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Vol. 1 2017 1 GazettE SANDY SPRINGS STEAM ENGINES TO SKYSCRAPERS Civil Rights Pioneer DOWN YONDER ON THE CHATTAHOOCHEE SEWAGE TO MOONSHINE Whiskey and Tonic GLENRIDGE HALL THE JUDGE WITH A GRUDGE COTTON & CONVICTS Special Thanks to the Sandy Springs Society Annually in September The Heart of Our Community since 1984 Saturday 9 00 AM 6 00 PM Sunday 10 00 AM 5 00 PM Heritage Green 6075 Sandy Springs Circle and surrounding streets For more information 404-851-9111 THE SPRINGS OF SANDY SPRINGS In 1851 the Spruill Family owned the land bordered by Sandy Springs Circle Sandy Springs Place Roswell Road and Mount Vernon Highway. They gave an easement to the Sandy Springs Methodist Church for use of the springs for which Sandy Springs is named. Every August during the last weekend of the month a few thousand people from Atlanta and the surrounding towns gathered Spruill Family at the springs for Methodist camp meetings. For five days and sometimes more revival preaching went on day and night. Isolated farm families and friends reunited and the young would court while fetching water at the spring. 3 Julia Blanche Owen Hilderbrand (1858-1930) Married Jacob Ronald Hilderbrand on July 10 1876. The Spruills sold the property to the Clara Ella Flavela and Evelyn Owens at a Sandy Springs Methodist Church camp meeting. Owens and in 1875 Johnathan Owen gave 30 acres of the current City Springs property to his daughter Julia Owen Hilderbrand. Julia granted an easement to Atlanta Water and Electric Power in 1904 to provide electricity to the property. Supporting Heritage Sandy Springs and other non-profit organizations in the community that promote the arts heritage education the environment and social services in Sandy Springs. The Sandy Springs Society is committed to improving the community by identifying and supporting community needs and programs of broad interest through effective action. Dear Friends From steam engines to skyscrapers Sandy Springs has changed dramatically over the centuries. The Sandy Springs Gazette answers questions from Is there really a sandy spring (page 8) to How was the City of Sandy Springs established (page 52) For years the answers to these questions sat on shelves in our library waiting for researchers genealogists or interested readers to explore them. In 2015 Heritage Sandy Springs updated our mission and our approach to sharing the history of Sandy Springs. History at Heritage will no longer be relegated to a library shelf. We created the Sandy Springs Gazette for those of you who remember these stories events and locations and want to share our unique history with the next generation. In addition to this copy of the Sandy Springs Gazette we publish a new story every week in our online Gazette at We look forward to welcoming you into the fascinating history of our community. Sincerely Melissa Swindell Director of Historic Resources P.S. If these stories spark memories or if you know someone who would like to share an oral history of our community please feel free to contact Heritage Sandy Springs at curator or (404) 851-9111 ext. 2. Table of Contents Heritage Sandy Springs Community The History Behind Heritage ................................. 8 Williams-Payne House Families ............................14 The Community That Raised Us ........................... 20 Sandy Springs Dirt Road ..................................... 22 Copeland Road and the Ice Age .......................... 26 Howard Chatham ................................................. 30 Community by Association .................................. 34 No Place Like Hammond ...................................... 36 Dear Old Golden Rule Days ................................. 40 Sandy Springs Way of Life Glenridge Hall ..................................................... 42 Franklin Burdett 1st Postmaster .......................... 44 Mail on the Rails .................................................. 46 Not Always the Worst of Times ............................ 48 Subborn as a Mule ............................................... 50 First & Foremost ................................................... 52 A Renaissance Family .......................................... 56 A Rose By Any Other Name ................................. 58 Sandy Springs Gazette February 2016 - February 2017 Publisher Chip Emerson Editor Melissa Swindell Writer Keith Moore Production and Design Multi-Media Editor Melissa Swindell Stacey Hader Epstein Contributors Rachel Rosner Marsha Webb Nancy McGhee Fran Buttolph Melissa Swindell Tami Kushner Jeremy Katz Garnett Cobb Amy O Neal Jackie Este Susan B. Deaver Linda Campbell Russell Clayton Karen Meinzen McEnerny Burt Terrell Bill Wynne Virginia Allison Morris Moore Talk for SSHCF Anne Eldridge Valerie Biggerstaff Suzanne Blackwell Kimberly Brigance Dorothy Knight Anne Eldridge Susan Beard Cora Adams Industry & Trade Horses Wagons and Cattle Drives ..................... 62 One Woman s Journey to Sandy Springs ................ 64 Role Models for Life ............................................. 68 Women in the Workforce ..................................... 70 War Crossing the Chattahoochee ................................74 Front Lines Of The Civil War ............................... 78 Service on the Home Front .................................. 82 Through A Dark Lens ........................................... 86 The Art of War ..................................................... 90 Making WAVES ................................................... 92 One of the Good Ol Boys .................................... 94 A New Life in the Land of Opportunity ................ 98 Civil Rights Cotton & Convicts ...............................................104 Prison Camps .....................................................106 Down a Dark Hole ...............................................108 Civil Rights Pioneer ............................................112 Moonshine & Mischief Sewage to Moonshine .........................................118 Whiskey & Tonic ................................................ 120 The Judge with a Grudge ....................................124 Haunted Sandy Springs ..................................... 128 Young Shenanigans in Burdal .............................130 Down Yonder on the Chattahoochee ..................134 Courting & More ..................................................136 The Sandy Springs Gazette is published weekly by Heritage Sandy Springs Copyright 2016 R2R Media Inc. All rights reserved. Reproductions in whole or part without express written permission of the publisher is strictly prohibited. This magazine is available by digital download. Article ideas are welcome. Email inquiries to mswindell The Arts One Family s Artistic Legacy ..............................142 Trail to a Cleaner Earth ......................................144 Our Glass Artist ..................................................146 Naturalist Artist Athos Menaboni ........................148 Radar Love ..........................................................152 Heritage Sandy Springs 6110 Bluestone Rd. Sandy Springs GA 30328 404-851-9111 Heritage Sandy Springs The History Behind Heritage The Williams-Payne House Families 7 Williams-Payne House 1940s Jerome & Harriett Williams Williams-Payne House Dedication Sandy Springs Society Entertainment Lawn 2016 The History Behind Heritage Based on Garnett Cobb s The History of the Sandy Springs Community Foundation Inc. (1999) and an interview with Herb Daws Interviewer Melissa Swindell B Date of interview January 31 2017 Heritage Sandy Springs--now in its 32nd year--had a rocky start in late 1983 emerging from the need to protect the actual spring and preserve the community s history in a world that was rapidly changing and making way for the future. What the community has come to know and love about Heritage Sandy Springs including the Williams-Payne House the Sandy Springs Society Entertainment Lawn and the spring itself were once relics of a rural community destined to be destroyed if not for the work of dedicated volunteers. The 1.8-acre location of the Sandy Springs Historic Site was tied up in a legal battle in October of 1984. Mr. and Mrs. J.H. Mabry owned the property and had filed for an application to rezone their property from residential to commercial. The Mabrys--who owned the property at Hildebrand Drive and Sandy Springs Circle--had plans to sell the property to developers for the construction of a proposed shopping center. The spring from which the community gets its name however would have been ruined by underwater sewage systems and fill dirt from the developing construction. To inhibit the proposed development Dr. Ludovico Villanueva chairman of the newly formed Sandy Springs Historical Preservation Commission wrote a letter to then chairman of the Fulton County Commission Michael Lomax citing the proposed danger to the historic site and asking them to save the site for posterity. Fulton County allocated 300 000 for the condemnation and purchase of the Mabry s land but the county was still 233 000 short for what the property had been appraised. On November 7 1984 at the monthly zoning hearing at the local courthouse local ac tivist Cora Adams--with the help of the Sandy Springs Historic Preser vation C o m m i s s i o n S a n d y Spring Site owned by the Mabrys. Springs Ar ts and Heritage Society Sandy Springs Chamber of Commerce Fulton County Federation of Garden Clubs Country Hills Garden Club Town and Country Garden Club and Sandy Springs Garden Club-- lobbied intensely on behalf of the spring area to have it condemned for the purpose of a historic site. Throughout the summer and fall of 1984 the Historic Commission and 9 Williams-Payne House in 1950 located on Mount Vernon Highway. the Arts and Heritage Society established a long-term development plan for the spring including the best use of the newly-acquired Mabry land. The subsequent salvation of the Mabry property marked the start of rescuing or establishing several more parks throughout Sandy Springs. been purchased by Major and Marie Payne in 1939. It was moved back eighty feet from the expanding highway and eventually remodeled. The Paynes lived in the house from 1940 until 1982 when it was sold to Portman-Barry Investors as part of a development plan. By July 1984 the Garden Club realized encroaching development in the area would In addition to the spring jeopardize the house and becoming the first historic therefore it needed to be site in the community the relocated if it was to be quest to rescue and restore saved. The club recruited the Williams-Payne House volunteers and community also began in the summer member s interes ted in of 1984. Garnett Cobb relocating the farmhouse. then president of the oldest Two crucial members of the civic organization in Sandy burgeoning project were Springs--the Sandy Springs Frances Glenn Mayson and Garden Club -- asked Joseph Joey Mayson who Portman-Barry Investors to renovated and restored the donate an old cottage to historic Glenridge Hall. After the organization that was some convincing they took located on the northeastern full responsibility for the corner of Mount Vernon Williams-Payne relocation Highway and Georgia 400. project and decided the Cobb intended the space to permanent site for the house be used as the permanent naturally should be near the Volunteers moving the Williams-Payne House. home of the Fulton County spring on the previously Federation of Garden Clubs. Portman-Barry agreed to the threatened Mabry plot--if the money could be raised to donation and even agreed to pay for the cost of moving the purchase and save it from impending development. house provided it was removed by September 1985. As it turns out the home was actually a remodeled farmhouse Indeed the creation and expansion of what would become dating back to the mid-19th century and had been Heritage Sandy Springs took an army of volunteers and owned by Walter Jerome and Harriet Austin Williams-- contributors to get the projects off the ground. In August founding citizens of Sandy Springs. The farmhouse had 1984 Joey Mayson formed an ad hoc committee of The History Behind Heritage continued By May 1985 Herb and a plethora of volunteers for the organization which would become known as Heritage Sandy Springs began to dismantle the Williams-Payne house and prepare it for transport to its new permanent location. Lane Greene the perseveration and restoration architect in conjunction with Jim Kambourian and the Fulton County Commission supervised Herb and the other volunteers. The interior of the house was always relatively stable but the exterior was in dire need of restoration and preservation. The house had been used as a halfway shelter in the early 1980s and many loads of garbage had to be removed from the premises during the cleanup stages. The volunteers then dismantled the stone chimneys and removed many of the 20th century additions that Major and Marie Payne made during the house s 1940s remodel. By October 9 1985 the house was ready for transport. Herb recollects I was able during that dismantling to get to meet a number of people in the garden club and other people including Joey Mayson who spearheaded that effort and possibly gave a lot of his money--which at that time was not a lot--but we had to have the moving and then the placement of the house and of course that happened--I can t quite remember the date--about thirty of us were over at midnight to place the house on the trailer. We had to take the roof off of it and when I say this I m observing I wasn t really doing the work at that time. But the house was moved at midnight because it could not be moved during the day because of traffic issues and of course they took the roof off to allow it to go under wires and everything. But at the time of the dedication we broke a bottle of champagne on the house and trailer and it moved over to its present site. Jim Kambourian Cora Adams Herb Daws Judy Shaney and Whitely Bramblett (Left to Right) standing on the deck of the unfinished reconstructed Williams-Payne House. garden club members that met weekly at Glenridge Hall to decipher and plan how the movement of the WilliamsPayne House and the historic spring project should culminate into one project. Members of the committee included Joey and his wife Frances as chair and co-chair Anne Pinson Garnett Cobb Dottie Megal Ann Chenault Dr. Ludovico Villenueva Jim Kambourian Tom Wilson and Granville Dennis. By January 1985 more than 75 citizens had committed themselves to preserving the history of their community forming what would become the Sandy Springs Historic Community Foundation. The foundation along with Fulton County officers and representatives of PortmanBarry Investors began working on the monumental task of relocating the Williams-Payne House. One new Sandy Springs resident Herbert Daws moved to the area in 1985 after retiring from the postal service. Shortly after arriving Herbert--or Herb as he prefers to be called-- and his wife Ruth got involved in local organizations. As a Kiwanis Club member Herb wanted to get involved with the club s Sandy Springs chapter. According to Herb I had been a member of the Kiwanis Club in Miami one of the largest Kiwanis Clubs in the United States--400 members. When I retired I came to Sandy Springs and immediately was interested in getting involved and acquainted with the area. I joined the Sandy Springs Kiwanis Club almost immediately of course I also was a member of the Sandy Springs Chamber of Commerce... As president of the Sandy Springs Chamber Herb began a long relationship with Heritage Sandy Springs. Williams-Payne House Dedication 11 And at that time it was placed in a look down in it and it was four feet temporary situation and it had the below ground level and you did basement area divided meaning the have to walk around it but you basement was on temporary supports couldn t touch the water. But we had to hold the kitchen area--we referred exhibits for the festival around the to the kitchen at that time--and the spring and I was out looking and I main part of the house is somehow guess everything was going pretty on solid ground. And for about six smooth. And I look down and there months it stayed there in that position was a bunch of kids playing around First Executive Director Junie Brown with a blue tarp on it. And one time I the spring because there were some was over doing some work but probably cutting weeds or crawfish in there and they could look down and see them. checking out something that we could do by hand because One little kid about five or six he got so interested that there was no workers on the house-- it was just sitting there. he squatted down and tried to reach down and touch the Here comes a bobcat and the driver was saying I am over water and he fell in head first. We all got excited and ran here to do some grading and he says Is that the house over and grabbed him and pulled him out by his feet. And I m supposed to knock over And we said No That s the that s when they put the lid on the spring and it s been that future historic house of Heritage Sandy Springs way ever since. Of course it s served another purpose--it s kept leaves out. Again it s one of the many things that the The house remained dormant on its new site for more than volunteers would run into. a year until the Foundation s Board of Trustees was able to obtain the remainder of the funds for refurbishment. From Beverly Langford and Jan Collins co-chaired the first festival that point forward the house and the spring now in the and other residents including Col. Frank Tiller Mrs. Lu same physical location--became the major project of what Lawson Joey Mayson Beverly Hogan Pam Barnett Donna eventually would become Heritage Sandy Springs. MacConnell Becky Jo Nickles Anna Bradley Cheree Gayre Celeste Jones Ann Atwater Bev Ellithorp and Molly Graham Fundraising efforts continued through 1985 and most continued the annual tradition that supports the foundation s of 1986. On November 2 1986 the board hosted the operating budget. In addition to the Festival volunteers organization s first Founders Day Festival--an annual as well as residents also participated in barbecue lunches community-wide fundraiser which is now known as the antique car exhibits quilt displays live music arts and craft Sandy Springs Festival. More than 600 Sandy Springs shows bake sales and a pictorial history of the spring. residents came out to help restore the heritage of their community. The festival became a major two-day community event that primarily supported the foundation s annual fundraising budget. Vo l u n t e e r s c o n t i n u e d to maintain the mostly untended house as well as to help at the festival. According to Herb I remember when we had our first festival. We had a good attendance but it was all pretty much unprotected. The spring had an opening but you Sandy Springs Founders Day (1986) the original Sandy Springs Festival. The History Behind Heritage continued Sandy Springs Society Entertainment Lawn 2016 In the summer of 1987 the board hired its first full-time executive director Junie Brown--a former journalist at The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. A year later the Sandy Springs Society was founded as a fundraising organization for the foundation. A large part of the society s efforts have resulted in the restoration and completion of several projects including the Williams-Payne House the spring site and the Sandy Springs Society Entertainment Lawn. The Williams-Payne House was officially opened to the public on May 19 1990 with a ribbon-cutting event by Joey Mayson Garnett Cobb Fulton County Commission Chairman Michael Lomax and Miss Sandy Springs Susan Woodworth. The house was truly a community effort to restore. Community members donated their time and the antiques that filled its rooms. The restoration of the spring site was completed on June 5 1988. Today the spring flows year-round at a rate of 10-gallons of water per minute at a constant temperature of 58 degrees. The Entertainment Lawn was built a few years later with the help of the Sandy Springs Society s Turtle Project the Fulton County Tax Allocation District and numerous volunteers cementing the vision for the site as a location for Sandy Springers to gather as a community through festivals and other events. Herb remembers I personally through the board worked out a plan to clean off the lot [at the corner of Sandy Springs Place and Bluestone Road] and use it as a lawn that could be used to sit on during the festival and to actually somewhat be utilized as a place to sit and enjoy the park. My first thought was to get the county again involved and they agreed to let us bring in dirt from construction sites which in this case was from the City Walk [shopping center located across Sandy Springs Place] and I became friends with one of the engineers and we talked about what he could do to give us some support in making the lot more reasonable. And he was very helpful when we were in the process of grading our property and disposing of dirt. He personally supervised about 100 dump loads of dirt getting from the City Walk to that side and level it to the point where we could utilize it. Again the county came in and they put in a new pond that cost a certain amount a development company and a construction company volunteered to tr y and grade that 100 load dump truck loads to ... make it look attractive to the rest of the park. After that was done the county through a tree agreement paid for 50 trees what we call beginner trees--medium sized-- and ... put those in around the area. Then we got the county to come in and grade the land and Sandy Springs Society Entertainment Lawn under construction. 