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Description: Nigeria: Fractured and Forgotten. Discrimination and Violence Along Religious Fault Lines

INTRODUCTION NIGERIA 1 NIGERIA Fractured and Forgotten DISCRIMINATION AND VIOLENCE ALONG RELIGIOUS FAULT LINES Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 2 NIGERIA INTRODUCTION NIGERIA If immediate action is not taken religious minorities in northern Nigeria will continue to face policies and practices that seek to remove their very presence while the violence of Boko Haram and Fulani militants will further compound one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. INTRODUCTION NIGERIA 3 Table of Contents 4-9 10-17 18-19 20-37 20-22 23-24 24-33 33-37 38-56 41-56 57-78 58-59 59-60 60-62 63-64 65-66 66-68 69-74 74-78 79-81 82-85 Introduction Recommendations Acknowledgements Foundation Discrimination Throughout Northern Nigeria Discrimination and Underdevelopment in Northern Nigeria Discrimination within Northern Nigeria against Religious Minorities Defining the Roots of this Foundational Discrimination Boko Haram An Explosion of Violence The Four Stages of Boko Haram Development Fulani Militants Threatening to Engulf the Middle Belt Introduction to the Fulani Accelerating Inter-Communal Violence in the Middle Belt Case Study Kadarako Nasarawa State Case Study Sho Plateau State Case Study Jol Plateau State Case Study Agatu Benue State Fulani Militants in the Middle Belt Rationales for an Escalating Trend The Devastating and Potential Impact of Fulani Militants to Fracture Nigeria Conclusion Endnotes The 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative (21CWI) is a Christian human rights organization empowering a global movement to advance religious freedom. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 4 NIGERIA INTRODUCTION What is unfolding in northern and central Nigeria is one of the gravest current humanitarian crises in the world. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. INTRODUCTION NIGERIA 5 Introduction Nigeria is a country on the verge of fracturing along religious fault lines. Ethnic and religious minorities in northern Nigeria are largely forgotten as they face systemic and systematic discrimination. Muslim and Christian communities in northeastern Nigeria are profoundly and negatively impacted by the terrorist violence pursued by Boko Haram. In the Middle Belt Fulani militant attacks are significantly escalating with the net effect that in the name of creating grazing territory largely Christian Local Government Areas are being targeted and destroyed. If immediate action is not taken religious minorities in northern Nigeria will continue to face policies and practices that seek to remove their very presence while the violence of Boko Haram in the northeast will further compound one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world. At the same time the accelerating aggression of Fulani militants in the Middle Belt is threatening the heart of the country creating one of the most significant security risks in West Africa and solidifying religion as a primary identifier which will further destabilize and fracture Nigeria. MAP OF AFRICA TUNISIA MOROCCO ALGERIA LYBIA EGYPT WHAT IS BOKO HARAM Boko Haram is an Islamic extremist group based in northeastern Nigeria with allegiance to the Islamic State. Since 2011 Boko Haram has killed over 15 000 displaced 2.1 million from their homes and was ranked as the world s deadliest terror group by the Global Terrorism Index in 2015. i SOKOTO KEBBI KWARA NIGER OYO OSUN EKITI Boko Haram Aggression in Nigeria KATSINA ZAMFARA KANO JIGAWA YOBE BORNO KADUNA BAUCHI GOMBE ADAMAWA MAURITANIA SENEGAL GAMBIA GUINEA GUINEA BISSAU SIERRA LEONE LIBERIA DJIBOUTI MALI BURKINA FASO NA GHA NIGER FCT NASARAWA PLATEAU CHAD SUDAN ETHIOPIA TARABA KOGI EDO ENUGU EBONYL BENUE ON AL IA NIGERIA M ER O O BENIN TOGO CA UGANDA KENYA SO CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC OGUN LAOS ONDO M DELTA IMO CROSS RIVERS ANAMBRA COTE D IVOIRE GABON EQUATORIAL GUINEA NG RWANDA BURUNDI BAYEISA ABIA Boka Haram Agression CO ZAIRE TANZANIA MALAWI ZA MB IQU E COMORES R ZIMBABWE NAMBIA BOTSWANA SOUTH AFRICA MO SWAZILAND LESOTHO Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. MA DAG A SCA ANGOLA ZAMBIA 6 NIGERIA INTRODUCTION WHAT IS AN IDP An IDP is an internally displaced person who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country s borders. They are often referred to as refugees although they do not fall within the current legal definition of a refugee. 2 152 000 Displaced People in Nigeria Though Nigeria has the largest economy in Africa most of the country s GDP is earned in the oil rich south. Northern and central Nigeria are currently facing one of the most significant humanitarian crises in the world. According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) as of December 2015 there are 2 152 000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Nigeria the third highest figure in Africa and the seventh in the world.1 However the reality is far more dire as the majority of Nigerian IDPs seek refuge with family or in makeshift camps that are not formally recognized or counted. As one leading United Nations (UN) expert concluded based upon her own analysis outside of these formal numbers there are an additional three-tofive million IDPs in Nigeria for a total of five-to-seven million IDPs.2 Nigeria is therefore currently home to more IDPs than any other country in Africa and perhaps second only to Syria globally. Furthermore between 55-70 percent of the displaced in Nigeria are living outside of the limited number of officially sanctioned areas and as a result receive almost no humanitarian assistance. These IDPs whether they are in the majority and living outside of officially designated areas or as part of the minority within one of these locations face a high degree of volatility including threats to their life and freedom of movement violence against women and children limited participation in public affairs lack of adequate and safe shelter food insecurity minimal access to health services and virtually no access to education.3 This is in addition to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimate that there are 160 943 refugees and asylum seekers from Nigeria.4 As of April 2016 the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) estimates that 14.8 million people in northeastern Nigeria are impacted by this ongoing crisis more than five million need active protection services in order to create a safe and secure environment and two-and-a-half million children under the age of five and pregnant and lactating women need assistance.5 Although exact numbers are difficult to ascertain as many as 2 000 women boys and girls have been abducted by Boko Haram since 2012.6 Thousands of children have been denied the opportunity to continue their education a reality that will reverberate with significant repercussions for an entire generation. Since 2009 in northeastern Nigeria 611 teachers have been intentionally killed and 19 000 additional teachers have fled for their lives while 910 2 000 women boys and girls have been abducted by Boko Haram since 2012 Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. INTRODUCTION NIGERIA 7 schools have been destroyed and another 1 500 schools forced to close leaving close to one million school-age children with almost no opportunity for education.7 People of faith and centers of faith have also been deliberately targeted. More Muslims have been displaced than any other faith group due to the actions of Boko Haram. Between 2000 and 2014 more than 13 000 churches were abandoned closed or destroyed in northern and central Nigeria.8 What is unfolding in northern and central Nigeria is one of the gravest current humanitarian crises in the world with millions affected thousands killed insecurity rampant children ravaged by malnutrition one of the world s highest populations of IDPs schools closed houses of worship destroyed and entire communities burned to the ground in scorched-earth attacks. Moreover the threat posed by Fulani militants in the Middle Belt is escalating into one of the most significant security concern in West Africa. Much of the western media attention has focused on the actions of Boko Haram in part because in the past five years 15 486 deaths have been uniquely attributed to this group.9 However Boko Haram or the Islamic State of West Africa Province as the group refers to itself following its pledge of allegiance to the Islamic State is far from the only threat to the unity of Nigeria. The episodic violence pursued by Boko Haram underscores a far deeper reality felt by religious minorities throughout northern Nigeria systemic discrimination. Many religious minorities perceive Boko Haram as but the latest outgrowth of violence and organized attempts to ensure that their very presence will be removed from the area. Disturbingly patterns set by Boko Haram the Nigerian government and the international community in response to the crisis of northeastern Nigeria are being replayed in the Middle Belt. Fulani militants are specifically targeting select communities because of their religious identity or potential economic benefit. Over the past two years the Nigerian government has tended to sideline this conflict and often failed to provide meaningful security for affected communities. The international community has been slow to respond to the escalating emergency in the Middle Belt where Fulani militants are now classified by the Global Terrorism Index as the fourth most lethal terrorist group by numbers killed.10 In 2013 Fulani militants killed 63 individuals while in 2014 they 160 943 refugees and asylum seekers from Nigeria. WHO ARE FULANI MILITANTS The term Fulani refers not just to a terrorist group but to a whole ethnicity not all of whom are terrorists. This diffuse group of 20 million people mostly pastoral nomads (the largest such group in the world) typically speak Fula as their first tongue and practice Islam. They came onto the world stage in a serious way in 1804 in what is now Nigeria and Cameroon when a Fulani preacher launched a holy war against local rivals creating the Sokoto Empire. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 8 NIGERIA INTRODUCTION 2 500 000 children under the age of five and pregnant and lactating women need assistance. killed 1 229 a rapidly accelerating trend they have continued to maintain.11 These attacks are increasingly encroaching on territory around Abuja the federal capital of Nigeria. If immediate action including changed policy approaches is not pursued the degenerating situation in the Middle Belt will likely intensify with the possibility of further engulfing Nigeria as a whole. At the most basic level an unwillingness to ensure religious freedom for people of all faiths equitable development across the country and to hold accountable actors who violate the rule of law have created a foundation that gives rise to a culture of violence personified first in Boko Haram and more recently in the Fulani militants. Boko Haram loosely followed a four stage development that went from (1) nascent movement building upon local grievances and lack of good governance (2) lack of proper engagement by the Nigerian government in an atmosphere of impunity (3) hardening of organizational ideology and religious identification with increasingly aggressive acts of destruction to a (4) full-scale conflict impacting millions to a degree that is now forcing the Nigerian government and international community to more robustly seek resolution. Following a similar pattern Fulani militants in the Middle Belt rapidly progressed through the first two stages and are currently in the third stage. Without intervention the crisis in the Middle Belt will continue to escalate. Further destabilization in Nigeria has clear implications for the country as well as for the West African region as a whole including countries such as Benin Chad Cameroon Mali and Niger. Although approaches to Boko Haram are currently characterized by neutralization and restoration there is an opportunity within the Middle Belt for decisive approaches working towards prevention and de-escalation before this reaches a full-scale level four conflict. While the pattern unfolding in the Middle Belt may be similar should the situation with the Fulani militants further deteriorate the impact will be on the footsteps of the capital of one of the most influential countries in Africa and could create an arch of failed states stretching from Libya to Chad Mali and down to Nigeria. This need not be the case but the potential is very real. In sum a foundation of discrimination against religious minorities 13 000 churches abandoned closed or destroyed in northern and central Nigeria more than 1 850% increase in murders by Fulani militants in one year Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. INTRODUCTION NIGERIA 9 The resulting humanitarian crisis in Nigeria An intervention is required NOW running across all three elements of the problem. The chance for an earlier easier intervention was missed HERE. Boko Haram Fulani Development plan similar to Boko Haram Existing Foundation For Discrimination 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 has long existed throughout northern Nigeria that has been compounded by intentional actions undertaken by northern elite missteps by the Nigerian government and a lack of coordinated response from the international community. This has created the precipitous conditions that allowed for the emergence of a far-reaching conflict that is currently accelerating due to the politics of religion and identity in an environment of impunity and an increase of sophisticated arms. This matrix has unleashed devastating consequences and until root causes are properly addressed has the potential to continue. While perhaps religion was not an initial root cause religious identity is being politicized and is quickly crystalizing into a key factor pushing Nigeria to the edge of fracturing along religious fault lines. With the 2015 induction of President Buhari opportunity exists to address underlying foundational issues to continue to pursue containment and rehabilitation in relation to Boko Haram to work to prevent further escalation by Fulani militants in the Middle Belt and for the international community to stand with Nigeria. 950 000 school-age children with almost no opportunity for education President Buhari Muhammadu Buhari is the President of Nigeria in office since 2015. He is a retired Major General in the Nigerian Army and was previously Head of State of Nigeria. 611 teachers intentionally killed 19 000 teachers have fled for their lives 1 500 schools forced to close Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 10 NIGERIA RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations To the U.S. Government The United States is one of the world s most important partners for Nigeria and retains tremendous clout that can be further leveraged on behalf of establishing peace. 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative (21CWI) recommends the following policy approaches 1. Create a Special Envoy for Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region. Ensure that this office is appropriately staffed and resourced to serve as the key interlocutor building multi-stakeholder engagement and addressing the wide range of complex realities involving refugees IDPs economic development security justice and peacebuilding. 2. Working with the U.S. Institute of Peace and other relevant stakeholders insist on the development of a comprehensive roadmap to peace that will address (1) Economic and infrastructure development within northern Nigeria and the discrimination and marginalization that occurs against religious minorities within the north Initiating an investigative peace process perhaps modeled around a Truth and Reconciliation Commission so that all communities all ethnicities and people of all religious persuasions are able to seek appropriate redress regarding their local experiences doing so in a manner that will help all Nigerians understand and respond to the multi-faceted nature of the reality on the ground Containing and ending the terrorist actions of Boko Haram Negotiating with Boko Haram militants a path forward that honors calls for justice with reintegration into the community Establishing a clear plan for humanitarian assistance and rehabilitation including greater accountability policy development and reach throughout all IDP communities Developing a robust approach related to Fulani militants inclusive of equitable disarmament transparent response to impacted and displaced communities and (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. RECOMMENDATIONS NIGERIA 11 While the pattern unfolding in the Middle Belt may be similar should the situation with the Fulani militants further deteriorate the impact will be on the footsteps of the capital of one of the most influential countries in Africa and could create an arch of failed states stretching from Libya to Chad Mali and down to Nigeria. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 12 NIGERIA RECOMMENDATIONS policy provisions around farming and grazing rights Establishing Nigerian police forces throughout the entire country especially in communities impacted by ethnoreligious violence and ensuring these individuals are adequately trained and held accountable (8) Designing programs related to religious freedom and rule of law that can be deployed throughout the country and ensuring that all citizens have a fair opportunity to participate in the political process (9) Ending policies and practices of impunity and (10) Working to ensure the full establishment of the rule of law religious freedom conceptions of national citizenship the federal constitution and the maturation of institutions of governance. (7) The USG should insist that a comprehensive roadmap to peace is developed by June 2017 and fully implemented thereafter with direct measures of inducement and accountability attached to the development and implementation of this plan. Spiegel Online The humanitarian crisis in Nigeria is dire. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. RECOMMENDATIONS NIGERIA 13 3. Strengthen the USAID offices of the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) and the Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI) as they relate to Nigeria in order to ensure that the humanitarian crisis is as vigorously engaged as the situation warrants and addresses the full range of humanitarian needs from short-term relief to psychological care for victimized women. 4. Work alongside the Nigeria House of Assembly to establish a Religious Freedom Caucus modeled after the one found in the U.S. House of Representatives. This would help address and reverse religious fault lines and ensure the full implementation of religious freedom for people of all faith or no faith. 5. Support the full and transparent establishment of the Atrocities Prevention Board which would be well-positioned to track and recommend approaches related to the ethno-religious interchange driving multiple components of the conflict in Nigeria especially in relation to the Fulani militants in the Middle Belt. 6. Formally request a U.S. Government Accountability Office research project into all humanitarian assistance funding given to Nigeria to ensure that resources allocated for education in northern Nigeria are used in schools where the curriculum policies and practices are impartial towards all individuals regardless of their gender ethnicity or religion. 7. Pursue through the United Nations (1) the establishment and implementation of a Nigerian comprehensive roadmap to peace and (2) the designation of the crisis as an L3 humanitarian crisis. To the United Nations 1. A visit by the Special Rapporteur for Human Rights and the Special Rapporteur of IDPs to Nigeria with a formal report to the Security Council that includes an action plan on (1) protection of communities and people (2) their empowerment in the political process and (3) development of long-term stability and reintegration. 2. Categorization of the crisis in Nigeria as an L3 humanitarian crisis. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 14 NIGERIA RECOMMENDATIONS Terrorism has disrupted education for thousands of Nigerian children. To the Nigerian Government 1. Establish a comprehensive roadmap to peace directed by a high ranking member of the Nigerian Government and inclusive of multiple community grassroots and regional stakeholders. 2. Develop a robust program for multi-sector education on behalf of religious freedom human rights and the rule of law that contains elements such as (1) establishing a unit of study focused on religious freedom within all public schools Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. RECOMMENDATIONS NIGERIA 15 (2) (3) building a coalition among businesses leaders throughout Nigeria who commit to hire and work according to principles of religious freedom and the rule of law and training within Local Government Areas on constitutional rights and religious freedom. 3. Expand the activities and support offered by the National Emergency Management Agency to ensure that all IDPs receive support especially as the vast majority currently receive virtually no humanitarian assistance. 4. Create a mechanism that would allow families in the northeast and Middle Belt to register the data of their missing. 5. Fully secure the Nigerian border and establish ranches throughout northern Nigeria and the Middle Belt for Fulani pastoralists. This must be done in a way that is fully transparent discontinues transnational migratory patterns takes into account the full history of particular contexts and when necessary offers fair and just compensation for those who may experience rezoning. 6. End the two-tiered system of indigenous and settler rights. 7. End or reverse legislation such as that currently in the Plateau State which seeks to unnecessarily regulate religion and the free exercise thereof. 8. Establish within the Nigeria House of Assembly a Religious Freedom Caucus modeled after the one found in the U.S. House of Representatives in order to help address and reverse religious fault lines and ensure the full implementation of religious freedom for people of all faiths or no faith. 9. Enhance Nigerian security forces by (1) ensuring that civilian protection is at the heart of all security operations and (2) establishing mobile police units throughout northern Nigeria and the Middle Belt beginning with communities that have been repeatedly targeted. 10. Strengthen the rule of law by ending a culture of impunity and ensuring that the judicial system holds accountable all those who participate in violence within a system of fair due process. