandfather was Edward C. Davis who organized Emory s WWI Unit. Interested to know more Render Davis will be speaking at the World War I Lecture Series hosted by Heritage Sandy Springs on Wednesday August 29th beginning at 6 30 pm. Join us in the Community Room at 6110 Bluestone Road for this FREE lecture series to hear about one way in which our local history contributed to World War I. B This article is reproduced with permission from Render Davis author. A Tasty Staple of Sandy Springs History An Interview with Bruce and Sally Alterman B Interviewers Jeff & Tami Kushner B Date of Interview March 5 2018 Throughout the twentieth century Sandy Springs evolved individuals and families who owned and operated those same from as one previous resident put it nothing more than businesses. a few gas stations and a grocery store to a now thriving urban center. However despite the ever-growing populace Bruce and Sally Alterman are two local business owners of the cit y there who helped make are still many Sandy years of memories Springers who have f o r ma ny S a n d y area roots that are Springs residents. multiple generations The Alterman family deep. Such families name is familiar to can at test to the many older Atlantans major changes that as that of a prominent have shaped the city s local grocery chain. current infrastructure In the early 1920s as well as the many the Altermans settled community staples in the Atlanta area that once flourished where Bruce was here. Favorite retailers born. Sally who was such as Burdett s and born in Nashville Hardeman- Echols Tennes s ee c ame L. Alterman & Sons Wholesale Grocers. Louis Alterman is standing in doorway. grocery stores and to the area in the The store was located on 135 Decatur Street Atlanta Georgia. DAF 660.033. popular restaurants early 1970s. Bruce David Alterman Family Papers. Copyright William Breman Jewish Heritage such as the Char and Sally met while Museum The Cuba Family Archives for Southern Jewish History. House and The they both attended Brickery Grill and Bar the Univer sit y of have left lasting memories among the community s members. Oklahoma. Sally had previously been dating one of Bruce s Not surprisingly these memories are also treasured by the fraternity brothers and when they had ended their courtship 43 Big Apple Warehouse Lee Street SW 1956. N05-012_a Tracy O Neal Photographic Collection 1923-1975 Photographic Collection. Copyright Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library. Bruce invited Sally down to Atlanta on a fraternity recruitment weekend adventure to meet one of his friends. When Sally arrived there was no friend. Bruce and Sally s friendship quickly grew into a relationship. Sally recalls We were married at the end of our junior year in college because he drew a very low number in the lottery for Vietnam and we said Oh we ll get married. So we got married. We spent the next year and a half in college married and then we moved back to Atlanta. When we were both twenty-one. The year was 1971. Bruce knew that once he returned to Atlanta he would enter into the family grocery business. His grandfather owned L. Alterman and Son a wholesale food store that sat on Decatur Street in 1923. Bruce recollects I grew up in the grocery business. That s what I did. Everybody was going to job fairs and interviews and I was just following the Yellow Brick Road. All I ever wanted to do from the time I was loading those box cars was come in the family grocery business. And I did and it was great. Bruce s entire family followed in his uncle s footsteps from back in 1923 and his father and four uncles began Big Apple grocery stores which were located throughout the South including in Sandy Springs. Bruce began work practically the moment he graduated from college. I graduated on Friday packed up the car we came to Atlanta and we were working...It was not in the context of options to take six months off to go to Europe. No one ever even thought of that. Big Apple was a true family business and Bruce s uncles liked to disperse the younger family members around to the company s different divisions so they d learn all about the business. Bruce ran the produce division and his brothers were in operations advertising and real estate. Bruce remembers It was an amazing ride and not only did we have 3 500 employees In my tenure there we built it from 41 supermarkets to 101 supermarkets It was just a ridiculous ride for a young man to take. I learned an awful lot and I enjoyed every bit of it. It was still a family business. I worked for my dad and four uncles. I thought it was great. In 1980 after ten successful years in business the Alter man f amily sold 100 percent ownership of its Big Apple stores to a Belgium investment company. After working so many years in his family s business Bruce wanted to continue working in the food industry albeit in a much different capacity. When he was thirty-one Bruce left the grocery business. He remembers I was on the Produce Marketing Association s board [and] I went out of the supermarket business into life full of confidence. However four years after leaving the family company Bruce with Sally by his side hit his first roadblock their first business venture outside of the grocery and restaurant fields failed to takeoff. However the couple quickly rebounded with some wellplaced advice from his brother Bruce recollects At that point it s four andahalf years later and we re sitting in our living room with my brother who had left the [supermarket] business probably two years before it was sold and owned an independent restaurant [the Perimeter Caf ] at Perimeter Mall. We were sitting in the living room and he says I ll never forget the moment I think we can open a second [restaurant]. Keep in mind we owed the bank a bunch of money. I had no confidence. I had a terrible experience exposing Sally to what it was I thought I was going to be able to do. I didn t even really ask her a question about whether I should or shouldn t spend our money. But we found a location that had been four restaurants in five years out in Peachtree Corners. My brother put a second mortgage on his house. We went to friends and family and got up with these folks and said You wouldn t want to let us borrow about 10 000 to get in the restaurant business would you So we scraped together enough money to open a second Perimeter Cafe out in Peachtree Corners on August 15 1988 because that was our anniversary. The Perimeter Caf offered American fare and It was the clone of Bruce s brother s restaurant says Sally. Neither Bruce nor I had ever done anything in a restaurant besides eat so it was a steep learning curve once they opened. They A Tasty Staple of Sandy Springs History continued the lunch and dinner hour services slowed as local residents were staying at home to watch news coverage of the ongoing conflict. Eventually even Bruce s brother had decided to sell the original Perimeter Caf . Sally recollects Bruce s brother had since sold his Perimeter Cafe restaurant at Perimeter Mall to Applebee s. So there really wasn t a reason to keep that name and the decor and everything that came with it. Except for we were leaving behind all of our history all of our customers all of our everything. And we said Do we evolve because now we know things about the restaurant business that we would like to do and we know things we don t want to do And once again we jumped off the cliff. Despite any hesitations Bruce and Sally jumped into their next business venture. After Sally and Bruce Alterman inside the Brickery Grill and Bar unknown. several attempts by the Morrison s Corporation to purchase the Alterman s first restaurant the hired a builder and architect to design the restaurant and couple finally conceded and sold their Perimeter Caf setting in the six weeks before they opened that August Sally and their sights on a restaurant a little closer to their home in Bruce spent every waking moment in the original Perimeter Sandy Springs. Caf at Perimeter Mall. Sally spent six weeks working in the front area while Bruce learned the kitchen and then they With the Perimeter Caf s success under their belts Bruce and swapped places. Sally recalls [We were learning] while we Sally opened up The Brickery Grill and Bar a neighborhood were building out [the second location]. This is a spoon OK eatery that would become a Sandy Springs institution. and this is a recipe. [Then] he spent about six weeks in the The same developer that had bought the Perimeter Caf kitchen and I spent about six weeks on the floor. And then we actually helped the Altermans locate the space for their new switched places and he spent about three weeks on the floor restaurant a cozy warehouse space off Roswell Road. Sally and I spent about three weeks in the kitchen and then we remembers had to open. That was our background and and our training for the restaurant business. Against all odds Bruce and We knew the feel that we wanted At the Perimeter Sally were wildly successful with their first restaurant. For four Caf it was very sleek. It was black and white and years Bruce and Sally ran their Perimeter Caf which offered yellow and it was very contemporary in feel. We knew popular items such as their two-cheese grilled cheese and what we wanted the restaurant to feel like because we nachos and always had a wait during their lunch service. Bruce liked the feel of the older restaurants in the Virginiaremembers We were rockin along the Peachtree Corners Highland s area. When you d walk in and it just felt dynamic was you opened up at 11 15 and at 11 16 you were on warm and cozy and it was what we wanted to move a wait because the lunch business out there in that industrial into. We looked around and we said Look at all area was huge. The dinner business not so much it was okay. these bricks. These bricks make this feel so warm and [Then] the Gulf War kicked in. and just the way we like it. So we decided when we went into this location it used to be S&W Seafood. The Persian Gulf War which had begun in August 1990 It had this old wood floor and it had an old wall and was heavily televised and was one of the first wars to show we decided we were going to just put bricks all over all aspects of military conflict in real time. For the first time the place. people all over the world were able to watch live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters departing from Bruce and Sally sought the help of Vic Mosley an older aircraft carriers. In the United States the big three television businessman in the Sandy Springs area who operated like a networks led the war s news coverage ABC CBS and NBC genuine good ol boy from the south. Bruce recalls He was were broadcasting their evening newscasts at the exact time an old-time shake-your-hand walk-in-his-office [kind of guy.] U.S. air strikes began on January 16 1991. You may not know At that point we had we had gathered up enough money it but the world stopped. I mean nobody left their televisions to open up about half the buildout. I walked in his office for a period of time recalls Bruce. The beginning of the Gulf and he said How s your uncle And I said He s great. He War drastically affected the Perimeter Caf s business. Both 45 said What can I do for you I said Well I need X amount of dollars from you to go with the X amount of dollars from us to build out this restaurant. And by golly it took about thirty seconds. He shook my hand walked me down the hall with his daughter and he said Meet Bruce Alterman. These are good people and we re gonna [sic] contribute X amount to the buildout. With the support of Vic The Brickery Grill and Bar opened its doors at 6125 Roswell Road in Sandy Springs in 1992. The Brickery quickly became a staple and gathering place of Sandy Springs residents operating with a welcoming atmosphere and an eclectic menu. The Altermans not only offered a warm comfortable restaurant but also one that permitted their chefs creative freedom with their menus. Bruce recalls Right down the middle we had an open culture in that if a guy came to cook When he comes to The Brickery after a short period of time he begins to say You know I ve got something that my momma [sic] used to make when I was coming up. So you couldn t put together the menu we had at The Brickery from the beginning. It had to evolve. Through an approach that was eclectic as it could be. And it never stopped. It became problematic because once we broke the seal and really began to evolve the combination of great instincts and knowing our operation and a culture of people that would share with us you end up with a food dynamic that goes from a BLT all the way to osso bucco. Not to mention matzo balls and brisket for the holidays During its twenty-year existence The Brickery was more than just a restaurant to the Sandy Springs community it was a family. From the moment Bruce and Sally opened The Brickery it operated as the local place for friends and family to gather whether it was for special occasions such as Bar and Bat Mitzvah celebrations or simply casual weekly dinners with friends. I will share [a story] with you recalls Bruce. My third-grade teacher. We were open at The Brickery [this was in 1992] it was a Friday night and we were very busy. I was Facade of the the Brickery Grill and Bar circa 2014. 42 years old and they call me to the phone. I pick up the phone and say This is Bruce and this woman says Does the name Mrs. Cannon mean anything to you And I said You wouldn t have been my thirdgrade teacher. Long story short she and her two friends came into The Brickery every Friday night sat at the same table in the same seats for the next twenty years. In 2015 The Brickery was forced to shut its doors after two decades of business and countless memories for its staff and patrons. The shopping center in which the restaurant was housed had been increasingly barren of other shops and the center itself had been placed on the market to be sold. Sally recollects We had in our lease a 180 day termination clause. They had to give us that much notice. And on the 180th day when they gave us the notice it said One hundred and eighty days from today you re closing. We went to all of our people and we had about forty employees and we said In 180 days we re closing. And if you [work] till the end you can go get another job do what you need to do but if you continue to work to the very end then you will get a bonus. We didn t lose one employee. Now that says a lot. Bruce remembers a particular day in December 2015 I walk up to this table and this woman s crying. Five days before we close and I said Ma am you didn t lose your dog. OK It s just a restaurant. And her response was This is where the memories are. That table there we used to come back for Bar Mitzvahs etcetera. It was something we didn t consider. In terms of when you feed a community of people for that long you become part of their culture. The Brickery Grill and Bar closed its doors for good on December 23 2015. Thanks to the tenacity and vision of Sally and Bruce Alterman The Brickery continues to hold a special place in the hearts of many in the Sandy Springs community. B Identity & Pride An Interview with Stephe Koontz B Interviewers Stacey Hader Epstein & Keith Moore B Date of Interview January 31 2018 Though she humbly doesn t boast about her success Stephe Koontz has built a life that includes her love of cars and technology her passion for helping children as well as her courageous move into local politics. She was born in November 1959 in Greensboro North Carolina on a very lucky Friday the 13th. She only spent two years in North Carolina before her parents moved her a little further south to Atlanta. Stephe s earliest memory of Atlanta is that It s just really hot here. Calling herself an Atlanta native through and t h r o u g h Ste p h e spent eighteen years in Sandy Springs which was an Atlanta suburb at that time. Her parents Lucy Neale Thayer Koontz and Charles Burke Koontz both North C arolina natives moved to Sandy Spr ings in 1961. Stephe recalls My dad was an of ficer in the navy World War II and when he got back he worked for Sears Roebuck and he was the guy who came up with the idea of the catalog sales offices that they had in all the small towns. It started in Georgia well it started in the Southeast and then it ended up being nationwide. And then he was put in charge of managing the ones that were in the Southeast. He was actually offered a job up in Chicago to oversee that part of their operation nationwide but he didn t want to move out of Atlanta. He didn t want to move the family and I m sure my mom probably had some say so into moving and so he stayed here in Atlanta and worked at Sears downtown which is now Ponce City Market. He worked in that building. The Koontz owned a home on Brinkley Lane just off Winsor Parkway which put them outside the city limits of Atlanta and on the fringe of Sandy Springs. Stephe remembers I remember driving to Sandy Springs was a big deal back then. There was a lot more going on around Sandy Springs than there was in Atlanta where we lived. I think the main reason we drove up here was to shop at the Kmart and to shop at the Service Merchandise. My mom loved Service Merchandise. Stephe and her two siblings attended several schools in Sandy Springs including Liberty Guinn Elementary School before transferring to The Westminster Schools on West Paces Ferry Road. While her two siblings would graduate from the charter school she would transfer to Ridgeview High School in the eighth grade. Life at Ridgeview High was different 47 than her previous school and Stephe felt like she fit in better there. Fortunately for Stephe she transferred at time when Sandy Springs High School was shutting its doors giving all new students including the great many from Sandy Springs High a chance to start school fresh. After four years at Ridgeview High Stephe graduated in 1978 and followed her parents wishes to attend college and begin her degree studies in mechanical engineering. She had barely finished a semester before she realized that college wasn t for her opting instead to pursue her love of mechanics in a different way. I ve always loved cars recalls Stephe. Even through high school I had car projects rebuilding engines and doing all that So again I told my parents I don t want to go to college. And they were pretty insistent. They said that you know We ll pay for your college full boat. We ll get you an apartment if you don t like living in the dorm. We ll pay your tuition everything else. But if you really want to be a car mechanic you re gonna [sic] have to pay for school and you re living at home. So that s what I did. I came back home. I lived with them for another year and a half. Stephe attended DeKalb Technical College studying the thing she loved most cars. She worked at Kmart every afternoon from four o clock to nine o clock and Sundays from noon until six o clock to make ends meet. She lived off of Roswell Road in the Northwood apartments with another Ridgeview graduate Eric Hutto and his girlfriend Marla. Once she graduated she immediately got a job at a Honda dealership and began working her way through her mechanic career. Stephe would go on to work at a number of automotive repair shops including Buckhead Motor Works located next to Heritage Sandy Springs which was owned by Charlie Chaney and Tony Burdett. Stephe remembers I met Tony when he was working at the BMW dealer. I met him down at Steverino s down in Sandy Springs which were the cheapest pitchers of beer hanging out in Sandy Springs. So after work I d leave the Kmart and it was on my way home and I would stop and drink pitchers of beer with everybody. And I met Tony. He knew I was a good mechanic because one night I asked him he had this really fancy Corvette and I told him that I thought my Oldsmobile Cutlass was going to outrun his Corvette. So we went out and did a little bit of street racing here in Sandy Springs. We did one race on Roswell Road and then we did another one on 285. I beat him both times with my old Cutlass that was this old rattylooking car. So he was impressed that this plainlooking old Cutlass could outrun this fancy Corvette. So he put a good word in for me with the service manager and they gave me an interview. Then they hired me on and the first thing they did was they said We want you to rebuild the engine on this Honda car. Well I d never seen a Honda before in my life. I opened the hood and I was like Holy crap the engine s in here sideways But I did it. And that was the some good can come from street racing. Stephe had a long career working with cars and became a much-sought-after mechanic throughout the years. By 1984 Stephe had moved to the city of Doraville and purchased a home a home that she has owned for the past thirtyfive years. She owned a small business in Marietta and worked in various automotive repair shops around Atlanta before going to work for Atlanta Racing on Lawrenceville Highway which is where she spent the last fifteen years of her career as a mechanic. Stephe retired from the automotive industry in 2005. In the years since Stephe s passion for all-things-mechanical led her to give much of her time to Doraville-area children. Indentity and Pride continued I got my first computer and discovered wow There s a bunch of us and this is not just me. She founded a Technology Club for children at Cary Reynolds Elementary School a Title 1 school using donated computers she solicited from the public. She rewired and replaced the school s non-functioning publicaddress system. In addition she has volunteered her time tutoring schoolchildren in afterschool programs as well as assisting in the local YMCA s early learning programs. For two years she was awarded the Volunteer of the Year award by LaAmistad a local organization whose mission fosters success for Latino students and their families through academic and life-enrichment programs. It was during her own early years when Stephe began to question her identity. She knew from an early age that she was different. She remembers It was something that I knew from like I said from a very early age. When I was in elementary school I don t think it was something that