13 plant it seed it and again it was used to attract part of the walk for two years... That took about a year. The Williams-Payne House Sandy Springs Society Entertainment Lawn and spring site all comprise the mainstays of Heritage Sandy Springs--education civic organization membership and rental space for private social events. In addition to being a naturally beautiful and historic site for the community to enjoy the non-profit continues to give back to the community through educational programming the Festival and concerts historical research and oral histories of longstanding community members. Heritage Sandy Springs is a community institution that thrives due to the work of its many volunteers who contributed to the restoration and vision of the city. In 1993 the foundation formed a recognition committee Spring Site 2016 Sandy Springs Society Entertainment Lawn under construction. to record the history of the organization s volunteer work and initiated the G a r n e t t C o b b Spring Site Renovation Outstanding Volunteer Award. Herb and his wife Ruth Daws received the award in 1998 and it was with their help and many and other volunteers like them that the spring site is preserved for present day residents and future generations for decades to come. In 2015 Heritage Sandy Springs received a grant from The Sandy Springs Society for seed money to begin revitalization of the spring site. The grant provided funding for a site evaluation and design renderings to offer better interpretation and revitalization of the historic springs that gave the community its name. As custodians of the springs Heritage Sandy Springs wants to make improvements to the site offering a reinterpretation of what the springs represent to the community. The project will reimagine the site and its surrounding and present the springs as a new elegant and inspiring symbol of our heritage and our future. The new Sandy Springs site will become a place that tells its own story a place for quiet reflection and contemplation a gathering place a story telling place and a place to celebrate community and life. A new design was unveiled in February 2017 by the architects Lane and Linda Duncan. According to Lane We hope that this work is reflective of the long history and culture of this place and that it shows respect for the land itself. B Spring Site Renovation Drawings The Williams-Payne House Families An interview with Jacqueline (Jackie) Estes Elliot B Interviewer Anne Eldrige B Date of interview April 1991 Walter Jerome Williams was a DeKalb County resident when he purchased the south half of land lot 19 in October 1878. He soon became known in the whole community as the man [who] always dressed in a fresh white shirt a tie and high silk hat and shined shoes recalled his daughter Alice Williams Estes. This was what he called dress for the day every day with no more important business than sitting on the front porch. In the later years of his life being no longer able to work in the fields himself he spent his time overseeing his children s work. He had bells on the mules Alice remembered and [he] knew by the tinkle which mule it was and which boy was working it. No sound from the mule meant trouble for [that] boy. Alice s daughter Jacqueline remembers hearing stories about her mother being kept out of school so that she and the other children could work in the fields if not their own fields hired labor for other fields. They just made pennies as Jackie recalled the story and then he [Jerome] would take the money. They never got to keep the money. That being the period that it was in of course that was never questioned. The father had the right to do this but it did not endear him to his children. Farming 100 acres was their means of a good living. They raised cotton corn wheat and sugar cane. There were vegetables almost year round turnip greens cabbage and peas and tomatoes. Everything that could be canned was put up for the winter. Likewise all the fruits available peaches apples pears cherries and grapes were canned. Alice was the fifth of six children born to Jerome and Harriet W illia m s b u t h e r daughter Jackie Williams-Payne House 1940s recalls that there was enmity between [her grandfather Jerome s] first family and the second. In 1868 Jerome married Susan Cobb and they had six children. One year following Susan s death Jerome married Harriet and Jackie believes that the enmity had something to do with the fact that the second family felt they were shortchanged 15 not only emotionally but maybe materially by this first family. As I grew up and talked with my mother Jackie said I remember my grandfather. He was a very sweet man. He always treated me well. [My mother] Jerome Williams with granddaughter Jackie Williams Estes. were not married and someone who had a little money say a house you married them -- even if they were widowed and had children because this was a woman s place in life. When my grandmother died she was laid out and that was when they bring you and (say) Kiss your grandmother good-bye. You know here s this dead body... [the body] was catty-cornered in the bedroom. Harriett was buried next to her husband Jerome in the Sandy Springs United Methodist Cemetery. Major and Marie Payne purchased the Williams farmhouse in the early 1940s. After moving it nearly 80 feet farther back from the recently widened Mount Vernon Highway they remodeled the house extensively inside and out including adding a basement removing the front porch adding rooms and rearranging the placement of walls doors and windows. In addition to restoring the Williams-Payne house Major Payne operated a real estate business. Marie Payne was active in local society contributing her time and talents to garden clubs and various cultural societies. She often entertained at her home on Mount Vernon Highway and continued hosting social events after she relocated to Aberdeen Forrest. Despite their move the Payne family retained ownership of the Williams-Payne House on Mount Vernon Highway. It stood vacant for a few years and in 1983 was used for a time as a halfway shelter. By 1984 the exterior of the house was in a rundown condition but the original interior remained fairly stable. When Marie Payne passed away in December 1984 the Sandy Springs Historic Community Foundation (presently Heritage Sandy Springs) had plans in the works to move the Williams-Payne House from Mount Vernon Highway to its current location at the corner of Sandy Springs Circle and Sandy Springs Place. On October 9 1985 the house was moved about a mile and a half between midnight and 5 00am. Community volunteers under the watchful eye of restoration architect Williams Family 1907 said He was one of the meanest men who ever lived. Let s get this on the record. It would seem that he was a very controlling very hard man. Jackie s grandparents died only two weeks apart in 1936. Her grandmother Harriet passed away first. They did not expect my grandfather to die she recalled but he gave up the Harriett & Jerome Williams will to live when Harriett died. Now this would seem like a great romance but it was not a great romance on my grandmother s side. I think my poor grandmother had just worked herself to death she continued. That s what men did in those days. They went through several wives. The wives were worn out with childbirth and work so they killed off their wives literally. Then they would have to seek another wife to help with the family and to have other children so they could work the place. He was about 20 years older [than Harriet] but she looked as old as he did when she died. Totally worn out. I was told that Harriet was the belle of the county and they didn t understand why she married didn t matter if you were the belle of the county. If you Williams-Payne House 2010s The Williams-Payne House Families continued Lane Greene stripped it down to its 19th century components. When sheetrock was removed in the living room the unpainted outline of the original family clock was still visible above the mantel--evidence that when the Williams family painted their parlor (the only painted room in their home) the mantel clock had not been touched. Instead of wooden interior window castings a contrasting color was painted around the parlor windows to give them a faux finished look. The original heart pine flooring was uncovered and later restored after the Payne s remodeled wooden floors were removed. The floor plans of Jerome Williams house and its subsequent additions during his second marriage re-emerged. Contractor George Simpson removed the remodeled parts of the home leaving the original three rooms and the two additional rooms later added by Jerome Williams. [Click here to see floorplans] Over the years other historic structures were relocated to Heritage Green. The Well Shelter The Well Shelter had been used both by the original Williams Family and the Payne Family and is probably as old as the house itself. The Milk House In 1988 The Sandy Springs Arts and Heritage Society o b t ai n e d t h e o l d e s t known structure in Sandy Springs the Burdett Milk Hous e and d o nate d it to the Historic Site. James Franklin Burdett had built the milk house around 1860 on his farm on the southwest corner of Mount Paran Road and Lake Forrest Drive. Milk house The wooden outbuilding was 10-by-15 feet with wooden steps down to a 10-by-15 foot rock-walled cellar where vegetables dairy products and other perishables were protected from summer heat and winter frost long before electricity was available. Fulton County moved the milk house to the Historic Site in 1990. Soon after the Arts and Heritage Society raised funds and recreated its rock basement and cedar shake roof. It was donated to Heritage Sandy Springs by Ed and Emily Montello who have owned the Burdett Farm since the 1960s. B Milk house today 17 Sunday afternoons The Heart of Our Community since 1984 November February 4 30 PM 6 30 PM Heritage Hall 6110 Bluestone Road For more information 404-851-9111 Community The Community That Raised Us Sandy Springs Dirt Road Copeland Road and the Ice Age Howard Chatham s Mark on Sandy Springs Parts I & II Community By Association No Place Like Hammond School Days Dear Old Golden Rule Days 19 Burdett Manson Thomas Weller gives children ice on a hot day. Copyright Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Courtesy Georgia State University Hammond Elementary School 1958 Hammond Elementary School pre-1970s The Community That Raised Us An interview with Morris Moore B Interviewer Susan B. Deaver B Date of interview November 16 2003 Today if you drive through Sandy Springs along Roswell Road you will pass no fewer than fifteen supermarkets. There are the traditional Kroger and Publix stores organic and locally sourced Whole Foods Trader Joes and now Sprouts. There are even international grocers La Canasta specializes in Latin American foods Shahrzad stocks Persian products and Bakkal International has Mediterranean goods. In the 1950s Sandy Springs the view was much different. There was one grocery store Frank Burdett s Grocery. We could ride our bikes to the corner [of Mount Vernon Highway and Roswell Road] park it and go across to Mr. Frank s grocery store said Morris Moore. I couldn t couldn t cross Roswell Road on the bicycle. Noooo. At that time Roswell Road was two lanes and we couldn t cross that at all. everything if we were going to have cube steak for supper or pork chops all we had to do was tell Bob Kirk who was the butcher that Mother wants enough steak for supper and he knew exactly how much to give me. And I would sign the ticket. If we bought candy or anything he didn t think Mother really wanted us to have Mr. Frank would ask if we had permission. And we knew to tell him the truth because on Saturday he went through every ticket and [would say to Daddy] Now they said that they could have this piece of candy. And if we had not told the truth we would have been caught. So we had a community that raised us. The Sandy Springs community began to take its own unique form in the middle of the 20th Century as more and more families moved out of the city into the suburbs. At the center of the community were the schools. When my sister started at Hammond Elementary remembered Moore I was the big brother. Every morning when we arrived at school I walked her to her classroom and then I would go to mine. After about a week of doing this Mrs. [Betty] Tiller my sister s first grade teacher came out in the hall and put her The schools were a part of the community social services as well as the educational experience. They had a charge account at Mr. Frank s grocery store Moore recalled. And Daddy went to the grocery store every Saturday and paid off the week s account. So if Mother needed anything from the store we were allowed to go to the grocery store and Mr. Frank would charge it to us. We didn t have to make decisions because they knew 21 arm around me. She said Now your sister s going to have to grow up so you can t walk her to her classroom anymore. You re going to have to start letting her come alone. So at that point I had to start letting my little sister go to her classroom alone. Mrs. Tiller and I still laugh about that. Moore continues The schools were a part of the community social services as well as the educational experience. There wasn t much to do in Sandy Springs then. I mean we d have little parades and the high school band always marched. The Glee Club the cheerleaders and majorettes were always a part of that. There were no movies no anything else. So the big thing was high school football on Friday nights and Sock Hops afterward. But the odd thing in my senior year at Sandy Springs High School we did not even win a football game. In f a c t t h ey did not even score a point that entire year. So I guess that s our claim to fame. At our first reunion which we house that was at the corner or Sandy Springs Circle and Mount Vernon Highway was sold and became Sandy Springs Chapel and Funeral Directors. It became a funeral home. I didn t really want to have much to do with that. However that summer I was working with my father in the heating and air conditioning business and I had already decided that that definitely wasn t going to be my career and we put the heating and air conditioning into the funeral home. Knowing the owners of the funeral home they started asking me to come over and do little odd jobs. So I helped unload some of the equipment as it came in cutting the grass washing cars and all those things So we had a community that raised us. Burdett s Grocery Store 1939 Hammond Elementary School pre-1970 while I was in high school as a par ttime job. I became interested in what was happening so I decided that maybe I wanted had at ten years one Burdett s Grocery Store c. 1920s of the props was a big scoreboard at the end of the room with a zero under Home Team because that had become the joke. When I was a senior in high school he recalled the to be a funeral director. I went to Mr. Foster who owned the funeral home and told him. Since I was only seventeen when I graduated from high school he suggested that I work a year to see if it was really what I wanted to do and then I could either pursue my career in the University of Georgia with teaching art or I could go to mortuary school. Frank & Nannie Lou Nance Burdett c. 1930s I worked that year and that was 51 years ago and I ve been here ever since. B Mount Vernon Towers 2010s Sandy Springs Dirt Road An interview with Laura Snipes B Interviewer Garnett CobbB Date of interview August 15 1997 Approximately 100 000 people live in Sandy Springs today. During the weekday that number doubles as people commute into or through Sandy Springs. It s almost hard to imagine a time when traffic was not a problem in this community but Tillie Womack Hindman remembers the early 1900s when only one car drove through the streets of Sandy Springs. Benjamin F. Burdett owned a Hanson Six automobile recalled Hindman and he was the first to commute by car from Sandy Springs to Atlanta. Benjamin F. Burdett a native Sandy Springs resident built his home at the present day site of Mount Vernon Presbyterian Church. Laura Snipes recalled that the colonial mansion was built around 1900 on a four hundred acre plantation. It was the first brick house in Sandy Springs and the bricks for it were made on the property. There were eleven rooms [in two stories] nine of which had identical mantles and large mirrors. Sixteen years later Burdett sold his home and moved his family to West Peachtree and Eleventh Streets while still maintaining a weekend retreat in Sandy Springs on Riverside Drive. Benjamin F. Burdett owned a Hanson Six recalled Hindman and was the first to commute by car from Sandy Springs to Atlanta. The Burdett Mansion as it became locally known changed hands many times over the years. In 1955 Laura Snipes and her family moved into the Mount Vernon Woods neighborhood across the street from the Burdett Mansion. At that time the Mansion and only thirty-nine of the original four hundred acres were left intact. Within the year the present owners the Sewell Family sold the Mansion and seven and a half acres to the First Presbyterian Church of Atlanta. In those days in 1955 Snipes remembered that Roswell Road was a two lane road to the country and the subdivision [Mount Vernon Woods] where we selected our lot to build only had two paved roads. We selected a lot on Vernon Woods Drive which was a dirt road at the time so we were surprised after everything was graded and paved over and we saw our lot as it really was because it had been woods when we selected it. When Snipes and her family moved into their home there were very few houses completed in the neighborhood so the community was very friendly she recalled. We had lots 23 Mount Vernon Presbyterian School of parties and good times because the community and our churches were the only social activities available to us. There were several churches but not many large congregations. The church my husband and our family and I joined was Mt. Vernon Presbyterian Church which met at Hammond School when it was first organized in the early 1950s. When the group grew large enough and wealthy enough to purchase proper ty the First Presbyterian Church of Atlanta sent a group to Sandy Springs for the purpose of establishing the fir s t Presby terian Church in the community. They purchased the Burdett Mansion. Snipes told us that eventually they added more buildings [to the property] and as the church grew we needed a permanent sanctuary and the old colonial mansion oods Home Mount Vernon W Sandy Springs Dirt Road continued was torn down much to everyone s regret. A new sanctuary was built in 1969 and our church has since added many new facilities a large recreation facility and a big fellowship hall said Snipes. In 1972 the Mount Vernon Presbyterian School was founded. Currently they ser ve 932 students from six weeks old through the twelfth grade. B Burdett Manson Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center Mount Vernon