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 16 NIGERIA RECOMMENDATIONS To Denominations Churches and Individuals in the United States Nigeria and Around the World Denominations at their Next Annual Gathering 1. Issue a statement pass a resolution or release an appropriate corollary that raises awareness about the situation unfolding in Nigeria standing in solidarity with the many suffering through one of the worst humanitarian crises and calling on leaders to work to build holistic peace and reconciliation. 2. Include a keynote workshop or breakout session that builds awareness among constituents trains key leaders and mobilizes members and communities of worship around advocacy engagement and broad-based commitment to Stand with Nigeria. 3. Utilize media outlets for the next six months including newspapers blogs radio Bible study curriculum and social media engagement to ensure that at this critical time people of faith are aware praying for and standing with Nigeria. 4. Increase humanitarian assistance and ensure that all activities within Nigeria include training and aid that addresses and furthers religious freedom. Churches and Individuals 1. Designate a Stand with Nigeria Sunday in the next six months that would include a dedicated time of prayer a sermon and a call to action. 2. Build a relationship with a Nigerian congregation in your area and participate in a joint time of prayer listening relationship building and practical engagement. 3. Contact your denomination and ask its leadership to (1) pass a resolution (2) host a workshop (3) strategically utilize media outlets and (4) increase humanitarian assistance. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. RECOMMENDATIONS NIGERIA 17 Imam Muhamad Ashafa of the Interfaith Mediation Center in Kaduna Nigeria 4. Contact your members of Congress and ask them to Stand with Nigeria by (1) (2) reading the report and implementing the above policy recommendations. 5. Utilize your media outlets and commit over the next six months to (1) highlight these realities in your church newsletter (2) write one guest editorial to your local newspaper and (3) post once a month on your social media platforms. 6. Incorporate a one-time special offering dedicated to the Stand with Nigeria project and transformative change that will restore hope to millions. 7. Participate in a Pray for Nigeria campaign and pray every day for one full week for an end to violent attacks rehabilitation and reintegration for those who are suffering and for peace justice and reconciliation to flow through Nigeria. 8. Invite one other church family member or close associate to join with you in order to help launch a movement that stretches around the world on behalf of those who are suffering. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 18 NIGERIA ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments 21CWI s executive team speaks to Kadarako villagers in Nigeria. 520 attended meetings interviews and report opportunities hosted by 21CWI in Nigeria The 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative (21CWI) is a Christian human rights organization empowering a global movement to advance religious freedom as a universal right through advocacy capacity building and technology. From February 20 March 1 2016 a 21CWI team traveled to Nigeria to document the impact of violence and marginalization on the situation of human rights and religious freedom in northern and central Nigeria and to listen to and learn from a wide range of actors pointing to approaches that are building reconciliation and reversing trends that threaten to fracture Nigeria along religious fault lines. The delegation was led by 21CWI Founder and President Randel Everett and included Senior Distinguished Fellow former Congressman Frank R. Wolf Executive Vice President Elijah M. Brown and Director of Strategic Communications Lou Ann Sabatier. 21CWI worked with various Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NIGERIA 19 Nigerian partners including the Stefanos Foundation that tirelessly helped 21CWI interview numerous individuals collecting hundreds of pages of written documentation and more than twenty hours of video testimony. The team traveled to multiple sites in the states of Bauchi Nasarawa Plateau and to Abuja and met with representatives from the states of Adamawa Benue Borno Jigawa Kaduna Kano and Sokoto. The team traveled past dozens of villages that had been burned to the ground and met with both Christian and Muslim victims of massacres perpetrated by Boko Haram and Fulani militants. This included at one point listening to the report of leaders at a location less than three miles from an active conflict zone. Altogether meetings interviews and report opportunities hosted by 21CWI in Nigeria were attended by more than 520 individuals including members of communities impacted by marginalization malnourishment and violence grassroots tribal and religious leaders missionaries NGO leaders families and activists whose loved ones were kidnapped from the Government Secondary School in the town of Chibok national Christian denominational leaders both a member and former member of the National Assembly of Nigeria a leading military official members of the office of the Vice President of Nigeria and the United States Ambassador to Nigeria. Over the past six months both in preparation for and as a result of the research trip 21CWI has sought to triangulate information through ongoing dialogue with Nigerian partners Congressional leaders and their staff various officials within the U.S. Department of State former U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria John Campbell multiple NGOs members of the U.S. International Religious Freedom Roundtable and individuals associated with the work of the UN in Nigeria. For security purposes many of the names of specific interview participants have been changed or withheld. The situation in Nigeria is complex and multi-faceted and requires an ongoing diligence to balanced nuance and a rigorous commitment to pursuing hard realities beyond rhetoric and surface-level analysis. 21CWI is at the beginning of this journey. We are grateful for the opportunity to partner with you and we encourage you to visit the Nigeria advocacy and mobilization website at www.StandwithNigeria.org where you can find videos pictures this report and action packs. In the midst of a nation poised to fracture along religious fault lines we can work together and StandwithNigeria. StandwithNigeria i SOKOTO KEBBI KWARA NIGER OYO OSUN OGUN LAOS DELTA EKITI ONDO INFORMATION States 21CWI visited or met people from KATSINA ZAMFARA KANO JIGAWA YOBE BORNO KADUNA BAUCHI GOMBE ADAMAWA FCT NASARAWA PLATEAU TARABA KOGI EDO ENUGU EBONYL IMO CROSS RIVERS ANAMBRA BENUE BAYEISA RIVERS ABIA States 21CWI visited or met people from Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 20 NIGERIA FOUNDATION Foundation Discrimination Throughout Northern Nigeria There is a long and ancient history of politics and kingdombuilding in northeastern Nigeria that includes a series of Hausa city-states that reached their zenith in the eighteenth century.12 Legend attributes the development of these city-states to an Arab migration that began in Baghdad and ended in northeastern Nigeria. Though these city-states and the territory they controlled were heavily influenced by Islam significant portions of both northern Nigeria and the Middle Belt remained religiously-speaking relatively untouched. Beginning with the actions of Usman dan Fodio the early nineteenth century was characterized by efforts to revive and restore a more pure practice of Islam and to create a unified northern society organized around Islam called the Sokoto Caliphate. The introduction of British colonialism had a profound impact on the development of Nigeria. While the British ended the Sokoto Caliphate it could not remove the impulses behind this endeavor. The vestiges of these impulses today remain a powerful motivator for many northern elite individuals whose wealth and power enable them to hold significant sway over much of the education government and media outlets in the north. Though some scholars believe that Catholic missionaries may have attempted to establish Christianity in northern Nigeria between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries more substantive efforts did not occur until the end of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth centuries primarily due to the efforts of the Sudan Interior Mission Sudan United Mission and the Roman Catholic Mission. Initially the majority of Christians were southern Nigerians who had migrated to urban centers in northern Nigeria. However over time many smaller communities and indigenous minority ethnicities throughout northern Nigeria and the Middle Belt who had long resisted efforts of Islamization on both religious and political grounds adopted Christianity. Usman dan Fodio Shaihu Usman dan Fodio born Usuman Foduye was a religious teacher writer and Islamic promoter and the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate. Born 1754 Nigeria Died 1817 Sokoto Nigeria Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FOUNDATION NIGERIA 21 The situation in Nigeria is complex and multi-faceted and requires an ongoing diligence to balanced nuance and a rigorous commitment to pursuing hard realities beyond rhetoric and surface-level analysis. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 22 NIGERIA FOUNDATION TIMELINE Brief Historical Overview of Nigeria Excerpted from Encyclopedia Britannica The long and complicated history of intermingling religion politics and identity within northern and central Nigeria reverberates today in four primary ways (1) efforts by northern elite to utilize religion as a means of extending power and control on behalf of establishing a unified northern society (2) the aspiration of some Muslim adherents to participate in efforts that they perceive will restore a more simplified and pure form of Islam (3) a holdover and misguided belief held Nigerian Independence throughout Nigeria that the majority of in 1960 Christians in northern Nigeria are really immigrant settlers from the south and that if this imposed and interloping group were removed all that would remain would be individuals who want to participate in a process of greater Islamization and (4) ongoing resistance by minority religious and indigenous ethnic communities who want to avoid this domination maintain their own identity and seek to appeal today to rights prescribed in the federal constitution and the implementation of rule of law. When Nigeria gained independence in 1960 it was an amalgamated country with political loyalties that tended to be defined along ethnic and religious lines. Nigeria s constitution has further complicated issues by accepting all Nigerians as citizens but ascribing rights on the basis of whether or not an individual is classified as indigenous or as a settler. Indigenes are granted rights such as unhindered access to education and employment opportunities land political participations or even right to produce the chief or head of the community while those who are not so designated simply do not. 13 Denied these rights those labeled a settler have a permanent second-class status. Today the twelve states in the north and eight states in the Middle Belt are Adamawa Bauchi Benue Borno Gombe Jigawa Kaduna Kano Katsina Kebbi Kogi Kwara Nasarawa Niger Plateau Sokoto Taraba Yobe Zamfara and FCT Abuja. This foundation of discrimination has only grown over the past fifty years and found expression in the following two headlined ways. 500 BCE 800 CE Earliest known archeological evidence of an organized society known as the Nok culture North African Arab writers first note the Kingdom of Kanem in what is now Nigeria 1000-1400 Influential Kingdom of Ife reaches its height Late 1400s 1804 1868 1903 1914 Portuguese explorers sailing down the west coast of Africa make the first known European contact with the region Usman dan Fodio successfully launches what will become the Sokoto Caliphate Lagos becomes a separate colony under British control British conquest of northern Fulani-Hausa emirates completed British Protectorates of Southern and Northern Nigeria joined to form modern Nigeria Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FOUNDATION NIGERIA 23 POVERTY STATES SHOWING % LIVING IN ABSOLUTE POVERTY SOKOTO KATSINA KEBBI ZAMFARA KANO TIMELINE (continuted) JIGAWA YOBE BORNO 1960 KADUNA NIGER FCT OYO OSUN EKITI OGUN LAOS DELTA IMO CROSS RIVERS ONDO EDO KOGI ENUGU NASARAWA BAUCHI GOMBE ADAMAWA Independence from British rule on October 1 KWARA PLATEAU 1967-1970 TARABA BENUE 0-29.9% 30-49.9% 50-59.9% 60-69.9% EBONYL ANAMBRA Biafra Civil War as southern Nigerian states attempt to secede with massive humanitarian consequence and significant political economic ethnic cultural and religious tensions BAYEISA RIVERS ABIA 70-79.9% 80 % 1970-1999 1999 2002 2009 2014 2015 Discrimination and Underdevelopment in Northern Nigeria In 1914 the British colonial government combined northern and southern Nigeria but continued to administer the two regions as if they were separate. Northern Nigeria was administered through Indirect Rule which tended to maintain the power of the traditional structures and authorities who were predominantly Muslim. In the latter half of the twentieth century it was southern Nigeria however that would reap long-term benefits from greater investments in education and infrastructure developments that were made during the time of colonialism. This has led to a disparity between northern Nigeria and the rest of the country. Considered a Lower Middle Income country as a whole 14 in the North 72 percent of people live in poverty compared to 27 percent in the South and 35 percent in the Niger Delta. 15 Much of the economic growth in Nigeria is related to oil telecommunications and banking all of which are primarily located in the south leaving those within northern Nigeria increasingly excluded from the primary engines of economic advancement. The past fifty years have also seen significant Christian growth. In 1953 45 percent of the Nigerian population was Muslim 21 percent was Christian and 33% belonged to other religions such as Series of governing military juntas including by General Muhammadu Buhari (1983-1985) Relatively free elections held new constitution ratified Presidential system created Boko Haram founded as a political and civic organization in the north Abu Shekau takes control of Boko Haram and initiates a more violent & militant approach Fulani militants escalate attacks in the Middle Belt General Buhari elected as President and replaces Goodluck Jonathan in elections widely seen as free and fair Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 24 NIGERIA FOUNDATION 72% vs 27% in the north in the south live in poverty African Traditional Religions.16 By 2010 the Christian population had grown to 80.5 million and 51 percent of the total population while the percentage of adherents to Islam remained relatively flat.17 There are now more Christians in Nigeria than in any other African country and more Christians in Nigeria than in any Western European country. This has caused alarm among many northern Muslims in general and the elite in particular who tout the fact that Nigeria has the largest Muslim population in Africa and the fifth largest Muslim population in the world.18 Declining economic prospects weakened political control at the federal level ongoing lack of infrastructure development and depressed education and vocation opportunities in combination with the growing clout of Christianity within the nation has fueled a narrative and a context within northern Nigeria that they are suffering regional discrimination at the hands of the nation. Though these realties are rightly and well recognized by many they are only one side to the foundation of discrimination that exists in relation to northern Nigeria. Christians form more than 50% of the population in six northern and Middle Belt states Discrimination within Northern Nigeria against Religious Minorities For generations many northern Muslim elite have believed they bear a responsibility to consolidate an Islamic society in the north and to extend that society southward until it eventually encapsulates all of Nigeria. There have always been ethnic communities in the north and across most of the Middle Belt that have resisted this effort. Nonetheless many northern Muslims blame colonialism as the disruptor in this process and since independence have reengaged these efforts. This was the approach embraced by Sir Ahmadu Bello who was the highly influential and leading politician of the north at the time of independence and in the immediate years after. Eleven days after Nigerian independence the Parrot Newspaper quoted him as saying The new nation called Nigeria should be an Estate of our great grandfather Usman Dan Fodio. We must ruthlessly prevent a change of power. We use the minorities in the north as willing tools and the south as a conquered territory and never allow them to rule over us and never allow them to have control over their future.19 in all northern & Middle Belt states 30% 64% 8% are Christians are Muslim other African Religions Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FOUNDATION NIGERIA 25 There were efforts all of which were rebuffed in the 1970s late 1980s and early 1990s to add sharia to the federal constitution. Realizing that a national solution was increasingly unlikely on January 27 2000 Ahmed Sani the governor of Zamfara the state not inconsequentially with the lowest percentage of Christians in the north unilaterally and officially announced that sharia legislation would apply to all aspects of personal and judicial law. By 2002 all twelve of the northern states had adopted sharia as the reigning judicial principle. This has accelerated a trend of fortifying religious identification as a primary interlocutor and as a means of discrimination and persecution. Religious minorities in the north have been particularly negatively impacted by these developments. Discrimination against non-Muslims is widespread throughout northern Nigeria which has increasingly led to politics of identity. One of the most oft repeated narratives is that Christianity in this region is a tiny minority of the population and primarily composed of southern settlers who have migrated to the north. However this is not necessarily the case. Recent research for the first time systematically catalogued the church records for every major Christian denomination in northern Nigeria and the Middle Belt and reached the following conclusions In six northern and Middle Belt states Christians comprise greater than 50 percent of the total population Adamawa Benue Kogi Nasarawa Plateau and Taraba In 158 of the 417 Local Government Areas Christians comprise greater than 50 percent of the total population Altogether there are more than 30 million Christians comprising 30 percent of the total population of the northern and Middle Belt states in comparison to 64 percent adhering to Islam and 8 percent participating in African Traditional Religions.20 Sir Ahmadu Bello Sir Ahmadu Bello KBE was a Nigerian politician who was the first and only premier of the Northern Nigeria region. He also held the title of Sardauna of Sokoto. 80 500 000 people or of the Nigerian population are Christians 51% Nigeria has the largest Muslim population in Africa and the fifth largest Muslim population in the world. While in some states such as in Zamfara where Christians compose only 2.3 percent of the total population one-out-of-three Nigerians in the north are Christian and in some areas they are the absolute majority. Despite these numerical realities the primary narrative which is often repeated and believed by northern elite southern Nigerians the Nigerian media as well as the international community is that there are relatively few Christians and that any discrimination that they may experience is isolated numerically inconsequential and more a result of the fact that these are southern migrant settlers not part of the indigenous Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 26 NIGERIA FOUNDATION false narrative The Number of Christians in Northern and Middle Belt States is Numerically Insignificant One of the primary narratives which is often repeated and seemingly believed by northern elite southern Nigerians the Nigerian media as well as the international community is that there are relatively few Christians in the northern and Middle Belt states. Any discrimination that adherents to Christianity experience is isolated numerically inconsequential and more a result of the fact that these are southern migrant settlers not part of the indigenous communities. This narrative is not only false it gives cover to widely adopted policies that significantly discriminate negatively impact and occasionally erupts into violence against millions of individuals. These policies of discrimination and latent public support is one of the core causative factors that has created a climate conducive to the emergence of Boko Haram undermines human rights and the rule of law and is essential to address if justice and reintegration beyond the violence of terrorism is to be established and the fracture of Nigeria along religious fault lines reversed. communities. This narrative is not only false it gives cover to widely adopted policies and practices that significantly discriminate and negatively impact Christians and occasionally erupts into violence against millions of individuals. This widespread publicly supported discrimination is a core factor to having created a climate that is conducive to the emergence of Boko Haram and undermines human rights and the rule of law. This foundational discrimination is essential to address if justice and reintegration beyond the violence of terrorism is to be established and the fracture of Nigeria along religious fault lines reversed. Christians throughout the northern states and not just those in the areas in the northeast most directly impacted by the violence of Boko Haram report the implementation of widespread policies and practices that negatively impact their lives. These include Limited Education Opportunities Parents forced to change the names of their children to Muslim names or face a prohibition on enrolling their children in schools Increased school fees for Christian families Abuse or mistreatment of Christians while they are at school and on the school premises Refusal or restrictions within the public schools on the teaching of Christian Religious Knowledge while fully including and requiring the teaching of Islamic Religious Knowledge for all students. This 19-year-old from Borno Nigeria fled to an IDP camp in January 2015 after Boko Haram attacked his village. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FOUNDATION NIGERIA 27 Limited Vocation Opportunities and Negative Economic Impact Christians fired from government and public school positions Goods in local markets sold to Christians at a higher cost Local markets preventing Christians from renting market space or otherwise selling their goods Confiscation of Christian property Eviction when landlords learn of a family s Christian identity Refusal of Muslim business owners to hire Christian employees. Restrictions on Religious Freedom Refusal to sell land for church construction while permits are issued for the construction of mosques in areas that are predominantly Christian Burning and destruction of churches Christian cemeteries vandalized with Christians then prohibited from cleaning them up Significant repercussions when Fulani and Hausa convert from Islam Abduction of Christian women leading to forced marriage to Muslim men Forced conversions to Islam. Negative Physical Ramifications Abuse or mistreatment of Christians while they are on public streets Health-care denied to Christians Violent community and mob attacks on Christians after political elections or non-related international events such as the cartoon drawing of the Prophet Muhammad in Denmark. Restricted community development such as fewer water boreholes and fewer medical facilities in rural predominantly Christian areas Denied limited or fraudulent election participation Government security briefings that intentionally exclude representatives of the Christian community Refusal to station police or other security forces in predominantly Christian areas even when local community members report information about impending attacks. Denied Community Services and Rights Representatives from Adamawa State described how time and again their identity as Christians made them second-class citizens. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 28 NIGERIA FOUNDATION It is very hard for me to forgive them but because of Christ I have forgiven them. One individual detailed how in his local village 80 percent of the community is Christian yet during every local election cycle the Christian representative loses while the Muslim representative wins. In Kano State some individuals reported that when they went to purchase land they had to sign a document indicating that they would not build a church on that land before the transaction could be completed. In Sokoto a group of believers in the Evangelical Church of West Africa denomination had been utilizing a particular church building for more than one hundred years. When they tried to renew their certificate of occupancy the certificate was denied and the government claimed the building in order to turn it into a center of Islamic study. In Benue State a woman described a 1995 conflict in the state capital of Makurdi at the conclusion of which only Christians were arrested while Muslims were allowed to go free. This woman and twenty-one others were held in a local prison for nearly a year and each time they were taken to the court bystanders openly mocked them for their Christian faith. Church that Boko Haram destroyed. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FOUNDATION NIGERIA 29 Across northern Nigeria at times individuals must change their names or otherwise pursue other coping strategies to hide their Christian identity to secure safety and a livelihood. In general Christians throughout northern Nigeria are under-represented in key institutions such as the government media and education that would otherwise have the potential for pursuing transformative change. Despite tremendous challenges many continue to express a firm commitment to their faith. One individual from Sokoto State described It is very hard for me to forgive them but because of Christ I have forgiven them. Another from Kano State highlighted that he believed his faith required him to continue to demonstrate love and that even now I am helping some of the children of the people who have hurt me. Additional research is needed to determine the breadth by which each one of these realities can be found throughout northern Nigeria. What is clear is that discrimination is more widespread and has far more negative consequences than is often believed. Moreover the individuals interviewed during this process almost always began their narratives with the reality of this discrimination before where relevant moving on to describe more episodic violence perpetrated by Boko Haram or Fulani militants. In other words just as considering the general economic malaise within northern Nigeria is essential it is also imperative to address the ongoing policies and practices that intentionally target and seek to disempower minority Christian communities if reconciliation rehabilitation and ongoing equitable infrastructure development are going to be legitimately established. Corroborating these individual personal experiences Ambassador John Campbell who served as the U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria from 2004-2007 observes In general traditional society not just radical jihadis discriminates against Christians and the few Fulani converts to Christianity may be murdered often by members of their own families. 21 Some have pointed to the surprise announcement in 1986 that Nigeria was registered as the forty-sixth member nation of what is known today as the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) as proof that there exists an intentional effort to maximize a narrative of Islamic predominance while minimizing the livedexperience of other religious adherents. The decision to join the Openly they say that everyone has the right to worship freely but that is not the case at the local level. Daniel Nasarawa State Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 30 NIGERIA FOUNDATION OIC remains shrouded in secrecy and throughout the 1980s and 1990s generated riots and violence and hardened religious fault lines as Muslims hailed the decision and Christians decried the action as a violation of the secular status of the country. Reflecting on this development one expert presciently noted prior to the emergence of Boko Haram one can feel the pulse of the twin Islamic symbols of Shari a and OIC dangerously ignored like some explosives awaiting either detonation or defusing. 22 Efforts to use legislation to limit religious expansion and regulate religious content especially the teachings and actions of evangelical Christians remain ongoing within northern Nigeria and the Middle Belt. For example the Kaduna State House Assembly recently introduced a bill attempting to repeal and replace the Religious Preaching Law of 1984. The proposed bill which has been condemned by a number of Christian organizations within Nigeria would in part Restrict licensing of preachers to two bodies which would nullify all religious bodies outside of those two groups who may choose for religious reasons to not participate in those bodies or who may be unfairly denied participatory access within those bodies Confine to certain locations the playing of all cassettes CDs Flash drives or any other communication gadgets containing religious recordJohn Campbell is the Ralph Bunche senior fellow for Africa policy studies at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) in New York. His book Nigeria Dancing on the Brink. clearly explains the crisis in NIgeria. He writes the blog Africa in Transition and edits the Nigeria Security Tracker. ings. For example people of faith would be legally restricted from listening to any religious teaching music or audio Scripture within their own car or while they are in any public setting even if they are accessing the device through private headphones Create a blanket prohibition that would make illegal any recording that includes abusive language... against any person or religious organization or religious leader (past or present) as defined solely by the State Make it virtually illegal for any individual of any religion to share their faith with any other individual unless the person who is sharing is officially licensed to preach by the government. Former Ambassador John Campbell While the intent of this law may be positive it will have a severe negative impact on all religious communities and perhaps most especially on the 46.7 percent of Kaduna State s population that is Christian. The net effect of this law will be to criminalize many activities that could lead to the further expansion of the Christian community while maintaining the primacy of Islam as the Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FOUNDATION NIGERIA 31 majoritarian religion. Dr. Francis Daria the President of the Northern Nigeria Union of Seventh Day Adventist Church called for the Kaduna State House Assembly to reject this proposed bill on the grounds that it contradicts the freedom of religion guaranteed in Section 38 of the federal constitution and further noting As a democratically-elected government we expect respect for our fundamental human rights as guaranteed by the Constitution and not the fear of discrimination and repression that will follow if the Bill becomes law. 23 There is a very real possibility that if this law is passed it will be quickly replicated throughout northern Nigeria which would allow various state governments to regulate religious activities and continue to maintain efforts that have the effect of preserving one religion over and against other religions all of which contributes to a fracture along religious fault lines. It also fits into a broader pattern of northern elite who seek to control and use religion as a means of furthering their own perspectives and agendas. As has been observed one of the basic roots of religious conflict in Nigeria is the manner in which the religious traditions in the country have interacted and the way they have been manipulated for selfish interests. 24 However perhaps the most readily observable factor underscoring the reality that this foundation of discrimination is solidifying into a context of violent reaction along religious fault lines are the surges of episodic violence that have increasingly erupted in northern and Middle Belt states. Human Rights Watch (HRW) notes that between 1994 and 2013 there were multiple violent and brutal attacks that cumulatively left thousands of Christians and Muslims dead particularly in Jos and the surrounding Plateau State environs.25 Large-scale conflicts often instigated as a reprisal for previous grievances occurred in 1994 2001 2004 2008 and three times in 2010 (January March and December). Christians and Muslims were responsible for contributing to the atrocities and indiscriminate killings often solely motivated by an individual s religious or ethnic identity. Even into 2011 there were reports of silent killings where men discovered in the wrong neighborhood disappeared and their bodies seldom recovered for burial.26 Following one of these attacks Archbishop Ignatius Kaigama noted We were taken aback by the turn of events in Jos. We thought it was political but from all indications it is not so. We were surprised at the way some of our churches and properIty were attacked and some of our faithful and There is a need for advocacy for good laws for equality and fairness justice and security and the protection of lives and property. Such advocacy according to the federal laws of the land is very important. ECWA Minister in Plateau State Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 32 NIGERIA FOUNDATION Village burned out twice by Boko Haram. clergy killed. The attacks were carefully planned and executed. The questions that bog our minds are why were churches and clergy attacked and killed Why were politicians and political party offices not attacked if it were a political conflict Why were the business premises and property of innocent civilians destroyed We strongly feel that it was not political but pre-meditated act[s] under the guise of elections.27 As of 2013 despite the arrest of many suspects not a single individual was tried or sentenced which further contributes to a climate of impunity that undermines the rule of law. This same HRW report further details inter-communal violence in Kaduna State in 1987 1992 2000 and the horrific post-election violence in 2011.28 These incidents often involved mobs of Christian and Muslim youth openly attacking adherents of the other religion in frequently brutal and intimate fashion. Particularly in relation to the post-election violence in 2011 more Muslims were killed while the Christian community saw significantly more churches burned. Similar to the violence that occurred in Plateau State virtually no one in Kaduna State has ever been held responsible. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FOUNDATION NIGERIA 33 Outside of these major incidents there have been smaller violent outbursts throughout northern Nigeria. The regularity and scope have increased since 2009 when Abu Shekau took over Boko Haram and more completely embraced violence as a tool of political and religious expediency. Both Christians and Muslims have at times instigated retaliated or otherwise participated in violent assaults attacking participants in the other religious community and this has contributed to a destabilized context primed for escalating aggression and fracture. While individuals from all faiths must be held accountable for their acts of violence it is clear that religious minorities have more often been the recipients rather than the instigators and have experienced far more damaging effects. Archbishop Ignatius Kaigama Ignatius Kaigama of Jos and President of the Bishops Conference of Nigeria has been elected the new president of The Regional Episcopal Conference of West Africa (RECOWA) and The Regional Episcopal Conference of Francophone West Africa (CERAO). Defining the Roots of this Foundational Discrimination Boko Haram and the Fulani militants emerged out of a context ripe for their development. It is true that northern Nigeria has experienced economic discrimination and under-development in comparison to southern Nigeria as is well-noted by Ambassador Campbell In the North there is a multifaceted Islamic revival underway incorporating elements from Saudi Arabia the Persian Gulf and Pakistan as well as Iran. The context is increasing poverty especially in relation to the growing prosperity of other regions in Nigeria and a general perception of the political marginalization of the North within the Nigerian federation.29 However to focus solely on this marginalization is to miss how northern elite have further instituted policies and practices of discrimination targeting religious minorities within their region. There is a false narrative frequently promoted and seldom questioned regarding the primacy of Islam within northern Nigeria. Underneath this narrative is a highly fluid situation the changing dynamics of which have increasingly left northern elite perceiving that their identity their position and their religion is under threat. There is a vested interest in continuing to maintain this particular narrative while instituting wide-ranging policies and practices of discrimination that over time will make this perceived reality true in fact. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 34 NIGERIA FOUNDATION FOUNDATION GIVING RISE TO ORGANIZATIONS WILLING TO EXPLICITLY EMBRACE VIOLENCE TO ACHIEVE THEIR AGENDA. Boko Haram is understood to mean Western Civilization is forbidden. 1. Northern Perception of Injustice 2. Northern Elite Positional Power and Willingness to Utilize Religion to Political Ends 3. Historical Legacy and Mandate to Extend Islam 4. Islamic Revival and Transition from Sufi to Salafist Interpretations 6. Environment of Impunity Undermining the Rule of Law 5. Longstanding Resistance of Religious Minority Communities Even as Their Size and Position is Denied This ongoing foundation of discrimination involves the interlocking of six distinct roots. Root 1 Northern Perception of Injustice. Within northern Nigeria there is a widespread perception that as a region it is experiencing economic injustice intentionally limited infrastructure development and education that is simultaneously not as strong as what exists elsewhere in the country and filled with western values inconsistent with traditional Muslim practices. There is a further perception that many of the current actions of southern politicians and certain elements of the security forces are conspiring to further marginalize the region as a whole and Muslims in particular from their rightful national place within Nigeria. Root 2 Northern Elite Positional Power and Willingness to Utilize Religion to Political Ends. While the religious political and economic dynamics are in flux many elite Muslims feel as if their identity position power and religion are under threat. There are those willing to take whatever steps are necessary in order to ensure their ongoing hegemony of power and preferred status even if this means politicizing religion and condoning violence in the name of religion against minorities. While this may be effective in the immediacy of politics it unleashes Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FOUNDATION NIGERIA 35 within society a culture of violence that cannot be controlled and that will ultimately negatively impact those in the majoritarian religion as some will be deemed not religious enough. It will further make an integrated context of peace more difficult to build. In fact this has already been occurring as Boko Haram has adopted an approach of takfiri which is the accusation of apostasy by one Muslim against another Muslim. Root 3 Historical Legacy and Mandate to Extend Islam. Islam has a long history of social and political organizing in Nigeria. There are many Muslims who believe that they are part of a living historical legacy and mandate to consolidate northern Nigeria into a Muslim society and then extend that project into the Middle Belt and beyond. This is why large numbers of Muslims have supported the implementation of sharia law the ongoing continuation of Nigeria in the Organization of Islamic Cooperation and the support and public enforcement of wide-spread policies and practices that target and discriminate against religious minorities. Root 4 Islamic Revival and Transition from Sufi to Salafist Interpretations. The past several decades have seen a revival within many Islamic communities throughout northern Nigeria. It is certain that outside support and funding has contributed to this development though to what extent is unclear and additional research is needed. Historically the majority of Muslims in northern Nigeria held to Sufi interpretations of Islam which has historically lent itself to peaceful co-existence with individuals of other faiths. This ongoing Islamic revival in northern Nigeria is manifested in a shift towards Salafist interpretations which emphasize stricter implementation of sharia and more simplified and pure practices of Islam as a return to the forms of expression used around the time of the Prophet Muhammad. As one expert has remarked Religious conflict frequently takes the form of a civil war within Islam. Radical reformers in what is now Nigeria have long taken a takfiri approach to Muslim leaders they deem un-just declaring them non-Muslim even when the individual rulers themselves claim to be Muslims. Hence Salafi reformers pit themselves against Sufis who dominate the traditional Nigerian Muslim elites. Some Salafi reformers wish to establish a pure Islamic state characterized by the strict application of sharia. This has potent appeal in a period of increasing personal and community poverty at the grassroots.30 Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 36 NIGERIA FOUNDATION This shift to Salafism helps explain why a country that has had both Muslims and Christians sometimes living as neighbors within the same community for hundreds of years has not experienced this level of violence in the past why religious identity is hardening and why at least some Nigerian Muslims are willing to employ violence against both Christians and fellow Muslims who are seen as morally culpable given their perceived dettachment to correct forms of practice. Aminu Mohammed Umar describes Despite its early violent history the Sufi version of Islam practiced in Northern Nigeria transformed into a conservative tolerant and peaceful religion. This situation remained until the recent spread of Wahhabi-Salafi Islam. Through the influence of countries like Saudi Arabia and multitudes of Islamic charities the Wahhabi tradition of Islam has slowly and steadily crept into Northern Nigeria. As a result of contacts with newly established Islamic school as well as contacts through scholarship programs to study in Egypt Yemen Pakistan Iran Iraq and other Muslim countries across the world the Salafi Shia and other versions of Islam often with more radical ideologies gained acceptance in the region. Boko Haram is one such radical sect which is considered an evolution of previous violent sects in that region.31 This battle for the character of Islam within Nigeria has substantive ramifications for the country for the region for the reestablishment of peace and perhaps most keenly and immediately for the religious minorities within northern Nigeria. Root 5 Longstanding Resistance by Religious Minority Communities Even as Their Size and Position is Denied. For more than one hundred years some ethnic and religious minority communities have resisted attempts at conversion to Islam and incorporation into a Muslim-infused societal project. Today the size of these minorities are often either under-played or dismissed under the settler rubric. Many of these individuals feel marginalized by their neighbors in the north abandoned by the federal government and co-religionists to the south and ignored by the broader international community. It is as if many outside of this region simply do not want to acknowledge or address the significant discrimination occurring within northern Nigeria. This has created a climate that allowed more violent forms of expression to fester and grow. Today many in these communities appeal to a political vision defined by the full implementation of the federal constitution rule of law the strengthening of institutions of governance and freedom of religion. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FOUNDATION NIGERIA 37 In the interim many continue to robustly maintain their faith while embracing one of two approaches (1) privately practicing their religion while utilizing public coping strategies in order to navigate the pervasive discrimination they face and secure life and livelihood or (2) forming armed vigilante groups in the absence of the protection that could be provided by police or other security forces to defend their communities against encroaching violence. When perceived as necessary these vigilante groups at times proactively and reactively respond to aggression. In both of the highlighted approaches religious identity is increasingly hardening and contributing to the possibility of further fracture. Nigeria Constitution (1998) Section 38 Chapter IV Foundational Rights (1) Every person shall be entitled to freedom of thought conscience and religion including freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom (either alone or in community with others and in public or in private) to manifest and propagate his religion or belief in worship teaching practice and observance. (2) No person attending any place of education shall be required to receive religious instruction or to take part in or attend any religious ceremony or observance if such instruction ceremony or observance relates to a religion other than his own or religion not approved by his parent or guardian. (3) No religious community or denomination shall be prevented from providing religious instruction for pupils of that community or denomination in any place of education maintained wholly by that community or denomination. (4) Nothing in this section shall entitle any person to form take part in the activity or be a member of a secret society. Root 6 Environment of Impunity Undermining the Rule of Law. In the midst of numerous episodes of violence legal responsibility and culpability have been rare even as gross violations of human rights have occurred communities have been burned places of worship destroyed and individuals brutally murdered. Violence within a context of impunity begets violence. An inability or perhaps more likely and more dangerously a political unwillingness to hold accountable those who are undermining the institutions of the State and the rule of law have created a climate where actors perceive that they are free to do whatever seems right to themselves and to their community. This is to say that Boko Haram and the broader episodes of violence in northern and central Nigeria find much of their epicenter in the longstanding discrimination and impunity that has rampantly occurred throughout northern Nigeria and that has produced identities increasingly understood through the prism of religion. Woven together by six distinct roots addressing this foundation of discrimination is essential for the peaceful rehabilitation of northern Nigeria creating a context that will not produce a violent manifestation post-Boko Haram and reversing further fracturing. Unfortunately at present these foundational causative issues are being largely ignored and the hardening of religious fault lines has quickened since the adoption of sharia in 2002 and further accelerated since 2009 and Boko Haram s embrace of violence. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 38 NIGERIA BOKO HARAM Boko Haram cannot be properly understood apart from the economic deprivation of northeastern Nigeria nor from the context of impunity and social and religious discrimination that occurs within the country s north. Boko Haram An Explosion of Violence Boko Haram s explosion of violence has shocked Nigeria and launched a group ingrained in the deep poverty of rural northeastern Nigeria into the mainstream attention of the international community. Though Boko Haram is properly understood as emerging from a distinct foundation of discrimination rather than as a sole causative factor the sheer brutality of the terrorist group threatens to overshadow this foundation and frequently generates analysis focused solely on the eradication of the organization rather than altering the context that gave it rise. Boko Haram cannot be properly understood apart from the economic deprivation of northeastern Nigeria nor from the context of impunity and social and religious discrimination that occurs within the country s north. Without question Boko Haram has created one of the worse humanitarian crises in the world millions impacted thousands slaughtered one of the greatest IDP concentrations in the world communities razed women and children abducted and abused educational opportunities eradicated and entire economies virtually ground to a halt in certain areas. Northeastern Nigeria has been spiraling into ever greater destabilization and humanitarian tragedy as the Nigerian government and the international community have been slow to respond. This affects individuals such as Arit from Adamawa State. On May 7 2014 Boko Haram swept through her small village in northeastern Nigeria killing 22 people. Arit along with other survivors believed that Boko Haram would not return and that the situation would improve. However in June when the planting season began Boko Haram terrorists returned destroyed the crops killed youth working in the farmlands and confiscated the community s cows. Arit and others from the village ran to the nearby mountains to seek refuge in caves. Some who were physically unable to climb the rocks and reach the safety of the caves were captured and forcibly converted to Islam. Those who resisted were killed. For two months Arit and the others with her hid in the caves with only some venturing out in the evenings to scavenge and beg. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. BOKO HARAM NIGERIA 39 Mother from Adamawa State who survived Boko Haram attack. Without any outside assistance this was the sole source of food those in hiding had for the duration of this period. Fear and anxiety ravaged Arit during those two months as five of her seven children had been separated from her in the rush to reach the caves and she did not know if they were dead or alive. On August 28 2014 Arit and others attempted to return to their farms in hopes of rebuilding. Multiple gunshots met them. Once again she fled to the caves. This time she remained for only three days before reaching the depressing realization that her community was now fully under the control of Boko Haram Arit s hope is to eventually return to her home village and start life anew. She implored I covet your prayers... I desire your prayers so that I can be strong and take care of my children. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 40 NIGERIA BOKO HARAM TIMELINE Brief Historical Overview of Boko Haram Excerpted from Encyclopedia Britannica Mohammad Yusuf founds Boko Haram originally called Jama atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda awati Wal-Jihad and that return in the immediate future was not a possibility. She prayed and prayed that God would enable her to find her children. Not finding them in a refugee camp in Cameroon she moved to a displaced area in Nigeria where she learned that her children were in Yola. When she arrived in Yola her hope was rewarded when she saw the remaining five of her children in the distance. As they ran towards an emotional embrace the youngest among them cried could this be mom This young child was three years old. Arit described that it was God s grace that kept her alive during this time and that had given her the money to search for her children and to resettle in a new area. Her hope is to eventually return to her home village and start life anew. She implored I covet your prayers... I desire your prayers so that I can be strong and take care of my children. At the time of this interview it had been twenty-months since she had last seen her husband. She still did not know if he had survived the attack or if he had died. Arit was far from the only individual who described being forced to live in caves and subsist off the most meagre of resources. Lolade her husband and two children lived in Borno State and were also forced to flee their village and live in mountain caves. In late 2014 they attempted to leave the mountain and flee as refugees to Cameroon but along the route they were separated and Boko Haram captured Lolade and her children. As captives they were held in a high-walled compound with approximately twenty other women. When Boko Haram successfully raided villages for food they fed the women and children and when they had not the women children and the fighters alike fasted. Some of the women gave birth to children while they were held captive and the members of Boko Haram assigned those children Muslim names. The mothers however would secretly give and use an alternate name of their choosing and that could be publicly continued should an end to the imprisonment become a possibility. For two months Lolade and her children were held in this condition. Each night the women were locked into the house around 5 00 p.m. where they would remain until 10 00 a.m. when they would be permitted to collect firewood leaves and water. One night she and the other women held in this particular house 2002 Boko Haram began shift towards a more militant approach Mohammad Yusuf killed in an extra-judicial action by Nigerian security forces 2009 July 30 2009 Fall 2009 Abubakar Shekau assumes leadership of Boko Haram Boko Haram bombed UN headquarters in Abuja killing 23 and injuring more than 100 August 2011 May 2013 President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency for the entirety of Borno Adamawa and Yobe States November 2013 United States Government designates Boko Haram as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Boko Haram captures the Government Secondary School of Chibok and kidnaps 276 girls Boko Haram pledges allegiance to the Islamic State and changes its name to the Islamic State of West Africa Province April 2014 March 2015 March 2016 Boko Haram reaffirms its allegiance to the Islamic State Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. BOKO HARAM NIGERIA 41 sensed an opportunity and Lolade placed one of her children on her back and one on her shoulders climbed over a wall and ran. Eighteen escaped. When asked what she might wish to communicate to people in the United States about her ordeal Lolade replied without hesitation I pray that God should not allow this kind of situation to come into the West. The person who initially captured and imprisoned Lolade was a childhood friend from her home village with whom she had grown up and whom she knew very well. Destroyed communities separated families violent endings and the struggle to survive in the midst of caves famine insecurity and deplorable conditions characterize the areas impacted by Boko Haram. This is not however how the group initially started. Boko Haram loosely followed a four stage development. 1 The Four Stages of Boko Haram Development The first stage was a nascent movement that built upon local grievances and lack of good governance. Islamist cleric Mohammad Yusuf founded Boko Haram in 2002 in Maiduguri the capital of Borno State. Yusuf was a trained Salafist who was part of the revivalist movement encouraging a shift away from Sufism. Initially the group called itself Jama atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda awati Wal-Jihad or people committed to the propagation of the Prophet s teachings and jihad thus underscoring that religion has always been one of the motivators for those who have participated in this group. Yusuf wanted to build an Islamic community but does not seem to have initially favored a militant approach. Rather he was concerned with the underdevelopment he witnessed within his state and that he blamed on the corrupting influence of non-Muslims most especially the impact of Western values on Nigeria. For example he could point to the fact that literacy in Borno State is estimated at 46 percent for boys and 34 percent for girls while in the southern state of Imo both boys and girls have a literacy rate of more than 98 percent.32 Initially Boko Haram Stage One Nascent Movement Building. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 42 NIGERIA BOKO HARAM false narrative Boko Haram s Connections to International Islamic Terrorist Networks In March 2015 the leadership of Boko Haram publicly pledged itself as a provincial vassalage of the Islamic State based in Raqqa Syria. This was not however the first time that Boko Haram had sought alignment with a broader international terrorist network. Boko Haram had also sought affiliation with Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Al-Shabab. Boko Haram seems to be a terrorist organization motivated by religious and economic impulses organized as a criminal enterprise and in search of integration into a broader international narrative of Islamic resurgence an ambition they aim to satisfy through the sheer brazenness and barbarity of their attacks and pledged allegiance to a well-recognized network. The Islamic State is a natural fit as it has consistently pressed religious minorities within its control to the edge of extinction and has engaged in genocide according to both the European Parliament and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry. In March 2016 Boko Haram once again affirmed their pledge to the Islamic State. Despite these public affirmations the likelihood of coordination between these two organizations is limited at best. This linkage is maintained because it is to the political and theological advantage of both organizations at least continued on page 43 was something of a para-government assistance group offering help paying the bills support for the unemployed widows and children and a sense of belonging that filled the gap left by the absent state. 33 The name Boko Haram which seems to have been given to the group by residents of Maiduguri has proved difficult to translate into English and is most often rendered Western education is sin. 34 It is perhaps more properly understood as Western civilization is forbidden. This is the meaning that Boko Haram member Mallam Sanni Umary voices Boko Haram does not in any way mean Western education is a sin as the infidel media continue to portray us. Boko Haram actually means Western Civilization is forbidden. The difference is that while the first gives the impression that we are opposed to formal education coming from the West that is Europe which is not true the second affirms our belief in the supremacy of Islamic culture (not education) for culture is broader it includes education but is not determined by Western education. In this case we are talking of Western ways of life which include constitutional provision as it relates to for instance the rights and privileges of women the idea of homosexuality lesbianism sanctions in cases of terrible crimes like drug trafficking rape of infants multi-party democracy in an overwhelmingly Islamic country like Nigeria blue films prostitution drinking beer and alcohol and many others that are opposed to Islamic civilization.35 In other words Boko Haram initially emerged in the midst of real poverty but viewed the lack of development through a very conservative religious lens and sought to address and rectify the situation by building a community that practiced a more robust and pure form of Islam according to their understanding. Yusuf seems to have drawn support from a slightly older generation who wanted to participate with him in a revivalist movement that built upon the historical legacy of northeastern Nigeria and which they were certain would lead to a better future. Over the next seven years the group slowly became more militant as encounters with Muslims who resisted their message and a state apparatus leery of its social services forced the group to defend its actions with theological pronouncements and the maintenance of funding for expanded engagement. July 2009 would cause the seeds for violence sown during this time to surface and alter the direction of the organization. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. BOKO HARAM NIGERIA 43 2 Stage Two Lack of Proper Governmental Response. There had already been clashes between the clerics and largely unemployed followers of Boko Haram with the local government and in particular the police. These episodes of violence had the effect of pushing Boko Haram in a particular direction. As recounted by the Council on Foreign Relations In July 2009 Boko Haram members refused to follow a motor- continued from page 42 within their own constituencies. Ironically it is also to the benefit of the Nigerian government to emphasize the association of Boko Haram with the Islamic State. Constructively it may allow Nigerian security forces to acquire additional resources in their pursuit of ending Boko Haram though there are also indications that security forces have at times abused their position and under the fa ade of combatting terrorism committed human rights violations. In the midst of tightening budgets it is reported that some within the National Security Council of the United States are debating realigning their language and internal designations to reflect Boko Haram as a legitimate part of the constellation of the Islamic State. To the extent that this would free additional resources to combat Boko Haram officially designated as a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the U.S. since 2013 this would be a positive development. It is therefore to the political advantage of multiple groups to emphasize the connection between Boko Haram and international Islamic terrorist organizations even though operational realities suggest this linkage is tenuous at best. Nonetheless this reality could change should Boko Haram become more desperate and more asymmetrical in their attacks as may be indicated by a weapons convoy intercepted in Chad in early April that U.S. military officials believe was en route from Islamic State fighters in Libya to Boko Haram. In May the UN Security Council expressed its alarm that the relationship between these two organizations may be maturing. bike helmet law leading to heavy-handed police tactics that set off an armed uprising in the northern state of Bauchi and spread into the states of Borno Yobe and Kano. The army suppressed protests leaving more than eight hundred dead.36 3 In an action that was widely condemned as an extra-judicial killing on July 30 2009 Mohammad Yusuf his father-in-law and other members of Boko Haram who were arrested during this time were shot outside police headquarters. In an environment where the police could operate with impunity and little fear of government or legal accountability this event proved the tipping point. Following the killing of Yusuf his deputy Abubakar Shekau and his third-in-command Mamman Nur briefly vied for power. Nur brought more international contacts including links to Al-Shabab but Shekau who had a feared and violent reputation ultimately succeeded. Almost immediately the group began to splinter into competing segments over ideology tactics suspicion that members of the Kanuri ethnicity were being favored and the personal approbation and control over the finances by Shekau. Boko Haram spokesman Abu Qaqa admitted during an interview he completed while in custody We don t know how this money was spent and nobody dared asked questions for fear of death... Everyone lived in fear more of the leadership of the group even than of the security agencies... Most of us were tired of fighting but we couldn t come out to say so because of fear of reprisal from Shekau on dissenting members. Several of our members that denounced the violent struggle were slaughtered in front of their wives and children.37 Stage Three Hardening Religious Ideology and Increasingly Aggressive Acts of Destruction. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 44 NIGERIA BOKO HARAM We had a grand plan to Islamize Nigeria starting with the North. We felt that a lot of Muslims are not practicing the religion faithfully as they should. Thus the cohesion of the group was therefore always illusory and only artificially maintained by Shekau s intimidating authoritarianism. 38 Where Yusuf had drawn support from an older generation Shekau s base of support was from a younger generation of 20-30-year-olds who were more inclined to militant activism in order to establish a Muslim society one that could be achieved only when religious minorities were removed as well as all Muslims who did not adhere to their particular interpretation. As Abu Qaqa Boko Haram Spokesman said elsewhere We had a grand plan to Islamize Nigeria starting with the North. We felt that a lot of Muslims are not practicing the religion faithfully as they should. Part of the plan was to reduce the powers of the Sultan to traditional rulership functions only while all religious authority would be vested with our leader who would be based in Yobe.39 A YOUNGER GENERATION 20-30 Yusuf drew support from an older generation Shekau s base of support 20-30-year-olds inclined to militant activism Though additional research is needed to add clarification it seems as if the group maintains a loose core and functions more along the lines of independent cells utilizing their own standards and rules of engagement. Unlike the Islamic State Boko Haram in function not in theology operates closer to that of a criminal organization than that a state or governing institution. The link between Boko Haram and other terrorist movements remains unclear. As has been widely reported in March 2015 Boko Haram officially pledged its loyalty to the Islamic State and reflected this commitment by adopting the name the Islamic Boko Haram members Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. BOKO HARAM NIGERIA 45 4 State of West Africa Province. It is likely that at least some of the members of Boko Haram ascribe to the theology and ideology of the Islamic State that there may have been some military training and perhaps weapons accruement but it is unlikely any true strategic and tactical coordination exists between the two organizations.40 There is however the real possibility that this could change. Should Boko Haram become more desperate and more asymmetrical in its attacks or alternatively should the situation of the Islamic State significantly alter intentional links between the two could mature. That this remains a possibility is evidenced by the fact that on April 7 a weapons convoy carrying small-caliber weapons machine guns and rifles was intercepted in Chad. U.S. military officials believe the weapons were en route from Islamic State fighters in Libya to Boko Haram.41 This is in addition to the arrest of four imams in Kaolack Senegal in February on charges related to money laundering and financing terrorism for Boko Haram.42 In May perhaps as a sign of growing collaboration the UN Security Council expressed alarm at Boko Haram s linkages with the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL also known as Da esh). 43 2013 marks something of a turning point as it was in May of that year that Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency across the entirety of the states of Borno Adamawa and Yobe all of which had been significantly impacted by Boko Haram. In November 2013 the U.S. listed Boko Haram as a Foreign Terrorist Organization.44 Having escalated into a full-scale conflict Boko Haram was impacting millions of individuals spread through multiple states in northeastern Nigeria. Boko Haram increasingly functioned as a decentralized organization with independent units and their own operating procedures. This approach has not generated the ability of Boko Haram to hold and maintain distinct territory for long periods of time but has created a movement able to inflict fear and widespread devastation. Decentralization has made locating Boko Haram and its members challenging leaves those who have suffered with ongoing traumatic feelings of insecurity given the oft repeated pattern of Boko Haram returning to a given area once security forces have departed and will likely prove rehabilitation difficult given that there have often been personal dimensions as units have attacked areas from which they Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. Stage Four Full-Scale Conflict Impacting Millions. 