really bothered me [much] because at those really young ages gender stereotypes aren t driven in. In school all of my friends were girls. I hung out with the girls and seemed to get relationships with them. The guys at that age aren t super macho usually and the ones that were I just wasn t friends with. When Stephe turned thirteen Westminster separated genders into two distinct schools and all of Stephe s friends were placed in the girl s side of the school. She was no longer in comfortable surroundings. I was put into an environment where there were no women that I could relate with. Plus puberty the whole dating thing starts happening and the relationship where you can t just be friends with the girl. And when it s just guys it s like locker room time all the time. I was very uncomfortable in that situation. Back then there wasn t even any talk about [being transgender]. I didn t know that it even existed. I thought that I might be the only person on the planet that was like this. There were no role models. There s nothing in the news about it nobody talked about it and it was just something that was kind of kept on the downlow kind of. Life changed for Stephe as she got older graduated college and began a career. Despite the automotive industry being traditionally a macho environment Stephe found it to be fairly tolerant and her co-workers just let her be. I think part of the way I survived was at that time you could grow your hair real long recalls Stephe. I ve always been kind of a nonconformist. So all the other guys in the shop had their little mechanics uniform on and stuff and I had my long hair and wore shorts and Tshirts. They knew I was unique. I was able to get away with a lot because of how good I was at my job. There were some kind of jokes or comments that would be made in my direction that kind of let me know that they knew something was going on. But that s about as far as it went as far as any kind of conversation with people. While Stephe did not meet any LGBTQ -identified people until later in her life the larger queer community had already begun to openly establish events organizations and social gatherings. In the years after 1970 LGBTQ life began to develop in various districts of Atlanta including in Midtown Little Five Points and Candler Park. Stephe found outlets to express her true identity despite having never gotten involved with the LGBTQ community in the Atlanta area. She recalls Well as I went into adulthood I did a lot of crossdressing on the weekends. Any chance that I got to like Halloween to really stretch the way you go out in public I took advantage of that. Even when we would go out clubbing I gravitated to the punk rock scene here in Atlanta because you could get away with dressing pretty androgynously. In 1971 despite anti-gay activism throughout the American south the first Atlanta Gay Pride Parade was organized by the Georgia Gay Liberation Front and held from Peachtree Street to Piedmont Park. In 1972 churches open to the queer population including the first Atlanta-area Metropolitan Community Church congregation were established. Multiple gay newspapers were founded throughout the 1970s the Georgia Equality organization was established in 1983 and in 1997 Atlanta elected Cathy Woolard its first gay politician to its city council. But for Stephe the big moment for her was not the gains in the public organizations or events of the LGBTQ community it was the increase in communication and softening of language to talk about identity especially her own. In the early 1990s the expansion and growth of technology opened many doors for the LGBTQ community including transgender-identified individuals like Stephe. The internet allowed communication on an entirely new level and for the first time Stephe discovered that she wasn t alone. She had never met another transgender person in her life until she was able to connect with someone over the internet. She recollects I started getting much more out there with my gender presentation at work. I would even have customers 49 starting to refer to me with female pronouns. You know Is she going to be the one working on my car and that kind of thing. The other big thing for that was when the internet became something. I got my first computer Netscape or Yahoo started reading forums and newsgroups and stuff that were about transgender issues and discovered wow There s a bunch of us and this is not just me. Throughout the 1990s and early 2000s Stephe slowly started outwardly expressing her true identity and came into living life openly as a woman. Stephe continued to lead a relatively quiet life in Doraville with comfortable relationships with her friends and family. After she had retired and paid off her mortgage she started working for a local church as a secretary to help fill her time. While she had always been interested in politics it took a neighborhood conflict in 1992 to peak her political interests. It was during that year that she engaged in a conflict with a neighbor who happened to be a local councilman over defiance of city zoning and her complaint about a mismanaged daycare in the house next door. What she found most inspiring through the whole ordeal was the opportunity to get involved and to fight back when the government was used to target individuals for personal retribution. She remembers I had been going to council meetings and getting involved with the politics. I knew all of the people. I knew Mayor Pittman and all of the people in the city they knew me. I d gone to all these civic events and every time the election cycle would come around I would talk to my friends and you know we were at the point where we re Let s find some candidates to run and let s let s campaign and How are we going to do this and we were strategizing how to get these people elected that we thought would be good representatives. Ever y time I would mention that Well maybe I could run and I was met with Well you can t run you re t r a n s g e n d e r. Yo u r e unelectable. Nobody s gonna [sic] vote for you just because of that. And I believed them. So I would just say Well this sucks but that s just like we said before that s just how the world is and I just accepted that. But then some of what inspired me was what I saw happen November of 2016 and I woke up after the election stunned at what the people that had got voted into office and as a transgender person I was terrified about what was going to happen to my civil rights and rightly so what we re seeing play out...This wasn t paranoia. This was the reality of my world now that I m being told that transgender people a doctor could tell you that We don t want to treat you and they can just leave you on the gurney to die. And it s happened. And so I was really upset felt like there s nothing I can do. You know the world s going in a bad direction and I had no influence over this. Indeed many LGBTQ-identified individuals and those from other marginalized communities saw the outcome of the 2016 presidential election as dismaying and sought to make a difference. Following Donald Trump s election to the presidency students activists and laypeople motivated by the political environment organized larger protests in several major cities across the United States. Women organized the Women s March on Washington to advocate for legislation and policies regarding human rights and other issues including women s rights immigration reform healthcare reform reproductive rights the natural environment LGBTQ rights racial equality freedom of religion and workers rights. While the dominant march occurred in Washington D.C. similar marches were held across the country including in Atlanta. Stephe states Indentity and Pride continued I went to the Women s March in January of 2017 and I wasn t sure really what to expect. It was the one in Atlanta. I knew they were having them all over the country. I got up that rainy morning put on my raincoat went downtown and I had seen on a Facebook group the social justice group that they were the the women that organized that march that there were 10 000 people interested so I thought This is going to be a pretty big march and then I got down there and there were 65 000 people there. They weren t being ugly. It was like a show of love and support and that this is not going to be normal and we re not going to let this be the new normal. That was really empowering. Feeling emboldened by her experience Stephe decided she would no longer listen to the naysayers. When the summer elections came around for the Doraville City Council she decided she was not going to let someone be elected for the third district as an unopposed candidate and win by default she was going to run. With the help of friends Stephe got a campaign manager and started to reach out to the people on the issues that she saw important to the city. As she knocked on doors and canvassed for her election Stephe wanted the people of Doraville to know who she was as a candidate and the issues she stood for and not focus on her gender identity. She says I did all the canvassing by myself alone. I knocked on over a thousand doors in a twomonth period. I had several elected officials and both neighborhood associations campaigning for my opponent. There is a whole little political network of people in the city that wanted to see my opponent win. I think I won by reaching out to voters that aren t the ones that are normally involved in politics and was able to convince them that I was the better candidate. Normally in these kinds of midterm elections they have 400 450 people show up and we had 700. Stephe went on to win the general election in the fall. She won by only six votes making her the first openly transgender woman to win a contested election in the state of Georgia. Councilwoman Stephe Koontz has been featured in several local and national news outlets since her groundbreaking victory last November. She has been interviewed by CNN Telemundo and was honored by the international Human Rights Campaign. Stephe made her own way in the American south in a world where she had discovered on her own why she felt different. She now gets to be the role model to transgender youth teaching others to listen to their hearts to embrace their identities and to never stop dreaming big. B Lesbian-Gay-Bisexual-Transgender-Queer Read The Stories You Missed Volume 1 Click Here 51 d e s s i M u o Y s e i r o t S e h T d a e R Visit Heritage Sandy Springs to get your copy Volume 2 Breaking Barriers A Dynamic Duo in the Media An Interview with Teddi Levison Sanford B Interviewers Stacey Hader Epstein & Keith Moore B Date of Interview April 26 2018 The post-World War II era was a period of extremes for the Atlanta lawyer Jarvin Levison and eventually became a national American people. The United States had been embroiled in celebrity for her outspoken feminist views. wars across both Europe and Asia African Americans were still fighting for even the most basic of civil rights and the LGBT Teddi was born Theodora Schlesinger in Salem Oregon. She community had only just begun its own fight for equal rights. was an only child and spent her early years in the forested As for women in the 1960s deep cultural changes were also woods of Oregon. She moved to Oakland California at altering their roles the bright age of in American society. seventeen to briefly Great numbers of attend Mills College women were entering before transferring the paid workforce to the University of consequently Southern California increasing the not far from Beverly spotlight on huge Hills where her gender disparities parents had rented in pay and in career a home. I am an advancement as well only child from a as sexual harassment very overprotective in the wor kplace. family I lived with Despite these cultural my entire family. It barriers this period was like the grand more than ever hotels when I was saw women leaving growing up recalls the established Teddi. It was not long Teddi Levison Sanford (left) and Mickie Silverstein (right) on the set of a television talk show. Courtesy of Teddi Levison Sanford 2018.011.003 patriarchal gender before Teddi met her role of domesticity future husband Jarvin and enter ing the while at tending a workforce. One pioneer who helped lead the way in this cultural casual dinner with friends. The two fell madly in love and were shift was Teddi Levison Sanford. Born and raised on the West engaged within a month. Soon thereafter Teddi was whisked Coast Teddi moved to Atlanta after marrying her husband off to her new home across the country in Atlanta. She recalls 53 We [my family and I] went to Atlanta and Jarvin meets us at the airport and he had an old Studebaker. My daddy gets in the Studebaker and the window wouldn t roll up and it was hot as you know Atlanta is. Then we go to Jarvin s apartment which was behind where the art museum is now. It was on Fifteenth Street and you had to walk up one flight and he walked into the apartment and the first thing out of his mouth was How long a lease do you have on this place In 1957 once Teddi and Jarvin s families had met and approved of their Teddi Levison Sanford and unidentified man in a radio booth. Courtesy of Teddi Levison Sanford. relationship the couple returned 2018.011.007 briefly to California to wed in the swanky Beverly Hills Hotel before ultimately returning to Atlanta where Teddi would meet her Teddi and Mickie were an immediate hit with their take on future career partner and friend Mickie Silverstein. cultural and political happenings. Their column later renamed It wasn t long after Teddi and Jarvin had settled into their new life in Atlanta and eventually Sandy Springs when good fortune connected Teddi with her future professional counterpart. Mickie Pador Silverstein was an outspoken Jewish feminist in the American South. Born and raised in New York she had moved to Atlanta after marrying her husband Charles M. Silverstein M.D. the future founder of Northside Hospital in Sandy Springs. Jarvin and Teddi met at a cocktail party for local doctors lawyers and businessmen held at the Mayfair Club. Teddi remembers We met at a party at the Mayfair Club. We became friends and within a year or so we just decided that we wanted to do something. I always knew that I wanted to do something. Although my parents in those days we were encouraged to find a nice rich husband marry him and have him take care of you forever more. Well that was never my drift. So we started out by [going] to Atlanta Magazine. I was always interested in writing and and so was she and I was an English Lit major so you know that was kind of my thing. We talked to the editor and he said Well you have no credentials. I mean you know what are you going to do Well after two or three meetings we finally talked him into letting us do a column called Around Town. And it was the best it was the most fun. We went to all kinds of social events. When John F. Kennedy came to Atlanta there was a big fundraiser for him at a beautiful home up in somewhere We went to all those events...and wrote them up in a little [column]. from Around Town to Town Talk would open the door to a full spectrum of careers in journalism. Their writing career soon turned into an opportunity to co-host a local television show. Teddi recalls We started just with a Saturday show on WAGATV. So I don t know how long that went on but it was called The Don Barber Show. We booked his show and finally we got where we were his co-hostesses. Don Barber went on a vacation and so it was just Mickie and me doing the show and somehow we had booked this group that was a singing group that was new and everybody was talking about them. And apparently they used some pretty bad language when they were singing. The bottom line was we got canned. Not long thereafter Teddi and Mickie got a call from Charlie Smithgall a local media mogul from Gainesville Georgia who had plans to start a radio station in Atlanta. Charlie had been following Mickie and Teddi s career and was looking for talent for his new radio station. He offered them a try-out for this new station known as WRNG Radio. So then after that we said we d rather do a week show and not work on the weekends because I mean we did have families recalls Teddi. WRNG Radio had started and we did that too. The Mickie and Teddi Show. WRNG Radio one of the first talk radio stations in Atlanta appeared on the airwaves in September 1965. Teddi and Mickie co-hosted a daily live call-in show for two hours five days a week 10 00 a.m. to 12 00 p.m. beginning in 1967. Teddi and Mickie talked about their views on civil rights integration feminism politics and more. The duo even interviewed Jimmy Carter multiple times a week when he was still the governor of Georgia. The show was an instant success. Teddi recalls Breaking Barriers continued Indeed Teddi and Mickie never let the local public strong-arm them into changing their beliefs. When I moved on to Atlanta I was so stunned that there was segregation recollects Teddi. I could not believe it. And I just have never you know we had a lot of American Indians in Salem Oregon where I grew up. I don t think there were any [or] I don t remember any black people. But I just don t see color. And I will say that I felt that it was something that had to be changed and nobody seemed to be doing anything to change it. In the late 1960s despite the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 many states only gave negligible victories to the African American community throughout the southern region. Racial tensions only amplified as the Civil Rights Movement and the dismantling of Jim Crow laws in the 1950s and 1960s saw altercations increase between civil rights groups and pro-segregationists. Groups dedicated to the notion of Black Power including the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Advertisement from RING Radio & WRNG featuring Mickie Silverstein and Teddi Levison and their new Committee and the Southern call-in show Talk with Mickie and Teddi. Courtesy of Teddi Levison Sanford. 2018.011.010 Christian Leadership Council dedicated themselves to pushing for integration and recognition of We got hundreds of callins. There were callins and I African Americans as equal citizens across the southern United thought when we left to go to Los Angeles to do the States. Atlanta a major hub of the Civil Rights Movement same thing we got and this is no exaggeration we began to see visible expansion of police brutality aimed at the got about 2 000 letters mainly from women about African American community. Teddi recalls how we had really changed their outlook. At that time we were known as radical feminists and they called us There was a lot of socalled police brutality going on. commie pinkos because we were for integration. We In Atlanta. And we decided we were going to do a got a threat letter from James Earl Ray that we sent to [story] and Ray Stanfield said You know the station the FBI. I recently found it and showed it to some of my would really love to win a Peabody Award. It s you friends. Yes he wrote a letter to us saying something know the top award that you can win. And he said about You Jew girls you re gonna [sic] get what s I think you guys can do it. So we spent about four coming to you and I mean it was...We sent it to the months. We went to areas that...Uh we were so stupid. FBI. I mean nothing ever happened. We got a lot of I wouldn t go there with an armed guard today what threat letters. One time somebody called up Jarvin we did. And we wrote this documentary which was I who was a lawyer and said Can t you shut your wife would it was done on the air. I think it was four different up And he said Good luck if you could figure out a segments so 20 80 160 minutes and we submitted it way to do it to Peabody Award and it won. Ray Stanfield went with us to New York and we got the Peabody Award. 55 The radio documentary entitled When Will it End aired shortly before the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968. For their expos on police brutality in Atlanta Mickie and Teddi were the first women to receive the George Foster Peabody Award. At that time we were known as radical feminists and they called us commie pinkos. Mickie and Teddi continued their radio careers across the country. Mickie and Charles had divorced and unfortunately Jarvin and Teddi s marriage had been on the rocks for years. She remembers Mickie had been divorced already for a while. And Jarvin and I were and it didn t really...well it did have something to do with my career. He signed up for a wife that he thought was going to be going to luncheons and being a typical lawyer s wife and that isn t what he got. The radio duo moved to Philadelphia for a brief period before ultimately relocating and continuing their radio call-in show from Los Angeles. We had Gregory Peck. He came for the To Kill A Mockingbird premier. We had Rock Hudson with which that was one of the biggest shocks of my life when he came for Pillow Talk. He was the most gorgeous thing and it wasn t a month afterwards it came out that he was gay we also interviewed Barbara Walters. The two friends co-authored a book entitled Have You Had It in the Kitchen which focused on their feminist views about a woman s ability to combine her career and family life. The two traveled the country on a book tour and were guests on the Today Show The Phil Donahue Show and even The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson. Teddi remembers Oh well they flew us up there and they gave us a list of things we could talk about and things we couldn t talk about. I was shocked because I thought that it was an off-thecuff show and wasn t at all...Nothing political nothing religious. We talked mainly about in fact about they didn t want to get too deeply into the subject of the Peabody Award. We d already written the book and he [Johnny Carson] liked the idea that the book was called Have You Had It in the Kitchen but it was about how to combine a career and a family. All in all Mickie and Teddi wrote three books together Have You Had It in the Kitchen Marrying Again and Number One Sunset Blvd. which eventually topped the LA Times list of bestsellers. Teddi Levison Sanford has led a remarkable life. As part of the dynamic Teddi & Mickie duo who shared their lives and their careers in the media she has made a lasting mark on the lives of working women today. B Teddi Levison and Mickie Silverstein receiving the George Foster Peabody Award in New York City. Teddi and Mickie received national recognition for their groundbreaking coverage of race relations and police brutality towards African Americans during the civil rights movement and the late 1960s circa 1969. Courtesy of Teddi Levison Sanford. 