Presbyterian School 2010s 25 THE WINECOFF HOTEL Franklin Burdett s home (far left) was built on Mount Vernon Highway around 1900. This home was one of the first brick houses in Sandy Springs. In fact it was so fashionable that in 1916 Mrs. W.F. Winecoff wife of the famed hotel builder purchased the property. The Winecoff Hotel now the Ellis Hotel on Peachtree Street in Atlanta was named for the Winecoff Family. Billed as a fireproof hotel it unfortunately was not. On December 7 1946 the hotel caught fire. In the deadliest hotel fire in history 119 victims perished in the fire while many jumped from the building in hopes for a second chance at life. As a result of the fire building codes were updated and better enforced to prevent this tragedy from happening again. Winecoff Hotel c. 1910s Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library Courtesy of Allen Goodwin Winecoff Family 1918 Copeland Road and the Ice Age An interview with Myrtle Copeland Reed B Interviewer Morris Moore B Date of interview Summer 1995 For close to a century Copeland Road in Sandy Springs well On Roswell Road just below where the Perimeter was located just south of Roswell Road and I-285 between crosses... [my grandparents] had a house there. They came Roswell Road and Lake Forrest Drive. Today you will find from Forsyth County and built this house that the youngest the same street listed on maps with a different name son and the youngest daughter were born there she Northwood Drive. The road originally named for the recalled. I became a member of Sandy Springs Methodist Copeland family Church when I was that settled there eight years old [in in the late 1800s 1915] but I was became renowned living in Atlanta at i n t h e 19 7 0 s that time because and 80 s as an my mother had to illegal drug- and work. I spent all my crime-centered summers with my corridor. The street grandmother and was renamed grandfather on the Nor thwood in farm. the late 1990s in hopes that a new Each s u m m e r name would help Myr tle and her re-identif y the f amily at tended neighborhood the Sandy Springs Atlantic Ice & Coal Company c. 1940s and thus deter Camp Meeting Copyright Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Courtesy Georgia State University criminal activities. just up the road In the process of This was an changing names however the history of the Copeland interdenominational camp meeting Presbyterians Baptists family and their daily life in Sandy Springs all but Methodist...Everything was planned the whole year for the disappeared. camp meeting [in August]. [We stayed] in cabins called tents but they were just rough wood structures. And our Myrtle Copeland Reed remembers the area s earlier days tent had an upstairs to it and all the men and boys slept 27 upstairs and all the women and girls slept downstairs recalled Myrtle. [In preparation for camp meetings we] would rob the bee hives well they d be about six jars of the very best [honey] that would be. My grandmother had two cupboards in the kitchen and one of them was the camp meeting cupboard. That s where the honey went and then all the best of the preserves and the best of the pickles and everything was put on those shelves. The garden was planted at a time that they knew would be ready to be gathered [for the meeting]. They d fatten the calves and butcher it and save the best hams. And then about two or three days before we moved into the tent they d start baking all kinds of pies and cakes. What I can t understand is why things didn t spoil. The answer to that was most likely in the ground preparations once at camp. When the Copelands arrived they dug a big hole and would get a bunch of sawdust and then they d get... it must have been five hundred pounds of ice. It would be two big clumps of ice and they d put it down in that hole with the sawdust. And that s where they kept the meat covered up Myrtle said. You went to Buckhead and got the ice. In the early 20th century it was not unusual for ice to be delivered to the camp meeting or to Sandy Springs residents. There is a long history of transporting ice from regions with cold climates and selling it in warmer regions where a high demand for ice was needed for food preservation. The shipping of ice from New England to the South and on to the Caribbean became popular in the early 1880s and thus spurred the development of industrial icehouses. From these Thomas Weller warehouses ice was transported by ship Copyright Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Courtesy Georgia State University or wagon to individual homes. Families in the city typically had small iceboxes inside their kitchens. It was common for these boxes to be made of wood and insulated with sawdust cork or even seaweed and lined with tin zinc or another noncorroding metal. Families in rural areas such as 1900s Sandy Springs might have had their own icehouse a building made specifically to store ice and food for preservation on their farm or plantation. Icehouses typically were of a vernacular style fitting the landscape of the farm. All were insulated similar to the small kitchen iceboxes with sawdust and non-corroding Thomas Weller gives children ice on a hot day. Copyright Atlanta Journal-Constitution. metals when available. Ice in the late Courtesy Georgia State University 1800s brought in about four to six cents per pound and with the average urban American consuming approximately one ton of ice annually residents of that time spent about 100 on ice each year. In today s economy that would equal about 2 200 per year for ice. While ice was and continues to be an excellent method for preserving food farmers in rural areas used other methods for preservation as well such as smoking or salting meats and canning fruits and vegetables. Not only did the transportation of ice and its storage in icehouses throughout the South aid in food preservation but in the mid-1800s it also increased the availability of larger quantities of ice cream a tasty by-product of the ice and technological revolutions. Myrtle remembers the Copeland Road and the Ice Age continued drugstore down on the right-hand side below Mount Vernon. We finally got a drugstore...before that you had to go all the way over to Piedmont to Hunter s to get an ice cream cone. That was where a lot of the courting was done going over to the ice cream factory. Having an area drugstore was a big deal for Sandy Springs and residents would venture out to a small offering of other businesses too to stock up on supplies or to treat themselves to specialty items. Myrtle remembers there were three businesses in Sandy Springs between 1912 and 1920. One of them was just a tiny building where this lady that had never married. She had some drinks but I can t imagine how they would taste because they were not on ice we had no ice out there. [She also sold] ... Octagon soap powders and all kinds of tobacco. And I don t remember seeing any cigarettes I think most of them rolled their own then. And she would sell tablets and pencils and things like that. She continues Right on out beyond [her store] about where the [Mount Vernon] Presbyterian Church is Matt Acree had a blacksmith shop. And that was big business Because all the farmers had to have their plows sharpened and everything mended. And then out on Johnson Ferry at Glenridge... Mr. Burdett had a gin and a sawmill. But those were the only three buildings that were in Sandy Springs other than the schools and the churches. As for Sandy Springs businesses none were on Roswell Road said Myrtle. They had a potato house a potato curing house. And it was out there where Mount Vernon and Johnson Ferry join. They lasted for a while... I have an idea that it was because of the temperature. It should have stayed at a certain temperature but we didn t have electricity or gas or anything then. [Then] I guess the first little store was the one that Mr. Burdett had and then I think Mr. Frank bought it. Then right across from that was the Hardeman store recalled Myrtle. Today Roswell Road is chocked full of all types of businesses and Copeland Road aka Northwood Drive is just a shadow of its former self. It is now home to a large portion of Sandy Springs Hispanic community which includes a mix of residential commercial and religious establishments. Though none of the area businesses Myrtle remembers remain in Sandy Springs today her family s name lives on in the memories of aging original Sandy Springs residents as well as in former map books of the region. B Copeland Road present day Northwood Drive The Heart of Our Community since 1984 29 Springs Saturday mornings April December Annually in April annually in April Rings American Girl Club Last Saturday of each month Sunday evenings May September Annually in september Titles Twilight First Tuesday evening of each month Sunday afternoons November February Annually in October for dates times and details check Howard Chatham s Mark on Sandy Springs Part I An interview with James Howard Chatham B Interviewer Susan B. Deaver & Karen Meinzen McEnerny B Date of interview July 28 2004 The name Chatham Homes has conjured up positive built more than 6 000 homes and developed more than 150 images of quality homes in the north Fulton area for neighborhoods by the end of his career. However years decades. However if Howard Chatham hadn t been before real estate development and construction were draf ted during World in his sight Chatham War II there s a good was making his mark at chance he would have Woolworth s Department made his name in the Store. retail business rather than in the Atlant a [My first job was] at real estate arena. Woolworth s Department Due to a ser ies of Store in Buckhead said career shif ts Howard Chatham. Of course Chatham became the Woolworth s not there developer that built not anymore but I was the only many of the first main man down there. neighborhoods in Sandy I done all the cleaning. Springs but also the Get there early in the city s first skyscraper-- mor ning wash your Woolworth Department Store Buckhead Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center the Nor thside Tower windows clean the floors Building at the corner of and then stock would Roswell Road and Sandy Springs Place. start coming in so I d check it in and had to fill the counters for the [sales] girls as they needed it. I d get off work around According to the Atlanta Journal Constitution Chatham eight or nine o clock at night and just appreciated that job. 31 Chatham quickly moved up Woolworth s corporate ladder and it wasn t long before the company offered him a promotion in Newport News Virginia. Well they gave me that promotion and I told them that I was going to be drafted and wasn t no use for me going up there. But it was quite a promotion for me to get to go as vice-president of a big store in Newport News. Woolworth s was good company [to work for] he continued. In fact Woolworth s sent me a newsletter every month all the time I was in the service. And you know that speaks well of a company. Chatham was drafted into the Army s Department o f Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n stationed in the United Kingdom during World War II. I was part of handling t he t roop movement Chatham recalled. Like for the invasion of France I was they call it the regulating group. We had only three hundred men and seventy-five officers for it. It was kind of a hightech organization and our officers they got direct orders from Eisenhower you know about the troop movement that went through the UK. I stayed two and a half years over in the UK you might say until the war was over. [When] I came back home I just didn t want to [go back to Woolworth s] Chatham said but they invited me to come down to go to work. I was just all mixed-up I guess when I came home so I stayed around the house there for a while until somebody else called me and want me to come to work. Within a year of returning from the war Chatham was hired by Fulton County to be a survey crew member laying out roads buildings and bridges. It wasn t long before Chatham realized the opportunities for career advancement were much dif ferent at the county than at W o o l w o r t h s . E v e n though he had training in the army and took a lot of correspondence courses...studying engineering for t wo years he knew it was time to move on. I told A.T. MacDonald Director of Public Works for Fulton County said Chatham and H.L. Frederick who was the Chief Engineer... I says You got men here you know college graduates head of the sur vey crews. I can t see where I m going.... I [wouldn t] ever get the opportunity to go anywhere here so I think I ll just quit. But in the meantime I was doing a little bit of house work around the side. As Chatham was preparing to leave his Fulton County job the chief engineer told him Well I tell you what I m going to do. Since you hadn t asked for nothing I m going to give you a leave of absence so that you could come back you know just where you are not within six months. I know you ll be back. But when I left there I didn t have no intentions of coming back said Chatham. So I bought me a little truck--paid 900 for it a little second-hand truck--put my tool box on there [and] the day I quit I didn t turn back. Chatham built more than 6 000 homes and developed more than 150 neighborhoods by the end of his career. B Howard Chatham s Mark on Sandy Springs Part II An interview with James Howard Chatham B Interviewer Susan B. Deaver & Karen Meinzen McEnerny B Date of interview July 28 2004 Howard Chatham had taken several engineering correspondence courses while serving in the Army. I studied engineering for two years just strictly engineering. So I could just about do anything in the way of laying out roads and figuring out dirt bridges and everything like that Chatham recalled and that was a real help to me when I started building houses. He approached building houses the same way he had built bridges. I leveled every floor you know how important it was to do it right get a good foundation. And I was the lead man out there--I did it all. I poured concrete dug septic tanks and dug wells he remembered. The first few houses on Hardeman Road [didn t] have water out there so I dug wells. Chatham began building houses based on plans he saw in magazines and became known for his ranch-style houses. Of course you know being in the business I could draw the plans myself but I d take stock plans and change them to fit what I think would work he said. I just got a magazine and started [on] the first house. [However ] you don t want them all alike. I ve always tried not to build two houses exactly alike. Unlike planned subdivisions such as Mount Vernon Woods early Chatham houses were built as needed. I built six houses to star t with on Hardeman Road Chatham recalled and I built Elden Drive just up the street I believe it s eighteen houses in there--but that s not part of [the] Cherokee Park [subdivision] which came along next. When interviewer Susan B. Deaver asked why he chose to name a neighborhood Cherokee Park Chatham replied 33 Cherokee Park was a good name...there was a Cherokee Park somewhere in the vicinity. That s where I got the name. Of course back then nobody had ever named a subdivision like they do now. [But the streets] Kitty Hawk Meadow Valley Mystic don t have anything to do with Cherokees Deaver continued. I think... I liked Mystic said Chatham. I seen a street up north that I thought was a pretty street and I just picked up that name. I just picked up names where it looked like it s been successful. If it s a good you know beautiful street or something and I tried to use those names. Kitty Hawk--I guess I got that from the Wright Brothers. Chatham continued building homes throughout Sandy Springs. The Brandon Mill neighborhood came next where Chatham built about a hundred and some houses followed by the Riverside Drive and River Shore Estates area. I bought 128 acres over there from Mr. Aaronson. Hal Aaronson he remembered and I know it came out in the paper as the largest real estate transaction in the city of Atlanta. As his reputation and company grew Howard Chatham continued to take a hands-on approach to his houses. Yeah but I laid out every house back then myself personally. I wanted every house square and I wanted it level and set on a good foundation he said It s the only way--you got to be there to know if all those things happen. In the beginning Chatham worked out of a little green house [off of Roswell Road just north of Hammond Drive.]. And I built a little two story house a little later. I was moving up a little bit then he said. Then I decided [that] Sandy Springs needed a skyscraper. That s when I built the C&S building [that was the first skyscraper in Sandy Springs with the first elevator as well]. As Sandy Springs continued to grow Chatham s skyscraper played a part in maneuvering around Sandy Springs infamous traffic along Roswell Road. In the 1960s helicopters would land on the tower s roof to collect the bank s papers for transport. Chatham continued to make his mark on Atlanta s real estate landscape and by the end of his career he had built more than 5500 homes and developed more than 150 neighborhoods. Howard Chatham passed away on January 1 2014. Chatham s son David continues his father s vision as a real estate developer in north Fulton County. Chatham s son Ken maintains a plant nursery his father developed on a farm off Crabapple Road. B Mr. and Mrs. Chatham with Karen Meinzen McEnerny Community by Association An interview with Dr. Robert and Verdery Cunningham B Interviewee Karen Meinzen McEnerny B Date of interview 2014 The vibrant community that Sandy Springs residents created has always been the town s hallmark. Although the town evolved from humble beginnings the hard work and devotion of its residents allowed Sandy Springs to evolve into the vivacious Atlanta suburb that it is today. Two lifelong Sandy Springs residents Dr. and Mrs. Robert Cunningham exemplify the ways in which community became central to Sandy Springs throughout its history. Dr. Cunningham was born January 23 1928 near midtown and his wife Verdery Cunningham was born not long after on December 12 1928 i n G e o r gia Baptist Hospital. They grew up in midtown a n d M o r ni n g s i d e respec tively and were lifelong Atlantans. D r. C u n n i n g h a m practiced medicine for over fifty years serving as the physician for the Sandy Springs High School football and baseball teams. Dr. Cunningham was also actively engaged in community events to help strengthen the bond between his family and the town of Sandy Springs. In 1964 Robert and Verdery moved to Loridans Drive at the corner of McClatchey Circle where they purchased a home from Howard Chatham in the Cherokee Park neighborhood. Sandy Springs community associations such as Cherokee Park have evolved since the 1950s. Community associations formed as councils of neighborhoods organized community resources to help homeowners navigate regulations local ordinances and placed residents in contact with local officials. The communities involved within each neighborhood council served to promote a united and vibrant Sandy Springs. The Cunninghams remember the neighborhood association as a conduit for community engagement. Robert recalls [I] think the interesting thing we would say about the neighborhood and we were trying to think about that a dramatic change occurred in this neighborhood when a neighborhood association was formed. Because prior to that time we don t recall any neighborhood gatherings any cookouts any barbec anything else neighborhood wise. The first community association in Sandy Springs began as early as 1965 when the increase in suburban grow th catalyzed the need for organization and solidarity among neighbors. Robert and Verdery were happy to partake in community activities and their centrally located corner lot provided the neighborhood with plenty of space to play. [We] hosted at least three neighborhood gatherings here on this property because it was convenient number one it offered a big play area for the children. The associations continued to be an influential factor for Robert Verdery and other residents. The group allowed them to congregate with neighbors discover mutual hobbies and most importantly keep the neighborhood safe. Crime in Sandy Springs was relatively low especially in the mid-twentieth century. Everyone in the neighborhoods 35 knew each other