46 NIGERIA BOKO HARAM i SOKOTO KEBBI KWARA NIGER OYO OSUN OGUN LAOS DELTA EKITI ONDO themselves emerged. As Al-Jazeera reported INFORMATION Map of Boko Haram Aggression [Boko Haram] is believed to have a number of factions with differing aims including some with political links. The group initially claimed to be fighting for the creation of an Islamic state in the north but a range of demands by different people have since been issued. Criminal gangs are also believed to have carried out violence under the guise of Boko Haram. Conspiracy theories abound as well.45 KATSINA ZAMFARA KANO JIGAWA YOBE BORNO KADUNA BAUCHI GOMBE ADAMAWA The BBC has also reported on the growing nature of the conflict with 2013 as a turning point Boko Haram s trademark was originally the use of gunmen on motorbikes killing police politicians and anyone who criticised it including clerics from other Muslim traditions and Christian preachers. The group has also Boka Haram Agression FCT NASARAWA PLATEAU TARABA KOGI EDO ENUGU EBONYL IMO CROSS RIVERS ANAMBRA BENUE BAYEISA ABIA staged more audacious attacks in northern and central Nigeria including bombing churches bus ranks bars military barracks and even the police and UN headquarters in the capital Abuja. Amid growing concern about the escalating violence President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in May 2013 in the three northern states where Boko Haram was strongest - Borno Yobe and Adamawa.46 Violence continued to occur throughout 2015 as noted by the most recent United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) report While Boko Haram lost territory it reverted to asymmetrical attacks and expanded its violence into Cameroon Chad and Niger. During the reporting period terrorists attacked at least 30 houses of worship and religious ceremonies in the Lake Chad Basin area including suicide bombings during Ramadan Eid al-Adha and Ashura. Boko Haram also attacked markets internally displaced persons (IDP) camps and small villages which were completely destroyed. Human rights groups and escaped Boko Haram abductees report that Christians under Boko Haram control were forced to convert or die and that Muslim abductees were required to attend Quranic schools to learn the group s extreme interpretation of Islam.47 One of the hallmarks of Boko Haram has been its rampant utilization of gender based violence. Boko Haram has abducted 2 000 women boys and girls. Some of the women and girls have been forced into marriages with members of Boko Haram while others have been used for cooking and the maintenance of life within militant camps trained in the creation and deployment of Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. BOKO HARAM NIGERIA 47 bombs or even used in suicide missions. This includes an incident in February 2016 when three females were disguised as IDPs and sent to an IDP camp around 6 30 a.m.48 Two of the females detonated their bombs and killed at least fifty-eight and injured another seventy-eight. The third realized that her family were staying in that particular IDP camp and refused to engage her explosives lest she kill or harm a member of her family who by happenstance might be nearby. In 2015 women participated in 39 of the 89 Boko Haram suicide bombings or in almost 44% of the time.49 Displaced women within government-run IDP camps report that sexual violence is not uncommon that survival sex is a reality to address food insecurity and that there are almost no procedures in place to identify and provide services to women and girls who have escaped or been rescued from Boko Haram.50 Even once they are released Boko Haram wives continue to face suspicion that they may have been brainwashed to secretly support the agenda of Boko Haram and may be functioning as a sleeper-cell poised to strike. There is also a disturbing narrative among some who believe that the children born to these individuals have a genetic predisposition to terrorism a stigma that threatens to mark these children for life. Another trademark of Boko Haram has been the intentional targeting of schools teachers and students. Since 2009 in northeastern Nigeria 611 teachers have been killed and 19 000 more have fled for their lives. 910 schools have been destroyed and a further 1 500 schools forced to close leaving an estimated 950 000 school-age children with almost no opportunity for education. The most well-publicized incident has been the attack on the Government Secondary School in the town of Chibok that resulted in the kidnapping of 276 girls. However this has not been the only mass school-kidnapping. Although it has received far less international attention and been denied by some within the Nigerian government on November 24 2014 Boko Haram attacked Damasak in Borno State where the insurgents quickly occupied Zanna Mobarti Primary School shutting the gates and locking more than 300 students ages 7 to 17 inside according to a teacher at the school ... The Boko Haram militants then used the school as a military base bringing scores of other women and children abducted across the town there as captives. 51 When soldiers from Chad and Niger advanced on the town in March 2015 Boko Haram fled with 300 children and an estimated 100 women and left 470 dead. 2 000 women boys and girls have been abducted by Boko Haram since 2012 44% of Boko Haram suicide bombings were made by women 39 of 89 attacks Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. Photo from footage Boka Hara Fifteen of the over 200 missing Chibok girls. Photo from footage Boka Hara Profile The Abduction of 276 Girls from the Government Secondary School Chibok The abduction of 276 girls from the Government Secondary School in the town of Chibok officially began during the night of Monday April 14 2014. But in some respects it actually started on the Friday before. The lorries drove through the night of April 15 deeper into There had been attacks in the area and in previous instances students at the school ran and hid in the forest. But on the Friday before April 11 the principal called for a school assembly and announced that should a threat emerge all of the girls were to gather at a certain assembly point and wait for the military to arrive. As the shots of gunfire rang out that Monday night the girls did as instructed gathering at the assembly point and waiting for the military. Curiously relatives of the principal were not present on that Monday nor was the security guard one of the only Muslim staff at the school which was almost entirely populated with Christian students. The first men through the gate of the school were wearing military uniforms and the girls welcomed them believing they were their rescuers. But as more and more men arrived and began chanting Allahu Akbar meaning God is great a sinking realization settled. The girls were forced to cover their heads and marched for two hours. Several who have escaped have reported that some community members in the area gathered at the road and cheered as Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. the girls were marched past them. Eventually the group reached several lorries where the girls were loaded on the back. the Sambisa Forest with additional Boko Haram motorcycles trailing behind. Several who escaped reported that the driver of their lorry whispered that he was also Chibok had been pressed into this service did not know where they were headed but that he would slow down from time to time so that some of the girls could jump and run for safety. In the morning when the guards realized that some of the girls had escaped they threatened to kill the driver but no one else present knew how to drive that particular vehicle. Altogether 57 girls escaped either by jumping or later from the forest. Boko Haram released a video on the two year anniversary of this abduction to prove that at least some of the students remain in their captivity. Despite tremendous international outcry two years later 219 girls remain missing presumably kept hidden deep within the Sambisa Forest. Many blame the Nigerian government for their unwillingness to acknowledge the breadth of the abduction or to receive international assistance that could have helped locate the girls. The principal now lives in Maiduguri and is said by relatives to have acquired new and additional property. BOKO HARAM NIGERIA 49 The destruction unleashed by Boko Haram is massive and widespread. Citing a leaked World Bank Report the BBC notes the devastation and destruction in Borno State where the rampant abuses have been most profoundly felt 30 percent of 3.2 million private houses 5 335 buildings 1 630 water sources 1 205 administrative buildings 726 power sub-stations and distribution lines 201 health centers 76 police stations 35 electricity offices 14 prison buildings.52 950 000 school-age children with almost no opportunity for education Given the scope of Boko Haram s activities one of the open questions is to what degree is the group voluntarily supported by individuals within northeastern Nigeria While this cannot be known exactly John Campbell points to a Pew Research survey indicating that perhaps as much as 10 percent of Muslims in Nigeria support the actions of Boko Haram.53 What is perhaps more clear is that there have been a number of volunteer recruits who have joined the ranks of Boko Haram and they have done so for a variety of reasons. 611 19K teachers killed teachers have fled for their lives READ MORE ONLINE Where are the girls today Muslim resident of IDP camp near Abuja Nigeria Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 50 NIGERIA BOKO HARAM Recent research has highlighted 1. There is no single demographic profile of a Boko Haram member 2. Influence from social and business peers is a key factor in recruitment 3. Youth see in Boko Haram an opportunity to get ahead through business support 4. Some women freely choose to join Boko Haram for the opportunity to gain more education through the study of the Quran as part of their own theological conviction or as a means of achieving higher status 5. Broad frustrations with government created initial community acceptance of Boko Haram.54 When military advanced upon the Zanna Mobarti Primary School in March 2015 Boko Haram fled with 300 100 470 children women and left dead In the midst of these challenging dynamics in many instances the Nigerian security forces which include the Nigerian armed forces police forces and self-defense groups such as the Civilian Joint Task Force exacerbated the situation. One individual described No one knowns for sure who the enemy is. Boko Haram will attack the people and leave. Then the military will come and also arrest people. When the people try to cooperate with the military Boko Haram will attack them again. Some of the people are planning on going back home and seeking revenge. Even some of the young boys and youth are planning on returning to their home area and seeking revenge. If this trauma healing is not done then there will be significant social unrest in the future. Director of an Unofficial IDP Camp in Plateau State that had registered 4 000 individuals Now the military thinks civilians are Boko Haram. Civilians think some military are Boko Haram. They are afraid to give information to anyone. Even the [Civilian Joint Task Force] has started acting like [it s] the military sometimes and abusing the people. We really don t know who the enemy is now.55 In some respects it was the lack of security or the gross abuse of security forces in northeastern Nigeria that contributed to the foundation of discrimination that helped kindle Boko Haram. Although most civilians would now identify Boko Haram as the primary threat to security in the region this does not mean that there has been a widespread embrace of the government security forces. Rather the Center for Civilians for Conflict notes Nigeria s security forces have fallen short in three major ways. They have 1) failed to protect vulnerable communities from violence 2) failed to prevent collateral damage during counter-Boko Haram operations and 3) directly targeted civilians with unlawful detention harassment destruction of property sexual violence indiscriminate targeting of certain groups (e.g. young men) torture and excessive use of force causing injury and death. These patterns of harm are a direct result of several factors. Most important among them Nigeria s overall strategy to combat violent extremism lacks sufficient attention to mitigating the drivers of the conflict and incorporating non- Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. BOKO HARAM NIGERIA 51 military approaches to civilian security. This leaves the military as the sole provider of solutions to problems it cannot solve.56 In other words while civilians especially religious minorities decry the lack of security at the local level many remain suspicious of the Nigerian security forces. One former UN official described To the Nigerian Army there are only four types of people in northeastern Nigeria Boko Haram Boko Haram sympathizers Boko Haram abductees and people the army has freed from the control of Boko Haram. 57 In effect the Nigerian army seems to have made a decision to describe their efforts in northeastern Nigeria as a process of liberating communities from the control of Boko Haram. This is a significant political and media coup as in recent days the military has been able to claim largescale victories with significant numbers released. However the reality is often somewhat murkier as Boko Haram tends to be active in an area without necessarily holding the territory in a classic sense. This enables the Nigerian security forces to claim a more decisive victory than what is often the case especially if Boko Haram fighters are left to reenter the area once the security forces have departed. The villagers themselves may be somewhat ambivalent. On the one hand Boko Haram forces might move through the area on occasion causing civilian destruction before withdrawing while in other instances it is the Nigerian security forces following the same pattern. Moreover there are reports that at times the Nigerian security forces have actually burned down villages in the name of setting that community free from Boko Haram and then escorting the members of the community to IDP camps.58 As John Campbell has written In April 2012 the federal government granted emergency powers to the security forces to counter Boko Haram. The heavy security presence in these areas has become dysfunctional. There was a downward spiral with soldiers resorting to brutality amongst an increasingly hostile population ... In the past millenarian Islamic movements had burned themselves out often under military pressure. But there was no sign that this process was under way ... On the other hand Boko Haram did not seem to be consolidating. Instead it appeared to be a grassroots revolution but without a political infrastructure and mostly fed by popular rage with a dose of Islamic fervor. And the military appeared incapable of controlling it.59 In relation to religious freedom what people fail to know is that the Chibok community is mixed with 70 percent of the population Christian in a state where the population around them is 80 percent Muslim. So you have a Christian minority in a larger Christian county that is within a larger Muslim state. Up to this time the Chibok community had lived side by side with the larger community in peace. And when the girls were kidnapped even Muslims mourned the loss. Imam Muhammad Ashafa Even when a member of Boko Haram is captured it remains unclear as to what legal charges are normally applied or judicial Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 52 NIGERIA BOKO HARAM false narrative The Military is Making Significant Advancements in Containing Boko Haram Inaugurated as President in May 2015 President Buhari noted his intention to eradicate Boko Haram and in December 2015 publicly claimed that the terrorist organization had been technically defeated. In the first few months of 2016 the Nigerian army claimed that 800 Boko Haram fighters had voluntarily surrendered and 11 595 civilian hostages had been rescued. (Morgan Winsor Nigerian Military Says 800 Boko Haram Fighters Have Surrendered International Business Times [March 8 2016]) However on the ground the situation remains largely unaltered. At this stage these claims should be best understood as political rhetoric which is not without its own merit as a tool for galvanizing support shifting momentum and undercutting the narrative Boko Haram wants to maintain. Though valuable it is still not a substitute for actual progress. This is especially the case since there have been widespread reports that security forces have committed human rights violations. This includes a claim by Amnesty International that between December 12-14 2015 the Nigerian army slaughtered and secretly buried 347 members of a Shi ite religious group in the northern city of Zaria in Kaduna State. This is in conjunction with an assertion by a former UN official who described that Nigerian continued on page 53 Boko Haram poster inside Jos prison sentencing guidelines or processes utilized. In other words the means by which the Nigerian government seeks to rehabilitate and reintegrate former members of Boko Haram into society remains somewhat speculative. In her book Boko Haram Nigeria s Islamist Insurgency Virginia Comolli noted that despite repeated efforts and false starts she was unable to interview an individual in prison on charges related to their participation in Boko Haram. 60 This mirrors the experience of 21CWI whose team was initially given permission to visit a prisoner but then denied entrance. When one of the officials at a major prison was asked how many of the inmates were being held for crimes associated with Boko Haram he responded two. He further elaborated that the crime listed for most of these individuals was causing trouble because as he quickly added we do not want to embarrass them. There are reports that at the Giwa Barracks Detention Center in Maiduguri there is a ten-fold increase in the number of detainees in these cells rising from 25 in 2015 to 250 in early 2016 and with squalid conditions so unsanitary that since the start of 2016 out of the approximate 1 200 detainees 149 people have died including 11 children under the age of six.61 In the wake of the destruction by Boko Haram and the actions and missteps of the Nigerian security forces local communities find themselves holding the pieces and wondering how to rebuild. In fact there is an understandable but disconcerting trend among some of the youth particularly within the communities of religious minorities to outline a vision of their future in terms of military engagement and revenge against Boko Haram and those ascribing to its stated ideology. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. BOKO HARAM NIGERIA 53 More Muslims have been displaced and killed than either Christians or practitioners of African Traditional Religion. Given their minority status in some areas Christian communities have been virtually eliminated. The process of rehabilitation and rebuilding will require years of intentional engagement especially given the fact that the violence has been repetitive and ruthless. This is well illustrated in the experience of Amadi from Bauchi State. The attack occurred on April 27 2011 and began around 1 00 a.m. The family was Christian and had begun preparing for Easter. Amadi was asleep when she awoke to gunshots fired outside her home. Her husband and children were out of town so Amadi grabbed her handbag and mobile to flee to the home of a neighbor. She never made it there. As she was running she heard a gunshot and the pain in her leg told her that she had been hit. The attackers broke into her home and found her sitting there having been shot in the leg. They rushed at her with machetes raised and swung to slash her head but she raised her hand to block the weapon. The wound has never fully healed and even today she is unable to use that hand. She fell forward to the ground and using machetes they attacked again. Both her head and her back were ripped open. No words were exchanged during the attack though Amadi heard shouted throughout Allahu Akbar which means God is great. When they had finished they rushed out and Amadi began to hear the voices of neighbors and eventually someone from the military. Bleeding profusely and in a terrible condition she was taken to the hospital in town. At the time she was six months pregnant. When she arrived at the hospital she asked the doctor if he could hear the baby moving and after checking he answered with a heart stopping and straightforward report of no. At that point Amadi said that she lost her mind and did not know what was happening. Two days later she was transferred to the city of Bauchi so that she could receive better medical treatment. She spent the initial five days in intensive care where they had to first flush out the six-month old baby who had been killed and then the placenta. Amadi spent the next four months in that hospital slowly recovering. Today she is still unable to work or to exert significant physical activity due to the loss of functionality in her hand and reduced mobility in the leg that was shot. continued from page 52 security forces will sometimes claim to have liberated an area claimed by Boko Haram only in the most tenuous sense. As proof of their military success they may even point to a village that they themselves burned and escort the villagers to a refugee or IDP camp. One indicator that the situation on the ground has not significantly changed is that according to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) only 8.86 percent of IDPs repatriated in its most recent count. Even this dismal number is undoubtedly inflated given that the UNHCR undercounts the total IDP population by several million. To the Nigerian Army there are only four types of people in northeastern Nigeria Boko Haram Boko Haram sympathizers Boko Haram abductees and people the army has freed from the control of Boko Haram. A former UN official Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 54 NIGERIA BOKO HARAM No words were exchanged during the attack though Amadi heard shouted throughout Allahu Akbar which means God is great. Young mother who fled village after Boko Haram attack. in 2013 Fulani militants killed in 2014 they killed 63 1 229 500 This kind of experience is replicated many times over. While recovery from this kind of violence is challenge enough it is compounded if the deeper foundation of discrimination is not also addressed. Many Christian religious minorities believe that northern Muslim elite and some within the state governments who may or may not be supportive of Boko Haram are nonetheless using the instability of the situation to further extend an Islamic political hegemony that will outlast the end of hostilities related to Boko Haram. As proof multiple participants spoke of ongoing political disenfranchisement that they believe they were experiencing because of their Christian identification. As already noted Christians have long believed that there are some within state governments who manipulate results in order to ensure that Muslims remain in key positions. One individual in southern Bauchi State described how his particular village of 5 000 is virtually entirely Christian. Despite legal requirements to provide local voting there is not one polling station in the entire community. The closest polling station is in the next community three miles away but the sole connecting road is firmly controlled by Boko Haram thus effectively leaving this Christian community virtually excluded from the political process and further marginalized. He concluded his testimony by imploring Please free us ... Make us part of the Nigerian government. Another individual from a different community in southern Bauchi State described his experience. His particular community was killed by armed men with guns bows and machetes in the Agatu attack Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. BOKO HARAM NIGERIA 55 comprised of about 10 000 and was the hub for a local area of twenty villages that had roughly another 10 000 people. The majority of these 20 000 are Christian. In March 2011 the outlying twenty villages were attacked and destroyed creating an overnight influx of about 10 000 people. During this attack that destroyed twenty villages and displaced 10 000 818 homes were burned 153 were killed 200 wounded and 32 churches destroyed. Since that time no one from the government or from IDP humanitarian organizations has offered any help or assistance. In fact when the Local Government Area formed a committee to resettle those affected by Boko Haram this entire community with 10 000 Christian IDPs was excluded. Moreover since 2011 the area that had been occupied by the twenty villages has been rezoned into dedicated grazing territory preventing the possibility of resettlement and virtually eradicating the history and existence of those Christian communities. He lamented We have been left to the mercy of God ... The issue of resettling Christian IDPs is an issue for us. A lot of money has come in for resettling IDPs but Christians are exempted from this. They are not included in the process. Are we not part of Nigeria ... Why the marginalization Why are we being silenced Christian IDPs were excluded from Local Government aid southern Bauchi State. 