2018.011.029 Alcohol Goes Undercover in Spirited Sandy Springs From the Heritage Sandy Springs Archives B Interviews with Jim and Betty Pirkle Stroup and J.W. and Frank Self The consumption of alcohol has been a long-standing Increases in public drunkenness and excessive consumption tradition of many cultures throughout the world. From family of various substances pushed the American Temperance gatherings to celebrations and holidays alcoholic libations Society to call for regulations and in some instances the have played important roles in social cultural and political outright banishment of alcoholic substances. By the 1920s settings. Subsequently laws regarding the production and increases in alcoholism family violence and saloon-based consumption of alcohol have existed for many reasons political corruption prompted activists throughout the including religious countr y to seek to and vir tuous ones. cure the countr y The temperance and remove alcohol movement a social from the United crusade against St ate s. T he anti the consumption alcohol movement led of alcoholic to the full prohibition b ever ages b egan of alcohol when in the early 1820s. A t he Vols tead Ac t few decades later e nfor ce d nat io nal in 1885 residents of prohibition enacted Fulton County had by the ratification the option to vote of the Eighteenth on whether alcohol Amendment on Photograph of people drinking moonshine Georgia. Vanishing Georgia collection Georgia Archives. MUR-109-82 would be allowed in J a n u a r y 8 1919. their county. By 1907 Although the entire the county s residents had spoken strongly against the country went dry from 1920 to 1933 Georgia s statewide evils of alcohol. The fervor in which residents embraced prohibition extended before and beyond the country s temperance took hold fast and lasted longer than almost mandate beginning in 1908 and ending in 1935. While any other region in the country. many local citizens abided by these new laws based on Protestant and evangelical ideologies many entrepreneurs 57 who provided local residents with whiskey even after prohibition ended. One resident J.W. Self recalls Tubby Sewell was our bootlegger. He made whiskey and sold it. Everybody knew it. No secret about it. Tubby made whiskey. He had a still somewhere. Policeman standing alongside wrecked car and cases of moonshine liquor November 16 1922. Public domain. Courtesy of the Prints and Photographs Division Library of Congress Washington D. C began to engage in a new line of business which skirted the law and provided a ready source of income. Bootlegging the illegal process of producing and selling alcohol dates back to the early 1700s and was a popular line of employment for working-class individuals. Georgian farmers had taken to making their own moonshine and selling the excess tax-free to other local farmers and immigrants in an effort to offset the extreme disparages in Lord if I ever get out of this car I ll never ride with Tubby again poverty that plagued the Georgia region. With the onset of local prohibition in 1908 and then national prohibition in 1920 illicit alcohol production skyrocketed creating a thriving black market for local moonshiners throughout the state. Fulton County residents rarely had a difficult time finding their local fix. Although the county had outlawed whiskey and beer in 1886 residents were able to travel to the DeKalb County line where liquor was still legal purchase from a supplier and then return back to their farms. By the time prohibition took hold across the country however Sandy Springs had at least one of its very own suppliers Bootlegging in Fulton County was common throughout the early twentieth century mainly because the law lacked efficient resources to enforce it. In the 1930s Sandy Springs was still dotted with small farmhouses sitting on large acres of land. It was within the surrounding forested areas of these private properties where the majority of moonshiner s operated. Tubby supposedly operated his still off Mount Vernon Highway and Whitner Drive on a piece of Frank Tiller s fifty acres. However adults throughout Sandy Springs have childhood memories of running into old stills that had blown up or continued to be operational into the late 1930s even after prohibition had been repealed in 1935. One Sandy Springer Jim Stroup remembers A lot of that was bootlegging. If you ve never heard of that that s making alcohol. And what happened was if you went next to a creek and you saw something dug out that s what the men did back in those days. They would get next to a creek where they needed the water and then they d use the cooling tubes. They would bring in corn and sugar and they would produce alcohol. Then Roswell Road was the main artery for most of bootlegging that went on in North Georgia. Course as the city grew out then and people flew planes they could see the smoke. But before that happened and helicopters there were bootleggers all over this whole area. All over Sandy Springs. And today course you could go as far as Cumming and... I did a lot of hunting rabbit hunting fox also possum and coon. We hunted all of these animals some with dogs and some without dogs. But in so doing we would run across all these places and you could tell if it was fresh or if it had been blown up. In the early days of bootlegging moonshiners routinely used runners drivers in otherwise ordinary-looking cars who would transport moonshine from the still in the woods to thirsty customers across the county. The car almost always looked common enough to avoid attention from the police Alcohol Goes Undercover in Spirited Sandy Springs continued W. E. Joiner (left) and J. A. Hightower assistant warehousemen examining some of the stock on hand when Commissioner Head arrived at Albany to issue the first liquor licenses Monday. Daily Papers March 29 1938. AJCP553-124f Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library. but usually the engine of car would be modified so that it could easily outmaneuver and outrun any law enforcement officer who suspected what the driver was actually doing. J.W. remembers [Tubby] could go down the road he had a . 44 coupe. He could go down the road ninety miles an hour and turn around and meet the police coming back turn that thing around at ninety miles an hour right in the middle of the road. Frank adds I don t think he ever got caught. He hired somebody to do all his hauling. If you needed a pint of whiskey why you called this number and he said put two dollars in the mailbox. When you went back by you picked up your whiskey Nobody ever really sold it to you. You just got it. Most moonshine runners knew the area they drove like the backs of their hands and were able to outmaneuver and elude law enforcement. Many drivers like Tubby became known for coining maneuvers like the bootleg turn in which the drivers would quickly turn the car around in a controlled skid to abruptly change course. However not all drivers were so lucky. Jim recalls They made a lot of charcoal but it wasn t really charcoal. I got involved in alcohol at an early age. Not that I was one to drink a lot of it. But I knew people that did. And on one Sunday morning we were going up Roswell Road up here to almost Dalrymple. And we saw police cars pulled over a it looked like any other car. And they were pulling out loads of whiskey. And the policemen were out there with axes that were breaking these were metal cans that were full of whiskey and they were breaking into those cans and then pouring it out on the ground. And there were several people down the street that were drinking they poured it out up the street at Dalrymple and Roswell Road and people were drinking out of it Once prohibition had officially ended in Fulton County in 1935 the demand for bootlegged alcohol diminished and the drivers found themselves with souped-up cars and nearly out of work. Many drivers turned to a new interest racing their cars in amateur races that lasted until 1947 when one of the drivers decided to organize these races. On December 14 1947 Big Bill France held a meeting with other drivers to set up official rules for what eventually became the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing or NASCAR. But for Tubby and many bootleggers like him they moved on to other enterprises leaving their stills hidden in the forests of Sandy Springs for future generations to stumble upon while exploring the area s natural surroundings. B 59 d e s s i M u o Y s e i r o t S e h T d a e R Visit Heritage Sandy Springs to get your copy Volume 2 Call of Duty Back Home An Interview with John Paulson B Interviewer Stacey Hader Epstein & Keith Moore B Date of Interview February 12 2018 When American soldiers returned home from World War II recount the difficulty many of his comrades had to readjusting they were greeted as heroes many had parades held to honor to civilian life. While the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) their service and sacrifice. Unfortunately that kind of reception was created to serve veterans from all contemporary military eluded most veterans returning from Vietnam. They were some conflicts the changing landscape of the VA still leaves room for of the first veterans to experience negativity backlash and outside organizations to help veterans where they can. mistreatment from the public for their service to our country. Anti-war protestors tended to blame the soldiers for their On July 21 1930 President Herbert Hoover created the Veterans participation in the war rather than the politicians who put them Administration by signing an executive order which united the there. Since the 1970s veteran affairs and the treatment of the three previous bureaus that managed pensions and benefits of returning American veterans the troops has varied Veterans Bureau depending on the Bureau of the military Pensions and e ng ag e me nt i n the National which they had Homes for the b e e n i nvo l ve d. Disabled. From H oweve r s i nce its outset the VA the Vietnam included medical War veterans care for veterans. retur ned home Throughout there has been the 193 0 s no other military and the Great engagement Depression its that has seen work continued its veterans to focus on the so adversely care for World treated for their War I veterans. involvement in a The VA managed Logo for the US Department of Veterans Affairs circa December 2014. war. the majority Courtesy of the Department of Veterans Affairs of veterans John Paulson benefits including returned from Vietnam in February 1970. A Chicago native allowances life insurance bonus certificates retirement he returned to La Grange Illinois after serving in the A1 9 payments and pensions. From 1931 to 1941 the number of VA (Alpha Company First Battalion 9th Marine Regiment) of the medical facilities around the country grew rapidly from sixtyUnited States Marine Corps. While Paulson did not discuss any four to ninety-one and doubled the amount of beds available immediate negativity due to his involvement in the war he did to veterans. With World War II on the horizon the VA redoubled 61 John Paulson returned to Chicago in February 1970 after serving his enlistment term overseas. He had intended to follow a fellow veteran to California but at the insistence of his mother he stayed in Chicago where he soon met his future wife Mary. After several years in the construction industry Paulson completed his Bachelor of Science and then Master of Science in engineering at the University of Illinois Chicago campus and began work as a civil engineer. He remembers Really geotechnical engineering which is a specialty of civil engineers... Geotechnical engineers work with foundations and soils and earthwork and things of that nature. And I worked for a big company designing power plants a company called Sargent and Lundy. They designed a bunch of nuclear power and coal fired power plants. Mary worked Phoenix Patriot Foundation CEO and Executive Director John as a docent in the Frank Lloyd Wright Museum in Oak Paulson founder Jared Ogden and Mary Paulson at a fundraiser Park Chicago. In 1986 however Paulson received an at the Dunwoody Country Club circa 2014. Courtesy of Phoenix Patriot Foundation. offer from Exxon Chemical to work in its construction fabrics division Geosynthetics a department that needed an engineer to provide technical support to other its efforts by issuing new life insurance programs and in 1943 engineers about using its products. Paulson accepted the offer created the Disabled Veterans Rehabilitation Act which provided and relocated to what he was told was Dunwoody Georgia 621 000 disabled World War II veterans with vocational training but was actually Sandy Springs. Mary and John raised two when they returned home. As the war continued increasing children in their home on Northridge Road where they still live public sentiment to help returning veterans resulted in the today. Paulson spent many years working as a civil engineer and creation of the Servicemen s Readjustment Act or the GI Bill of continues to be involved with Geosynthetics and its construction Rights. The bill signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on fabrics but eventually he decided to start his own business. He June 22 1944 drastically transformed the concept of veteran recalls affairs by offering four years of university or vocational training a federally guaranteed home loan with no down payment and I had started my own engineering consulting company unemployment compensation for fifty-two weeks. The GI Bill and then I had a friend tell me that You can get set afforded dreams of higher education and home ownership aside contracts for veteran owned small businesses to millions of veterans and their families. More than any other and the best one was a service to the disabled veteran program in American history the GI Bill has contributed to the owned small business [SDVOSB]. This friend had also welfare of veterans and their families and to the growth of the told me that if anybody had been in combat you re nation s economy. automatically entitled to 10 percent disability because combat is a disabling event. So I went to the VA By the mid-1960s the Vietnam War was continually escalating down here and applied for disability benefits and I and United States military forces were rapidly increasing. Initially was granted 10 percent disability started a SDVOSB Congress offered limited benefits to veterans who had served Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business a in Vietnam from 1964 to 1975 only later extending that time company that was called REDI Engineering. I started to include those who had served in the first part of the war with an associate friend of mine and we design retaining beginning in 1961. Although most of the returning veterans walls in and around Atlanta hundreds of them. from Vietnam succeeded in making the transition to civilian life many were incapable of doing so. Advances in both medical While today s VA system has been improving access to its technology and aviation in the postwar era meant that many programs and payments there are an increasing number of nonwounded and injured military personnel survived their injuries profits that are dedicated to helping wounded veterans who in much larger numbers. Roughly 150 000 veterans came home have served in the most recent military conflicts. Paulson after wounded or with amputations while at least 21 000 were recognizing the benefits of having access to veteran assistances permanently disabled and unable to work for the rest of their became involved with the Phoenix Patriot Foundation in 2015. lives. Many veterans returned with debilitating psychological He remembers problems such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) which the government did not recognize as a serious illness until 1979. So one of the kids that used to hang around our house Even worse many did not receive the proper and necessary help was named Jared Ogden and he was between my son s to navigate an increasingly complex VA system. Call of Duty Back Home continued challenges or jet-ski challenges things of that nature. But it s all about getting veterans to re engage and go on with whatever the next aspect of their life is. My wife actually followed it more closely than I had my wife was one of the first ambassadors when it was formed in late 2010 and then in 2014 2015 I can t remember now Jared approached me to be on their board. Former Navy Seal and Paralympian Dan Cnossen at the Phoenix Patriot Foundation Fundraiser Atlanta Georgia. Courtesy of the Phoenix Patriot Foundation. and my daughter s age but he would come to the house and we live on a small lake and he would fish in our lake. So we got to know him pretty well. He decided one day he was at the house and he told my wife that he wanted to go to the Naval Academy. And she said Great. When you graduate from the Naval Academy send me an invitation because I want to go. Sure enough four years later we get an invitation we go to the Naval Academy. Watch the Naval Academy graduation which was pretty cool. He goes off into the navy but a year later he comes back and he says I want to go be a Navy SEAL. What my wife said When you graduate Navy SEAL Buds give us a call we ll come to your graduation. So he went off he became a Navy SEAL and he was deployed to Afghanistan to replace a friend of his who had been hit by an IED and lost both legs. After several of his close friends were severely wounded Jared Ogden subsequently went on to found the Phoenix Patriot Foundation (PPF) providing direct support to injured and combat-wounded veterans who served post-9 11. Its goal is to enable veterans to fully recover reintegrate and remain engaged in serving their country. The organization s vision is to offset the gap between the number of injured military and support received by the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs so that no wounded servicemen is ever left behind. Paulson states [His friend] survived. But with the loss of both limbs it was obviously tough on him we d go see this fella name s Dan Dan Cnossen and there was really no path for a veteran who had been injured. Once you got out of the veteran hospital what do you do next You know what s your next career in life So Phoenix Patriot Foundation was formed to help veterans with facilitating whatever their next passion in life is. And we do everything from financial assistance we do physical challenges where people go out and do swimming Today the Phoenix Patriot Foundation helps facilitate the engagement of veterans through a multitude of platforms. It offers workshops on starting one s own business a tuition assistance program through the Technical College System of Georgia and helps veterans discover their passions and their next steps. And although PPF is unable to offer medical and mental health services to veterans the non-profit organization provides the next best thing Paulson explains So we put environments together where veterans can just talk. Twice a year we have something at our house usually it s just a cookout usually it s when Jared s in town we invite local veterans that we have here sometimes neighbors and just sit around and eat and drink tell stories. But find out also what s on everybody s mind what do you wanna [sic] do [next] What re you running into that s a problem and how can we help you So that s what it is. Veterans will talk to other veterans combat veterans will talk to combat veterans But anyway so that s what Phoenix Patriot Foundation does we have a chapter in Southern California we have a chapter in Texas and a chapter in Georgia. And I think we had another one already started in Tennessee. The city of Sandy Springs and then Mayor Eva Galambos declared December 20 2011 as Jared Ogden Day commemorating the North Springs High School graduate for his service to the country as well as the work he and countless others continue to do through PPF. John Paulson continues his work to serve both veterans and his community. Currently he serves on the board of directors of PPF as its president and chief executive officer. In addition he is serving his third term as the councilman of Sandy Springs District One and is working with the Local American Legion Post to help veterans navigate the increasingly complicated VA system. He laughingly states It s funny when I retired everybody wanted my opinion because my opinion was free If you start charging they don t want you as much. But this is why I feel good about what I am doing I enjoy doing it I like dealing with these young guys and so with that I ll continue to stay involved and continue to help out. B Read The Stories You Missed Volume 1 Click Here 63 Grit Gumption and Grace The Women of Sandy Springs Although women were among the earliest settlers within Sandy Springs their stories have consistently been told in the background to men. Next year the Heritage Sandy Springs Museum shines a spotlight on the achievement and voices of women throughout Sandy Springs history in our newest exhibit Grit Gumption and Grace The Women of Sandy Springs. Grit Gumption and Grace will highlight the impact role and accomplishments of women throughout our 150-year history beginning with the women who helped settle the area and continue to the early twenty-first century to highlight the endeavors and contributions of Sandy Springs women. The exhibit will also feature narratives of women of color a routinely displaced story in Sandy Springs history. Through our folk history collection our oral histories letters diaries and other archival resources we can accurately portray their lives and let the audience see their contributions to our city which