so there was high likelihood that if some transgression occurred most residents would immediately know the culprit. Verdery remembers We didn t need the police. Everything was okay. Now another I thought cute thing and it shows you the difference in security is in 1964 when we moved in... nobody locked their houses and when I lived on Noble Drive I don t even know if we had a front door key. Maybe we did but we never even locked the house. The neighborhood was so close that they all kept an eye out for each other the police rarely had to inter vene. Rober t and Verder y s neighborhood was so quiet that they did not even keep their dogs on a leash. Our dogs ran free...and would sometimes go down to your creek and get in the creek or whatever but I don t even recall anybody walking through the neighborhood with a dog on a leash remembers Robert. Residents felt safe and secure so much that anybody could walk into a neighbor s house and make themselves at home. Verdery remembers You know you just open the door and come in and make yourself at home. Despite the tight knit community atmosphere fostered by Sandy Springs residents crime did exist. Robert remembers that one neighbor was taken to the bank at gun point to rob their account and another neighbor s car and golf clubs were stolen. He remembered Our house was broken into on three different occasions in the early years we didn t have any security. We never have and they came to the bathroom window on one occasion broke the door down [on another]. The carport was open. We had a dog but they managed to shut the dog up in the kitchen and got into the house. The Cunningham s lost family heirlooms including several Civil War pistols. The police force that patrolled Sandy Springs was small and lacked the manpower to follow up on cases like this. The Fulton County Police Department operated in Sandy Springs until 1952 when officers were dispersed throughout city of Atlanta districts or had their positions eliminated altogether. The limited police presence within Sandy Springs usually meant neighborhoods would watch out for themselves. Robert recollects Only on one occasion did...We suspect the police knew who it was but they didn t have the power to search the apartment where this young man lived. So it was dropped. Now one of the first policeman that did the analysis of our break in was later on killed while he was serving as an off duty policeman at a motel right near the Atlanta Stadium. However one of the most interesting cases of potential crime in the neighborhood involved Catherine Hopper. They remember The Hopper child who was about the age of Mary Katherine our daughter would frequently walk down Kitty Hawk Drive coming down Mystic Place to get to the bus. [R]ight opposite our back driveway one day a man pulled up in a car and told her to get in the car and scared her to death...She apparently dropped down below the level of the window of the car and screamed or something some neighbors came out...and he drove off because that could have been a real tragedy and that was Catherine Hopper. The neighborhood councils provided residents with a sense security interaction and family. Well getting back to the neighborhood Robert recalled from my perspective the greatest thing that happened in the neighborhood was the association brought people together and not only the annual neighborhood meeting but the other get togethers wine tasting barbecues and whatever. And we got to know so many more people... Yes agreed Verdery that we would not have gotten to know otherwise. The neighborhood organizations within these tight knit communities offered a sense of security as suburban growth brought more and more people to Sandy Springs. To learn more about Sandy Springs neighborhood councils and experience Sandy Springs from Robert and Verdery s point of view you can visit the Sandy Springs Council website at and find out if your neighborhood is included. B No Place Like Hammond An Interview with Fred Hamrick B Interviewer Fran Buttolph B Date of interview February 21 1992 Sandy Springs while a relatively new city--having only received its incorporation in 2005--has a rich and vibrant history dating back to the late 1800s. In 1851 resident Wilson E. Spruill donated five acres of land to the Methodist Church near the springs for which the town is named. In that same year the first recorded school began educating children from nearby farms. The deed that donated the five acres of land for the Methodist church also stipulated that a building be used as a subscription school. The school that eventually was built to replace it at the junction of Johnson Ferry Road and Mount Vernon Highway was known as Hammond School. In 18 51 the Methodis t Church of Sandy Springs built a one - room log-framed building that operated as the school until 1897. Subscription schools like this single-room struc ture dot ted the landscape throughout rural communities. Parents paid nominal fees so their children could acquire the mos t basic of educations. Many local children attended the Methodist subscription school in Fulton County for only three to five months out of the year. Given that Sandy Springs encompassed primarily rural communities parents needed their children as extra hands for chores and labor especially during harvest seasons. The subscription school which was across from the church caught fire in 1897 and burned to the ground. The community rallied and replaced the subscription school with a four-room twostory building which they named Hammond School. The school was named after Nathaniel J. Hammond a wellknown educator and lawyer in Fulton County. Over the next 74 years Hammond School would educate thousands of children making it one of the central public institutions in Sandy Springs history. Hammond School provided education to several generations of Sandy Springs residents as well as influencing the town s geography history and incorporation. Fred Hamrick was born in Fulton County--in what is currently Sandy Springs--on April 29 1908 on Johnson Ferry Road. Hamr ick s pent his entire life in Fulton Count y and was involved in public work. Hammond School played an integral part in Fred s life having educated both of his parents his siblings and himself. Fred later was employed by the school working for the institution until the day it closed its doors. Graduating from Hammond School was a real honor particularly among rural families who had not previously been able to send their children to receive an education. During the Great Depression many families in Sandy Springs suffered real hardships and children were not able to complete their schooling. All of the Hamrick children were fortunate enough to have finished their education at Hammond School. Olan Flossie Hamrick Bertha Hamrick May Belle Hamrick Esther Hamrick Betty Hamrick Hubert Hamrick (he s the baby) all followed in Fred s footsteps at Hammond School. Fred himself was also a legacy as his Hammond Elementary School 1908 37 eventually became the largest and longest-living. Prior to the construction of Hammond subscription schools such as Hickory Grove Crossroads School Liberty Hall and R.J. Guinn School helped educate children throughout Fulton County. Crossroads and Hammond merged in 1924 thanks in large part to Annie Houze Cook an instrumental educator throughout Fulton County. She dedicated her life to teaching children and taught kindergarten at Hammond School. Fred does not remember Mrs. Cook but he remembers Mr. Beavis the principal Miss Maude and Minnie Kate Yates--his first or Hammond Elementary School 1928 parents attended Hammond as a subscription school. Fred remembers there were always small classes while he attended Hammond and he especially remembers that his favorite school pastime was to ring the bell in the tower. Well it was a large bell and it was in in the top of the schoolhouse in the tower with a long rope that came down into the lobby...Well they rang the bell as they took in school and they rang it for recess and then when school turned out they rang Hammond Elementary School Faculty 1940 it again. Hammond School extended the normal school year second grade teachers. Fred s devotion to from its three to five Hammond School led him to his job as the months to ensure that school s custodian in 1952. He and his second every child received wife Mary Cash both worked in the school from a well-rounded and 1952 until it closed in 1976. The last graduating complete educational class in the original brick building departed the experience. Hamrick school in 1959. recollec t s We went for seven Hammond School officially operated from 1905 months for a short to 1976 when the Fulton County School System period of time then sold it to regain a profit for the district. Mount it changed over to Vernon Towers a residence for active senior nine months...[ We citizens now sits where Hammond School once went from] 8 30am Hammond Elementary School stood. While the school bell that Fred Hamrick to 2 00pm I think. fondly remembers may no longer toll for Sandy In the interest of Springs children Hammond School will forever remain one providing the next generation with adequate schooling of the most influential structures during the development Hammond School helped extend the school year despite of the city. B the need for children to work on the farms. In addition Hammond School boasted one of the largest libraries in the area during a time when many families did not have any other literature in the house besides the Bible. Hammond was not the only school in the area but it R K The first school in Sandy Springs was a one-room school house that opened in 1851. School Days Dear Old Golden Rule Days An Interview with Carrick Y. McGaughey B Interviewer Fran Buttolph In the nineteenth century educational opportunities in Sandy Shutze designed the building which is still one of the most Springs were scarce. Residents who could afford to pay referenced buildings for principal architect Philip Trammell for their children s education would set up a classroom in Shutze. Since the school opened its doors in 1938 it has a local church or barn and hire a teacher. The school year welcomed more than 500 students annually. was a little shorter back in those days as parents relied on the labor of their children to help with farming chores during The McGaughey Family s weekend house in Fulton County the summer months. By 1872 the Atlanta public school afforded Carrick the opportunity to choose which school system made educational opportunities more accessible by he wanted to attend. As Garden Hills was not yet open at opening seven grammar the time of his enrollment schools that offered a free Carrick opted to stay near education to all Atlanta Atlanta and attend Spring children. Carrick Yeager Street Elementary School. McGaughey was born on As he recollects because Lombardy Way in Atlanta we owned two places I on June 1 1923. Carrick could have gone either to was lucky enough to be North Fulton--if I had I able to attend an Atlanta would have had to take the school despite living in bus from Sandy Springs Fulton Count y where to North Fulton and they educational opportunities had Garden Hills Grammar were limited. In 1932 S c h o o l r i g h t t h e r e Spring Street School Faculty 1948 Carrick s father bought the too. Carrick regrets not Courtesy of Center for Puppetry Arts Nancy Staub Puppetry Research Library family a weekend house attending Fulton County half way between Sandy schools and admits wishing Springs and Dunwoody. Carrick along with many other he had chosen differently. Today Garden Hills boasts recent notable individuals attended several beautiful and historic renovations which modernize the single brick building to schools many of which are still standing and used to this day. accommodate its growing number of students. One option for many children in Carrick s Sandy Springs neighborhood was the Garden Hills Grammar School. Garden Hills Grammar School is arguably one of the most beautiful examples of neoclassical-style architecture in the Buckhead community. Architectural firm Hentz Adler & The Spring Street School opened in 1923 and was another Atlanta area grammar school that offered free education to Atlanta residents. Carrick decided to avoid the bus and attend Spring Street for his primary elementary education. Carrick was only one in a sea of students that passed through 39 school--in other words changing loc ations buildings--at O Keefe Junior High School w hich is now t he building s still there but it s owned by Georgia Tech. The school is currently in use by the Georgia Institute of Technology. It houses Georgia Tech s custodial services and the university s ROTC program. Additionally t h e s c h o o l s g y m became home to the Georgia Tech volleyball team in 1995. The universit y renovated the gym into one of the best volleyball facilities in the entire Southeast. Garden Hills School Class of 1940 Photo Courtesy of the school s doors during the decades that Spring Street was in operation. I would have had to have taken that bus and gone in and to school and then taken it back every day. Well I decided since Dad still had his office in the city that it was reasonable--somebody decided but it suited me fine--that I still go to school with my friends in in in the Atlanta schools of which my grammar school was Spring Street School-- it had been built about seven years before I entered remembers Carrick. Carrick s brother was in one of the first classes to attend the school after it opened. The school was the first in Atlanta to be integrated and saw many notable individuals grace its classrooms including Yolanda and Martin Luther King III the children of Martin Luther King Jr. and Coretta Scott King. The school was closed in the mid-1970s yet the building still sits on its original lot at 1382 Spring Street. It currently houses the Center for Puppetry Arts. The center s Worlds of Puppetry Museum preserves some of the memories of the school with a chalkboard exhibit that lists classroom assignments from the entire nineteenth century by decades. Carrick continued his education at O Keefe Junior High School. O Keefe Junior High was also built in 1923 and is still visible at 151 6th Street in Atlanta. Scores of students roamed its halls between 1923 and 1973 when the last graduating class left for high school. Carrick recalls Anyhow I don t know how the years come out but I attended kindergarten and the sixth grade. Then the school system was a six-threethree in Atlanta at that time and so I went to junior high Henry Grady High School was one of the first two high schools established by Atlanta Public Schools in 1872. Originally the school was known as Boys High School and only opened its doors to young men. In 1909 the technical department of the high school separated from the main campus and in 1924 moved to its current campus site at 929 Charles Allen Drive. Carrick s last three school years were at Boys High. He remembers [It s] interesting to me and I will never forgive myself for doing this. It would have been much better for me to go to the Garden Hills School and North Fulton but as a child I didn t want to lose my friends. And then I don t even really want to put this on record I well I ll put it this way I didn t want to ride a school bus back and forth. Carrick eventually graduated from Darlington in 1941 on a scholarship and went on to become a loving husband father and friend to many in the Sandy Springs area. Many of these historical schools are still standing and have been renovated to serve the community. You can visit them and imagine what it was like to attend some of the first public schools in Atlanta schools that made education widely accessible to so many young and wide-eyed children. B K Sandy Springs High School was the first high school to open in Sandy Springs in 1958. Before that students went to high schools in Buckhead or Atlanta. R Sandy Springs Way of Life Glenridge Hall A Sandy Springs Treasure Frank Burdett First Postmaster & More Mail on the Rails Not Always the Worst of Times Stubborn as a Mule First & Foremost The First Mayor of Sandy Springs A Renaissance Family A Rose By Any Other Name Wouldn t Be Our Captain Steve Rose 41 Mayor Eva Galambos Glenridge Hall 1928 Jan Collins Burdett s Grocery Store c. 1930s A Sandy Springs Treasure An interview with Frances Glenn B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of interview July 19 1995 One of Sandy Springs most historic mansions was a 12 000 square foot Tudor-style manor originally built for Thomas K. Glenn former president of Atlantic Steel Company. Until recently Glenridge Hall built in 1933 stood as a home entertainment hall and ode to historic Sandy Springs. Thomas bought the land in 1915 and between 1915 and 1930 developed it into a fully self-sustaining farm complete with stables gardens pastures and cows pigs mules horses chickens and about 12 beagles. From 1933 to 1946 Thomas and his wife Elizabeth enjoyed Glenridge Hall both as a quiet rural weekend retreat and as a setting for lavish social entertaining. The mansion of fered an extravagant experience in the middle of a rural setting and for Frances Glenn Thomas and Elizabeth s daughter in-law it was more than just a weekend retreat it was home. Frances married Thomas oldest son Wadley Glenn in 1942 and according to her Thomas Glenn played a major role in Atlanta s history. Mr. Glenn began his career as an executive secretary at the Atlanta Electric Street Car Company which is known today as Georgia Power. He finished his career as president and chairman of Trust Company of Georgia which is now SunTrust Bank. Frances recollects Thomas K. Glenn was the eldest son of a Methodist minister. He remar ried in 1927 after his first wife died during childbirth and built Glenridge Hall as a wedding present for his second wife Elizabeth. Glenn and Elizabeth began construction on Glenridge Hall in 1929 on the land Glenn had originally purchased in 1915. I met Mr. Glenn in 1935. I was dating his son Dr. Wadley Glenn. At the time I was at Grady Glenridge Hall 1928 Memorial Hospital as an anesthetist. Coming out to Glenridge to ride with Mr. Glenn and Dr. Glenn we got to be very close. He treated me as I would think he would treat a daughter if he had one Frances remembers. We would go out to town and have lunch when Dr. Glenn was overseas. And I would come out to the country--it was the country then--and ride and have lunch out there. They Glenridge Hall 43 started building that house in 1929 but it wasn t completed until 1933. And they had musicals and he had a big barbecue place and the Skeet Club. And they would have parties like that. Every week they would have a Skeet Club shoot. The house was the pinnacle of extravagance during the 1930s. Family members would use the house on weekends as a retreat from the bustle of daily life retiring to the charming English-country home. moved out to Glenridge. Hilda and Wilbur were living there at the same time. I don t think you could ever get along too well with your in-laws if you don t have the same thing like the same things. So we lived I guess together about a year...We lived-- Wadley and I lived in the Mr. Glenn and Mrs. Glenn s suites which was on the east end of the house. And Hilda and Wilbur lived on the north end recounts Frances. Glenridge Hall Stableman Johnny The couple welcomed three sons--Frances Fred Evans and daughter Mary Raul and Kerney--who also had a chance c. 1930 Frances Glenn s husband Wadley was a to enjoy the home. Frances recollects noted engineer surgeon hospital administrator and World Those boys had a wonderful life growing up out here. And War II veteran. Dr. Glenn was a reserve officer in the Navy I think they played at Glenridge Hall cops and robbers and and immediately enlisted into the Army after the bombing everything else. of Pearl Harbor. Frances recollects [I] was at Emory and he was in private practice but he joined up immediately and The Glenns designed Glenridge Hall to look as if it was was sent to Pensacola Florida. He had asked me to marry more than 400 years old. It was the only site in north him before he left. So we were planning to wait awhile but Fulton County to be designated as a historic landmark. then he got orders that they might ship out any The property was showcased in several media outlets-- I went to Pensacola. And Mr. Glenn Wilbur and his wife including the movie Driving Miss Daisy two commercials Hilda came down for the weekend. So we were married at five magazine articles and two books describing Atlanta s Reverend Frasier s manse in 1942. Dr. Glenn was stationed best architecture. The mansion was also rented by in the South Pacific during the five years he was in service The Westminster Schools but as Frances remembers and operated as a flight surgeon with the Army on Okinawa. Westminster rented it for [dormitories]...