818 153 10 000 homes burned killed The emergence of Boko Haram has been a source of significant disruption within Nigeria and the Lake Chad region. Boko Haram is an outgrowth of a foundation of discrimination both in terms of exclusion of the northern region within the main economic growth of the Nigerian federation and in relation to policies and practices within the north that favored one religion over others and created a climate for adherents of increasingly violent expressions of that religion to exert themselves. One security expert on the region observed The Boko Haram uprising in Nigeria rekindled the dangerous religious fault lines existing in Nigeria. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the Nigerian society and the divisive religious sensitivity the quick degeneration of the situation perhaps was inevitable. The Islamic fundamentalists tried to forcibly impose a religious ideology on a constitutionally recognized secular society which was not their first attempt but so far it is the most brutal. The move by Boko Haram widened the scope of Islamic revivalism which serves as a mobilization tool for many of its adherents. Boko Haram challenges the legitimacy of the Nigerian state in the course of promoting Islamic revivalism and further indicts the government as ineffective in securing and preserving the lives and properties of Nigerians.62 Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 56 NIGERIA BOKO HARAM John Campbell notes Family ethnic and religious identities are trumping a sense of national allegiance in large part because the state no longer addresses the basic concerns and needs of people. 63 In the midst of this strained system religious identification is hardening into a reality that can further fracture Nigeria. While everyone has been impacted religious minorities have carried a unique burden and many fear that because the broader foundation of discrimination that they have faced for many years has not been altered there will be those who will use the present flux and instability to further institutionalize a marginalization of the Christian community within the northern region. Unfortunately this pattern of intentional disempowerment especially around issues of consolidating control over land that can be zoned for grazing is being repeated in the Middle Belt. Christian family who fled the north to escape violence and discrimination. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FULANI MILITANTS NIGERIA 57 Fulani Militants Threatening to Engulf the Middle Belt Where ongoing discrimination and the violence of Boko Haram have helped produce one of the most severe humanitarian crises in the world Fulani militants are contributing to one of the gravest security threats. In 2013 Fulani militants killed 63 individuals in 2014 they killed 1 229 a rapidly accelerating trend they have continued to maintain.64 In that time the Fulani militants went from being unlisted on the Global Terrorism Index to inclusion as the fourth most deadly group in the world. If this pattern continues the undermining of the Middle Belt becomes a distinct possibility with an increasing likelihood that Abuja itself will be directly pulled into the fray igniting a religious and ethnic war. Should this kind of violence engulf the capital and its environs the economic and security impact would ripple across Africa and beyond. This doomsday scenario is not a foregone inevitability. However significant engagement redirected policy efforts and focused attention are necessary in order to prevent the fracture of Nigeria along religious fault lines. The seriousness of this threat the reality that it is being largely ignored and the potential that this violence has to fracture the nation into a spiraling ethno-religious war and land grab was highlighted in recent briefing notes issued by the office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Although the increasing competition for natural resources between farming and herders communities has led to many incidents in the past Monday s [April 25 2016] attack appears to be among the most serious in recent years. The exact number of victims remains unknown but local sources say that at least 40 people may have been killed during what appears as a well-prepared raid carried out by some 500 men armed with guns bows and machetes in the Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area. Many houses and a church were also set on fire by attackers. We welcome the announcement by the Nigerian authorities that they have launched an investigation and also dispatched additional security forces to the area. However we are very concerned by reports that advance warning of a potential attack in the area had been received by the authorities and was not effectively acted on. i MOROCCO MAURITANIA SENEGAL GAMBIA GUINEA GUINEA BISSAU SIERRA LEONE LIBERIA COTE D IVOIRE Fulani Presence Across Africa TUNISIA ALGERIA LYBIA EGYPT DJIBOUTI MALI BURKINA FASO NIGER CHAD SUDAN SOUTH SUDAN ETHIOPIA M AL IA NA GHA ER OO NIGERIA O BENIN TOGO CA UGANDA M KENYA GABON EQUATORIAL GUINEA NG RWANDA BURUNDI CO DR CONGO TANZANIA MALAWI IQU E SO CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC N COMORES Fulani presence across Africa ZIMBABWE NAMBIA BOTSWANA SOUTH AFRICA MB MO SWAZILAND LESOTHO READ MORE ONLINE Nigeria Fulani Militants Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. MA DAG ZA ASC ANGOLA ZAMBIA AR 58 NIGERIA FULANI MILITANTS false narrative This Conflict is Simply a Continuation of Longstanding Farmer-Pastoralist Tensions Characterization of the violence in the Middle Belt as intercommunal conflict along the lines of traditional antagonism between farmers and pastoralists is common historically grounded and on the surface plausible. However recent developments demand a new analysis to in part account for the significant uptick in violence since 2014. Without question cattle rustling exists within the Middle Belt to the detriment of Fulani pastoralists. However the attacks of the past two years cannot be construed as simple reprisals when multiple credible reports from across the region describe assaults that include supply helicopters raids launched from multiple boats machine guns mounted continued on page 59 We are also worried by the complete impunity enjoyed so far by perpetrators of previous attacks including ones in Benue State in February. This attack reportedly led to the destruction of entire villages in 13 different Local Government Areas killed more than 300 people and displaced more than 20 000 others. We call on the Nigerian Government to guarantee the security of all its citizens in full respect of international and national human rights standards and to ensure that justice is done for the very serious human rights violations which have been taking place. Holding perpetrators to account is all the more crucial as some communities under threat are now suggesting taking justice into their own hands.65 Introduction to the Fulani The Fulani also called the Fulbe or Peul are a largely pastoral nomadic group found in nineteen different countries but most predominantly in West Africa. There are more than 30 million Fulani in West Africa with the largest groupings in Nigeria (18 million) Guinea (5 million) Cameroon (2 million) Mali (1 million) Niger (1 million) and Senegal (1 million).66 While there is growing pressure on Fulani to settle and certainly many have done so for centuries Fulani have grazed cattle over a wide range of territory throughout western Africa.67 As the environmental conditions of the Sahel have deteriorated Fulani herdsmen have been forced to slowly migrate southward and westward in search of grazing pastures. The term Fulani was perhaps first used by Hausa with whom there has been considerable intermingling in Nigeria leading many to describe the pair in an almost singular fashion of Hausa-Fulani. 98 percent of all Fulani are Muslim and collectively are the largest pastoral nomadic group in the world. It is important to note that the focus within this report is on Fulani militants and not the Fulani as a whole many of whom do not participate in acts of aggression maintain fairly peaceful coexistence with local communities and non-Fulani neighbors and may or may not support violence in the furtherance of political or religious goals. 30 000 000 Fulani in West Africa 18 000 000 Fulani in Nigeria Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FULANI MILITANTS NIGERIA 59 continued from page 58 on vehicles AK47s scorched earth policies that level entire communities and sustained offensives that last for months in particular locations without governmental intervention. Moreover Fulani militant attacks seem to almost singularly concentrate on Local Government Areas that are predominantly composed of Christians while bypassing Muslim areas. There is a history in Nigeria of avoidance and seeking to minimize or otherwise dismiss a growing security threat until the situation has degenerated into a fullscale humanitarian crisis. In this case should the situation continue on its current precipitous track the potential implications are quite serious due to the proximity of the conflict to the national capital and the possibility of lighting an ethno-religious war that could fracture Nigeria as a whole. Fulani herdsman in the Middle Belt Accelerating Inter-Communal Violence in the Middle Belt Tensions and conflict have long existed between Muslim pastoralist Fulani and the predominantly agrarian Christian communities throughout the Middle Belt. Flare-ups have occurred due to grazing patterns that impinge on farming land cattle rustling and the intermingling of cultures peoples and communities. However to a large extent there has been relative peace and stability for generations. This has slowly been changing especially since the adoption of sharia by northern states and the outbreak of violence in Jos in 2010 the effects of which were felt throughout Plateau State and were interpreted by many Christians and Muslims alike through the lens of religion. Since 2014 there has been a precipitous acceleration of conflict primarily driven by Fulani militants attacking predominantly Christian Local Government Areas with sophisticated weapons in an environment of impunity. This acceleration has transformed the nature and the scope of the violence beyond a narrative of traditional conflict although the maintenance of this narrative is politically useful to shield what would otherwise be analyzed as efforts by the Fulani to ensure a hegemony of power control over 98% of all Fulani are Muslim and collectively are the largest pastoral nomadic group in the world. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 60 NIGERIA FULANI MILITANTS i SOKOTO KEBBI KWARA NIGER OYO OSUN OGUN LAOS DELTA EKITI ONDO Map of Sharia Law in Nigeria larger areas of land and the violent expansion of one religion over others. If this acceleration in the frequency and the force behind these attacks continues it will further fracture Nigeria along religious fault lines with devastating consequences at individual communal and national levels. BORNO KATSINA ZAMFARA KANO JIGAWA YOBE Several case studies are illustrative. Case Study Kadarako Nasarawa State Kadarako is a small village in Nasarawa State predominantly but not solely comprised of Christians. The majority of the small communities within its greater hinterlands are Christian. The entire area has experienced regular violence since 2013. As one individual noted Kadarako is a town under siege. We would not be able to see anybody here today alive if not for their determination and courage. KADUNA BAUCHI GOMBE ADAMAWA FCT NASARAWA PLATEAU TARABA KOGI EDO ENUGU EBONYL IMO CROSS RIVERS ANAMBRA BENUE BAYEISA RIVERS ABIA Sharia Law in Nigeria The result of the sustained offensives is that a number of IDPs from the broader area have resettled in Kadarako. One such individual had been a denominational leader overseeing a number of churches in nearby Wase. In 2013 a group of Fulani militants attacked Wase and in his words We had to run for our dear lives. They vandalized the church. They killed many of our pastors. They killed many of our members. They burned. They raped. They enslaved some of our children. Up to now some people do not know where their children are. I thought the world especially the Europeans who were the ones who brought the Gospel to us had abandoned us to the Islamists. He certainly believed that his hometown was attacked because many were Christians and that this attack was a direct outgrowth of a longstanding foundation of discrimination that was escalating into ever more lethal violence. As evidence he noted that in 1987 a Muslim was appointed to the local council while no Christians have been included in the local government since that time even though the majority of the local population is Christian. This further illustrates that at least within the northern and Middle Belts of Nigeria religious fault lines and religious identification are hardening even if in many cases the primary causative factor is more Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FULANI MILITANTS NIGERIA 61 Christian villagers continue to worship in the face of persecution. political than theological in nature. In many cases the categories of Muslim and Christian are being politicized at which point it becomes difficult if not impossible to fully defuse an intermingling of religion and politics. In other words the initial causative factors may or may not have emerged from religion but continuous conflict is driving the infusion of religion which in the end heightens communal and national fracturing. Another individual from the Kadarako environs shared her story. On May 2 2015 a convoy of cars showed up in her village killed her husband and left her as a widow with a fifteen year old son and a thirteen year old girl. Her response If there was a way for the Nigerian government to not allow Muslims to force people into their religion so that we are able to live peacefully continue with our normal lives and worship our true God then I would be grateful. Local government leaders described multiple years of political discrimination limited infrastructure development of their community and violent attacks by Fulani militants without the addition of any security forces or legal accountability for those who had participated in the destruction of property and lives. Reflecting on the limited development the community had Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 62 NIGERIA FULANI MILITANTS experienced but stated in a manner with far widespread ramifications the local chief noted WHO ARE THE TAROK The Tarok are an agrarian society in the hills and on the plains southeast of Plateau State in Nigeria. It is as if the government does not know the real problem that is going on here. It is as if they do not care about what is going on here. He further described that when they had experienced attacks at the hands of Fulani militants incursions that left members of the community dead and numerous homes burned state government sent no emergency relief supplies. Further adding to this community s suspicion aggressors in several attacks had participated while wearing a military uniform. The chief believed that the reason their community had seen its infrastructure suppressed and multiple attacks was precisely due to their ethnicity and religion They hate the Tarok because the Tarok refuses [Islam]. We said that we embrace Christianity. They said no even if it is by force you must accept Islam. Another village elder implored We need your assistance to safeguard our integrity. Grave sites are commonplace in these villages. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FULANI MILITANTS NIGERIA 63 Case Study Sho Plateau State Sho is a community under siege. Located only 2.5 miles from Barkin Ladi in Plateau State Sho is strategically positioned because it is close to a major town situated on the banks of a river and good for both farming and grazing. Fulani nomads first appeared in the area in the 1950s and were initially welcomed by the community. Over time however their numbers grew as did their demands and acts of aggression. October 14 1999 marked a turning point with the first murder a young man gunned down by a Fulani pastoralist. While there have been attacks since the aggression has become particularly sharp since 2014. This included an attack in July 2015 that killed fourteen individuals traveling on the road between Sho and Barkin Ladi. This attack seemed particularly intentional as the group included the President of the Community and the school principal an event which caused the male village elder describing the attack to pause and overcome with grief cry. In the recent past armed with AK47s Fulani militants have burned or cut down crops just before harvest season and in the past two years members of the community have been prevented from fully planting. In fact one of the only reasons this community of about 10 000 has been able to survive during the intermittent siege of the past two years is because it has been able to strategically take advantage of hiding in a number of caves located on the outskirts of the community. Both the pace and the impact of the attacks are increasing. The most recent death at the time of writing was a teenager killed in December 2015 when he ventured out of some caves to look for a Christmas gift. In 2015 there were four attacks in July four attacks in August and eight attacks in September. Those killed in 2015 left behind 154 dependents the majority of whom were female and under the age of eighteen. In these sixteen separate attacks 266 farmers were negatively impacted with more than 262 acres of farmland destroyed. When interviewed in early 2016 near the end of the dry season and after having lost yet another harvest the elders reported that many families were hiding in caves and living off of grass. Crisis Victims in Sho68 Crisis Victims in Sho 2009 2 1 4 2 1 2 27 39 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 TOTAL TOTAL KILLED 39 262 acres of farmland destroyed Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 64 NIGERIA FULANI MILITANTS The only way to safely travel the 2.5 miles from Sho to Barkin Ladi is when the community pays to rent a personal armored vehicle. This small community is effectively cutoff from wider interaction and has lost all expectation that the government will do anything to intervene. In fact its real fear is that the government will rezone the area around their community as designated grazing land and effectively remove their history and any remaining hope to rebuild and reestablish meaningful communities and livelihoods. Barely hanging on this small community is representative of what is repeatedly occurring throughout the Middle Belt and threatens to fracture Nigeria along religious and ethnic lines. Plateau State is particularly affected as one observer described A thorough reframing of a once-localized conflict over indigene rights into a religious crisis of regional and national dimension has taken place. Ten years of violent confrontations and the extreme brutality of 2010 s massacres around Jos left many residents traumatized. Religious identities have become strongly polarized and one-sided conflict narratives internalized. Despite numerous peace efforts tensions on the Plateau are at their worst today.69 With a sense of irony one of the elders highlighted that in the local language Sho means peace and is part of the traditional greeting used by people in the area. To restate within the Middle Belt and primarily at the hands of the Fulani militants peace is literally under siege. Community elder greets Congressman Wolf. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FULANI MILITANTS NIGERIA 65 Case Study Jol Plateau State In the region of Birkin Ladi and Sho Jol is a small community of about 5 000 though local leaders acknowledge that number is hard to verify given the number of IDPs both entering and exiting the community. Similar to other areas in Plateau State and the Middle Belt more broadly Jol has experienced a rising tide of violence related to Fulani militants advancing on a predominantly Christian farming village that has no government support or intervention. As one of the community leaders from Jol expressed Our means of livelihood are agriculture and tin mining. As a result of these acts of violence and terrorism in both broad daylight and at nighttime we have been denied the right to our economy. The security personnel are very much aware of what we are facing. The cattle will be moved and then the next thing you will hear are gunshots of an attack. Altogether we have lost 9 hamlets that are part of the Jol Community. The problem is the radicalization of security personnel. The attackers will attack where security personnel are stationed. But they will do nothing until the houses are burned down. And then the security personnel will fire their guns in the air and then claim the attack was from non-military. In our community we have [many] IDPs but we have not received any help except for some mats that we have received. In the areas where the people have left because of displacement the Fulani move in take over that area and settle down and it becomes a place for the terrorists. In 2014 a helicopter landed in a Fulani dominated area. We reported it to the security personnel but they denied it. However we saw that it landed at midnight and left at 4 00 a.m. and after that attacks occurred. The Fulani people have killed our women and killed members of our community in front of the security personnel. There is a complicity and a conspiracy. In 2015 alone 1.9 USD of destruction of churches crops homes in Jol by Fulani million Individuals from the community confirmed in written testimony that in some hamlets Fulani militants had razed the community illegally erected new structures and assigned a new Fulani name to the town. Members of Jol worry that this alteration of demographic and cartographic realities on the ground will leave the IDPs from that area permanently displaced and further marginalize their ethnicity and those holding to Christianity. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 66 NIGERIA FULANI MILITANTS Crisis Victims in Sho70 Jol Crisis 1028 N A 328 266 688 N A 376 2686 killed 2001 21 7 14 15 27 10 15 109 dependents of victims houses destroyed 148 N A 42 29 97 N A 49 365 hectres of crops destroyed N A N A 2010 2011 982 3 190 N A 256 1431 2012 2013 2014 2015 TOTAL 430 000 people affected by attacks between 2011 and 2014 in Benue. In 2015 alone in the area of Jol two additional churches were attacked and damaged and the community estimated that the combined destruction of the churches crops homes and materials totaled more than 385.5 million Naira or the equivalent of 1.9 million USD. Throughout the year Fulani militants attacked with highly sophisticated weapons including machine guns mounted to the back of Special Task Force vehicles handheld machine guns and a variety of explosive devices. Case Study Agatu Benue State Mainly constituted of the Idoma people Agatu is one of the nine Local Government Areas in the southern senatorial zone of Nigeria s Food Basket Benue State. The assault on Agatu on February 22 2016 was not the first time that an attack occurred in this area. World Watch Monitor summarizes Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FULANI MILITANTS NIGERIA 67 But researchers at the Self-Worth Development Initiative a local Makurdi NGO say the public doesn t realize just how bad the devastation has been. Their research revealed that nine Local Government Areas in the state had been impacted in the 2014 attacks 80 percent of the Agatu Local Government Area and for the Guma Local Government Area 10 out of 10 wards. More than 50 000 people were displaced from Agatu which represented about 10 percent of the 430 000 people affected by attacks between 2011 and 2014 in Benue. These figures describe a humanitarian crisis akin to Boko Haram s insurgency in the northeast. The striking hostility of the attackers toward churches school homes and farms is another indication that the terror group and the nomads share similar methods and even a common ideology except that the Fulani take no prisoners. But here is how the nomads are different and possibly more problematic. They are a tribe and not a terror group. This means they can t simply be outlawed and treated as a terrorist organization. This also means government response has been muted compared to its declared war on Boko Haram.71 This most recent offensive thought part of a broader pattern and context was noteworthy for its duration and scope of impact. At some point after midday at least two flat-bottom boats sailed up the Benue River to launch a full-scale attack on Agatu. A YouTube video posted by SBM Intelligence a socio-political consulting firm in Nigeria purports to be filmed by one of the attackers. The same man took part in the Logo attack two weeks later where he was killed and the video was found on a mobile phone retrieved from his body. 72 SBM Intelligence further notes The men in the video spoke Fulfude Hausa Gurma and Zarma the last two being languages indigenous to Nigeria s northern neighbor the Republic of Niger. This lends weight to the belief that a lot of these attacks are being carried out by people foreign to Nigeria and questions the ability of our security services to police our country given how far inland this river crossing took place. The distance between the suspected crossing point and the nearest border crossing in Katsina is 802 km [498 miles].73 There were issues related to boundaries and tribal conflict before but they were manageable. But now the guerrilla insurgency is beyond what we are able to do and with their attacks at nights it has been out of control. Director of an Unofficial IDP Camp Housing 371 Individuals The boats landed around 3 00 p.m. and immediately launched an attack. According to an eyewitness the militants approached him and were about to shoot him when he began shouting that he was a Muslim. The attacker demanded that he quote from the Quran which the individual did and pointed to a small mosque as his normal place of worship. At this point the individual and those Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 68 NIGERIA FULANI MILITANTS in that immediate vicinity were spared and the Fulani repositioned to attack a different area of the community. The attack lasted two days and multiple eyewitnesses confirmed that at some point on Monday evening a helicopter landed and resupplied the militants. One individual from the area lamented Someone is sleeping in my bed and I would rather burn down my house than to have that person sleeping in my bed. Another a local prince and a retired army corporal decried The federal government has not made any pronouncement. The indigenous people are helpless and no one is coming to their aid. We are highly disappointed with the federal government of Nigeria. I am angered by what has happened. I am a victim of what has happened in my own village. Take our case to the international community and tell them the plight of our people. We are being enslaved in our land. Insurgents are moving in the name of the Fulani and the government does not say anything. According to at least one count between 1997 and 2010 there were 18 incidents involving herdsmen and farming communities in the Middle Belt while between 2011 and 2015 there were 371.74 Multiple individuals who are either from Agatu or who traveled to the area following this attack report that ten Agatu villages were razed and hundreds were killed as many as 500. Agatu villages razed 10 500 killed Although there have been some who questioned the extent to which Fulani participated in this attack75 in an exclusive interview with Premium Times Saleh Bayeri the Interim National Secretary of Gan Allah Fulani Association specifically claimed Fulani involvement and defended the actions of the Fulani militants noting that this was a reprisal attack by his people against the Agatus whom he accused of rustling 200 cattle and of killing a prominent Fulani leader named Ardo Madaki three years prior.76 A week after the incident 11 Members of the Benue Parliamentary Caucus in the House of Representatives released a statement which read in part A genocide that typical of the Nigerian state has been downplayed or ignored until it spirals out of control. After the Agatu mass massacre a few headlines were recorded a few sympathetic comments in high places but concrete moves to stop the killings have not been made. We decry the lukewarm attitude of the Federal government towards this jihad being waged against our people by the herdsmen.77 Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FULANI MILITANTS NIGERIA 69 Karls Tsokar Guardian [Nigeria] The military is stretched with increasing attacks by the Fulani. Fulani Militants in the Middle Belt Rationales for an Escalating Trend There are at least five rationales that help explain the escalating violence behind Fulani attacks in the Middle Belt. 1 formed.78 First Rationale Religion and Ethnicity. Without question religion and ethnicity factor into the attacks conducted by the Fulani militants. As previously noted one eyewitness to the attack in Agatu was spared solely because he was a practicing Muslim. Many of the Fulani attacks have included the destruction of churches. Anthropologist Adam Higazi describes There was generally a shift or extension from vigilance against criminality to vigilance against attacks by opposing groups or militias defining themselves in religious or ethnic terms. The emphasis on social control within religious or cultural groups was also prominent in some areas. Hence vigilantism in this context appears not only to have increased but to have also been trans- 12.6% 2.5% 85% causes of displacement among IDPs in Nigeria communal clashes natural disasters result of insurgency attacks by Islamists The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) found that of all the IDPs in Nigeria 12.6 percent were displaced due to communal clashes 2.4 percent by natural disasters and 85 perCopyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 70 NIGERIA FULANI MILITANTS IDP camp near Abuja Nigeria cent as a result of insurgency attacks by Islamists. 79 This analysis includes the actions of the Fulani in the Middle Belt. Moreover in its 2013-2014 map highlighting causes of internal displacement in Nigeria the IDMC added a new category of religious violence and noted incidents in Kaduna and Plateau States.80 Significantly these religious violence incidents track not with Boko Haram but with the actions of the Fulani. In addition out of the twenty countries the IDMC is currently tracking in Sub-Saharan Africa religious violence as a cause for internal displacement is only found in the Middle Belt of Nigeria. Though importantly this is not meant to exclude the reality that religion is a factor elsewhere. To return to anthropologist Adam Higazi The analysis has shown that group mobilization and violence in the lowlands of Plateau State needs to be understood in terms of the constellation of factors shaping ethnic and religious interaction and expression. Mobilization occurred in a context of insecurity and violent conflict but was defined in the relational terms of ethnicity and religion. The actions of vigilantes and militias varied according to the dynamics of conflict in particular locations informed by local politics resource issues and struggles for territory all of which shaped and were shaped by the complex ethnic and religious matrix.81 In other words while it would be a misreading to solely attribute these actions to religion it would be a mistake to neglect the role of religion. In a context of insecurity religious identity is becoming politicized and increasingly viewed as intermingled with ethnicity Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FULANI MILITANTS NIGERIA 71 and a primary lens of identification. It seems that many Fulani militants find a motivation or a justification for their attacks in their religious interpretation. This has the real potential to further exploit and fracture Nigeria along religious fault lines. While religion certainly plays a factor it is comingled with ethnicity and economic incentive. Though additional research is needed it seems as if a majority of the Local Government Areas attacked by the Fulani are intentionally targeted because they are both primarily Christian and because they will have the most to offer in terms of economic benefit either due to securing the goods in a particular market or more frequently quality grazing land. Although there are many Fulani who have settled throughout western Africa the traditional nomadic pattern continues to be the one most revered. In the midst of increasing competition Fulani are taking advantage of an opportunity to shift away from traditional patterns of limited integration alongside a farming community to securing land that can be permanently and uniquely zoned for grazing. There is a clear economic incentive to continue these attacks throughout the Middle Belt especially as the government has helped foster a climate of impunity by thus far showing a reluctance to hold militants accountable. 2 3 Second Rationale Economics and the Maintenance of Traditional Patterns of Livelihood. Environmental degradation across the Sahara Desert and the Sahel have forced Fulani pastoralists on ever more southward and westward migratory patterns. This is clearly having an impact on the Middle Belt. While it is certainly plausible that mercenaries and militants from neighboring countries are moving into Nigeria as is frequently heard from local impacted communities who claim that those who are attacking bear accents or facial markings that differ from the Fulani with whom they have interacted in the past it is also possible that at least some of these are Fulani who are forced to move into new territory in search of better grazing territory. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. Third Rationale Environmental Degradation. 72 NIGERIA FULANI MILITANTS Fourth Rationale Opportunity amidst the Instability Caused by Boko Haram. The impact of Boko Haram is felt far and wide and until Boko Haram was creating the conditions that gave rise to one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world both the Nigerian government and the international community were slow to respond. However because of Boko Haram s embrace of violence and its self-proclaimed establishment of a Caliphate in 2014 almost all security and humanitarian efforts have focused uniquely on Boko Haram in northeastern Nigeria. Fulani have been able to exploit this situation by accelerating their engagement precisely at a time when attention is focused on Boko Haram and the violent narrative they are promulgating. 4 Fifth Rationale Upsurge of Small Arms in Civilian Hands in an Environment of Impunity. Though the research is dated by a few years one scholar describes his experience with Fulani in the Middle Belt The types of guns I recorded in interviews included AK47 semi-automatics (the most common) MG machine guns SMGs (sub-machine guns) G3 rifles Mark 4 rifles single- and double-barrel shotguns pistols or supplied by all sides from a variety of local and national sources. Both 5 Dane guns (used by hunters) and locally made guns. Weapons were bought state and military connections were important. Arms acquisition became a driving force in the conflicts particularly in the way it seemed to accentuate cattle rustling a source of funding for the purchase of weapons. Some guns were brought into Wase along bush paths from Taraba State usually hidden in sacks of grain skirting security checkpoints. There was a surfeit of weapons in Taraba due to the previous conflicts there between the Tiv and Jukun which continued until 2001. There were also many other routes Enugu being a major supply source. On the Muslim side the Fulae [Fulani] seem to have been the main source of funds for arms purchases principally because they hold readily marketable assets in the form of cattle some of which they sell if they need to raise money. Both sides also claim they captured weapons from each other.82 Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FULANI MILITANTS NIGERIA 73 Additional research is needed into the sources from which Fulani militants are acquiring their weapons. Ambassador Daniel Benjamin noted in a 2012 Congressional Hearing the very real possibility that countries such as Nigeria have been negatively impacted by loose Libyan weapons and the return of refugees and mercenaries to their countries of origin across the Sahel. 83 It certainly seems likely that the proliferation of weapons across West Africa in failed states such as Libya and Mali especially given the tribal relationships and migratory patterns that exist within the Fulani would have a bearing on Nigeria. It is also possible that perhaps on occasion Fulani acquire weapons from Boko Haram or more likely through corruption within the Nigerian security forces. A recent Small Arms Survey notes The militarized nature of politics combined with the prevalence of armed groups has allowed for an easy marriage between politics and violence. Armed groups are not new in Nigeria but they are increasingly well armed and trained and sophisticated in their tactics. After 2003 armed groups hired for political purposes were set free without being disarmed and have since evolved into economically independent and more politically savvy entities.84 Nigeria is very fragile. If these 180 million are displaced they will overrun Africa they will overrun Europe and business interests in the United States will be directly and negatively impacted. Nigeria is on the verge of breaking into pieces and it will not be violence free. Stephen Enada Advocate for Just Society Though the sourcing of weapons is important to reversing the trend multiple interviews and reports note that even in the absence of understanding the exact origin what is clear is that there are more small arms and light weapons in the hands of civilians throughout the Middle Belt. Equally there has been a well-attested growth in the sophistication of the weapons used by Fulani militants and as a consequence of their lethality and impact. While additional research is needed there have been multiple reports from across the Middle Belt of the use of boats vehicles mounted with weapons automatic machine guns handheld explosive devices and the use of helicopters to resupply Fulani. Partly because of this the state and federal governments have been reluctant to insert professional security forces into vulnerable areas in the Middle Belt both when there are advance reports of an impending assault or afterwards to hold accountable those who participate in these attacks. This combination is creating an open climate of impunity undermining the rule of law increasing the number of deaths and fostering a highly combustible reality that has the potential to fracture the nation along religious and ethnic fault lines. The United States Institute of Peace notes Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 74 NIGERIA FULANI MILITANTS The future stability of Nigeria may well lie in the hands of those at the top levels of the party system who must be thoughtful and skilled in managing the realities of religious identity politics. Even more important given the winner-take-all nature of presidential politics is the capacity of national leaders to manage ethno-religious symbols in a way that promotes unity rather than disunity.85 Reuters The aftermath of a Fulani Militant attack The Devastating and Potential Impact of Fulani Militants to Fracture Nigeria In a loose approximation the Fulani militants seem to be borrowing from the playbook of Boko Haram. The Fulani are using the claim and not always without reason of cattle rustling and limited grazing opportunities as a political rallying cry for participation. This movement is being largely ignored by the government minimized or outright denied as evidenced in part that few are held accountable and the government refuses to station security forces in areas of vulnerability. Over the past two years this has allowed the Fulani to form a strengthened ideological and military Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. FULANI MILITANTS NIGERIA 75 engagement relatively unhindered. Fulani militants are initiating more brazen and rampant acts of aggression and having thus far received little to no deterrents there is a very real possibility these aggressive acts could transition into a full-scale conflict that has the potential to impact millions and undermine the nation. If there are not significant policy changes and approaches the conflict in the Middle Belt will escalate with the possibility to sweep destruction and displacement across the nation. Decisive action is needed now in order to ensure that this possibility is turned back and that the nation of Nigeria is preserved. That this is a growing threat cannot be doubted. Collating multiple sources of data the following chart illustrates how quickly the Fulani attacks are spreading across the nation Within the current environment there is nothing that would inherently stop the Fulani from turning these aggressive acts of destruction into a full-scale conflict that will have the potential to impact millions and undermine the nation. FULANI ATTACKS 2015 Fulani Attacks January 2015 April 201686 date of attack 1 27 2015 1 27 2015 1 30 2015 3 15 2015 4 10 2015 4 27 2015 5 11 2015 5 23 2015 7 7 2015 9 1 2015 9 6 2015 10 2 2015 11 5 2015 11 9 2015 11 9 2015 12 1 2015 12 13 2015 12 15 2015 2015 subtotal victims killed 8 17 9 90 2 28 5 23 1 2 1 0 12 1 22 1 15 22 259 LGA Zangong Kataf Agatu Logo Agatu Ethiopie-East Guma Kwande Logo Kwande Ndokwa West Plateau Yewa North Buruka Udi Dekina Isoko Plateau Borno state Kaduna Benue Benue Benue Delta Benue Benue Benue Benue Delta Plateau Ogun Benue Enugu Kogi Delta Plateau Borno Fulani murders from January 2015 - April 2016 1011 Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 76 NIGERIA FULANI MILITANTS The scale spread and frequency of the attacks as well as the near methodical manner in which the communities are wiped out pacified and the sequence in which they are being carried out speaks to a higher degree of planning and organization than the government is willing to acknowledge. SBM Intelligence 2016 Fulani Attacks date of attack 1 1 2016 1 4 2016 1 10 2016 1 17 2016 1 25 2016 2 6 2016 2 7 2016 2 7 2016 2 11 2016 2 24 2016 2 27 2016 2 28 2016 3 3 2016 3 5 2016 3 8 2016 3 8 2016 3 9 2016 3 10 2016 3 11 2016 3 13 2016 3 13 2016 3 13 2016 3 17 2016 3 17 2016 3 19 2016 3 21 2016 3 29 2016 4 4 2016 4 9 2016 4 10 2016 4 13 2016 4 13 2016 4 16 2016 4 18 2016 4 25 2016 4 26 2016 4 27 2016 2016 Subtotal victims killed 1 12 45 0 20 12 1 10 2 300 9 9 1 0 40 12 8 2 0 90 2 6 25 15 1 2 7 1 1 15 44 0 1 18 20 0 20 725 LGA Nkanu East Nasarawa Agatu Wukari Adamawa Buruku Yewa North Buruku Uzo Uwani Agatu Wukari Agatu Logo Agatu Logo Buruku Logo Agatu Agatu Buruku Tarkaa Logo Buruka Udi Guma Ogba-Egebema-Ndoni state Enugu Nasarawa Benue Taraba Adamawa Benue Ogun Benue Enugu Benue Taraba Benue Benue Benue Benue Benue Benue Benue Benue Benue Benue Benue Benue Enugu Benue Rivers Benue Ondo Taraba Taraba Ondo Anambra Benue Enugu Delta Enugu Senator David Mark convoy attacked Tarkaa Oktipupa Gashaka Bali Ifedore Ayamelum Kwande Uwani Ndokwa Uzo-Uwani Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. INTRODUCTION NIGERIA 77 IN THE PAST SIXTEEN MONTHS THERE HAVE BEEN 55 SEPARATE FULANI ATTACKS IN 14 DIFFERENT STATES RESULTING IN OVER ONE THOUSAND DEATHS. EVEN THOUGH THE DATA FOR 2016 ONLY INCLUDES FOUR MONTHS THERE HAS ALREADY BEEN A 190% INCREASE IN FATALITIES FROM 2015 TO 2016. BENUE STATE HAS BEEN THE MOST IMPACTED WITH 26 DISTINCT ATTACKS LEAVING 738 DEAD. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 78 NIGERIA FULANI MILITANTS The Fulani militants pose a grave security threat to Nigeria and West Africa today with 2016 poised to be the most deadly year on record and every indication that the attacks will continue to escalate. At this time it seems the Fulani have primarily targeted Local Government Areas that are principally though not singularly Christian. But given the reality that this is a movement of terror undergirded by both religious and ethnic overtones there is reason to believe that as the Fulani increasingly perceive they have the latitude to pursue their own agenda that their acts of aggression will progressively impinge on non-Fulani Muslims and adherents of African Traditional Religions. As one intelligence outfit analyzed the attacks pursued by the Fulani militants The scale spread and frequency of the attacks as well as the near methodical manner in which the communities are wiped out pacified and the sequence in which it is being carried out speaks to a higher degree of planning and organization than the government is willing to acknowledge. It is dangerous to refuse to acknowledge this as our recent experience with Boko Haram has shown. It takes only a little nudge forward for what we see as marauders of civilian targets to begin to take on whole army formations. By then it will be a lot more difficult to defeat them at a considerable cost in men finances and logistics to the Nigerian state.87 Without minimizing the significance of Boko Haram addressing the Fulani militants will likely prove far more challenging for a variety of reasons. First unlike Boko Haram the Fulani are primarily a tribe and not a terrorist organization and bound more closely together through familial and relational ties. Second Fulani aggression does not stem from a set of poor economic and educational policies that excluded them from broader monetary advancement but from a mixture of religion ethnicity and desire to preserve a particular way of life that will be difficult to maintain in the twenty-first century. It bears repeating that the challenge is to isolate and address Fulani engaging in militancy outside of the rule of law and not all Fulani or Fulani pastoralists. While the impact of Boko Haram has been felt throughout the Lake Chad region if Fulani militants are allowed to either destabilize the capital Abuja or extend their reach into the southern states of Nigeria the implications of this security threat are far more severe. In an extreme situation this could cause both a massive refugee flow whose impact would be borne not only in the region but even into Europe and an economic and security disruption that would be felt far and wide. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. CONCLUSION NIGERIA 79 Conclusion Nigeria is a country on the verge of fracturing along religious fault lines. Three challenges are undermining the integrity of the nation 1 Religious minorities throughout northern Nigeria often live in forgotten shadows and face a substantive level of discrimination and social exclusion that is negatively impacting millions of individuals. This foundation of discrimination is sustained by policies and practices that are widely accepted as normative and inhibit the development of an integrated context of peaceful coexistence and Religion is much more powerful than an atomic bomb. Religion is like a nuclear power and it can be used either positively or negatively depending on the driver. Imam Muhammad Ashafa Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 80 NIGERIA CONCLUSION shared national educational and economic pursuit. This is all the more relevant given the reality that as a region northern Nigeria is one of the most underdeveloped in the nation and that far too many northerners believe the best means of moving forward is not the nurturing of a shared sense of citizenship but a more fullbodied embrace of their particular religious interpretations and social construct. This foundation of discrimination has produced violent episodes for a number of years with Boko Haram just the latest most sustained and most violent version. With religious minorities facing policies and practices that threaten their very existence insecurity and division will continue to fester in northern Nigeria until this foundation of discrimination is ameliorated. Boko Haram and its culture of violence continues despite recent pronouncements to the contrary throughout northeastern Nigeria. The acts of barbarity and the depths of suffering many have experienced are immense. With malnutrition stalking northeastern Nigeria almost a million children are being denied an opportunity to pursue an education and perhaps the second largest number of IDPs in the world continue to live in desperate circumstances Boko Haram has helped create one of the most severe humanitarian crises in the world. Unfortunately in many respects both the Nigerian government and the international community are failing to rise to meet this challenge. 2 3 The threat of the Fulani militants has steadily grown for a number of years and since 2014 has significantly escalated. This emerging security threat is a combustible mixture of religion and ethnicity and is sowing seeds of destabilization throughout the Middle Belt. Following the model set by Boko Haram the conflict being primarily pursued by the Fulani militants is at the edge of tipping from isolated acts of aggression into a full-scale conflict. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. CONCLUSION NIGERIA 81 Whereas Boko Haram occurred in rural northeastern Nigeria in a somewhat isolated and underdeveloped quadrant the actions of the Fulani militants are taking place in the heart of Nigeria and increasingly encroaching on the environs of Abuja. Should the capital city of the country in Africa that has the largest economy the largest number of Muslims and the largest number of Christians succumb to ethnic and religious attacks or should the country further fracture and destabilize the implications would be felt across western Africa and could create an arch of failed states stretching from Libya to Chad Mali and down to Nigeria. This need not be the case but the potential is very real. At the same time currently governed by a Muslim president and a Christian vice president Nigeria also contains the seeds for a country in pursuit of a united citizenship with rule of law religious freedom and cultural plurality that itself becomes a model of growth peace and stability throughout the continent of Africa and beyond. Fully addressing this complex situation will require a level of intentionality and collaboration across multiple sectors and must involve the Nigerian government key stakeholders throughout the country local grassroots representatives the Nigerian diaspora and international partners. Given the multi-dimensional nature of these conflicts success is highly dependent upon the development of a comprehensive roadmap to peace. While multiple models exist perhaps the most pertinent template is that of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission or of the more recent Columbia Peace Process. In this vein President Buhari and his current administration are to be acknowledged for the important steps that have been taken over the previous twelve months to address internal corruption and bring to an end the threat of Boko Haram. There is an opportunity to broaden and expand this good foundation in order to meaningfully pursue a comprehensive roadmap to peace that addresses discrimination violence and humanitarian need. Thus far President Buhari has provided strong and positive leadership and given renewed opportunity for the international community to stand with Nigeria at this critical time. Decisive and immediate action changes in policy and coordinated intentionality are needed in order to prevent Nigeria from fracturing along religious fault lines and propel her to emerge as the truly great country that beckons and stands well within her grasp. WHAT IS THE TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was set up by the Government of National Unity to help deal with what happened under apartheid. The conflict during this period resulted in massive violence and human rights abuses and the TRC helped South Africa move forward with forgiveness and united purpose. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 82 NIGERIA ENDNOTES Endnotes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Nigeria IDP Figures Analysis Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre http www.internal-displacement.org sub-saharan-africa nigeria figures-analysis (accessed May 6 2016). Joe Read Former Director of the Nigeria Country Office for the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs 21CWI Interview Falls Church Virginia April 27 2016. Nigeria IDP Figures Analysis Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. Nigeria 2015 UNHCR Subregional Operations Profile West Africa United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees http www.unhcr.org cgi-bin texis vtx page page 49e484f76&submit GO (accessed May 6 2016). Nigeria Humanitarian Dashboard (as of 15 April 2016) Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs http reliefweb.int sites reliefweb.int files resources nga_humanitarian_dashboard_as_of_april_2016.pdf (accessed May 6 2016). Bad Blood Perceptions of Children Born of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence and Women and Girls Associated with Boko Haram in Northeast Nigeria International Alert and United Nations Children s Fund Nigeria (February 2016) 8. They Set the Classrooms on Fire Attacks on Education in Northeast Nigeria Human Rights Watch (April 2016) 1. Crushed but Not Defeated The Impact of Persistent Violence of the Church in Northern Nigeria Open Doors and Christian Association of Nigeria (March 2016) 18. Nigeria Security Tracker Mapping Violence in Nigeria Council on Foreign Relations http www.cfr.org nigeria nigeriasecurity-tracker p29483 (accessed May 6 2016). Global Terrorism Index 2015 Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism Institute for Economics & Peace (November 2015) 38. Global Terrorism Index (November 2015) 22. Israel Akanji Towards a Theology of Conflict Transformation A Study of Religious Conflict in Contemporary Nigerian Society (PhD diss. University of Edinburgh) 208. Abimbola O. Adesoji and Akin Alao Indigeneship and Citizenship in Nigeria Myths and Realities The African Symposium 8 no. 2 (December 2008) 98. Nigeria The World Bank http data.worldbank.org country nigeria cp_wdi (accessed May 6 2016). Mohammed Aly Sergie and Toni Johnson Boko Haram Council on Foreign Relations (March 5 2015) http www.cfr. org nigeria boko-haram p25739 (accessed May 6 2016). Global Christianity A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World s Christian Population Pew Research Center http www.pewforum.org files 2011 12 Christianity-fullreport-web.pdf (December 2011) 55. Global Christianity Pew Research Center 54. 10 Countries With the Largest Muslim Populations 2010 and 2050 Pew Research Center (April 2 2015) http www. pewforum.org 2015 04 02 muslims pf_15-04-02_projectionstables74 (accessed May 6 2016). Sir Ahmadu Bello the Sarduana of Sokoto Parrot Newspaper (October 12 1960). Crushed but Not Defeated Open Doors and Christian Association of Nigeria 17-18. John Campbell Country Profile Nigeria Tony Blair Faith Foundation http tonyblairfaithfoundation.org religion-geopolitics country-profiles nigeria situation-report (accessed May 6 2016). Israel Akanji Towards a Theology of Conflict Transformation 240. Olawale Alabi Seventh Day Adventist Church Advises Kaduna State Govt on Religious Preaching Bill News Agency of Nigeria (April 20 2016) http nannewsnigeria.com seventh-day-adventist-church-advises-kaduna-state-govt-religiouspreaching-bill (accessed May 6 2016). Israel Akanji Towards a Theology of Conflict Transformation 205. Leave Everything to God Accountability for Inter-Communal Violence in Plateau and Kaduna States Nigeria Human Rights Watch (December 2013) 41-81. Jana Krause A Deadly Cycle Ethno-Religious Conflict in Jos Plateau State Nigeria Geneva Declaration Secretariat (2011) 43. Nigeria Inaccurate Reporting Could Fuel Further Violence Against Christians Christian Today (December 2 2008) http www.christiantoday.com article nigeria.inaccurate.reporting.could.fuel.further.violence.against.christians 22037. htm (accessed May 6 2016). 24 25 26 27 Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. ENDNOTES NIGERIA 83 28 29 30 31 Leave Everything to God Human Rights Watch 82-116. John Campbell Country Profile Nigeria Tony Blair Faith Foundation. John Campbell Country Profile Nigeria Tony Blair Faith Foundation. Aminu Mohammed Umar Nigeria and the Boko Haram Sect Adopting a Better Strategy for Resolving the Crisis (master s thesis Naval Postgraduate School) 17-18. 32 Hilary Matfess Here s Why So Many People Join Boko Haram Despite Its Notorious Violence Washington Post (April 26 2016) https www.washingtonpost.com news monkey-cage wp 2016 04 26 heres-why-so-many-people-join-bokoharam-despite-its-notorious-violence (accessed May 6 2016). 33 Matfess Washington Post. 34 Frank Chothia Who are Nigeria s Boko Haram Islamists BBC Africa (May 4 2015) http www.bbc.com news worldafrica-13809501 (accessed May 6 2016). 35 Mallam Sanni Umary quoted in Boko Haram Investigating the Ideological Background to the Rise of an Islamists Militant Organization by Stephen Ulph Boko Haram Investigating the Ideological Background to the Rise of an Islamist Militant Organisation Westminster Institute https www.scribd.com doc 178672818 BOKO-HARAM-Investigating-theIdeological-Background-to-the-Rise-of-an-Islamist-Militant-Organisation (February 2014) 31. 36 Mohammed Aly Sergie and Toni Johnson Boko Haram Council on Foreign Relations. 37 Jide Ajani and Kingsley Omonobi How N41m Tore Boko Haram Apart Qaqa Vanguard (February 14 2012) http www.vanguardngr.com 2012 02 how-n41m-tore-boko-haram-apart-qaqa (accessed May 6 2016). 38 Stephen Ulph Boko Haram Investigating the Ideological Background 18. 39 Abu Qaqa Kabiru Sokoto Open Up News Ghana (March 8 2012) http www.newsghana.com.gh abu-qaqa-kabirusokoto-open-up (accessed May 6 2016). 40 There and Back Trajectories of North African Foreign Fighters in Syria Small Arms Survey Issue Brief No. 3 (July 2015) 11. 41 Helene Cooper Boko Haram and ISIS are Collaborating More U.S. Military Says New York Times (April 20 2016) http www.nytimes.com 2016 04 21 world africa boko-haram-and-isis-are-collaborating-more-us-military-says.html _r 0 (accessed May 6 2016). 42 Senegal Fears Extremism Amid Imam Arrests Regional Attacks Voice of America (February 8 2016) http www. voanews.com content senegal-fears-extremism-amid-imam-arrests-regional-attacks 3181622.html. 43 Security Council Presidential Statement Condemns Boko Haram Terrorist Attacks in Lake Chad Basin Demanding Immediate Halt to Violence Human Rights Abuses United Nations Security Council 7692nd Meeting (PM) (May 13 2016) http www.un.org press en 2016 sc12363.doc.htm (accessed on May 16 2016). 44 Terrorist Designations of Boko Haram and Ansaru U.S. Department of State (November 13 2013) http www.state. gov r pa prs ps 2013 11 217509.htm. 45 Profile Boko Haram Al-Jazeera (January 18 2015) http www.aljazeera.com news africa 2012 01 20121974241393331.html (accessed May 6 2016). 46 Frank Chothia Who are Nigeria s Boko Haram Islamists BBC Africa (May 4 2015) http www.bbc.com news worldafrica-13809501 (May 6 2016). 47 United States Commission on International Religious Freedom 2016 Annual Report United States Commission on International Religious Freedom http www.uscirf.gov sites default files USCIRF%202016%20Annual%20Report.pdf (April 2016) 106-107. 48 Aminu Abubakar Female Suicide Bombers Kill 58 in a Nigerian Camp Meant to be a Haven CNN (February 11 2016) http www.cnn.com 2016 02 11 africa nigeria-suicide-bombing-boko-haram index.html (accessed May 6 2016). 49 Kevin Sieff They Were Freedom From Boko Haram s Rape Camps. But their Nightmare isn t Over Washington Post (April 3 2016) https www.washingtonpost.com world africa they-were-freed-from-boko-harams-rape-camps-but-theirnightmare-isnt-over 2016 04 03 dbf2aab0-e54f-11e5-a9ce-681055c7a05f_story.html (accessed May 6 2016). 50 Francisca Vigaud-Walsh Nigeria s Displaced Women and Girls Humanitarian Community at Odds Boko Haram s Survivors Forsaken Refugee International (April 21 2016) 8. 51 Nigeria A Year On No Word on 300 Abducted Children Government Response to Damasak Attacks Woefully Inadequate Human Rights Watch (March 29 2016) https www.hrw.org news 2016 03 29 nigeria-year-no-word-300-abducted-children (accessed May 6 2016). 52 Letter from Africa How to Rebuild Nigeria after Boko Haram BBC (May 10 2016) http www.bbc.com news worldafrica-36191512. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. 84 NIGERIA ENDNOTES 53 John Campbell Nigerian Popular Support for Boko Haram Council on Foreign Relations Africa in Transition Blog (March 15 2016) http blogs.cfr.org campbell 2016 03 15 nigerian-popular-support-for-boko-haram (accessed May 6 2016). 54 Motivations and Empty Promises Voices of Former Boko Haram Combatants and Nigerian Youth Mercy Corps (April 2016) https d2zyf8ayvg1369.cloudfront.net sites default files Motivations%20and%20Empty%20Promises_Mercy%20 Corps_Full%20Report_0.pdf (accessed May 6 2016). 55 Kyle Dietrich When We Can t See the Enemy Civilians Become the Enemy Living Through Nigeria s Six-Year Insurgency Center for Civilians in Conflict http civiliansinconflict.org uploads files publications NigeriaReport_Web.pdf (October 7 2015) 5. 56 Kyle Dietrich When We Can t See the Enemy Civilians Become the Enemy 5-6. 57 Joe Read 21CWI Interview. . 58 Joe Read 21CWI Interview. 59 John Campbell Nigeria Dancing on the Brink (Lanham Rowman & Littlefield Publishers 2013) 141. 60 Virginia Comolli Boko Haram Nigeria s Islamist Insurgency (London C. Hurst & Co. 2015). 61 Nigeria Babies and Children Dying in Military Detention Amnesty International (May 11 2016) https www.amnesty. org en latest news 2016 05 nigeria-babies-and-children-dying-in-military-detention (accessed May 11 2016). 62 Aminu Mohammed Umar Nigeria and the Boko Haram Sect 26. 63 John Campbell Nigeria Dancing on the Brink (Lanham Rowman & Littlefield Publishers 2013) 165. 64 Global Terrorism Index (November 2015) 22. 65 Rupert Colville Spokesperson for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights OHCHR Press Briefing Notes (1) Mozambique (2) Nigeria (April 29 2016). 66 Fulani Fulbe The Joshua Project https joshuaproject.net clusters 173 (accessed May 6 2016). 67 Fulani Encyclopedia Britannica http www.britannica.com topic Fulani (accessed May 6 2016). 68 The included information is based upon written documentation submitted in February 2016 to 21CWI and the Stefanos Foundation by the community leaders of Sho. Titled Crisis Victim Sho Village the report covered 2001-2015 and included the name age and the date of death for each victim as well as the names and ages for each impacted dependent. 69 Jana Krause A Deadly Cycle 10. 70 The included information is based upon written documentation submitted in February 2016 to 21CWI and the Stefanos Foundation by the Jol Community Development Association. In addition to detailing the information summarized in the table this 224-page report includes over 700 pictures of those killed dependents property damaged and crops destroyed. 71 Village Massacres Strain Nigeria Further as Traditional Nomads Fight Modernization World Watch Monitor (March 23 2016) https www.worldwatchmonitor.org 2016 03 4368789 (accessed May 6 2016). 72 Boats of Fully Armed Men Crossing the Benue River Enroute the Agatu Attack SBM Intelligence https www.youtube. com watch v BLK60UTqSBo&feature youtu.be (accessed May 6 2016). 73 Death and the Herdsmen SBM Intelligence http sbmintel.com wp-content uploads 2016 04 201604_Herdsmenattacks.pdf (April 28 2016) 12. 74 Death and the Herdsmen SBM Intelligence 5-6. 75 Samuel Ogundipe Sultan Reacts to Benue Enugu Killings Says Blaming Fulani Herdsmen Absurd Premium Times (May 1 2016) http www.premiumtimesng.com news headlines 202714-sultan-reacts-to-benue-enugu-killingssays-blaming-fulani-herdsmen-absurd.html (accessed May 6 2016). 76 Emmanuel Mayah Sani Tukur and Hassan Adebayo Why We Struck in Agatu Fulani Herdsmen Premium Times (March 19 2016) http www.premiumtimesng.com news headlines 200426-exclusive-struck-agatu-fulani-herdsmen. html (accessed May 6 2016). 77 Agatu Genocide Benue Lawmakers Slam Buhari Vanguard (March 19 2016) http www.vanguardngr.com 2016 03 agatu-genocide-benue-lawmakers-slam-buhari (accessed May 6 2016). 78 Adam Higazi Social Mobilization and Collective Violence Vigilantes and Militias in the Lowlands of Plateau State Central Nigeria Africa The Journal of International African Institute Vol. 78 No. 1 (2008) 107. 79 Nigeria IDP Figures Analysis Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. ENDNOTES NIGERIA 85 80 Map of Nigeria Internal Displacement as of December 2014 Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre http www. internal-displacement.org sub-saharan-africa nigeria 2014 nigeria-internal-displacement-as-of-december-2014 (accessed May 6 2016). 81 Higazi Social Mobilization 132. 82 Higazi Social Mobilization 120. 83 Ambassador Daniel Benjamin Coordinator for Counterterrorism Bureau of Counterterrorism U.S. Department of State LRA Boko Haram Al-Shabab AQIM and Other Sources of Instability in Africa Committee on Foreign Affairs House of Representatives 112 Congress (April 12 2012) 31. 84 Small Arms Survey 2013 Everyday Dangers Small Arms Survey (July 2013) 119. 85 John Paden Religion and Conflict in Nigeria Countdown to the 2015 Elections United States Institute of Peace (February 2015) 8. 86 The Fulani Attacks January 2015 April 2016 chart is the result of tabulating multiple sources of public and private data. When sources differed on the number of victims killed the chart opted for the lowest number. Given limitations in data collection varying numerical reports regarding numbers killed and the need for researchers to complete a more systematic analysis the numbers reflected here almost assuredly underreport the full impact. 87 Death and the Herdsmen SBM Intelligence 12. Publication design by Distillery Creative Marketing Group Inc. distillerycreative.com Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved. To learn more click button StandwithNigeria.org 405 North Washington Street Suite 300 Falls Church Virginia 22046 info 21wilberforce.org 571.297.3177 www.21wilberforce.org Copyright 2016 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. All Rights Reserved.