have often gone unacknowledged in a patriarchal society. Grit Gumption and Grace will help rewrite the narrative of Sandy Springs history by emphasizing the significant role that women have played through its entirety. Grit Gumption and Grace will guide viewers through the exhibit chronologically to focus on the role of women in our community their contributions and the societal shifts within the community both politically and culturally. Take a look at this unique 1964 article from the Sandy Springs News highlighting Mount Vernon Presbyterians first female Deacon Mrs. A.A. Snipes Jr. Grit Gumption and Grace will open next summer 2019. B 65 Call of Duty in Vietnam An Interview with John Paulson B Interviewer Stacey Hader Epstein & Keith Moore B Date of Interview February 12 2018 The Vietnam War still holds a sensitive place in contemporary American memory. The United States involvement in the conflict in Vietnam was one of the first in which media outlets brought the war to every living room across the country through television broadcast. Through its portrayal in the media what initially began with positive public opinion would eventually devolve after nearly ten years of military conflict and by the late 1960s inviting a wave of negativity from the public. The anti-war movement in Vietnam grew exponentially as civilians also became engrossed in violence marking a shift in how Americans viewed both participants in the war and the war itself. Despite the increasing aversion to America s involvement in the war however young men still took up the call to arms for Uncle Sam. [I] spent two years [at Lyons Township.] This is 1966 to 1968 and at the time antiwar protests were raging. The country was really torn apart. It was pretty tough stuff. I had a buddy of mine who was my friend for the last couple of years that I lived out there and he had gone in the marines. So he and I were talking about going and I heard so much about going to war and the nobleness of going to war. I d heard about World War II from my father from my uncles [and] Vietnam was the only war I was ever going to get a chance to go see. Vietnam was it was here. It was 1968 I d just gotten an associate s degree and I was wasting my time. John had been carefully watching the enlistments of the Vietnam War and initially noted the United States Marines required a four-year commitment upon enlis ting. That requirement changed in 1968 af ter the Tet Offensive by the North Vietnamese Army. John Paulson today a Sandy Springs Councilman was born February 1949 Chicago Illinois. He at tended primary and secondary An American man and woman watching footage of the Vietnam War on a television school inside the Chicago in their living room February 13 1968. Courtesy of the Library of Congress. city limits but by 1964 his family had relocated to a suburb LaGrange where John attended Lyons Township High School. In 1966 John graduated and began pursuing an By 1968 the United States continual reliance on a wartime associate s degree in science at Lyons Township Junior College. strategy of attrition weighed heavily on the American people. By the time John had turned nineteen years old however the The war continued to drag on and for the American people United States was in turmoil and a war had been raging in it seemed that there was no end in sight as politicians on both Vietnam for nearly eleven years. John remembers sides were uninterested in a peace treaty. With the surprise military attacks on the South Vietnamese Army and the U.S. 67 that night so I spent half the night in a big bunker. It was just a big pipe like a big sewer pipe twenty-five foot in diameter but they covered it up with soil so that s where you go. It s a bomb shelter essentially. Next day we got assigned to a group called 1 9 First Battalion 9th Marines Alpha Company which had the nickname The Walking Dead. Now that was because as a combat unit they tend to get into a lot of scrapes. I was assigned along with a bunch of other marines got on some trucks and off we went to a base called Quang Tri and then from there I went to Vandegrift Combat Base which is way up north. John performed multiple duties while in Alpha Company. He initially was an ammo humper a person in charge of carrying around ammunition for a 30-caliber machine gun before being reassigned to a regular fire team. Alpha Company patrolled various regions from the north in the A Shau Valley to the south near Da Nang establishing perimeters engaging in firefights and providing support in fire missions. John remembers John holding a found AK-47 military rifle circa 1969. Courtesy of Councilman John Paulson. Marines in Vietnam the United States redoubled its efforts to supply more men and subsequently the Marine Corps reduced their enlistment time requirement by two years. So I decided recalls John Okay I would do this. What it meant was not a lot of extensive training you re not gonna [sic] be a brain surgeon in two years so it almost assured that I was gonna [sic] go to a war but that s why I joined anyway. I joined the marines because the marines are the toughest group out there and I thought if I m gonna [sic] go fight I need to be trained by the best. I joined at the end of June 1968 went to San Diego boot camp Marine Corps Recruit Depot. John spent twelve weeks in San Diego before being shipped to advanced infantry training at nearby Camp Pendleton. By February 1969 he was in Okinawa Japan and had been trained as a Marine Corps Infantryman before landing in Da Nang by the end of the month. Da Nang Air Base was a French Air Force and later Republic of Vietnam military base located in the middle of the Vietnamese peninsula near the DMZ. It was a major military base for the air force army and Marine Corps and was the first station where military platoons landed before being distributed throughout the war zone on assignment. John remembers I landed the first night in Da Nang. I ll never forget it Da Nang s a big base or was a big base over there. After we landed and got squared away for the night they were playing a movie and the movie was John Wayne and the Green Berets. So big screen and Da Nang got attacked Sometimes we were out the longest time we were away was probably several weeks. There were times you d go out on patrol and you d literally go out and you d be on patrol for six seven ten days. You literally were wandering around the country looking for the enemy. There were times it rained and you couldn t see ten feet in front of you...but you re on a patrol. You put on a poncho and off you go. By the summer of 1969 President Richard Nixon bowing to pressure from a growing antiwar movement announced at a news conference that the war in Vietnam was ending and the United States military forces would be removed. In a process of Vietnamization and under the provisions of Nixon s program South Vietnamese forces would be built up so they could assume more responsibility for the war. As the South Vietnamese forces became more capable U.S. forces would be withdrawn from combat and returned to the United States. John s 1 9 company was the first to be removed. He recalls I was there from February to August of 1969 and at the time President Nixon as a show of in fact I don t whether it was a show of force that we were winning or the the symbol that we were winning [but] he began pulling troops out of Vietnam. We literally went from running an operation being on a hillside one night to literally the next day getting in trucks driving back to Da Nang and then boarding a ship to go back to Okinawa. Nixon s assertions that the war was ending proved premature however as in April 1970 he expanded the war by ordering U.S. and South Vietnamese troops to attack communist sanctuaries in Cambodia. These attacks on Cambodia subsequently resulted in mass outcries from across the United States and led to an increasing number of antiwar demonstrations. Call of Duty in Vietnam continued He returned home to Chicago awaiting for his time to travel back to California where he and his close friend Jerry Taylor had made plans to start their next adventures. He recalls We were going to go on to California and seek our next future but by then I had met my wife. Mary my first wife and still my first wife. So I couldn t go. In fact it s funny I got back to Chicago and I wanted to go to California right away. My mother just went ballistic. I wasn t aware of the fact that many people in this country were watching TV every night and the Vietnam War was being shown on the six o clock news and the actual footage and it turns out my mother was very concerned she was going to see me you know there one day. So she was pretty upset at the fact that I was just going to take off again after having been gone. She didn t know if I was dead or alive. So I made an agreement with her and said I ll stay for six months. I worked construction in the Chicago area for six months actually for longer than that but at the end of six months I was going to move to California. But [Jerry] went I stayed because I had by then met my wife on a blind date. John and the 1 9 Company on patrol along Highway 9 circa 1969. Courtesy of Councilman John Paulson. While John was a part of the first company to withdraw he was struck with malaria before he made it out of Okinawa. He was quarantined at the hospital in Camp Kue for a month before returning to headquarters to serve out his year abroad. John returned stateside in February 1970. Once John returned to Camp Pendleton he was given the opportunity to re-enlist for another four or six years. There was a chance he could have been assigned to an embassy in Spain or possibly Italy but even on embassy duty the likelihood he would return to Vietnam was high and as John remembers Once was enough. John left active duty and entered into the U.S. Marine Corps inactive Reserve for the balance of his six years. Indeed the Vietnam War was one of the first major military conflicts to be broadcast in the living rooms of American families. In 1964 close to sixty percent of the population relied solely on the television to receive their news coverage and by 1966 ninety-six percent of Americans owned a television. After the Tet Offensive media coverage of the war became predominantly negative and images of both civilian and military casualties were increasingly televised on the nightly news. The eventual unenthusiastic coverage by the media helped facilitate the true nature of the war and subsequently helped fuel and shape the antiwar movement in the United States. B John Paulson taking a break in Vietnam circa April 1969. Courtesy of Councilman John Paulson. 69 d e s s i M u o Y s e i r o t S e h T d a e R Visit Heritage Sandy Springs to get your copy Volume 2 A Fine-Tuned Life An Interview with Mark Tweak Evans B Interviewer Stacey Hader Epstein B Date of Interview January 24 2018 Music and the arts have played a central role in Sandy Springs throughout the community s development. As evident from the early revival songs of camp meetings to the city s new performing arts center many of the area s residents have dedicated themselves to cultivating a unique Sandy Springs arts culture. One area resident Mark Evans known by many in the music industry as Tweak was exposed to music and the arts as early as he can remember. Throughout his life in Sandy Springs music was a consistent and lasting influence on his character and ultimately his career. am obviously had deeper friends and stuff which she had to leave behind but she maintained all of her Yankee heritage and I turned into a redneck. Redneck or not Tweak was surrounded by different art forms from an early age. His father s career as an artist created an atmosphere that encouraged artistic talent and expression. Indeed Tweak s entire family encouraged family members to pursue art in any form which subsequently instilled a love of music in him that would last a lifetime. His paternal grandmother was a choir director at her local church in Boston and his grandfather was a singer a soloist baritone. Tweak recollects Mark Tweak Evans was born a Yankee outside Boston proper in 1956. He spent the earliest years of his life in the city of Boston until his father moved their My father sang was a big family to Sandy Springs in 1965. music enthusiast big jazz His father a graphic design artist enthusiast. My sister played and watercolorist by trade had violin and sang in the AllState received a corporate transfer to Chorus. So my dad s vision relocate the family to Atlanta. was for me to be the next Tweak was only eight years old Tommy Dorsey he was a at the time and he learned famous jazz trombone player. Tweak s Senior Picture from the quickly that the South was not And so I d started playing Ridgeview High School yearbook 1974. the only American region with trombone and off I went and Courtesy of Tweak Evans. a distinct accent. I lived off that s just what I did. Well I High Point Road on Timber Trail was forcefed jazz...because Northeast. I went to High Point Elementary School. It was a little we would sit at supper every night and Dad would stack bit tough for me moving down from Boston socially because up records on the record player. You know it might I had a Boston accent and everybody gave me trouble over be Big Band one night it might be somebody else that. And it s like my big sister she s seven years older than I someone like Marian McPartland the next night [and] it 71 might be Tommy Dorsey. It might be who knows what and we listened to jazz every night. It was just a routine. Regardless of his father s insistence Tweak immediately took a liking to the trombone and quickly displayed a knack for the instrument. He began playing the trombone in the fourth grade and was immediately enlisted into the elementary school band at High Point. The [high school s] music teacher Dan Smith he had me playing in the high school band in seventh grade because they needed musicians number one and I guess I was okay at playing trombone remembers Tweak. When he officially moved on to Ridgeview High School Tweak played in the school s marching band the concert band and the orchestra throughout his high school years. college. Despite his waning excitement for music he continued to play in the DeKalb Community Orchestra but was unwilling to continue his career as a trombonist. Tweak continued in the arts field in one way or another for many years. His father having been a prominent patron of the local Sam Flax art supply store was able to help secure a position for Tweak as a store supply clerk. Tweak recalls He knew all the employees there you know. He was a regular customer. Says Oh my son s looking for a job. Well one of the outside salesmen a local guy played in a band Chip Mayes. [He says] I have a new stock clerk we ll put him in down there. Tweak s position as a supply clerk opened many doors for him throughout his tenure at the store. He eventually became the office and credit manager and then Tweak had a special musical assistant store manager before connection with his teacher he transferred to Atlanta Art Dan Smith. He remembers Supply to run several retail Smith fondly as an early music locations for the company. instructor that ignited a fire In time Tweak became a and made Tweak want to play. manufacturer s rep for a line Not long after Tweak became of art supplies. However it a student at Ridgeview was his love for music and his High School Dan Smith was connection with his first boss murdered a crime that Chip Mayes that kept Tweak remains unsolved to this day. in the music industry. [He] Tweak remembers played in a band Circus and they played college parties I can t remember the frat parties and you know exact year but I know around. They were a rock Elrod Mr. Mr. Elrod came band. And I started hanging in. He was the guy [that] out with him and star ted ended up taking over playing with knobs and dials from that position being on the form of mixing boards opened up. So you know and things like that. And I had he s a nice guy but he a pretty good ear through all didn t do anything for my classical training and I just Sound board and recording equipment circa 1980. me. I was taking private started doing that. I mean I trombone lessons from had my day job but then if he the third trombone player had a gig somewhere I d go at the Atlanta Symphony... then Mr. Smith got me into a and we d load the van up and tote the speakers in and do all couple summer programs at the North Carolina School that kind of stuff and whatnot remembers Tweak. He continued of the Arts at Greensboro in North Carolina where I was working his day job selling art supplies but it was always the selected like one of six in the nation to go to this school. music that kept bringing Tweak random side gigs and ultimately It was because of him and everything he was like my the most enjoyment. mentor you know and kept me playing. So I went to that but then Mr. Elrod comes in and There was really Tweak continued working multiple jobs until Chip started nothing he could offer me. recognizing the need for sound and audio engineers in the music business. Tweak remembers Chip kept acquiring more and With the untimely death of his mentor Tweak had lost his more equipment and eventually realized he could rent it to other enthusiasm for music. I lost my fire. I did lose my fire for music bands and Tweak was one of their engineers. He recalls [Chip] but then I went to work. My father was a graphic artist and he s was an engineer. He worked on the tower out there. Northlake also a watercolorist. So in another form of art I ve been around you know the 50 000-watt amp there. Did all that. So all the the arts all my life recalls Tweak. He graduated from Ridgeview communications thing. Plus he had the sound company. And his High School in 1974 and followed his family s order to attend tours used to be Isley Brothers Kool & the Gang Jackson Five A Fine-Tuned Life continued Those guys that Tweak had barely feigned an interest in meeting was the American country rock Southern rock band Confederate Railroad. Confederate Railroad circa 2007. Marvin Gaye people like that. He became my inspiration more so what s led me to where I am today because he was now my new mentor in a different aspect of music from the technical side of it. And it was that technical side of work that earned him his nickname for he tweaked or adjusted the sound and other components of musical performances. As technology grew throughout the 1980s and 1990s Tweak and the company began to build their own speakers cables and sound equipment and became prolific engineers in the music industry. It wasn t long before Tweak met the band that would fill his career with twenty years of music. He recollects Jimmy Buster he called me and he goes There s a band that plays up here at our bar that might need a good... that s getting ready to sign a record deal and might need a good sound guy. And I goes uh... He goes What are you doing And I said Sitting on the couch. Well you want to come meet em You said band right No I don t want to meet them. Oh come on. I ll buy you a drink. Okay. Be right there. And I met the guys and you know and they were looking at me like Pftt sound guy. I m looking at them like Pftt band guys. It was pleasant. So a couple of weeks later he calls me again he goes What re you doing tomorrow Watching television. You know that band you met I go Yeah. He goes I ve got to run to the bar because the manager called in sick and I need to kind of come and manage the club and they have to have a sound guy. I said So He goes I ll pay you and buy your drinks. Be right there. It s what I wanted to hear. Pay first do drinks second. I m there. So I went over there and just walked up to the soundboard and did what I do. They take their first break and here comes the lead singer. And he goes You re that guy we met. Well yeah. He goes We can actually hear ourselves. We ve never sounded like that in this place. I m like Okay. I m just doing what I do. You know we all do things differently. Close to twenty years later I retired from em [sic]. Tweak would travel all over the world with Confederate Railroad. He toured Europe the United Kingdom and South America as well as every truck stop in the continental United States. In 2009 after nearly twenty years and multiple double-platinum albums Tweak decided it was time to leave the band and come back to Georgia to have a quieter life close to home. Part of the reason I left the road was I wanted to stay home. I got tired of waking up in a hotel parking lot in my bunk on the bus. I d be tired of just being beat to death on the road but figured I had my little sound system. I can do shows around town such as Heritage Sandy Springs and maybe other little places that I can fit myself into that little niche. At the end of the day I ll be home in my bed. Tweak s ambitions to lead a quiet life in the local community were short-lived. While he found his niche as the local sound-guy he continues to be booked for multiple events across the country to handle sound and audio needs. He states One of the first calls I got was from my buddies in Illinois. Can you go to Miami Do a show with us Well uh what show Well it s a corporate He became my inspiration more so what s led me to where I am today because he was now my new mentor in a different aspect of music from the technical side of it. show. What show Well we got Glory House to follow and Miami Sound Machine. And we ve got Lionel Ritchie in another room. And a short time later Can you go to San Diego and do a show with us What this time Uh we got Don Felder from the Eagles. San Diego really Alright. Oh then we re gonna [sic] go to Santa Barbara and do Sheryl Crow. While he may not have the completely quiet life he had hoped for Tweak continues to be one of the most sought-after sound engineers in the community. Upon reflection he says he owes it all to his years at Ridgeview High School with Dan Smith as the driving force in learning what it takes to make music properly. And from time to time he still will travel to venues all over the country as a sound engineer and tweaks everything just right. B Read The Stories You Missed Volume 1 Click Here 73 Save Our Springs The Arts & Heritage Story B Guest Author Ludovico S. Villanueva M.D B Sandy Springs was blessed with springs centered at The springs were a favorite gathering place for the Indians 109 Sandy Springs Circle and found in several other who considered the waters to have magical healing powers. locations in the central town which not long ago were still Local folk historian Lois Coogle related that on January 8 bubbling through the sandy soil of our community. The 1821 Chief William McIntosh of the Creek Indians ceded this Chattahoochee River which borders Sandy Springs is now and surrounding areas to the United States Government. home to over 65 000 Later that year the springs in its 23 748 first Caucasian settlers acres (37.1 square entered the newly mile s) of rolling acquired area and by woodlands and mild a unique act of the climate. Bounded by state legislature land the City of Roswell on lots of 45 chain lengths the north the City of square or 202.5 acres Atlanta on the south were distributed by DeKalb County lottery. One such lot on the east Cobb (lot 88) was drawn County on the west by James Wilbourn and Gwinnett County [sic] for a grant fee of o n t h e ex t r e m e nineteen dollars. This nor t heas t Sand y lot is bordered by Springs located Roswell Road on the in Fulton County east Abernathy Road has e merg e d as on the north Brandon Ludovico S. Villanueva M.D. founding member and President of the Arts and one of the ver y Mill Road on the west Heritage Society Inc. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs 2012.050.006 fines t residential and Mount Vernon educational financial Highway on the south. medical business and shopping areas in all of metro Atlanta. The Sandy Springs Arts & Heritage Society Inc. (Arts & Heritage) was chartered by the state of Georgia on 75 June 23 1980. It was founded to help perpetuate what remained of Sandy Springs significant past particularly the historic springs from which our community derived its name and to promote the arts and cultural development of our community to the end that the quality of life in it is enhanced. Its motto To enrich the culture of our community through programs in the arts and history which preserve the past celebrate the present and cultivate the future. In the beginning Arts & Heritage was designed to only be a heritage society a felt need in the community. Interested organizers from the Sandy Springs Chamber of Commerce and the Sandy Springs Junior Woman s Club thought that a feeling of community could be facilitated by a historical focus the sandy springs. Hence with other community-oriented organizations the J u n i o r W o m a n s Club organized the first Sandy Springs Benefit Ball (1979) and with a portion of the proceeds Ar ts & Heritage s incorporation was achieved. the early history and continuing heritage of the community to increase the aesthetic and practical awareness of the arts in the community and to promote the arts and artists visual and performing within our community. Prior to the establishment of Sandy Springs Arts & Heritage Society Inc. there were no community-wide heritage arts organizations in Sandy Springs. Simply called Arts & Heritage the leaders of this new organization saw the need for this first-ever community-wide heritage arts group. One of the group s major aims was to help save the historic springs from which our community derived its name. Since its founding Arts & Heritage was mindful of the possible loss of the springs of Sandy Springs to commercial development. Indeed a rezoning petition (Z84-217) had already been submitted to the Fulton County Board of Commis sioner s by the owners of the 1.8 acre proper t y where the springs are located to consider rezoning the property from residential to commercial. As Arts & Heritage evolved it created a division in October During the last 1983 known as the stages of formation Historic Preservation of Arts & Heritage Commission of Arts t he ar t s p e o p le & H e r i t ag e. T hi s showed intense commission was part desire for inclusion and parcel of Arts & Save Our Springs drive of Arts and Heritage circa 1984. and so the final name Heritage and not a Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. of Sandy Springs separate organization. A r t s & Her it age Its first major Society Inc. came into being. The unique link of arts and accomplishment was the development of a presentation heritage was both productive and enjoyable for the general on The Origin and Early History of Sandy Springs. Past membership. For instance the heritage people being President and at the time Historic Preservation Commission more down to earth were able to lay a firm foundation Vice Chairman Mary Alyce Farrell Fields did the toilsome for the organization and the arts people being more but fascinating and rewarding research. Kay H. Jones creative as are their inclinations continued to forge founding vice president for heritage and a commission ahead with ideas and creativity. This wide spectrum of member accompanied Mary Alyce on walks through historic interests guaranteed that membership in the organization grounds homes and buildings to photograph them in slide would not be a dull one. form. This presentation was given to many community organizations including the Sandy Springs Chamber of Arts & Heritage was a non-profit volunteer alliance of local Commerce. residents civic and arts associations and corporate and professional groups intended to function as a heritage Ef for ts spearheaded by the Historic Preser vation society as well as a community arts council. The organization Commission of Arts & Heritage were redoubled when operated with the mission to promote community spirit and the Fulton County Planning Commission voted on cultural development to seek out record and help preserve October 17 1984 to recommend approval of the rezoning Save Our Springs continued crowded their chamber. On the day of the rezoning and condemnation hearings signs were circulated in Sandy Springs and in the commissioners chamber reading SOS - Save Our Springs -Preser ve Our Roots. These efforts helped persuade the commissioners to deny the rezoning petition from residential to commercial and then to condemn it for a historic site. This happy occ asion the saving of the springs of Sandy Springs occurred on Wednesday November 7 1984 at the chamber of the Fulton County Board of Membership Card for the Sandy Springs Arts and Heritage Society Inc. Ludovico S. Villanueva M.D. Commissioners. Through their President. Circa 1980-1981. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. actions of denying the rezoning of the proper ty harboring of said property from residential to commercial. It was the springs from R4 to C-1 and then promptly voting to observed though their action was intended to prod condemn it the commissioners ensured the springs of the Fulton County Board of Commissioners to purchase Sandy Springs would remain here long after we all have the property immediately rather than as an indication of returned to dust. The grave concerns about the fate of the their endorsement for eradication of a most significant springs after which our community of Sandy Springs was and core landmark of our community and our county. named were over. The historic sandy springs were safely Saving the historic springs had been talked about for saved for posterity. many years however until Arts & Heritage there had not been a concerted thrust to ensure that the springs were preserved as a historic site for all generations. Now with the commission in place it could coordinate the efforts of all those interested in helping save the springs businesses and civic and service organizations such as the Sandy Springs Chamber of Commerce the Sandy Springs Junior Woman s Club garden clubs homeowner associations and so on. With this commission actively focusing on its task saving the springs was facilitated. Letters were sent to Michael Lomax chairman of the Fulton County Board of Commissioners and copied to numerous others both nongovernmental and governmental. The commissioners were urged to deny the requested commercial rezoning and then The historic springs and Mabry house prior to its to condemn (purchase) the property harboring the springs redevelopment as part of the historic park circa 1980. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2008.103.008 as a historic site. To show the Fulton County Board of Commissioners how interested the citizens were to preserve a core landmark of the community Arts & Heritage chartered a bus to take people to the Fulton County Administration Building in Atlanta. Approximately thirty-five citizens of Sandy Springs 77 The task of saving the actual springs of Sandy Springs was a community-wide endeavor no individual or single community organization can claim to have saved them only to have helped save them. The salvation of the springs was accomplished through the concerted efforts of numerous community organizations and citizens with particular acclamation due to the Sandy Springs Chamber of Commerce for keeping the interest in saving the springs alive prior to the founding of Arts & Heritage and to the Sandy Springs Junior Woman s Club for supporting the activities of Arts & Heritage in its early stages. With the springs saved the next phase of historic preservation work began preserving and beautifying the property containing the springs. The collective constructive forces involved in the saving of the springs continued to sustain the worthy project. Once the historic springs had been saved for posterity Arts & Heritage created a steering committee for the development of the historic site. This was chaired by Arts & Heritage Board Member Joey Mayson. Out of this steering committee emerged a separate organization named Sandy Springs Historic Community Foundation Inc. known today as Heritage Sandy Springs whose mission was to raise funds for the rehabilitation of the endangered historic WilliamsPayne house. The Sandy Springs Historic Community Foundation accomplished this goal on October 9 1985. Thereafter the two organizations continued their combined efforts to beautify and preserve the now historic park. Indeed Arts & Heritage continued to support the development of the Sandy Springs historic site. The transfer by Fulton County of the historic 1860 milk house donated by As a further Mr. & Mrs. E. A. progression in Montalvo was the heritage completed on area the Historic July 31 1989. Preservation The milk house Commission of was moved Arts & Heritage from its original initiated the location on formation of the Montalvo s the Squatters property at 14 Club in October Mount Paran 1984. The club s Road and Lake name gaily Forrest Road. referred to very Because the early settlers springs site who squatted was located on on land owned Fulton County Historic Park and the springs site before site construction by the Indians property Arts began. View toward Hilderbrand Drive. Courtesy of prior to the U.S. & Heritage Heritage Sandy Springs. 2008.103.006 Government deeded the milk land cessions. house to Fulton Joey Mason a County which was the governing body for unincorporated commission member at that time and his wife Frances Glenn Sandy Springs at that time. With the help of dedicated Mayson were named as co-presidents. The Squatters Club volunteers the authentic renovation of the milk house was included other current owners and caretakers sometimes completed at its new and permanent location the Sandy referred to as temporary custodians of historic homes Springs Historic Site at 109 Sandy Springs Circle. Situated buildings and sites or otherwise interested parties. Though behind the Williams-Payne house it is an appropriate never having attained full development since it only had complement to the historic home. conducted one meeting at the historic Glenridge Hall the Squatters Club became the forerunner of the Annual As part of its work the Historic Preservation Commission Sandy Springs Founders Day Celebration (the Sandy Springs of Arts & Heritage produced a beautiful well-illustrated Festival) now regularly held by Heritage Sandy Springs Historic Sandy Springs Driving Tour brochure which listed which is a direct descendant of the Historic Preservation twenty-one historic homes and sites and included a map and Commission of Sandy Springs Arts & Heritage Society Inc. a condensed history of the community. This brochure was a great help to the orchestrated efforts of numerous individuals and groups spearheaded by the Historic Preservation Save Our Springs continued The Sandy Springs Historic Site Sign erected on the corner of Sandy Springs Circle and Hilderbrand Drive. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2010.219.029 After the springs were saved on November 7 1984 by governing board actions of the Fulton County Board of Commissioners Arts & Heritage (A&H) turned its attention towards the project of preserving and beautifying the property where the historic springs are located. This property has been referred to as the SS Historic Site. Mr. Mayson allegedly on his own made arrangements with Commissioner Milton Farris of the Fulton County Board of Commissioners to take over the Commission of Arts & Heritage to help save the springs site. These efforts helped convince the Fulton County Board of Commissioners to condemn the property that harbored the springs making way for the creation of the Sandy Springs Historic Site. This was a great and proud moment for the community of Sandy Springs and ensured that the springs of the town would be enjoyed by future generations of Sandy Springers. During its lifetime Sandy Springs Arts & Heritage Society Inc. presented and sponsored a variety of programs to benefit our community. As a direct result of the activities of Arts & Heritage other arts groups have thrived in the atmosphere it helped create including the Sandy Springs United Methodist Church Performing Arts Center the Sandy Springs Chamber Orchestra the Atlanta Virtuosi at Holy Innocents Episcopal School Heritage Sandy Springs and many other flourishing arts organizations in the Sandy Springs community. A COMMENTARY ON THE ARTS & HERITAGE STEERING COMMITTEE Recollections of Dr. Villanueva on the sequence of events leading up to the formation of the steering committee for the Sandy Springs Historic Site chaired by Mr. Joey Mayson View of the springs site with its well shed and construction of the Milk-House. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2008.103.122 management of the SS Historic Site and created and erected a Sandy Springs Historic Site sign on the property. Alongside this takeover of the SS Historic Site was his plan to transfer and rehabilitate an endangered historic house the WilliamsPayne house due to commercial development. With his takeover of the SS Historic Site he moved this dilapidated house had these two projects merged and he intended to raise several hundred thousand dollars. As far as A&H was concerned it could manage the SS Historic Site in preserving it and beautifying it. The raising of funds for such purpose was expected to be manageable. On the other hand if A&H embraced the rehabilitation of the dilapidated house it would be a different story. A major fundraising effort would be required. Most on the A&H Board who had just helped save the springs wanted the changes to be slower affording 79 a decade. There were substantial moves at reviving Arts & Heritage by calling upon earlier presidents to serve as presidents again which was done but the eventual conclusion arrived at was that it was time to let go of Sandy Springs Arts & Heritage Society Inc. It was wonderful while it lasted we learned much and we enjoyed much. Yet there has to be an acceptance of historical knowledge and experience well-articulated in the familiar expression The rise and fall of .... Sandy Springs Arts & Heritage View of the completed spring site renovation well shed Society Inc. now lives on in spirit and heritage lawn. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. in Heritage Sandy Springs Inc. 2011.223.001 (formerly Sandy Springs Historic Community Foundation Inc.) other interested organizations and individuals to participate. the other community-wide heritage organization in Sandy By adding the rehabilitation of the historic structure as a Springs. It is a direct descendant of the Historic Preservation second project it put A&H in a difficult position...of having Commission of Sandy Springs Arts & Heritage Society Inc. to take on something it did not want to do yet or be faulted Finally Sandy Springs Arts & Heritage Society Inc. (Arts & of being uninterested in saving historic structures if they Heritage) now itself belongs to history. B should somehow be lost. Early on there was a feeling that A&H was being supplanted through the steering committee 1 A more extensive formal history of Sandy Springs has also been written by Arts & by another organization what organization it did not know. Heritage Past President Mary Alyce Fields. In addition an audiovisual presentation Then clearly the SS Historic Community Foundation surfaced of the history of Sandy Springs and of Arts & Heritage is being prepared by Past on or about August 12 1985 as incorporated by the State Vice President for Arts Arden Moser and is in its final stages. of Georgia. Once this occurred the steering committee had effectively steered the committee toward another direction 2 All views expressed in the Commentary of the Arts & Heritage Steering toward the SS Historic Community Foundation and away from Committee are views of the author and have not been altered in any way by the A&H. The Foundation then assumed control of both projects editors of the Sandy Springs Gazette or by the staff of Heritage Sandy Springs. the Sandy Springs Historic Site and the rehabilitation of the dilapidated Williams-Payne house. This was the failing of A&H of course for not watching what was going on closely enough. Still it did not taste good. Fortunately for SS the fundraising and other activities of the other organization were successful and we are happy about that for the glory of Sandy Springs For one A&H is pleased for the additional people on heritage matters that the Foundation brought with it. For a variety of reasons including but not limited to running out of time and energy Sandy Springs Arts & Heritage Society Inc. started becoming inactive around 1992. Fortunately Arts & Heritage had already done a good amount of its job particularly in helping save the springs of Sandy Springs increasing the cultural consciousness in our community and in documenting historic places like historic homes churches and cemeteries and other sites such as historic Glenridge Hall as well as in involving the arts and artists in our community. Arts & Heritage antedated Heritage Sandy Springs by half The Sandy Springs Society Thirty Years of Philanthropy An Interview with Dottie Megel B Interviewer Kimberly Brigance B Date of Interview March 18 2009 In the late 1950s the community of Sandy Springs was the popular area when resident Dottie Megel was taken experiencing exponential growth. Families continued to with the civic-mindedness of the entire community. exit Atlanta s city center and head to the sprawling acreage available in the nearby northern Atlanta suburb. The city Dottie Megel moved to Sandy Springs in 1965 after having of Sandy Springs now the sixth largest in the state began grown up and spent the early years of her life in Madison nearly 150 years ago as nothing more than a few devout Georgia. Her husband ran a local business and Dottie s et tler s around a allocated the majority common water source. of her time to some Today the city boasts of the early civic h ea d q uar te r s a n d organizations in the regional offices for a Sandy Springs area variety of industries the garden clubs. including computerDottie always had a related ser vices passion for all things p a c k a g e d e li ve r y related to gardening. telecommunications She recollects and media. In Yes always I was addition Sandy president of the North Springs is home Shore Garden Club to numerous parks Martin s Landing and Founding members of the Sandy Springs Society at the annual gala circa 2009. as well as a wide I was president of the Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2010.181.001 v a r i e t y of p u b li c Colonial Garden Club p ro gr amming which is a Buckhead including the Sandy Springs Festival museum exhibits club. Then I was elected president of Fulton County lectures theater performances concerts children s Federation of Garden Clubs which encompasses all of educational and enrichment programs community garden the garden clubs which were over two hundred clubs at clubs and philanthropic organizations. It was during the that time maybe more. And I served in that capacity for post-war era as a multitude of families began moving into two consecutive terms. Dottie served as president of that 81 least ten fifteen years because we loved them both. They were ver y helpful. I m tr ying to think when we formed our board of directors it was what maybe in 85 Joey Mason was elected p resid e nt and J ud y Bramblett who s long since moved a wonderful worker she was first vice president Dottie Megel second vice president which I did long-range planning. Cathy Hunt Image of the Sandy Springs Society Gazebo at Heritage Sandy Springs circa r e c o r d i n g s e c r e t a r y 2016. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2016.002.005 and Ann Chenault was corresponding secretary garden club umbrella organization from 1983 to 1986. It was Garnett Cobb treasurer during 1986 when the club learned that the Sears building Ann Thompson was historian and Myrtle Tankersley in Buckhead where area garden clubs had their office parliamentarian. That was the original group that spaces would be closing its doors. As a result the garden worked for a couple of years in this capacity. We got clubs were forced to relocate. Dorothy Felton who was our representative in the area to be a part of our group. And when you don t G arnett Cobb one of the most notable women in the Sandy really know what what your plans are you have the Springs Garden Club and its president at that time long-range planning I had a lot of ideas. I mean enlisted Dottie s help in the acquisition and relocation of I could see festivals and Easter egg hunts on the the home of Major and Marie Payne two long-standing grounds and Halloween and [as] these things came residents of Sandy Springs. Cobb intended for the house to pass it was my job to oversee the festival and to be used as the permanent home of the Fulton County things like that the first couple of years. Federation of Garden Clubs. Portman-Barry Investors agreed to the donation and even agreed to pay for the cost The biggest obstacle that Dottie and the site committee of moving the house from their newly acquired property had to overcome was a financial one. So raising the provided it was removed by September 1985. During money recalls Dottie as Fulton County Federation research on the property it was discovered that the Payne President I had [a] big all-day event at Glenridge Hall. We house was a remodeled farmhouse dating back to 1869. had bridge. We had lunch. We had a fashion show. We It had been owned by Walter Jerome and Harriet Austin had probably three four hundred women there that day Williams two founding citizens of Sandy Springs and scattered throughout playing cards and it was a rainy day. at that time was one of eight known nineteenth-century It was a beautiful day but I think we raised 66 000 and that structures still remaining in Sandy Springs. Dottie recalls was some of the founding money to start doing the office. She wanted us to work with them and Portman-Barry to After the Williams-Payne House had been moved to its move the house onto the springs site and it would be a current location at 6075 Sandy Springs Circle the basement future home for the garden club [the entire] Fulton County became the new home for the Fulton County Federation of Federation of Garden Clubs. [This] was the original idea Garden Clubs and the upstairs remained empty. The club s We had planned just to have offices. By July 1984 the intention was to restyle the house as a period museum in garden club realized that moving its newly acquired historic recognition of the home s original occupants. The house house would take an entire community and they began included a director s office a bathroom and a kitchen. recruiting volunteers and community members to get Volunteers were relied upon to answer the phones. Dottie involved with the project. Dottie recollects remembers The Garden Clubs Federation did operate out of there for probably a year or so but it all had to be We had help from Fulton County. We have had volunteers to come in and answer the phone and do things Tom Wilson Jim Kambourian they were on our like that like two or three times a week. And after a while committee to do whatever had to be done on the I think people just got tired of just coming in and sitting site and they they stayed [and] they served at in our empty office with nothing much going on. So we The Sandy Springs Society Thirty Years of Philanthropy continued leaders brought together nearly two hundred fifty women who were interested in increasing the civicmindedness of the Sandy Springs community. The Sandy Springs Society today one of the largest philanthropic groups in Sandy Springs was founded that day in March 1988. The society s initial vision was to organize a group of women who would use their collective talents to raise money for the needs of Sandy Springs the historic springs site park and the Construction of the Sandy Springs Society Entertainment Lawn at Williams-Payne House. Dottie recalls Heritage Green circa 2007. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. It wasn t anything to do with the garden clubs. This was for the house decided to let the festival committee use that room also and to do the parks and entertainment...all the things that because they didn t have anywhere to meet. we wanted to do here and we needed people. We needed By this time Dottie not only continued her role as president docents. We needed workers for the fence to build [sic]. of the Fulton County Federation of Garden Clubs and We needed people to be interested in Sandy Springs. And became president of the Sandy Springs Garden Club but we thought well if we have a real fun group and it s not a she also sat on the board of the Williams-Payne House. cheap group and its people that are experienced and that Through her activities within so many different civic groups have done things like this being president of an organization Dottie realized the need to unite the many women in the or whatever we d have a great group and that s proved to area into a cohesive community service group and so she be true. Today the society boasts a membership of over three hundred women who continue to form friendships set out to do just that. She remembers and connections through their shared efforts of community support. And we were always trying to raise money to to do cleaning or the walkways or something. It was always we needed money money money and Dorothy Felton and Ann Chenault and I were always in all the garden clubs. And the Garden Club of Georgia Deen Day Smith we got her to give money to us. We had her meet with Tilly over at Glenridge. We always had our hand out. Finally [we] decided...One day at my house Dorothy Felton Ann Chenault and I we said We ve got to bring all these women that live in Sandy Springs that s [sic] giving all their time to Buckhead to the opera the symphony and the zoo etcetera we need to group out here to get them interested in Sandy Springs. Ann Chenault Dorothy Felton Jan Collins and I Kerry Gill Marianne Broadbear and Lorellee Wolters and we met for lunch at Cherokee City Club. We decided that we would each invite ten friends to come join us. And we were going to have a big coffee which we did at Judy Mark s house. We had about 250 women show up for that coffee. Indeed sixteen Sandy Springs women gathered to form a philanthropic organization to benefit Sandy Springs. Initially thinking to call it Two Hundred Women the group s The Sandy Springs Society continues to be the active organization that its founders envisioned it to be thirty years ago. In appreciation of one of those founder s longago efforts to save the historic Williams-Payne House the structure s downstairs room is named the Garnett Cobb Garden Room. It is used for educational programs through the museum as well as for community events. As the needs of the community of Sandy Springs change and grow and the city continues to expand the work of the Sandy Springs Society remains both impactful and meaningful. While the Sandy Springs Society continues its support of Heritage Sandy Springs and the work it does to preserve the history of the community the society also provides funds to over fifty additional non-profits in the Sandy Springs community through its grant program. To date the society has contributed more than 3.2 million toward the betterment of the community. Heritage Sandy Springs honors the Sandy Springs Society s thirty years of philanthropy its continued commitment to Heritage Sandy Springs and of course to the Sandy Springs community at large. B 83 d e s s i M u o Y s e i r o t S e h T d a e R Visit Heritage Sandy Springs to get your copy Volume 2 Leisure and Learning in Early Sandy Springs An Interview with James Otis and Betty Pirkle Stroup B Interviewer Karen Meinzen McEnerny B Date of Interview August 2 2017 The community of Sandy Springs has grown steadily over the past several decades as residential and business development have spurred rapid population growth. While such changes have modernized the city s infrastructure and made Sandy Springs a destination point for many in the Atlanta area growth does not come without consequences. Longtime residents who grew up in the area have witnessed the natural lands c apes of t heir childhoods give way to new buildings being erected and expanding technologies leaving footprints on the city. For these residents the open fields and wooded areas of early Sandy Springs remain present in their memories regardless of the city s expansion. his mother Annie Lee Poss Stroup moved with Jim and his brother Charles to their brand new home at 81 West Belle Isle Road. Jim s father worked for North Fulton Park which is known today as Chastain Park for nearly thirty-seven years before retiring from the City of Atlanta Parks Department. Like many children in Sandy Springs Jim remembers that the first eighteen years of his life were often spent enjoying the natural beauty of the Sandy Springs area. In particular Jim fondly remembers his home on West Belle Isle Road and the many hours he spent ex plor ing t he wo o d s behind his family s house. Jim recollects I would set up rabbit boxes down by the creek to try to catch Jim and Charles Stroup circa 1930s. Gift of Jim and Betty Pirkle Stroup. Courtesy of rabbits and I d put Heritage Sandy Springs. 2017.008.031 One such Sandy Springer lettuce in those rabbit James Otis Stroup or boxes during early Jim as he is known today was born May 6 1934 on Spruell morning and check em [sic] every day. But we had Spring Road in the heart of the Sandy Springs community. several games that we played in those woods. All of Jim was only six months old when his father Fred Lee and [that] area was woods that were behind the houses 85 had consolidated the two schools into the Liberty Guinn Elementary School which was built on Long Island Drive. All those people [that] lived on Belle Isle and Spruell Spring and Hardeman all those kids would go through our yard remembers Jim. Usually [they would] go to one of those trails which would be a whole a big sharp would be a huge saving [sic] of walking. Liberty Guinn educated scores of children from throughout Sandy Springs. At that period of Exterior view of Liberty Guinn Elementary School. Courtesy time in Sandy Springs history if your child did of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2010.298.001 not attend Hammond Elementary they most likely would have attended Liberty Guinn. The on West Belle Isle. It was over on Long Island across school operated from the early 1930s until June 1975 and the street from where...Liberty Guinn Grammar School gave many of its young students a wide variety of educational was was all nothing but woods. And we d play in the opportunities. Jim remembers evening there would be a group of as many as ten guys all boys that would play Fox and the Hound. And we would play different games in the middle of those woods. And we would also take out certain areas and make a a track in the middle of the woods and we would run around those tracks to mainly burn off the energy that we had. We also had a cable going from one tree to a lower tree and a piece of pipe over that cable and we would put steps up one tree and go walk up to the top and get on that cable and ride the cable down to about I guess fifty yards. The forest behind his home was a personal playground for Jim and his friends. They would play games build their own racetracks and even build bridges over the area s creeks. When heavier rains came to town the boys capitalized on the overflowing creeks and got ready for the abundance of fish. Jim remembers It was silly as it seems now we used safety pins. Are you familiar with what a safety pin is We would take a string and put a safety pin on it and dig up a worm and go put it in those muddy creeks in the hopes of catching a fish. Well that didn t work too good [sic]. But as kids this is what we did. Indeed the wooded area was the recreational backyard for the Stroup boys Jim and Charles but it was also the neighborhood shortcut as it separated their home from Liberty Guinn Elementary where they first attended school. Liberty Guinn Elementary School was founded as R.J. Liberty Elementary in the early 1900s. The land for the original school was donated by Mr. A. A. Jones and Mr. Will Sentell each of whom contributed one acre of land on the west side of Roswell and Franklin Roads. A second school named Liberty Hall operated simultaneously within the Sandy Springs community and sat at the intersection of Garmon and Mt. Paran Roads. By 1932 the Fulton County Board of Education In my next to last year of Liberty Guinn I was a street guard [and] I went on a safety patrol trip to... Washington D.C. At the time my parents did not have the money to afford that so someone at Liberty Guinn parents or whatever paid for me going to Washington D.C. I think it was three days caught a train out of Atlanta to Washington went through [the] Smithsonian Institute [sic] [the] Capitol [the] White House and all of that when I was a kid and that was very impressive. Unlike the fate of so many historic structures in Sandy Springs the fa ade of Liberty Guinn still exists on Long Island Drive. After the school closed its doors in 1975 Liberty Guinn transitioned from an elementary school to the Tommy Nobis Center an organization founded by Atlanta Falcon linebacker Tommy Nobis that provides vocational support and employment training for people with disabilities before it became the Donnellan School and subsequently can be seen today as part of the Holy Spirit Preparatory School. After finishing his years at Liberty Guinn Elementary School Jim moved on to nearby North Fulton High School where he joined the ROTC the glee club and taught a few bullies some lessons. North Fulton High School was located just south of central Buckhead at the busy intersection of Roswell Road Peachtree Road West Paces Ferry Road and East Paces Ferry Road. The Fulton County School Board formed North Fulton High School in the 1920s during one of the population booms of Atlanta s north side. North Fulton was the first and for a period of time the only high school that served the growing urban area of what today is the Peachtree Corridor. Jim remembers Like Father Like Son continued North Fulton High School graduating class circa 1933. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2008.155.001 I started going to North Fulton High School in 1940 that s 47. I started to North Fulton in 1947. [Back] in those days it was just about everyone had a uniform. The subfreshmen would wear a shirt and pants. But the rest of it was a military school at that particular time and everyone else wore a military uniform. So I was actually in five years of high school. I was in ROTC where I was in the Rifle Club. I was second in the city of Atlanta in 1950 in regard to sharpshooting. I was also in Mr. Lowrance s glee club in North Fulton from 1947 to 1953 the year I graduated. North Fulton High School existed until 1991 when it merged with Northside High School and relocated to become North Atlanta High School. The original site of the school is now Charlie Loudermilk Park which sits across the street from the Buckhead Theatre. Jim and several members of a local men s club helped build the park. He remembers I was in the Buckhead Boys the man that started Aaron Rents was Charlie Loudermilk and Charlie was a North Fulton graduate and he built Aaron Rents and that was just across the street from the Buckhead Theatre and at the present time this is 2017 and that park stands today in front of the Buckhead Theatre. It s called I think CocaCola has named it Roxy. All in all Jim remembers a fairly peaceful childhood. The woods behind his family home provided a shortcut to his school a playground for his pals and occasionally an area to work out differences although Jim and his brother Charles knew better. Jim recalls [The] cut through to go to Liberty Guinn and coming out in the afternoons they would they would come back a similar way. Now being small children I was taught early in life not to fight. My mother and dad had a strong opinion my mother was constantly washing my clothes and if I got dirty she was gonna [sic] wash those clothes the very day I came in with Jim Stroup and Carol Thompson at Heritage Sandy Springs 2017. the dirty clothes and next day I would go to school clean. But when [in my] second year of North Fulton I started going the other way and started taking on the boys because we got to the point we were were not gonna [sic] be bullied. One of the boys got mean in our backyard one day and started cussing with my mother standing there she got all upset [and] me and my brother was [sic] there and she said Boys get him and when she said that we got that boy. Despite Jim s one run-in with some early bullies he and his brother enjoyed their childhood in Sandy Springs. As Jim grew up he would go on to work several jobs in the community including one with the local milkman one with Superior Cleaners and also as a grocery boy at Sentell s Grocery before he joined the military during the Korean War. While many of Sandy Springs structures are no longer standing the childhood memories of Jim are still physically intact. Thankfully part of Liberty Guinn Elementary School still exists albeit with a different moniker and the forest where Jim spent most of his childhood remains free of development forested as he remembers it and a special place not only to Jim and his family but to the entire neighborhood along Belle Isle Road. B Read The Stories You Missed Volume 1 Click Here 87 Preserving Sandy Springs in the Modern World An Interview with Linda Bussell Oglesby B Interviewer Karen Meinzen McEnerny & Rachel Rosner B Date of Interview October 19 2017 Over the past 170 years give or take a decade Sandy The family eventually purchased a home at 190 Mount Vernon Springs has emerged from its early days as a rural settlement Highway near what is considered the center of Sandy Springs. to become one of the largest cities in Georgia. As the city Her father Foster sold life insurance through the Life Insurance continues to expand Sandy Springers have witnessed the Company of Georgia and her mother She was a homemaker community grow up in today s modern society. At the triangle remembers Linda. She sewed made dresses for us three of Mount Vernon Highway Roswell Road and Johnson Ferry girls canned food from the vegetable garden and fruit trees Road the largest and most significant changes continue to be on our property. And church was a big part of our lives. We the most apparent as were active members once historic structures of Providence Baptist have succumbed to an Church later named increasingly expanding First Baptist Church c i t y. D e s pi te t he of Sandy Springs. modernizations and Linda s entire development of Sandy extended family S p r i n g s b u s i n e s s eventually relocated dis tric t the areas to the Sandy Springs nearest the center communit y. Linda of the city still hold recalls some of the strongest Exterior view of the Bussell s home at 190 Mount Vernon Highway. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs 2011.135.022. memories for longtime I think it was residents. work and financial opportunity that brought the family to the Atlanta Linda Bussell Oglesby has lived in Sandy Springs for a area. No one really remembers who came first but remarkable seventy seven years. She was born December 12 three aunts grandparents and parents along with 1941 at Crawford Long Hospital making her an Atlanta native my two older sisters eventually moved to this area. through and through. Linda was born to Willie Lou Amerson In South Georgia they were in cotton and dairy. My Bussell and Foster Harrison Bussell who came to Sandy grandparents bought a house on Roswell Road now Springs in the 1930s in the midst of the Great Depression. home to Steak & Shake. 89 north after World War II. Linda s mother maintained a family garden on their three acres but Linda s favorite thing was the orchard that was on the family s property. She recollects View from the back of the Bussell family home Hildebrand and Mt. Vernon Highway circa 1958. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2011.135.024 Despite living near the center of town in what is generally considered the original business district of Sandy Springs Linda and many of her neighbors only utilized the local grocery stores for some things. Burdett s HardemanEckles and eventually an A&P grocer y store all operated along Roswell Road and offered the community several different shopping choices. Linda remembers shopping at Taylor s General Store after Hardeman-Eckles closed its doors. I remember going in there one day with my daddy. He died when I was fourteen so it must have been in the late forties. They had all these tables with folded jeans overalls and shirts on them. Daddy bought me a plaid Dan River shirt. I was thrilled. After renting for a few years in 1943 Mr. Bussell purchased a home and an empty lot on Mount Vernon Highway from Forrest Burdett. An additional lot acquired a short time later brought the Bussell property to roughly three acres in spite of the commercial development nearby. Many of the neighboring families had large gardens. One of Linda s neighbors had such a large garden that they needed to buy very little. Linda recalls Mrs. Sadie Baker (Lee) was the gardener in the family and she was an excellent one. The black couple that lived behind her house helped her with things like plowing. In addition to all kinds of vegetables Mrs. Baker also planted rows of flowers mostly zinnias. In the summertime she would put bunches of them down by the road for twenty-five or fifty-cents. Like us they also had chickens for both eggs and food. I can t remember whether they had other livestock. They grew enough corn to have it milled. Our neighbor on the other side Mrs. Harrison had a beautiful strawberry bed. She made her own mayonnaise and bottled her own grape juice. Hers was the only house I ever visited where I was always served halftea and halfgrape juice. Indeed Sandy Springs was known for its agriculture and rural landscape even as the town grew in the post-war world. Small affordable homes with large plots of land were what initially motivated many Atlanta residents to depart the city and travel I often cut through the woods along the alley to get to my best friend s house on Sandy Springs Circle. The alley ran behind our house where the rows of peach trees were. That was where I loved to play it was my private playground. Clos er to Dolores Bussell sister of Linda Bussell the house Oglesby standing in front of the Baker family were pear home. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2011.135.023 apple and crabapple trees. Daddy planted concord grapes on an arbor and there were fig trees all over the place. There were also muscadines and scuppernongs to eat and the three large pecan trees in the front yard were a constant source of nuts. I remarked to somebody the other day that I missed my mother s pear pickles and they said pear pickles The pears were not good for eating but they made great relish pickles and my favorite pear preserves. Mother made something out of whatever we had. Prior to the larger tracts of commercial development in the late 1960s the area where City Springs is now located was once dotted with farms and dairies. Bratton Farm sat on the corner of Sandy Springs Circle and Johnson Ferry Road on what is now the home of Sandy Springs Fire Station 2 and there were two dairies across Johnson Ferry recalls Linda. Mother use to send me down to the Bratton s to buy those round molds of butter. Today Sandy Springs is largely developed by commercial and chain real estate. Many of the once large tracts of land are now dotted with mansions that have forgone using the acreage for agriculture. As a result many longtime residents feel the town has lost its charm. As the city continues to grow and the historic areas of the town continually become modernized one thing remains the same the gently flowing springs which give the town its name the historic park at Heritage Green and the history archived at the Heritage Sandy Springs Museum will continue to memorialize the memories of residents like Linda preserving Sandy Springs history for generations to come. B Like Father Like Son An Interview with Lea Richmond III and Dr. Lea Richmond Jr. B Interviewer Bob & Susan Beard B Date of Interview December 7 2013 The social and cultural landscape for young Sandy Springers has drastically changed throughout the postwar world. Kids who remember growing up in Sandy Springs or even in the United States remember a radically different setting from the 1950s to what kids are experiencing today. As longtime resident Lea Richmond III remembers it his coming of age in Sandy Springs was a much simpler time. The Richmond family including Dr. Lea Ric hmond Jr. and his son Lea Richmond III moved to Sandy Springs during the population boom following World War II in the early 1950s. Bor n in 1947 Lea experienced and contributed firsthand to the development of Sandy Spr ings and saw its transition from a quiet suburb to an energetic city. the Veteran Affairs Hospital in Decatur before opening a clinic over Burdett s grocery store at the corner of Mount Vernon Highway and Roswell Road in Sandy Springs. He later joined three other physicians to form the Sandy Springs Clinic where he worked primarily with children. For the doctor s son Lea living in the Brookhaven Apartments were some of his first memories of Sandy Springs. While living there he first attended Jim Cherry Elementary S c h o o l . Eventually D r. R i c h m o n d built a house at 72 9 C a r r i a g e Drive in the Mt. Ver non Woods neig h b o r ho o d. This would be the f a mil y s home base for many years to come. T he neighborhood in Mt. Ver non Woods offered a small close-knit Morgan Falls Dam in the early stages of construction communit y for before it created Bull Sluice Lake circa 1900. Courtesy t h e Ric h m o n d of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2010.188.002 f a m i l y. The As many families neighborhood left central Atlanta for nearby suburbs Dr. Lea Richmond often held cookouts and block parties and no one saw Jr. a prominent and well-known general surgeon in the a need to lock their door even when they went on area established the family s first home on Piedmont vacations. Lea recalls Road. Not long after the family moved to a new home at Brookhaven Apartments which also happened to shorten I remember riding...There was a drugstore that Dr. Richmond s commute to work. Dr. Richmond worked at used to be in the old Sandy Springs Plaza shopping 91 Riva Ridge Fish Camp at Morgan Falls and Bull Sluice circa 1960s. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. 2014.011.001 center. Valler s [sic] Jewelers was there and there was a drugstore there. And I remember riding my bicycle which we all did a lot of back then from Carriage Drive and going up there after school to get get banana splits. We popped the balloon for one cent or three cents or whatever you won. And then I rode also rode my bike all over Sandy Springs and into other neighborhoods down off Glenridge. Of course you don t see that today but kids were much freer. Um there was not [sic] the concerns that there are today that everybody that haunts everybody. We we know we kind of...You were home in time for dinner and nobody worried about anything other than being home in time for dinner. And then everybody also sneaked out at night in Sandy Springs. There were big groups of us that used to do that overnight. Um boy girl like I know we re talking ten to twenty people It was just a different era and a much more friendly [sic] much gentler time I think from what I can remember. Lea attended Hammond Elementary School after moving to Mt. Vernon Woods and was a student there when the school burned down. I went to Hammond School and I do remember the Hammond School fire. remembers Lea. You could see the fire. Cause [sic] my grandparents who lived on Collier Road which is down off Northside Drive south of...where Piedmont Hospital is where dad grew up on Collier Road [you] could see the fire from there. In the 1950s Sandy Springs indeed offered a less complicated community for families to raise their children. Lea could ride his bike all around town and the green and natural areas that dot the communal landscape were rarely overrun with people. Lea remembers his dad taking him camping near the lake at Morgan Falls. Bull Sluice Lake is a small reservoir located along the Chattahoochee River in northern Sandy Springs. The lake encompasses nearly 700 acres and was created by the construction of Morgan Falls Dam in 1904. At first it was the largest hydroelectric dam built in the state and provided electricity for Atlanta s streetcars. The dam was rebuilt in 1924 to expand its electrical capacity and in 1957 it was revamped to regulate the flow of the much larger Buford Dam upstream. Aside from its technical purpose the product of the dam Bull Sluice Lake provided a local recreational spot for many youth. Lea recollects I can remember camping with my dad up at Bull Sluice below Morgan Falls Dam off Roswell Road above what became North Springs High School I guess. There was a dirt road that went over. And we camped at The Bluffs bottom of The Bluffs on the lake that was Bull Sluice Lake. There was nothing there. It was just one or two little houses. They were north of what was then Sandy Springs. Um and we had long tails. Long tails were black panthers [mountain lions]. And you could hear em [sic] screaming on the clifftops...I remember hearing the screaming at night when we camped out up there. Besides the hydroelectric power produced by the dam which now provides enough power for about 4 400 Like Father Like Son continued not included. I mean we had beer machines in the dorms. Yeah. It was really different along with a Coke machine so... It is a little different back then. Like so many young men in the late 1960s Lea joined the air force after college during the Vietnam War. After he came back from service in the early 1970s he knew exactly the career he wanted to follow. Dr. Richmond remembers I d wanted to hear a joke. Lea came to me when he got out Side of Hammond Elementary building after the of the service. And I said Sir fire 1959. Courtesy of Heritage Sandy Springs. what are you gonna [sic] do 2010.280.003 And he said Well I think I want to be a developer. I said Son homes the lake s other primary use today is for recreation you don t know anything about...You you don t even know including fishing boating and camping. anything about landscape architecture. He said Dad... Lea spent his entire childhood around Sandy Springs living Later he told me. He said Dad what you didn t realize in multiple houses and attending multiple schools. After back then is if you if you need architect landscape you the Hammond Elementary fire in 1959 Dr. Richmond and you call an architectural landscaper. You don t have to be his wife decided to send Lea to The Lovett School a private one. Lea was in his mid-twenties and instead of returning country day school with an expansive wooded campus off to college for a business degree he listened to his father. West Wesley Road. And it [sic] was at the original Lovett He recalls I wanted to go and I wanted to become a first remembers Lea. We were real concerned because commercial developer. That was in my early twenties it was in the early 60s and there was [sic] conversations midtwenties I guess maybe around that time. This would about bussing and my family didn t want me to end up have been 1973 But at any rate I went into real estate. having to sit on a bus for an go to the other end Dad sent me down to meet with Mr. Frank Carter Sr. [Dad] of the city. I remember I was held back a year because said I really would recommend you just go get your real the academics were better than at Hammond School and I estate license and skip business school and just jump right went to Lovett and went there through middle school and in. That was his advice. Indeed Lea heeded his father s through high school. Graduated June 6 1966. Lea would guidance and after completing his real estate licensure then leave the familiarity of Sandy Springs and travel to he took the first steps towards changing the face of Sandy attend the University of the South in Sewanee Tennessee. Springs. The University of the South also known as Sewanee is a private residential coeducational liberal arts college. However when Lea attended it was not co-ed. He recalls It s an all men school. We all traveled a lot on weekends. And to us it was a party weekend. There was an article about Sewanee in Rolling Stone magazine they had listed the top 100 thinking schools in the United States and Sewanee was not on the list. But there was this big footnote and an asterisk after the number one up after the list. You know this big footnote. And a big footnote said Sorry Sewanee professionals are As a real estate agent and land developer Lea played a role in reshaping Sandy Springs. Interestingly being the son of a prominent area physician the first property he developed was the first freestanding surgical suite in the state. Lea worked with many doctors throughout the community and was instrumental in helping secure property for the construction of Northside Hospital. While he may not have followed completely in his father s footsteps as a medical professional Lea s contributions to the expansion of the entire medical community in Sandy Springs helped carry on his father s legacy. B 93 d e s s i M u o Y s e i r o t S e h T d a e R Visit Heritage Sandy Springs to get your copy Volume 2 A Non-Combative Hero An Interview with Thomas Emory Meeks B Interviewer Kimberly Brigance B Date of Interview December 19 2008 World War II was arguably the last major conflict of the twentieth century that unified nearly all Americans against a single cause. Not only did the war stimulate the economy and pull America out of the worst depression in history but it also incentivized flocks of men and women alike to join diverse branches of the military. From the army navy and marines to the W.A.C. W.A.V.E.S and Cadet Nursing Corps millions of U.S. citizens readily volunteered to help Uncle Sam beat the Axis powers of Japan Germany and Italy. Many Sandy Springers fulfilled both their international and domestic duties by planting victor y gardens enlisting in the military and working at the Bell Bomber plant in Marietta G e o r g i a . H o w e v e r m a n y residents had already taken up the cause to help the community before the war brought the United States direc tly into conflict. with the Civilian Conservation Corps. Tommy remembers I was away from home quite a bit because during the Depression what have you I worked away from home at a dairy farm for a small salary clothes and food. After that I joined the CCC Civilian Conservation Corps and I spent two years in that. We were located at that time in Newton Georgia Gainesville Georgia and we made several trips to Oregon and California while we were doing that. The CCC was a public relief program that was launched in 1933 as a way to get unemployed unmarried men back to work. The CCC was a major part of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt s New Deal a national program designed to help young men contribute to the revitalization of the economy and domes tic wor k force. The CCC was primarily responsible for planting trees construc ting trails and building public facilities. Over the course of its nine years in operation nearly three million young men participated in the CCC which provided them with shelter clothing and food together with a wage of thirty dollars per month twenty-five Poster promoting the Civilian Conservation Corps made dollars of which had to be sent home by the Illinois WPA Art Project Chicago circa 1935. Public to their families. Domain courtesy of the Works Progress Administration. Thomas Emor y Meeks was born September 11 1920 in Por terdale Georgia at the onset of the Roaring Twenties. Tommy was raised by his mother Sarah Cole and father William Burgess Meeks until his parents separated during the Great Depression. Tommy s mother raised him and his two sisters by herself and once Tommy was old enough he took the first steps toward supporting his family by working While the United States was grappling with the Great Depression Europe was steadily witnessing the militarization of Germany the appeasement of Adolph Hitler and the outbreak of World War II with Germany s 95 made the decision to quit his job as a civilian mechanic and enlist in the military before he had even arrived back home. Tommy immediately sought to enlist in the navy and received little objection from his mother two sisters or his girlfriend who also joined the Cadet Nurse Corps. Tommy recollects I had always thought that navy would be the place where I would like to serve. I made a trip to Macon to join the navy. At that point there was a man there that says Hey with your experience as a mechanic we ve got a problem. The construction people in foreign Mess line of a Civilian Conservation Corps camp circa 1933. lands that were caught by the enemy forces Public domain courtesy of the Oklahoma State University Special Collections and Archives 278480. was treated as spies and therefore shot. We have a construction bat talion branch of the nav y to invasion of Poland in 1939. t a ke t h e p l a c e The United States had been of the engineers reser vedly suppor ting the and construc tion Allied powers of World War II people that are in beginning in 1939. Through the war zone. They programs such as Cash and asked if I would Carry the Lend-Lease Act and wait a couple of others it was only a matter weeks and come of time before the United The sunken U.S. Navy battleships USS West Virginia (BB-48 left) back and join the and USS Arizona (BB-39) aflame after the Japanese attack on Pearl States was officially drawn into Harbor on December 7 1941. Public domain courtesy of the National Seabees. At that the war. That day occurred Archives and Records Administration 295986. time I was given December 7 1941 a day that an advanced rating will live in infamy. The morning of 30 plus and advanced from that through E8. of that fateful day Pearl Harbor the U.S. naval base near Honolulu Hawaii became the scene of a devastating surprise attack by Japanese air forces. Just before eight o clock that Sunday morning air sirens blared as hundreds of Japanese fighter planes descended on the base. The U.S. fleet scrambled to defend itself as best it could. Japanese forces managed to completely destroy or damage nearly twenty American naval vessels including eight battleships over three hundred airplanes and most military runways. Tommy had taken the day off as a mechanic to travel with his girlfriend to visit her brother when he heard the news of Pearl Harbor. He remembers My [girlfriend s] brother had been inducted into the army and was at Fort McPherson. We were out that Sunday morning visiting with him when we heard the announcement of the bombing of Pearl Harbor. They announced it [over the intercom]. I was scared. It was heartbreaking news. More than 2 400 Americans died in the attack including civilians and another 1 000 people were wounded. The day after the assault President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan officially bringing the United States into the Allied forces and pitting the country against Japan Germany and Italy. Like so many young men Tommy had Indeed due to Tommy s prior work as a mechanic he was able to wait until May 1942 before officially enlisting in the United States Navy as a mechanic. He recalls Usually the training for the navy was something like thirteen and twenty-six weeks. My particular training we took a threeweeks brief training come out for six weeks and then we was transferred to California and went to the Third Marine Division. Tommy went through naval training in nine weeks before joining the Third Marine Division at Camp Elliott California. Tommy and the rest of his squadron trained with the marines before transferring to the Pacific theatre to battle the Japanese military. Tommy would spend the next four years as part of the Seabees a U.S. Naval Construction Battalion conscripted to rebuild military bases and infrastructure in the Pacific theatre. Tommy traveled from California to Guadalcanal Bougainville and eventually Guam encountering combat on his mission to restructure and revitalize the war-torn islands in the Pacific Ocean. A Non-Combative Hero continued fter the attack on Pearl Harbor A Rear Admiral Ben Moreell chief of the navy s Bureau of Yards and Docks immediately recognized the need for skilled mechanics and a construc tion crew to develop strong infrastructure and rebuild military bases. In December 1941 with an eye on the future he recommended the Official logo of the Naval formation of Naval Construction Construction Battalion or the Seabees circa 1942. Battalions or what would later Public Domain. be known as the Seabees. Tommy Meeks was one of more than 325 000 men who served with the Seabees during World War II. Though the Seabees did encounter combat they also subsequently rebuilt major airstrips bridges roads warehouses hospitals gasoline storage tanks and housing on six continents and more than 300 islands in the Pacific. The Seabees toured with the marines in the Pacific Theater landing shortly thereafter. Tommy recalls The first place we landed was Guadalcanal. Guadalcanal was secured by the Second Marine Division. We were still in the only island and we were still having air attacks. There we kind of based ourselves at Guadalcanal and done some projects patching the runways and building there. Building sawmills and this that and the other. We had several air attacks while we were there. When we first got there we were pretty well assured that the island was secure but hey. Everywhere we went we dig a foxhole. You know what a foxhole is A hole you get in when you re below ground. We did not do it at first at Guadalcanal. After the first raid we had everybody had a foxhole. Tommy followed the marines from one island to the next rebuilding for both military and civilian purposes during the leapfrogging or island-hopping campaigns in the Pacific Ocean theater of the war. T he island-hopping campaign was a military strategy employed by the Allied powers against Japan during World War II. The goal was to bypass more heavily fortified Japanese positions on specific islands using the limited resources of the United States and instead to take strategically important islands such as Rabaul Guam and Bougainville. The island of Bougainville which sits off the coast of Papua New Guinea was under Australian control prior to the war and was captured by the Japanese Empire in 1942. The U.S. Marines launched a counter-campaign to retake the island in 1943 and hold the perimeter of the beachhead in Torokina Tommy played a part in that mission. He remembers We were faced with the position of the [Japanese] landing in behind us on Bougainville. That s where the navy would shore the ships. They really done [sic] a beautiful job in keeping the enemy out from behind us. Ten days we had an aircraft one with shot wings off and it landed [on] the strip we had started to build. He comes in to the runway and jumped off but at least he landed. We went on and completed a runway on Bougainville that they used on the islands in the chain. We built roads and kill boxes and stuff [on Bougainville] where they could have permanent front lines. Then we left there and come back to Guadalcanal. That was our base there. By 1944 Australian troops initiated the second phase of the offensive campaign and began to work their way north across the island engaging with small starving but determined Japanese garrisons who remained on Bougainville until 1945. After returning to Guadalcanal to resupply the Seabees headed out to Guam to retake that American territory. The island of Guam had been one of the first islands captured by the Japanese in the Pacific Theater in 1941. By 1944 the Allies had planned for an invasion which initially called for heavy preliminary bombardment first by carrier aircraft and planes based in the Marshall Islands to the east followed by close bombardment by battleships and beach craft. The Allied powers began their attack in June encompassing both naval and aerial bombing campaigns. On July 21 1944 U.S. Marines and the Seabees were ordered to land and retake the island in the Second Battle of Guam which only lasted until August 10 1944. Tommy remembers Before I left the ship before it hit the beach I think around eight o clock in the morning fifty-five minutes later I was told to go board the boat with a weapon carrier with a tank of water behind. One of our Seabees that had gone ashore with a bulldozer was back aboard ship with a shrapnel wound. I think it was an hour and fifty-five minutes after the first wave hit the beach when I went ashore. At that time the marines had advanced quite a bit. The Japanese knew where we were. The beaches were pretty well hit. We got in and the island was [sic] declared secure by the navy whoever military forces in ten days but there was more enemy fought out after that than before the ten days. By nine o clock in the morning Tommy had landed ashore with both men and tanks on multiple beaches of the island and by nightfall the U.S. Marines the Coast Guard and the Seabees had established multiple beachheads to offer the counteroffensive against the Japanese attempts at infiltration. 