[for] three or Frances remembers [He] was on Okinawa the day the four years but they really tore it up. Those leaded glass Japanese signed the Peace Treaty. He saw them sign the windows they just mashed them in. It was in a terrible Peace Treaty. Frances visited Glenridge Hall on weekends mess. The house was also used for a variety of community while Wadley was overseas and when he returned they events. Due to family deaths and then the high cost of made the house their permanent home. renovating the once glorious mansion the Glenn family s estate holders decided to sell the historic mansion and its The 86-year-old mansion played an important role in the surrounding properties to corporate concerns. The house life of Frances and Dr. Glenn. It served as a weekend and was demolished in April 2015. The property is now being summer retreat for Thomas and Elizabeth but for Frances developed as the national headquarters for MercedesWadley and their children it was home. We lived on Benz USA but for 83 years it stood as a testament to the Shadowlawn first then we lived on Jett Road then we charming lifestyle many people sought in Sandy Springs. B Glenridge Hall 2010 Photo Credit Nick Allin Frank Burdett st Postmaster & More 1 An interview with Lee H. (Jimmy) Burdett & Christine Burdett Melton B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of interview September 21 1993 John Franklin Burdett (Frank) served in World War I but that is not how he lost his arm. In September 1919 Frank and his new bride Nannie Lou Nance Burdett moved into their new home at the intersection of Johnson Ferry Road and Glenridge Drive-present day Aberdeen Forest subdivision. Frank installed a sawmill and cotton gin on his property. Then in May [1920] he lost his arm in the cotton gin. Ten days after his arm was amputated he was driving his car [again]. Frank attended Hammond School at age six in 1904 when the school was a four-room wooden building two school rooms downstairs and one upstairs. He continued his schooling for seven years until his promotion to high school. However there were no high schools in Sandy Springs in 1911. There were no busses in Sandy Springs [either] and certainly not too many one-car families he said so the only alternative was to walk to Buckhead and ride a streetcar to Central High School (later Fulton High School) which was located on Whitehall Street. After high school Frank attended Oglethorpe University. Frank s life was nothing if not res olute and for this reason Sandy After his freshman year in college Springs Methodist Church and before enlisting in the Army recognized him in 1961 at Frank began cour ting Miss a special church program. Nannie Lou Nance. Word was Tonight we have a that on their first date Franklin most unusual program was showered with rocks. This Three generations Jimmy Frank & Luther Burdett announced the event s was proof he had probably emcee. We are going to present a This is Your Life of one walked off with another boy s best girl said the Sandy of the most deserving persons in our church. It is the life of Springs Methodist Church emcee. This did not frighten an ordinary person who has lived a humble and determined Franklin apparently it made him more determined as quite life... Tonight this is your life Mr. John Franklin Burdett. soon he found himself engaged to Nannie Lou. According 45 to their eldest daughter Christine Burdett Melton They were married May 10 1919 at Uncle William F. Burdett s house on Mount Paran Road. A year after losing his arm in the sawmill incident Frank s mill was destroyed by fire. Following these two tragedies Frank Burdett 1917 Frank Nannie Lou and young Christine moved to Chamblee where he was given a job wrecking old Camp Gordon. After three months in Chamblee their house was destroyed by fire [which] necessitated a move back to Sandy Springs. During the year 1921 Frank and the family moved five times. In 1924 life started to finally settle down for the young family. The Burdett s son Lee Hugh Jimmy Burdett was born and Frank took over his Uncle Steve Burdett s grocery store which he would operate for the next 41 years. The post office was located inside the grocery store recalled Jimmy [and] Dad was the first postmaster of Sandy Springs. [Frank also] owned and operated a Fulton County school bus from 1924 to 1954. Originally the bus brought students in from the crossroads area to Hammond School. women served lunch to the construction crews at the Glenn mansion and of course the mothers took their children with them and we enjoyed eating outside and playing games. Christine continued And I also have fond memories of camp meetings and living in the Burdett tent for ten days. Frank Burdett s family was fortunate enough to travel to camp meetings at Urpeth Lee Camps in Oxford Georgia and to travel for leisure to Chicago in the 1930s for the World s Fair [and on to] New York and Washington. Christine Nannie Lou Nance Burdett 1917 remembers summertime beach and mountain trips [but] a special treat all year-round was the Sunday afternoon ride with the family. It was mainly to the big city Atlanta of course and a stop at Jacob s the drug store which is at the triangle in Buckhead across from Peachtree Road. And a big treat was the ice cream at Jacob s. All of us had fun roller-skating on Mount Vernon Highway rememberead Jimmy. It was a real flat smooth surface from Sandy Springs Church west to crossroads and there would be a group of us that would have a lot of fun roller-skating and we had lots of problems because we usually stayed too long. What s changed the most in Sandy Springs Jimmy asked out loud. Christine answered Well I was going to say about the people being different today... they re not so much family- or community-oriented... I think [the identity of the community has] especially changed with the closing of Sandy Springs High S c h o o l s a i d Jimmy. We as a community we Frank Burdett Nannie Lou Nance 1944 Burdett 1944 had lots of fun with our children and in support of that school... we had a community feeling there that we ve sort of lost with the growth. B Burdett s Grocery Store c. 1930s Frank who was a big proponent of getting an education not only drove the school bus for the Hammond School for 30 years but also served as a teacher for the Pacesetters Sunday School Class for more than 20 years. In addition he was a board member of the Sandy Springs Methodist Church for 35 years. He served on the church s finance and building committees during the construction of its educational building in the 1950s. Jimmy recalled that his mother was also very active in the church. She was a charter member and past president of the Women s Society of Christian Service he said. One thing that I still remember said Christine is that the K Burdett s was the first grocery store in Sandy Springs. It survived through the Great Depression and into the mid-20th century. R Mail on the Rails An interview with Benjamin Woodruff B Interviewer Anne Eldridge B Date of interview April 27 1991 The United States Postal Service has tirelessly delivered important documents letters and correspondence since before the United States declared its independence. The Second Continental Congress established the United States Postal Service (USPS) on July 26 1775 and Benjamin Franklin was the first postmaster general. Since then its couriers have tirelessly delivered the mail to patrons throughout the United States as well as abroad. Their motto-- Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds-- holds true even in the darkest times. Another Benjamin-- Benjamin Woodruff--served as postmaster of Sandy Springs from 1955 to 1964 and worked for the post office for 28 years as part of the greatest expansion of the postal service in U.S. history. Benjamin Woodruff born April 4 1898 in Meriwether County actually started his career as assistant store manager of Beaudry Motor Company selling Ford vehicles. He lived on Sandy Springs Circle for 36 years and saw many changes to the area during that time. Woodruff took his first Civil Service Examination for a job as a freight carrier in Atlanta in 1936. This test determined whether an applicant would be able to work in government service. Even then it was never a guarantee that you would have a job. As Woodruff remembers Well at the time a person taking the Civil Service Examination if they passed they had to go on a waiting list. And they were acting as substitutes to come and to work... whenever they were needed... So in the meantime I passed the examination for the Atlanta Post Office and all the work I got then was during vacation and Christmas time. Like many individuals during the Great Depression work tended to be scarce even in sectors funded by the government. However in the interim Woodruff continued to work as a substitute until something better became available--which happened to be working for the post office s railway division. [In] the meantime the examination for the Railway Post Office came up and I took that and passed it. And I decided that I would rather have the Railway Post Office instead of the downtown Atlanta Post Office. The mostly deciding factor was the Railway Post Office paid substitutes ten cents an hour more so I thought that ten cents an hour then meant a lot to me. Woodruff joined the Railway Post Office at the time when mail deliveries were finally beginning to pick up during World War II. The Railway Post Office was a subsidiary of the Main Post Railway Mail Service 1924 Office and began operating in the mid-nineteenth century. As Woodruff explains it Railway Post Office [sends] the mail out to the post offices and the regular post office [sends] it out to the patrons... The Railway Post became an invaluable expansion to the post office in the mid-nineteenth to early twentieth century. Highly trained postal workers like Woodruff would actually sort the mail en route to help speed up delivery to the appropriate main post offices. George B. Armstrong 47 Chicago s post office manager was actually the first person to establish the idea of the Railway Post Office operating between Chicago and Clinton Iowa in 1864. The Railway Expansion continued and by 1907 more than 14 000 post office clerks were providing service to over 203 000 miles of the country. Woodruff ran on the Southern Crescent Limited and the Piedmont Limited lines. As Woodruff remembers I d go up on the Crescent Limited and back on the Piedmont Limited to Charlotte North Carolina. First we went to Salisbury and we d turn around then and come back. We d go up one day spend the night and back the next. We d make three round trips and then have three days of f. It d take nine days to make three round trips and then we d have three days off. Woodruff traveled from the far north to the southern coast sorting everything. The train I ran on ran all the way from New York to New Orleans and we--my section my crew ten men in our crew--we d set up a post office and we d work second class mail and newspapers and first class letters and registered mail recollects Woodruff. While the railway mail system was crucial to expediting men materials and correspondence prior to World War II the reliance of trains to move men and mail declined as the use of airplanes increased at the end of the war. As a theory postal service in mid-flight never made it past an experimental stage as men could not move efficiently. The railway mail system would soon decline and diminish in the post-war world and Woodruff would finally move to a permanent position in the Sandy Springs Post Office. The Sandy Springs Post Office was originally located in the back of Burdett s grocery store on Roswell Road. Frank Burdett was the original postmaster but in 1955 Woodruff was sworn in as postmaster of Sandy Springs. He remembers So...July the first 1955 I was sworn in as postmaster here. And I came from the Railway Mail Service on a year s leave they couldn t appoint me as a postmaster when I was already in the service there because I had to get annual leave a year leave or something. The pay within a local post office was finicky and very dependent on the amount of customers the postmaster served on a daily basis. Woodruff recollects Then the post office didn t amount to anything as far as pay was concerned because all the pay they got up until then was just pay from cancellations. See that meant cancellations and money order fees and that was...And I remember the postmaster ahead of me said one day he only made seven cents because he didn t sell but seven cents worth of stamps...In Sandy Springs all of the people who got their mail in Sandy Springs they had to have a box down there at the post office. They rented boxes and the postmaster got the box rent that was part of his salary. Woodruff saw the post office in Sandy Springs relocate to at least five different locations before he eventually retired in 1964. Thelma and Benjamin Woodruff The Railway Post Office catalyzed the expansion of the United States Postal Service helping make mail and communication more accessible to the average citizen. Benjamin Woodruff partook in that expansion as postmaster in Sandy Springs and helped deliver to citizens their letters cards and mail come rain snow sleet or shine. Woodruff gives a full account of his experiences in the postal service in his full transcript which you can read here. Additionally one of the original railway post cars is preserved and on display at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago Illinois. B Not Always the Worst of Times An interview with Pauline Polly H. Coleman B Interviewer Anne Eldridge B Date of interview February 13 1992 The stock market crash of 1929 was the worst financial crisis the United States had ever seen and signaled the 10-year depression that would alter the lives of countless Americans--including the residents of Sandy Springs. Affluent men and women lost their assets in the stock market crash which in turn filtered down to affect their businesses and the men and women they employed. The Depression hit Georgia especially hard as cot ton -- the states primar y agricultural crop -- plummeted to rockbottom prices. After multiple failed attempts by President Herber t Hoover in 1929 1930 and 1931 to correct the economic crisis the presidential election of 1932 brought Franklin Delano Roosevelt into office. Sandy Springs was not immune to the devastation of the depression and its residents did anything they could to survive while President Roosevelt worked to revitalize the economy. Pauline H. Coleman or Polly as no one ever Pauline lived in Sandy Springs from 1931 to was born in Roswell on the DeKalb county when it was known as Dunwoody. She moved called her 1974. She line back to Atlanta When Richard was born Dr. Azard charged 25 to deliver him. with her parents when she was five years old and then to Buckhead eventually moving back to Sandy Springs after she married George E. Coleman Sr. --in the midst of the Great Depression. George s parents and hers were close friends and the two friends started dating as early as Polly can remember. They married in 1928 when Polly was 16 years old and in time they raised four sons. George was a builder and developer. Polly in addition to being a wife and mother of four worked in the school as an aid in the first grade and kindergarten classes. Po l l y r e m e m b e r s [W]hen you raise four boys you work...but when the boys got old enough that I could be away when they came in from school I helped Miss Annie Cook in the kindergarten at First Baptist in Sandy Springs. Polly would help Miss Cook for about five years teaching all the boys in kindergarten and the first grade. Community was always important for Sandy Springs residents and even more so during the Depression. Polly recollects she had two very good neighbors Mrs. Bertha Townsend and Ms. Charles Jackson. [T]hey were the best things in the world to me. They took me under their wing 49 type of man that would do any kind of work according to Polly so while times were bad their family never starved. We didn t go hungry and uh like I said my husband well one Christmas I guess the worst Christmas there was during the Depression for us he sold Christmas trees on the street Polly recounts. He went out you see his Daddy had a real big farm I don t know how many acres he had but he had this huge farm and he could go up there and cut all the trees he wanted to and he sold Christmas trees on the street. It did not matter what kind of work was available as long as a person was resourceful enough to find a niche in the market. Fortunately George was only out of work for a few months while many men were not able to find work for almost a decade. While it was not easy Polly and George had some outside experiences that uplifted their spirits. Polly remembers Polly and George Coleman and there had not been a baby in the Jackson family in 15 years. So they just took my baby over remembers Polly. She continues They lived there for many many years. Both of them did. And I every time something got wrong with the baby I would call on I was a pest. Everyone tried to help everybody during this time of need. Many residents helped their neighbors out by offering work for trade when direct payment was not an option. Local physician Dr. Azard would only charge 25 to deliver community babies by making house calls. Dr. Azard helped deliver Polly and George s second son Richard. Polly recounts When Richard was born Dr. Azard charged 25 to deliver him and my husband went to Dr. Azard s house and did some work for him to pay him for deliverin Richard. So things were not easy I can assure you of that. And then President Roosevelt went in office about the time Richard was born and we couldn t decide on a name for Richard...and uh Dr. Azard kept sayin why don t you name him Richard Dealanor [sic] because he said we re going to have better times n o w...w e n a m e s [sic] him Richard for Coleman Family home Richard D. Russell and Delanor [sic] for Franklin Delanor [sic] Roosevelt. [Dr.] Azard wanted me to write to the President and to Richard As men continually lost D. Russell and tell them that we had their jobs and work the baby and had named the baby for became even scarcer them. And I thought well that s kind of some men would pack foolish but I ll do it anyway and I had up and leave their an immediate reply back from both of Richard Coleman 1933 families behind while them. And a beautiful linen handkerchief others abandoned their from President Roosevelt and down in trades and took any job available. Sometimes the burden the corner in fine blue embroidery it had Happy Days are of being a father and provider was so intense that many here again from Franklin D. Roosevelt. men would become transients traveling across the country to find work wherever they could if none was available near Polly saved those two mementos as they were a source their homes. George stayed by Polly and their sons but of encouragement for her George and eventually the he worked a multitude of jobs to help the family survive. four boys. George went back to building and developing During the Depression it was bad because there was not houses and Polly continued to raise the four boys. While work for men to do and my husband just did odd jobs it was not easy for most thankfully it was not the worst of to keep us goin ...[for] people who needed things done times for Polly and her family. B around their house remembers Polly. George was the Stubborn As A Mule An interview with Aubrey R. Morris B Interviewer Bill Wynne B Date of interview October 11 and November 16 1993 Unlike many localities associated with Atlanta Sandy Springs never had an industry that attracted many people. Roswell employed a good number of residents at its cotton mill but the majority of Sandy Springs residents were always farmers. Sandy Springs began to urbanize in the mid-twentieth century primarily after World War II. A few citizens bought cars in the early 1920s prompting the paving of the town s major routes. Roswell Road and Mount Vernon Highway are two of the most important roads in Sandy Springs not only because they were the first to be paved but because their modernization meant easier access to the businesses opening up along them. Before Roswell Road became the congestion of traffic that current residents have come to expect farmers would use horses and mules to pull wagons into town to sell produce meats and other wares--even if they did own a car. Many resident s remember what is was like before Sandy Springs began to urbanize but only one can claim to have a father who was the last man in town to drive a mule team and wagon up Roswell Road before the town paved it. Aubrey Richard Morris is probably best known for his journalism career with WSB news and radio. Morris was the news director of WSB radio for 2 years. He worked at The Atlanta Journal as in intern in the summer of 1944 and when he graduated in 1945--after the war--he went back to the newspaper and began his career on the very day he graduated. Morris was born January 11 1922 on a large farm in the Lebanon community right outside Roswell. Morris grew up in rural Depression era-Sandy Springs and remembers too well what it was like to see the slow urbanization of his town. His father was a farmer by trade a devout Methodist and provider. Morris father bought a forty-acre plot of land outside of Roswell where the family lived. He grew fruits and vegetables and raised livestock and when he had extra he would take his wares into town on a wagon. However Morris remembers his father s first job was working for the Sandy Springs convict camp. He recollec t s My father star ted out working in the Sandy Springs. His first job was for a man called Bub he called him Bub Clark who was the superintendent of the warden of the Fulton County Prison Camp in Sandy Springs. His job was to go out with prisoners to supervise them when they were grading the roads around Sandy Springs. They d be several crews and they had big strong horses. Sometimes the grading was heavy enough they would hitch four horses. Livestock was the lay of the Tera and Aubrey Morris land in Sandy Springs and Morris distinctly remembers the importance of mules and horses especially to his father. Farmers and businesses used livestock to survive at every facet of life until after the Depression when automobiles would become more widely available for purchase. Morris recollects Well my father was the last man in Roswell to drive a team of mules into Roswell to deliver produce watermelon vegetables poultry and meats and things he grew ... on his farm. I mentioned earlier he was a 51 farmer and carpenter. So we we relied basically on mule power. Horse power but we had mules. Livestock would eventually fall out of fashion as automobiles and industrial tractors would make farming more efficient but only if you could afford to own and drive one. Automobiles and machinery arrived in Sandy Springs during the early 1920s and 1930s. Morris father actually supervised the workers as they quarried and paved Roswell Road. Many farmers were able to purchase their first vehicle during the Roaring Twenties as industrialism and consumerism hit new heights but gasoline would be inaccessible during the Depression. Morris remembers [M]y father purchased ... an old A-model Ford at one time. We had a T-model Ford that he used for a number of years. This was in the late 20s when I was very small...I don t remember him driving [the A-model] very much because this was by then the beginning of the Great De pres sion...and he couldn t afford to buy the gasoline to put gasoline in the car so he parked it under a shed. Morris father eventually sold the Model A and returned to using livestock. Due to the inaccessibility of gas Morris father continued to use mules to carry his wagon and produce into town and according to Morris was one of the last people to drive a mule and wagon up the newly-paved Roswell Road. Due to its central location in Sandy Springs Roswell Road became the primary district of businesses in the early 1920s and 1930s. Roswell Road during my childhood in the 1920s Roswell Road was one of the first paved roads Morris remembers and therefore many of the first gas stations grocery and hardware stores opened up along Roswell and Mount Vernon Highway. Smith s Service Station operated on the corner of Roswell and Piedmont Roads selling shoes dry goods and groceries. Robert Nesbitt Hardeman and his wife opened up a general store at the corner of Mount Vernon Highway and Roswell Road in 1920. Morris recalls However at one time we did own an icebox and an ice man in in Roswell--[the] Gentry family ran the icehouse there. They would haul ice from Atlantic Ice and Coal Company in Atlanta. Haul it up Roswell Road by the truckload store it in sawdust--dust from a sawmill. They would store it and you would go in there and buy 20 pound or a 50 pound block of ice. You d take it back and back then everybody had a ice pick. Businesses such as these operated well throughout the 1920s. The aforementioned Ted Gentry built the Rock Inn Bait Shop located on Norcross Street in 1930 and used the building as a service station country store and icehouse. Ted Gentry also ran a second store on Mimosa Boulevard in Roswell which was the closest place Sandy Springs residents could buy ice for their icebox or refrigerator. Sandy Springs began to urbanize in the 1920s as paved and concrete roads helped catalyze the emergence of Hardeman-Echols Grocery Store c. 1920 consumerism and businesses. Gas stations and general stores operated as important centers for the community along Roswell Road and Mount Vernon Highway. Not only did they provide goods and services to residents but they also functioned as gathering spots for men to discuss events of the town. World War II slowly stimulated the economy and Sandy Springs residents would either enter the war or remain back home to open more businesses such as Burdett s Grocery Store George Nance Pure Oil Fraser Plumbing and Heating Company the Roy Lewis Barber Shop and Taylor s Department Store. Roswell Road and Mount Vernon Highway will always be remembered as fundamental to the business district of Sandy Springs which helped stimulate economic growth and urbanization even if it did eventually stop Morris father from driving his team of mules up the road toward the Methodist church. B The First Mayor of Sandy Springs An interview with Eva Galambos B Interviewer Jeremy Katz B Date of interview September 23 2014 Sandy Springs has a long and vital history that has shaped the formation of a vibrant city and passionate community. One of the most influential participants in this legacy was the city s first mayor Eva Galambos. With Eva s guiding vision Sandy Springs became a self-governing municipality in November 2005 defining itself outside of the much larger Atlanta city limits. Eva Cohn was born in 1928 in Wiesloch Ger many amids t the rising popularity of the Nazi Par ty. Her father a Jewish ju d g e lo s t hi s job in 1933 as the Third Reich gained ground and Hitler began consolidating his power. As Eva remembers it her father s job loss was really a blessing in disguise as her family moved to Genoa Italy to escape the growing Nazi political influence. The family had vacationed in Genoa often and loved Italy but at the time they had no idea that Nazism would follow them to Italy as well. Consequently in 1939 Eva and her family immigrated to the United States--first to New York and then to Athens Georgia where her father became a professor. She recollects My father got a job at the University of Georgia through Harold Hirsch who was chief council for The Coca Cola Company and very involved in helping refugees. He put up the money for the professorship at the Georgia University law school. Despite the tumultuous backdrop of her early life Eva was able to enjoy a childhood filled with the slower pleasures of small town America. Athens was just an old Southern town small. I grew up with a tremendous amount of freedom. Most people didn t have their own automobile so we all r o d e ar o u n d on bikes -- jus t a lot more freedom growing up than my children had here in Sandy Springs recalls Eva. She was valedictorian of her class at Athens High School and received her undergraduate Mayor Eva Galambos degree in business administration from the University of Georgia. She received her master s degree from the University of Illinois before marrying John Galambos a fellow student from UGA. Soon after Eva followed her husband to Atlanta where he pursued his medical degree. She recollects I got married. My husband went to medical school at Emory and I worked him through medical school. For several years Eva balanced her duties as a wife and mother before returning to school to earn her doctorate in economics from Georgia State University. First & Foremost 53 Eva gained an interest in politics while living in Athens. Due to her father s career as a judge and a law professor Eva was exposed to many familial discussions regarding both local and international news and politics. As Eva pursued her educational and career development she fostered an interest in the political environment of her local municipality. As Eva remembers My first job was associate editor of the Journal of Labor apartments. Eva began to garner support from other local residents to combat the mistreatment of Sandy Springs by Fulton County. Eva first formed a committee to begin the process of municipal incorporation--when cities towns or counties become self-governing entities under which was the weekly newspaper for the labor movement. I had just finished my master s at the University of Illinois and I had a degree in labor and industrial relations which was a very strange degree for a woman in the Atlanta area...Eventually I became involved in Sandy Springs s problems and I ran for the legislature but I didn t make it. Before becoming formally involved in local politics Eva noticed that the formation of the Sandy Springs tax code was manipulating the county s residents into paying fees that were not directly benefitting their municipality. Eva made it her goal to correct t h i s i n j u s t i c e e v e n t u a l l y organizing a movement to bring awareness about local tax law to Sandy Springs. She recalls It wasn t that I was trying to be in politics. It was that I was leading a movement to stop the exploitation of Sandy Springs by Fulton County. Every dollar that they levied for local services like police and fire 50 cents of it went down to South Fulton and we didn t get to see the full benefit of our taxes. I was able to document that. We just were not being treated right by the county. We also were being over zoned by too many apartments and we re still suffering from a surfeit of too many cheap too dense the state. Eva recalls I was the founder of the committee in 1975. We finally succeeded in getting a bill passed. In order to become a city we had to get a bill passed in the General Assembly. It was passed in 2005 when the Republicans took over the Georgia Legislature. It took twenty years for Eva and her committee to get the town incorporated as its own entity. State legislators representing Atlanta and southwestern Fulton County feared that the loss of tax revenue from the area would affect other parts of Fulton County. Consequently bills were introduced in the legislature to block incorporation in every meeting for twenty years--seemingly killing the movement Eva built to reorganize the tax code. Eventually Mayor Eva Galambos First and Formost continued the committee was able to push through a bill that allowed the incorporation of Sandy Springs to be decided by referendum. On June 21 2005 Sandy Springs residents took to the voting stalls to decide whether or not to incorporate themselves as an independent municipality. Eva remembers We of course had a very very animated referendum first as to did the [sic] people want the city. It was an unbelievable outcome. Ninety two percent voted yes which was a tsunami--which goes to show how frustrated we had all been with Fulton County. Residents subsequently elected a mayor and six city council members in November 2005 with Eva being elected by a wide margin as the first mayor of Sandy Springs. She recalls When we became a city we had to organize [the] police. That was the first thing we organized. Six months later we organized the fire department. We gradually got the whole city going and hired some wonderful companies to help us. Eva served as the mayor of Sandy Springs from December 1 2005 to January 7 2014. During her political tenure Eva developed an independently organized and operated Sandy Springs. However Eva attributes much of this success to the hard work of her committee and the passion of the city s residents. She recollects Getting a city off the ground [laughs] getting it rolling and getting a tremendous amount of civic involvement. The people feel strongly about wanting to come to meetings being heard and being involved and so there s a great deal of civic participation which I think is unusual and good. The efforts put forth by the committee to incorporate Sandy Springs did not go unnoticed. Officials from Japan and Northern Ireland met with Eva in Sandy Springs to learn from her efforts towards municipal incorporation. Fifteen months before she succumbed to cancer Eva left her mayoral office to Rusty Paul with a blueprint for the future. I want to impart a city where people participate and enjoy downtown and visiting with each other. I like the idea of the civic involvement and the city is small enough so you can get that. She continued We probably will never be much above 120 000. I think that might be as big as we ll ever get. That s a lovely size for participation. Eva s hopes that the community would dedicate its efforts toward a revitalized downtown are now being realized. With a nod to her vision Mayor Rusty Paul and the Sandy Springs City Council embarked on the development of City Springs in the summer of 2015. The center point or heartbeat of the city will include a performing arts complex city hall and municipal offices a large park and residential and retail establishments. Finally the city of Mayor Eva Galambos s dreams will include the kind of downtown and legacy she envisioned for her beloved city of Sandy Springs. B 55 Life is filled with moments that become lasting memories. Sandy Springs Hospitality and Tourism will help you find the perfect venue for your event and hotel accommodations for your guests. We ll gladly help with shopping entertainment and dining suggestions to satisfy everyone in your group. Let us help you discover where moments happen and memories are made. Everything You Love About Greater Atlanta 2017 Sandy Springs Hospitality and Tourism. All Rights reserved. A Renaissance Family An interview with Jan Williams Collins B Interviewer Marsha Webb B Date of interview October 12 2016 Sandy Springs offers a plethora of opportunities to its residents its tight-knit community its wonderful school system and its many social and cultural activities that incorporate the area s history and heritage. In particular the arts opportunities that are available for residents to enjoy help make Sandy Springs a vibrant community. Jan Williams Collins has enjoyed and promoted Sandy Springs s heritage and arts for most of her life. She her husband Bill and their entire family are important contributors to Sandy Springs schools the arts and the overall sense of community that so many have come to know and love about the city. Jan got her first taste of the arts as young child. Her mother who was a singer and musician in the Rogers & Hammer s tein music al Carousel exposed her to the arts. Jan never one to boast about her own voice picked up a musical instrument instead. She remembers When I was growing up I was in the Atlanta Youth Symphony as the principal oboist. Charlie Bradley who then moved to Sandy Springs was my teacher. We had the East Atlanta Elementary Band. That was one of the finest elementary bands in the country. We went all over the country performing. I probably played as difficult music there as I played in college. It was an unbelievable band. Jan performed in the band and orchestra through high school and into college. She attended the University of Georgia on a majorette and oboe scholarship. She remembers I would twirl during the football season. Then during the winter I was in the concert band and the orchestra and we toured also. Jan met Bill Collins in the midst of her college extracurricular activities. They were college sweethearts and married while Bill was a sophomore. They moved to Augusta Georgia where Jan helped send Bill to medical school while she taught English. After they both graduated they eventually moved to Rome Georgia where Bill completed his internship. The first of their two children Courtenay was born before they traveled to Florida where Bill was in the service. The Collins family returned to Georgia after two years for Bill to continue his medical specialty training in orthopedics at Georgia Baptist Hospital. Jan worked as a teacher her entire life and continued to support her family as both a teacher and a proponent for arts e d u c a t i o n. S h e t a u g ht subjects ranging from English to drama and helped shape the minds of every age of child from kindergarten to the 12th grade. A love for the Jan Collins arts always ran in the family according to Jan. Besides her musician mother and Jan s own musical background Bill had a lovely singing voice. Jan recollects Bill and I were very involved in the creation of The Atlanta Opera as it is today. He served on the board for a number of years. Bill was a true renaissance man. He loved it all. He had a beautiful voice. He loved the arts. Jan and Bill advocated for their children to continue the family s legacy in fine arts. Jan recollects We ve always told 57 our children particular our boys--I have five grandsons--I said We must be renaissance men. You must be a scholar you must be an athlete and you must be involved in the fine arts. So far they re doing it. Family was the most important thing to both Jan and Bill. According to Jan everything she and Bill did they did for their children. Jan recollec ts Oh I will be delighted to tell you about my children. I have two children Courtenay and Chip. Courtenay when we came to Sandy Springs she went right to Underwood Hills as a second grader and Chip went to Annie Howes Cook which was one of the very few kindergartens in Sandy Springs. Never did I even think that far enough to realize that my children would come back to Sandy Spring to raise their families. It just thrills me to no end. Courtenay and Chip attended Riverwood High School and Jan did everything she could to be a part of her children s lives. She remembers I was very involved in Riverwood. As I say I served as PTA president. In fact we had a huge wonderful chorale then that went all over everywhere. I was the chorale president and went and helped them set up for performances and that sort of thing. Jan was active at Sandy Springs United Methodist Church and also served as a docent at the High Museum of Art for over 10 years. Courtenay Collins attended Converse College earned a master s degree in fine arts from the University of Georgia and eventually attended the prestigious Julliard School in New York City. Jan remembers [She] came home one day and told us that she was going to audition at Julliard. We said Well where did this come from She said This is what I want to do. She went to Chicago. There were 2 000 that auditioned that day and they took 21. Courtenay was the only Southerner they took. We thought they would eat her alive. She was the only Southerner. Jan remembers Courtenay first fell in love with musical theatre after watching Jan s mother perform in Carousel. She initially studied opera following her father s fondness for that musical genre but she fell in love with musical theatre and made a noticeable career for herself. Jan recalls that after graduating [Courtenay] immediately went out to California and was cast as [the character] Christine in Phantom of the Opera and toured for a couple of years in Europe doing that. She came back to Broadway. She s had a wonderful career. We never knew that she would come back to Sandy Springs so it is our great joy that she is there. Chip also attended the University of Georgia earning