97 Seabees on Bougainville Island during the Pacific Theatre circa 1943. Public domain courtesy of the United States Navy. he Second Battle of Guam continued across the island for T two more weeks. The continued Japanese counterattacks against the now-fortified American beachheads eventually exhausted their forces. By August the Japanese were running out of both food and ammunition and their artillery and tanks had all but been destroyed. Tommy and the Seabees had already been given their orders and had started to rebuild the island for the residents who had survived the Japanese occupation. We also built some housing for them. We also built some bridges there. I was in charge of at one point moving water. All the pumps on the island that we were using for moving water gasoline and whatever it was we maintained them to keep the water flowing. We built a bridge into Hagatna. It s still in use by the way. When we were over there our last trip we rededicated it the bridge. I wondered then why we were building a fourlane bridge on Guam but the last time I was over there the fourlane bridge was in effect [a] fourlane road. Guam remained a base for Allied operations after the battle and the five airfields built by Tommy and the Seabees allowed B-29 Bombers to fly attack routes against the Japanese mainland. To this day Liberation Day is celebrated in Guam each year on July 21. Tommy and several members of his squad routinely travel back to celebrate Liberation Day. Tommy recalls Appreciative every one of them. In fact the last time we were back there there was a woman approached me talking to me hugged my neck and thanked me for being part of the liberation party. She told me how old she was and I said You must have been about nine years old when we were there when we first landed. She said Yeah. On all of our trips back there and while we were there too really...Since we went back on our reunions we were back there three times fortyyear celebration a fifty and a sixty the people were very friendly and appreciative very thankful for what we done. T ommy continued to serve even after the Allied powers had won the war. He had returned home on a leave of rotation and was in Providence Rhode Island when he heard of the victory. It was quite a celebration remembers Tommy. The town was...actually you thought an earthquake hit it the next morning probably because the bars were open and everybody was celebrating. Nobody hurt or anything like that but it was quite a celebration. After the war Tommy began his journey back to Georgia. He hopped on a train to Jacksonville Florida where he was met by his family before driving the remaining way. Tommy returned to work as a mechanic for the White Motor Company in 1952 before he transitioned to a position at LockheedGeorgia. He also joined the Seabees as a reservist in the Atlanta-based chapter he helped found. Tommy married his longtime girlfriend upon returning and after a short stint on the southeast side of Atlanta he bought a home in Sandy Springs in 1963. He retired from Lockheed-Georgia as a senior tool inspector as well as from the Seabees Reserve as a senior constructive mechanic both in 1985. Tommy continued to devote himself to caring for others in the community. He devoted the later years of his life to the Sandy Springs Masonic Lodge and although a retired mechanic he continued to repair plumbing and electrical problems for area widows and disabled residents until his death in 2014. B Seabees repairing construction equipment and rebuilding infrastructure during the Pacific Theatre circa 1943. Public domain courtesy of the United States Navy. A Family in Power An Interview with Ruth Fox B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of Interview August 20 1991 Atlanta and its surrounding communities rose from the ashes of the Civil War with a determination to make itself a prominent city on the east coast. Devastated and left in ruins from the war large industrial organizations relied on the established superiority of the rail transportation system in the city to rebuild and grow. The destruction by General Sherman and his marc h lef t many residents of the surrounding areas with little left and so many headed to larger cities in search of housing and jobs. Atlanta after 1910 encouraged Atkinson to acquire a financially unstable hydroelectric project on the Tallulah River. In 1912 Atkinson combined the Morgan Falls hydroelectric plant and the Georgia Railway and Elec tric Company to become the Georgia Power Company. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s the Georgia Power combined and absorbed a profusion of southern utilities companies. In 1927 Athens Railway & Electric Company and Rome Railway & Light Company were merged and by 1928 the power companies of Macon and Augusta had joined with Georgia Power Company as well. The rapid expansion and growth of industry during the reconstruction era was fueled by both technological advances and a will to rebuild. This tenacity encouraged many citizens including one Sandy Springs family to work tirelessly to advance the amenities of not only Atlanta but of surrounding communities as well. Atlanta was one of the first cities in Georgia to have an increasing demand for electric lighting. As early as 1883 while the city was being rebuilt its citizens began to organize and promote the formation of an electric company. By 1891 an Atlanta banker named Henry Atkinson pulled together the first foundation of the Georgia Electric Light Company. The Ruth Fox was born in 1906 in expanding electricity industry Madison Count y Georgia just prompted another merger in northeast of Athens. Ruth was the Facade of Georgia Railway & Power Company s electric substation Edgewood Avenue Atlanta Georgia 1902. Atkinson with the help youngest of six children and unlike 1927. AJCP551_31f Atlanta Journal Constitution of a young attorney named many children in the early nineteenth Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Preston S. Arkwright charted century she was able to attend both Archives Georgia State University Library. the Georgia Railway and Electric primary and secondary levels of Company which merged with education before heading to the the Atlanta Consolidated Street Railway Company. The University of Georgia. Ruth recollects I went to school company went through numerous changes during those at the state normal school and the University of Georgia formative years. The increasing need for electricity in [before becoming] a home economist with Georgia Power 99 While Ruth her husband and their oldest son all worked for what is now one of the nation s largest generators of electricity their youngest son Jim struck out on his own. James L. Fox or Jim attended the University of South Carolina where he became a breakout basketball star. He was voted the best player in the state and became a pro basketball player with the NBA [sic] for ten years. He played with the Phoenix Suns and fell in love with Arizona [which] is where he and his family live now recollects Ruth. Jim graduated from college in 1965 and was immediately drafted in the eighth round of the 1965 National Basketball Association (NBA) Unidentified female picketers at Georgia Power Company protest draft by the Cincinnati Royals. Not one to play it circa 1972. L1981-19_009 Labor safe Jim turned down the opportunity with the Photographs International Royals and elected instead to travel to Europe Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Local 613 (Atlanta Ga.) Records where he played professionally for two seasons L1981-19 Southern Labor Archives. with the Real Madrid and Racing Mechelen Special Collections and Archives basketball teams. Jim returned stateside in Georgia State University Atlanta. 1967 when he teamed up with the Royals for their 1967-68 season. He eventually was traded Company. Indeed af ter to the Detroit Pistons in February 1968. Over Ruth graduated she began the course of his career Jim played for the her first job with the Georgia Cincinnati Royals Detroit Pistons Phoenix Baseball Card of Jim Fox circa 1969-1970. Power Company in Athens in Suns Chicago Bulls Seattle Supersonics the 1920s. I was there for Milwaukee Bucks and the New York Nets. Ruth four years recalls Ruth. I was transferred to Macon as remembers He left a cold cold place and when he got a home service supervisor which was an interesting time to Phoenix on warm winter days I think he thought he had in my life. I loved my job and I did a great deal [with] died and gone to heaven. They have two boys Mike and schools teaching people how to use an electric range. Jim They are all [basketball] players. In the early years of the Georgia Power Company Ruth was employed to provide demonstrations on how to use Ruth never thought twice about leaving Sandy Springs emergent technology specifically the electric range oven. even after her husband died. She moved into an old Ruth states I had given demonstrations in small towns farmhouse on Abernathy Road that sat on two acres and to women who had that range. That is something to really went back to work. She remembers After my husband s remember going all the way from Jonesboro back to death I went back to work for Georgia Power. I worked the Florida line. [I went] to each district there were six for a while in home economics then I had a very nice districts and I did all the demonstrations. promotion and worked with women s groups [as an] Ruth met her husband in the late 1930s and was married by 1938. My husband was also with the Georgia Power Company [in the] Operating Department. We moved to Sandy Springs in 1945. It was just a community at the time. [It only had] one store [which] was the Burdett s store a filling station and a hardware store we loved living here remembers Ruth. She and her husband lived along Mount Vernon Highway. They had two sons who grew up in the Sandy Springs community and attended Hammond Elementary School one of which would follow in his parents vocational footsteps. Ruth recalls Richard my oldest son is an [alum] of Georgia Tech and has been employed by the Georgia Power Company. Richard presumably worked with the company s engineering department in its efforts to construct power plants throughout the state.1 advisor to the women employees and wives of employees. I retired in 1971. [I can t] believe that I ve been retired for 20 years But I have. Never one to sit idle Ruth got involved with Sandy Springs United Methodist Church as well as the Sandy Springs Women s Club becoming the club s first president. Ruth and the various clubs around the community sought to ensure every house in Sandy Springs had electricity access to clean water and eventually a fire department. Ruth recalls The members of the women s club were involved in every movement for the good of the community. We began working hard to get a library a beautiful library [that] we have today we can be very proud. B 1 Editor s Note During Ruth s interview she did not mention directly what department Richard worked in. However she mentioned that his peers in engineering were transferred from station to station once their work was completed. The Vietnam War One Soldier s Story An Interview with Frederick Paul Heller B Interviewer Kimberly Brigance B Date of Interview December 15 2008 Nearly seventy-three years ago the United States Great Frederick Paul Heller or Paul as everyone called him was Britain and the Soviet Union declared victory over the born January 11 1939 in Albany New York. He grew up in a Axis powers of Germany Italy and Japan during World small town upstate called Walden Bridge that Paul says had War II. Almost immediately the U.S. and the Soviet Union more cows than people. Paul s father started out as a farmer entered into a before eventually cold war where becoming a a n i d e o l o g i c al salesman for bat tle bet ween a local farm c apit alis m and m a c h i n e r y communism c o m p a n y. H i s emerged through mother took care proxy wars such of their home as the Korean War Paul and his two and the Vietnam sisters. When War. For many Paul graduated Americ ans the from the loc al Vietnam War is high school at one of the most eighteen there contentious was not a doubt conflicts of in his mind what the t wentieth he wanted to do. GMC XM211 military trucks on unknown military base. 2017.008.023 Gift of c e nt u r y. S o m e Paul recollec t s James and Betty Stroup. Archives and Collections Heritage Sandy Springs. m e n s u c h a s My mother Marietta resident wanted me to be Paul Heller enthusiastically enlisted. Thousands of others an engineer and I didn t want to be an engineer. I was fed however were drafted and sent overseas leaving family and up with school. I told her Well if you don t let me go in the friends confused and the general population enraged. Marine Corps when I m eighteen I ll quit and join I guess I d watched too many John Wayne movies. Paul entered 101 time I got promoted a few times. I was selected for warrant officer. In 1964 or 1965 I was commissioned as second lieutenant and then I went to Vietnam in 1967. I went to Vietnam I was a twenty-eightyearold second lieutenant with eleven years in the Marine Corps. From Paul s perspective Vietnam was still escalating and the fighting was relatively sparse. Vietnam had in fact been building for a hundred years as the resistance of the North Vietnamese backed by communists in the Soviet Union and China grew increasingly tired of the colonialist influences by the French and British as well as by the Americans perpetuated by the South Vietnamese government. T he Viet Cong was a South Vietnamese communist front aided by the North which routinely engaged in guerrilla warfare against anti-communist forces in the region. The People s Army of Vietnam also known as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) engaged in more conventional warfare. As the war continued the military actions of the Viet Cong decreased and the role of the NVA grew. U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations involving ground forces artillery and airstrikes. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were striving for Vietnamese reunification for they viewed this conflict as a continuation of the colonial occupation by France and later the United States. France had been involved in small skirmishes with the Former debutante Diane Love preparing to serve with the Red Cross in the Vietnam War circa 1960s. AJCN131-035a Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. NVA and the Viet Cong since the end of World War II Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library. when it sought to regain control of its colonial territory. As the Cold War gained traction in the 1950s the United the service in Albany New York on September 10 1956. He States government saw Korea and then later Vietnam as remembers They sent me off to Parris Island to boot camp. larger indicators of what they called the Domino Theory After the first day I realized that I should have listened to my if one of these countries was to fall to communism the entire mother and become an engineer You lose all your freedom. region would succumb as well. As early as 1950 American You have no freedom anymore and everything that you do military advisors arrived in what was then French Indochina as you re told to do. The early days of training what they did most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by is they tried to break you down and then they try to rebuild the Pentagon. U.S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s you. What they wanted to do is undo everything that your with troop levels tripling in 1961 and then again in 1962. U.S. mother took seventeen years of spoiling and build you into commitment escalated even further following the 1964 Gulf being a marine. Paul spent twelve weeks training at Parris of Tonkin incident. Island before the Marine Corps decided he had his head on straight. He enlisted in the United States Marine Corps as a W hen Paul s first tour in Vietnam began in 1967 he was private and worked his way up through the ranks. transferred to a relatively peaceful area. He recalls By the time Paul had enlisted in the marines the Korean War was ending but the war in Vietnam had only just begun. The Vietnam War or the Second Indochina War began in Vietnam Laos and Cambodia on November 1 1955 and ended with the fall of Saigon on April 30 1975. Paul served two tours in Vietnam between 1967 and 1968 and then again in 1972. Paul was a commissioned officer with eleven years of experience by the time he was sent for his first tour of duty. He remembers What happened along the way from 1956 we ll say to 1967 when I was in Vietnam the first Of course Vietnam you didn t have that many people going to Vietnam in 67. They were still building up for later years and of course I knew there was going be some fighting and combat and stuff like that but I didn t figure there d be too much. There really wasn t from March till January of 68. First I was stationed in Chu Lai and then in November I went to Quang Tr which was up on the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). Chu Lai is south of Da Nang you ve probably heard of Da Nang. Most marines were in what they The Vietnam War One Soldier s Story continued [At] night sometimes they d try to probe your line and get into you face and stuff. As for the helicopter outfit up there they wanted to blow up your helicopters [but] they never got in. What they try to do is they try to get sappers in there with a satchel charge on them and blow them up. They d also lob in the mortar rounds and rocket rounds and stuff. Anti-War Pickets Parade in Front of Peachtree Selective Service Building. October 17 1967. AJCP563-068a Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library. call I Corps there was [sic] five corps in Vietnam and I Corps which was really first Corps was in the northern part from DMZ down a little south of Chu Lai. Chu Lai was right on the coast maybe fifty-sixty miles south of Da Nang. That was nice it was peaceful. There was very little combat going on in that particular area at the time in 67. I was in support. I was a motor transport maintenance officer but then when I went up to Quang Tr I was the base defense commander. The war in Vietnam began to peak in 1968 with the Tet Offensive one of the largest military campaigns of the entire Vietnam War. The Tet Offensive began on January 30 1968 as the forces of the Viet Cong and the NVA launched a surprise attack against the military and civilian command centers in South Vietnam. Paul recollects Some of the generals say it was a surprise but at that time I had been promoted to first lieutenant and also I get an intelligence briefing every day because of the base defense thing and we knew what was going to happen. I don t know why the general didn t. The early attacks from the Viet Cong and the NVA initially stunted the reaction of the U.S. and the South Vietnamese forces. They temporarily lost control of several cities before quickly regrouping and subsequently beating back the attacking forces inflicting heavy causalities. Paul recalls Actually the first time I really ever saw any combat or anything was during Tet. I was there during Tet in 68 and if you read any history of Vietnam you probably know what Tet in 68 is. Tet in 68 is when the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong tried to take over the country. They just didn t have quite enough stuff to do [it]. We built bunkers and foxholes and waited for them to come. They shelled us mostly. They really didn t try to probe our lines too much. The Tet Offensive failed in its initial goal of overthrowing the South Vietnamese government but became the turning point in the war. The increasingly public presence of U.S. troops in Vietnam with a mounting number of casualties and little to show for their efforts began to draw ire from Americans back home. Despite decades of substantial U.S. military aid to the South Vietnamese government a large portion of the U.S. population began doubting its government s claims of progress toward winning the war. Gradual withdrawal of U.S. ground forces began as part of the Vietnamization process which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves. Paul states On the second tour I went into Da Nang and it was rather peaceful there because all the fighting was up north of us and I went back with a Marine Corps fighter squadron and I was in a support role there and we only stayed there for a few months. Then they had a cutback. President Nixon said We re pulling the troops out of Vietnam. They sent us to a place called Nam Phong Thailand. What they d do is they d load the bombs on the airplanes fly them up over North Vietnam drop them go into Da Nang load bombs back on them fly them up over North Vietnam drop them [and] fly back to Thailand. That way we weren t in Vietnam. Direct U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam War ended on August 15 1973 despite continual efforts by the U.S. military to secretly aid the South Vietnamese military. The capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war Vietnam was reunified the following year. As for Paul he was promoted to the rank of major before retiring after eighteen years of service. He returned to Marietta to raise his daughter and son with his wife Sun. B Read The Stories You Missed Volume 1 Click Here 89