his degree in law. But in true Collins fashion Jan insisted that all her children be involved in the arts in one way or another. She recollects We require everybody do something in musical they got to do it all. We said If you play football you re going to sing like a bird. [Chip s] senior year he was captain of the football team and president of the chorale and starred in Fiddler on the Roof. He s got a great voice and very musical too. He and Courtenay performed together some. Jan was thrilled when Chip called to tell her he and his wife Gigi McLarty Collins were moving back to Sandy Springs. Jan remembers He came into practice here in Atlanta and was living in Buckhead in a little small house. They needed more space. He called me one day and says Mom we re going to be your neighbor. We re moving back to Sandy Springs. Of course that thrilled me [to] no end. He just loved loved loved Sandy Springs. They have four children. Chip was even city councilman. Bill Collins passed away in 2013. Jan still resides in Sandy Springs and continues to support the local arts scene. She and Bill were both on the board of The Atlanta Opera for a number of years and Jan was involved with the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra as a nod to her background as an oboist. Her children also continue to be actively involved. Currently Courtenay is preparing a holiday cabaret show at the Alliance Theatre in Atlanta. The Collins family is a true renaissance family. Jan Bill their children and now their grandchildren have made--and continue to make--their marks on the Sandy Springs and Atlanta arts communities. B A Rose by Any Other Name Wouldn t be Our Captain Steve Rose An interview with Steve Rose B Interviewer Rachel Rosner and Karen Meinzen McEnerny B Date of interview August 23 2016 Some of the most treasured aspects of Sandy Springs are its strong sense of community and its feelings of safety among its residents. That sense of safety is primarily attributed to the 10-year-old Sandy Springs Police Department. Prior to Sandy Springs becoming its own city the area relied upon the City of Atlanta and the Fulton County Police departments to protect its residents from crime. Captain Steve Rose has served on the Sandy Springs police force since its establishment in 2006. For the past 10 years he has dedicated his career to building a sustainable and productive police force for the community. However Rose served the community long before Sandy Springs had its own force protecting Fulton County residents since 1979. As he remembers well the rapid growth of Sandy Springs necessitated a viable police department of its own. Steve Rose was born in North Carolina. His father was in the Army so the Rose family traveled frequently from base to base including to Oklahoma North Carolina and eventually ended up in Chamblee Georgia. Rose started his Atlanta-area policing career in the latter part of 1979. As he remembers ...We were of course Fulton County Police then. We had not been Fulton County Police but for the past four years because in 75 we split from the City of Atlanta who contracted with the Fulton County Police. When they transitioned to the Fulton County Police Department Rose and his colleagues only had 40 officers assigned to the north precinct compared to the 134 the city employs now. Rose recalls The police cars up here said Fulton County Police District Atlanta Police Department. It was kind of a strange decal on the side of the car. It was contracted so when the county commissioners started their own police department in July 1 1975. The Fulton County Police Force was established as a group of peacekeeping volunteers in 1900--46 years after Fulton County was founded. In 1947 Police Chief Clarence E. Mitchell began working on a plan to completely reorganize and improve the department. The city of Atlanta eliminated the Fulton County Police Department in January 1952--along with a multitude of other public s e r v ice p r o g r a m s -- a n d the police officers had four options join the Atlanta Police Department take another job within the county government retire or be terminated from their employment. From 1952 to 1979 the Fulton County Police were contrac ted through the Atlanta Police Depar tment. When Rose joined the department he remembers Those were all former Atlanta police officers Fulton County Police 1932 that just were asked Do you want to stay up here and work as a county police officer and they said Yes and so they had patches that said Atlanta Police Fulton County District and then eventually a Fulton County Police patch was made. The Fulton County Police District was always smaller than its Atlanta cousin. Rose recollects there were 40 police officers and only a few police cars. This combination made policing the community and protecting the residents difficult. Rose states We had one car north 59 one car east and one car west of 400. That s how you worked it. If you got a call up there you better know how to talk-- verbal judo was a skill that we learned up there. Then the panhandle had a car and you had two cars on this side of 285 and two cars on the other side of 285. We always ran one or two cars short. As the population grew the difficulty of protecting the different communities only increased. Rose remembers some of the major crimes he encountered as a rookie in the 1980s were routine burglaries. He remembers ... what happened in the 80s is the silver prices skyrocketed and there were so many burglaries involving silver that was taken from the home. I can remember that we had several arrests where it was family members stealing from them. In one instance police actually had to set up a roadblock on Heards Ferry Drive because there were so many burglaries coming from that area. Police eventually caught a kid with a pillowcase full of silver he had stolen from his parents. He was headed to The Prado shop Precious Metals to swap the silver for money. Rose remembers that a good friend of his was killed there in a burglary gone wrong. He recollects December 14th of that year a friend of mine David Hagins was killed at The Prado and he answered a burglary call on a Sunday morning at a business called Precious Metals. David made one serious tactical mistake. He spotted the burglar inside and he immediately went in after him and the burglar ambushed him and killed him. That was a very emotional education for me realizing that it wasn t all fun and games and that Sandy Springs--like any other metropolitan area--could have serious calls and serious incidents that happen. As Sandy Springs and the surrounding communities continued to grow so too did crime rates. One particular area in the county known as Huntcliff had a population boom in the 1970s and 1980s that attributed to an increase in property crimes. Rose remembers There were several athletes lived up here. I think they lived here because it was close to the interstate it was close to being able to get to Atlanta. The nickname for Sandy Springs in the 70s and 80s was The Golden Ghetto. That was a well known phrase. Then in the 80s when all the dot com businesses took off you had these suddenly millionaire guys. They were quick to tell you how much money they had and so forth so we nicknamed them 10-Cent Millionaires. The majority of crimes in Rose s rookie years were property crimes and alcoholic incidents involving the area s nightlife scene. Many of the bar patrons in Atlanta and Buckhead would spill over into the area as the bars closed and residents would head back to their homes in Fulton County. Rose remembers the bars were always some of his favorite calls for he was most interested in who was doing the fighting and his own abilities to break it up. Over the years as the Sandy Springs area population expanded crimes statistics grew too. Rose was not surprised at the move towards Sandy Spring s becoming a city with its own police force. He recalls All that led up toward the incorporation process. We expanded quickly. We struggled to keep up with it in public safety. Our crimes were property crimes. We had violent crimes but mostly property crimes because there [was] stuff to steal here. We made a lot of narcotics cases out of there. Sandy Springs was starting to really blossom. Like I said the infrastructure grew the population grew and so we were always in a struggle to try to increase our police numbers and it was a losing battle. It was always a losing battle because as far as the...Fulton County police they always considered us the red headed stepchild up here. The reason was they said... you d have to understand Fulton County s makeup. They had a south precinct in Fairburn. They had a north precinct in Sandy Springs and they regarded us as living amongst the well to do who whined all the time about stuff and they didn t really have big problems up here which wasn t the case. Which I think was a fundamental reason why we ended up incorporated. The Sandy Springs Police Department became its own official entity on July 1 2006--and Steve Rose was a catalyst for its creation. Despite being close to his retirement Rose was recruited by his previous sergeant in Fulton County to be a part of the startup task force along with fellow community leaders including Jim Anderson and David Roskind. They would meet at Jim Anderson s office and talk about how they wanted to build the police department and expand its influence. Rose explains I had a legal pad and would make notes about how many cars and who we were going to get the cars from and who had the state procurement list to buy from. Yes every week we d meet for about three four hours a night once a week and try to build. He continues We sat and tried to figure out how we would start this department. They asked me what my theory was. I said Everything that we did in Fulton County we should do the opposite. .... We Steve Rose were looking at the needs of the people. We were looking at the fact that we had a lot of property crime that was never addressed here and that we would try to find a number. Our original number was 86 officers and 49 of them came from Fulton County because we wanted people that knew where they were. Today the Sandy Springs Police Department boasts 137 sworn officers that serve the community. Besides his current role as South District Commander of Sandy Springs Rose continues to improve the department. Over the last ten years he has proudly established programs to help build and maintain the force. I ran the intern program and we have an Explorer program which is the Scouts of America s version of police explorers. It s run by the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts. We have one officer we got from Explorers. When he was in high school he was in Explorer. He s now one of our officers. And one of my interns from Kennesaw State is now an officer--two of the best really. Another one of Rose s claims to fame is his crime blotter column in the Sandy Springs Reporter newspaper where Rose details area infractions sometimes in appropriately witty banter. Thanks in large part to Captain Steve Rose and his efforts the Sandy Springs Police Department continues to grow while it serves protects and educates our community s residents. B Industry & Trade Horses Wagons and Cattle Drives One Woman s Journey from Silver City to Sandy Springs Role Models for Life Woman in the Workforce 61 Atlanta Municipal Market 1939 Women working at a bank. Haynes McFadden Sr. Aberdeen Angus cattle on the Watkins Farm Cameron Crest in Sandy Springs. Horses Wagons and Cattle Drives An interview with Marion Blackwell Sr. B Interviewer Suzanne Blackwell B Date of interview June 28 1994 Cattle drives were a major economic stimulus and activity and four sisters were raised on a family farm in Roswell off across America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Hangin Dog Road. He helped raise the family as one of Between 1866 and 1895 cowboys herded approximately the men of the house through the Great Depression and 10 million cattle from different points across the south routinely helped run the family farm. The Blackwell family and west to major railheads and stockyards like those in usually had somewhere between 35-50 head of cattle Chicago and Atlanta. More locally farmers and cowboys which they acquired from anyone who would sell to them. around Sandy Springs would buy cattle in the area and then Once a year young Blackwell along with several hired drive them down ha n d s wo ul d to the Atlanta help his father stockyards to sell make the twoand have them day trip from butchered. This the farm on the ac tivit y was a cattle drive down major economic to the stockyards catalyst for many in Atlant a to farmers in the sell. Moving Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center towns of Sandy the cattle was Springs Roswell and Buckhead never easy though as they also had but t wentieth centur y moder n to create makeshift corrals to contain conveniences would make cattle them. Blackwell remembers There drives increasingly difficult. Marion was barbed wire they had a rail fence Blackwell Sr. grew up on a family farm they d use a rail fence to hold it. and routinely drove cattle with his You had to use barbed wire to keep father from Roswell through Sandy Springs and into the the cows from pushing the rails in. However the most Union Miller Stockyards in Atlanta. important part of the drive was a well-trained horse. He continues I expect we could get anywhere from thirtyBlackwell was born in 1909 and first started to ride horses five to forty forty-five maybe. You had to have some help on the farm and participate in cattle drives when he good horses. Little Man was the horse that Blackwell was as young as 13 years old. Blackwell and his two brothers remembers best for he was the only herder who could ride 63 him. He recalls that the horse always took care of him and could herd the cattle better than all the rest. The Union Miller Stockyards were founded by Captain John Miller of Kentucky who had moved to Atlanta with his wife Mollie and their seven children in 1881. He founded the stockyards shortly after arriving initially focusing on the trade of mules. The stockyards expanded and eventually encompassed an auction mart butcher church hotel barns stables and pens for horses mules cattle pigs and other types of livestock. Railroads from all over the United States brought animals to Atlanta and local ranchers and cowboys would drive cattle from surrounding towns to the stockyard complex. Cattle drives in the twentieth century became increasingly difficult as modern convenience changed the way the businesses functioned. Automobiles bridges and people all presented obstacles to Blackwell from moving sometimes fifty cattle from Roswell to the Atlanta stockyards. In order to move them across the C h a t t a h o o c h e e R i v e r Blackwell and others would first assemble the cattle in the old square in Lower Roswell and then herd them down the hill to the covered bridge on Roswell Road. Blackwell participated in The bridge acted as the first yearly cattle drives with his difficult obstacle because family as long as the cattle the horses and cattle would sustained the family farm. spook when they saw the Eventually the need to drive 1863 Confederate States Tax for Luvisa Sentell on Neat Cattle Horses water through the cracks cattle by horse decreased and Mules and all Beeves sold or used by himself. and holes in the wooden as the country continued bridge. Blackwell remembers The cattle didn t want to to modernize and thoughts turned to the possibility of get in that bridge and look down in the water so you had to entering World War II. Many farmers would simply haul drive a horse and it got kinda dangerous a little bit cause livestock to the stockyards in smaller numbers. The Miller you was riding that horse to drive the cattle and the horses Union Stockyards operated for five decades until it suffered were used to making them move the way they wanted them a major fire in the 1940s which burned a number of the to it wasn t too hard. But I knew when they would get down stables barns and pens used to house large numbers of to the river down there you had a time them things through livestock. Blackwell eventually left the farming and ranching there. Blackwell would actually blindfold the horses so they life behind to become a policeman and detective in Atlanta would not see the water through the bridge directing their but he still fondly remembers his childhood around the movements as they moved through the bridge. Stockyards. Only the main buildings of the Stockyards still exist and are currently under construction to be converted Once they made it across the Roswell covered bridge into retail and office space as well as a restaurant where the herders would take the cattle through Sandy Springs patrons can enjoy dining upon a little piece of history. B Buckhead and then on to Atlanta. You d run them things down [Peachtree Road] and they didn t wanta go there. I rode a horse and some of em drove a wagon with food and it was usually a pretty long thing. But they d gather these at least once a year up around Crabapple and Roswell and run it into the stockyard here in Atlanta Blackwell recalls. Buckhead s streets also presented the problem of modern day automobiles which would naturally spook the herd. Blackwell recounts multiple times when the cows would spook and start running through the yards of homes along Peachtree Road and he and the other cowboys would have to chase them down and drive them back into the herd. Blackwell remembers [The Stockyard] was below Atlanta I mean it was below where Roswell was on the far side of Aberdeen Angus cattle on the Watkins Farm the river. Cameron Crest in Sandy Springs. One Woman s Journey from Silver City to Sandy Springs An interview with Lizzie McGhee B Interviewer Nancy McGhee Sandy Springs history began in 1842 with a church and a school at the corner of Johnson Ferry Road and Mt. Vernon Highway-- near where the springs still exist today. It was a rural village made up of farmers soldiers and religious affiliates. One later resident of the area Lizzie McGhee was born January 20 1887 just outside of Cumming Georgia. Lizzie lived in Sandy Springs from 1930 until she passed away on July 6 1988. She saw the rapid and monumental c hanges t hat s we pt through Fulton County and made Sandy Springs the city it is today. Lizzie married her husband Jim at the early age of eighteen. Jim McGhee was six years her senior but that didn t stop Lizzie from catching the man she had her eye on. After Lizzie completed high school in 1904 her parents intended to send her to Young Harris College a small liberal arts college located in the North Georgia mountains. The college was founded in 1886 by Minister Artemas Lester. As a circuit-riding minister Lester aimed to bring educational opportunities to residents of the Appalachian mountain region. However Lizzie had other plans opting to forgo the opportunity to study in order to marry Jim right after she graduated. She finally roped Jim in 1905 at her parents home in Cumming Georgia. The newlyweds moved into their own home in Silver City a town just outside of Cumming shortly after the wedding. According to Lizzie that was the happiest day of her life. While living in Silver City Jim and Lizzie had five children. Their first son Fain Cleveland was born in 1906. Their first daughter Bernice Roseland arrived five years later followed by Ruby Elaine three years after her. Lizzie encountered some medical problems after Ruby s birth and doctors did not believe she would be able to have any more children. However in 1922 Lizzie and Jim had their fourth child Tom Weyman and their fifth Laura Evelyn in 1925. Lizzie had a full-time Atlanta Municipal Market exterior job as a mother of five but that never slowed her down particularly her willingness to help Jim on the family farm. Lizzie remembers [I] would take the children out into the field...and put [them] under a tree. The family grew a multitude of crops including corn cotton and peas which they sold at their small country store in Silver City. They also stocked the store with eggs from their family chickens. 65 Mama Lizzie as she became known stayed true to her philosophy of life--clean living hard work and a good sense of humor. After Jim s passing Lizzie took over the full-time job of maintaining her home. She did her own yard work painted her own house and even though she disliked it she did her own cooking. Lizzie became a lifelong resident of Buckhead in the prime of her life. She was a sought after babysitter for children in her neighborhood as well as for her grandchildren and played baseball with her grandchildren until she was 90 years old. Maintaining her exploratory spirit through her twilight years she took her first airplane ride to visit family in Texas Atlanta Municipal Market 1939 Often Jim would have to travel to Atlanta to purchase dry goods and supplies for the store in Silver City. He hated that drive especially in the winter. In 1930 the family decided more or less on a whim to move to Roswell Road in Buckhead. Lizzie recounts My husband got tired of the roads and he came along here one day and they were having a sale (on land ) and he got out and liked it and bought it. Jim bought one and half acres at the corner of Roswell Road and Spruell Springs Road and built his family a five-room wood frame house. That is where Lizzie lived for the rest of her life. Lizzie and Jim continued their produce business at the local farmer s market in the heart of downtown Atlanta. The Municipal Market--in operation today as the Sweet Auburn Curb Market--opened in 1918 a year after the Great Atlanta Fire swept through the epicenter of the city. Many Atlanta residents began to regularly gather on the land cleared by the fire to sell produce and livestock. The Atlanta Women s Club-- seeing the need for a permanent location and building for the market--began a successful fundraising effort for a brick building that would eventually house the Municipal Market of Atlanta. The new and improved market officially opened on May 1 1924. For years Lizzie and Jim traveled to the market together to sell eggs and vegetables from their backyard. They continued this routine almost every day until Jim died in 1970 at the age of 88. Atlanta Municipal Market interior at the young age of 95. Lizzie was an avid supporter of the Sandy Springs Historical Association and the St. John United Methodist Church and took part in the Thursday Luncheon Club every week. Lizzie became a role model of the community before it even had a name. She saw the town change from a simple rural village to the vivacious city that is now Sandy Springs. When asked if things had changed much since her childhood she recounts Things have changed right smart. Despite all the changes Lizzie could still remember her favorite poem from the seventh grade called Grandma s Beau --a piece of work that she could recount at request until the day she passed. Mama Lizzie s hard work and dedication was a shining example for her family and her community--and for that she will be fondly remembered. B Role Models for Life An interview with James Ambrose Williams B Interviewer Susan B. Deaver B Date of interview November 24 2001 When youngsters grew up in small towns especially in the early nineteenth century family was the core of their social lives. For many children growing up in places such as rural Sandy Springs camp meetings were some of the few social hours available to them--and these only occurred once maybe twice a year. Consequently for many children their parents became the most prominent influence in their lives. James Ambrose Williams was no different in that regard. The example his parents set for him and his siblings helped shape his own life and aspirations as a young boy. Through hard work and dedication James parents led by example and showed him that education is essential in life but even with obstacles anything is possible. tanks. So I have all all of my adult life since I got out of the service have been involved in water tanks. Jimmy would create a long and distinguished career working with municipal water systems and even after he retired he continued to consult for his former firm. Jimmy fondly remembers that his parents contributions helped pave the way for both himself and his family and he was very proud of their lives. James Theodore Williams--Jimmy s father--was born and raised in Sandy Springs. He was born May 18 1871. James T. wanted to be a doctor when he grew up and worked his way through school in hopes that one day he would attend medical school. Jimmy recalls James A mbros e Williams--or [He] was raised in Jimmy as he liked Sandy Springs...When to be called--was he was a little boy he the son of James wanted to be a doctor. Coca-Cola Bottling Gadsen AL c. 1909 Theodore Williams. And when he finished This bottling facility is likely similar to the operation that James A. Williams Jimmy was born w hatever level of owned and operated in Sandy Springs. July 6 1920 in school he had finished Photo Courtesy of Jeff Brady Newnan Georgia in the Sandy Springs and lived in both Dunwoody and Alpharetta. He served area...he got a job working on the railroad and incidentally as a second lieutenant in the US Army and in the Civil the railroad went right downtown through Dunwoody Aeronautics Association during World War II. After Jimmy village...But he was in an accident where he was on a train returned home from the war he began his career as a civil car which became loose from the engine at the top of a hill. engineer consultant. Jimmy recollects I was a consulting And the engine went on down the hill and the car finally engineer in the latter years and was with the firm of Jordan followed it down and hit the back of the other train. And Jones and Goulding. But my particular specialty grew out it injured his back and he was the rest of his life he had a of the fact that I started off in Newnan Georgia as in the very very bad back. And the older he got the more trouble engineering department of the R.D. Cole Manufacturing it became to him. But he still could play golf he recollects Company which were specialists in building water storage laughing. However James T. never let his injury slow him 67 bottling industry. According to Jimmy James T. literally gave away his bottling franchise in anger after World War I due to the excise tax on bottled drinks. Coca-Cola bought the franchise back and started bottling in the same factory. Jimmy recollects [I] do know that our house in Newnan backed up to his bottling plant where he bottled soft drinks including Coca-Cola and had the Coca-Cola franchise for several counties in that area down there. Bottling plants such as the one Jimmy s father owned operated throughout the country until the 1960s when changes in consumer needs and evolving distribution processes eliminated Cigar Factory Tampa FL 1929 A larger scale operation than the Sandy Springs cigar factory owned by James T. Lamberth Photo by Burget Brothers courtesy of the State Archives of Florida down. Jimmy depicts him as somewhat of a tycoon in Sandy Springs with his hand in a multitude of projects throughout the year s. These included several inves tment proper ties automobile dealerships cigar factories and a CocaCola bottling factory. It wasn t long after CocaCola was invented in 1886 that the beverage gained in popularity. It quickly became clear that those at the helm of the soft drink company lacked the capital to design and implement a national bottling system. Many entrepreneurs stepped in to help bottle and distribute Coca-Cola and large-scale bottling of the beverage began in Tennessee in 1899. By 1909 many Coca-Cola bottling plants operated as family-owned businesses and by 1925 there were more than 400 smaller bottling factories throughout the United States. James T. owned a bottling factory in the heart of Newnan--right in the middle of downtown. Jimmy remembers that the reason his father chose this spot was that the railroads all converged at that location which made distribution easier. James T. operated his bottling factory until the end of the 1920s. Taxes rather than the Depression led to his leaving the Ford Factory 1918 the need for small bottling practices. Jimmy remembers that his father was an industrialist and despite giving away the bottling plant he had other business ventures to tend to. He also had a little cigar factory. A cigar factory was just a big room with tables in it and people in there hand-rolling tobacco leaves into a shape of a cigar remembers Jimmy. Besides his bottling franchise and cigar factory James T. also owned two car dealerships in Sandy Springs-- a WillysKnight and a Ford. Despite never realizing his early dream of becoming a doctor James T. instilled a sense of pride in his children about his life and achievements--and many of them were not business-related. Jimmy remembers Role Models for Life continued No I never got the sense that he was disappointed that he didn t get to go on to school. I do know. This was legendary that if you had a headache he could walk up behind you and put his hands on the back of your neck or head and do a little massaging. And he knew he had a knack for knowing how the nervous system comes to the surface of the body and I m not talking about faith healing or any mystic stuff here. I m just talking about real honest-to-goodness massage therapy. He just naturally could do that...But no I never heard him say anything that about never heard him complain about him not having had an education of some kind. Jimmy s dad always had his next move planned out. Eventually he claimed a manager position at the local golf club and even though his long-ago back injury made it painful he never stopped playing the game. Jimmy s parents instilled a strong belief in the value of education in all of their children. During a time when most children had limited access to schooling Jimmy and his siblings were able to access educational opportunities through their parents encouragement and support. In fact one of the most striking aspects of the Williams family is that Jimmy s father sent all of his children to college in an era when advanced education was not the norm. The majority of Jimmy s brothers and sisters and later Jimmy s own children would attend Georgia Tech. He remembers [My father] went to some sort of junior-type college or something when he was a young man. So yes I m very fortunate that all of all of them went to a college of some kind somewhere at some time. And if you heard my interview about Tech I m the one who almost broke the string. Because I found it extremely tough when I was up there as a freshman because you didn t learn how to study in high school you just didn t. 69 Despite those early struggles Jimmy graduated from the Georgia Institute of Technology with a degree in civil engineering. Jimmy s mother was one his primary inspirations for persevering through college in order to earn his degree. Jimmy s mother Luta Armstrong Powers was born February 20 1895 in Newnan Georgia. She spent a large part of her childhood in Franklin Georgia but Newnan always held a special place in her heart. She was a schoolteacher. We had moved to the Newnan Country Club back when I was five years old and that s the fall after I was six I started going to school and left her there in the country you know by herself and my daddy was up working at the golf course and so she decided to get a job teaching school. Coweta County-- where Luta taught--was one of the foremost counties in the state of Georgia to make education a p r io r i t y f o r all children. By 1879 the county employed more than 71 teachers. L u t a s c a r e e r as a teacher displayed her own commitment to help all children receive an education. As Jimmy remembers [S]he started teaching school and taught school at East Newnan until she retired many many years later. And she was a very loving person apparently because the little East Newnan community was a fairly poor community. And I have learned many stories about children who she bought sweaters for and socks for and shoes for and she was a member of the local sorority of teachers so they have a scholarship fund that was established well before the Hope Scholarship fund to assist promising students to get higher education...and it is the Luta Williams Scholarship Fund and I m very proud of that. Luta attended LaGrange College and where she received her degree in education. Jimmy remembers [One] of her good friends at LaGrange College was Maud Adams...[T] hey both took art while they were at LaGrange College. I think that s what young ladies did in college then. And finally Maud Adams became known as the Grandma Moses of the Valley because of the success of her art work...What she did for me was not paint something...[she gave] me a Daisy air rifle when her son went to school at Auburn and I was still around the house in Newnan. So I have one of the original Daisy. While Luta did not become a famous painter like her college friend she would go on to inspire others through her love of shaping the minds of her students. Luta became a member of the Alpha Delta Kappa sorority a national honorary organization for female educators. Established in 1947 the organization s mission is to support LaGrange College Homecoming 1950 and recognize outstanding efforts by women in the field of education. Luta was honored by the sorority through the creation of a scholarship in her name--the Luta Williams Alpha Delta Kappa Scholarship--that continues to help future teachers in Coweta County fund their educational aspirations. To learn more about the the James and Luta through the memories of Jimmy please visit his transcript online. B K By 1909 many Coca-Cola bottling plants operated as family-owned businesses and by 1925 there were more than 400 smaller bottling factories throughout the US. R Woman in the Workforce An interview with Helen Preissler B Interviewer Susan B. Deaver B Date of interview August 11 2000 World War II drastically changed the nature of gender roles and sexuality within the United States. WWII offered many women the mobility to leave the domestic sphere behind and enter jobs in the defense industry the military and the public service sector for the first time. However following the war the states expected women to return to the domestic realm as wives and mothers forgetting many of the opportunities they had discovered during the war. The period known as the post-World War II baby boom (1946-1964) transformed the lives of millions of women despite efforts of many women to stay in the workforce. Those who refused to leave their jobs were usually met with hostility from those men returning to the same sectors of industry and faced increased scrutiny from managers who could have terminated their employment without recourse. However some women like Helen Preissler refused to back down and with the encouragement of her boss was able to hold a position as an editor for more than 40 years with one of the most respected banking magazines in the south. Helen Preissler was born in East Point Georgia on June 9 1914 to Alice Eleanora Hildebrand Camp and John Paul Camp. Helen was a farm girl and she recounted her early years with fond memories as a daughter of a Georgia dairy farmer. Helen s father owned 36 acres in Doraville Georgia which he later sold to buy a larger 80-acre farm in Chamblee around 1923. Helen and her three brothers grew up in Chamblee on the family s dairy farm. Helen graduated from Chamblee High School and as she recollects [After graduation ] I wanted I had a scholarship to the University of Georgia but Mother and Daddy were poor as Job s turkey and they couldn t afford to let me go to college. So I took a business course with Creighton s Business College. Helen met her husband Tom at a party for Lawson General Hospital a designated US Army General Hospital that was once located on the current site of Dekalb Peachtree Airport. Tom was a barber in the Army. When the war was over he opened a barbershop near Georgia State University and then later at Tenth and Peachtree Streets. Helen learned the value of hard work growing up on a farm and she carried that ethic as a career woman during her marriage. Helen remembers [W]hen I finished business school I went to work for McFadden Business Publications 71 and I worked on The Southern Banker which was a magazine for the southern banks. And my boss who was Haynes McFadden Sr. was s ecret ar y of t h e G e o r g ia B a n ke r s Association. And he got out this publication called The Southern Banker. And then he evolved another publication called The Southern Bankers Directory and it was a directory of all southern banks and that s what that s what I became editor of was The Southern Banker s D i r e c t o r y . The Souther n Banker s Magazine and Directory a semi-annual publication was published as early as 1906 and remained in print through the twentieth century. William Haynes McFadden Sr.-- Helen s boss--became the sole owner publisher and editor in 1914. McFadden quite literally shaped The Southern Banker with his own hands and those of editors like Helen. The magazine became an eloquent and well-written piece of journalism filled with articles regarding banks and news around Atlanta and later the entire south. Many considered the magazine a portable bulletin board full of notices and announcements. Helen recollects [I] was news editor of The Southern Banker for quite a while and then when [M cFa d d e n] s t ar te d publishing The Southern Bankers Directory he made me editor of the directory. And I worked there until I star ted h av i n g my b a b i e s and I stopped when I was pregnant with Alice my oldest daughter. help make ends meet for her family Helen took jobs proofreading for the magazine. When Tom died of a sudden heart attack Helen went back to work to support her family. She remembers Well I went up to Haynes McFadden to get a recommendation. He said If you re coming back to work you come back to work here. I ll give you your old job back. And so that s what I did...So I would drop my girls off at school at nine or 8 30 and go on to work and then I would leave work at 2 30 in order to be home with them when they got home at three. It worked out beautifully and I worked that way for until they got out of high school. And then of course I went to work then with the rest of Haynes McFadden Sr. the office. Helen continued to work as editor of The Southern Bankers Directory for 47 years until she retired. McFadden allowed Helen to work a flexible work schedule in order to be both a mother and a workingwoman in the post-war world. Women such as Helen Preissler were inspirations to many others who were unable--due to societal pressures--to continue working once World War II ended. Decades before it was commonplace Helen was able to tailor her career around her young daughters schedules. When her family was in crisis with the sudden death of her husband she was able to return to her job as an editor at McFadden Publications where she remained until her retirement in 1982. Helen s full transcript is available online where she recounts many memories of life on the dairy farm in addition to her years as a working woman. The Southern Bankers Directory is also available for purchase online if readers are interested in reading some of her past work. B Women who refused to leave their jobs were met with hostility... Helen took maternity leave to raise her two daughters Alice and Jenny while Tom worked as a barber. However McFadden often offered her small jobs on the side that she could do from home. During maternity leave and to War Crossing the Chattahoochee Front Lines of the Civil War The Letters of Nellie Evins and Richard Burch Jett 1863-1865 Service on the Home Front Through a Dark Lens The Art of War Making History Making W.A.V.E.S. One of the Good Ol Boys A New Life in the Land of Opportunity 73 Union Company E 4th U.S. Colored Infantry at Fort Lincoln Fortification in front of Atlanta 1864. World War II Era B-29 Superfortresses Permission of Kennesaw State University Archives Crossing the Chattahoochee An interview with Dr. Franklin Garrett B Interviewer Talk for SSHCF B Date of interview October 1994 The topographical composition of Sandy Springs catalyzed numerous historical moments within U.S. history. The Chattahoochee River splits the area into multiple islands requiring a multitude of bridges--or ferries--for crossing. During the Civil War Atlanta operated as a central supply hub to the Confederate Army. The centrality of its railroads enabled the city to supply the Confederate Ar my with ar ms supplies and soldiers consequently making it a target for the Union Army. The Union repeatedly forced the Johnston s Confederate Ar my of Tennessee to retreat during the Atlanta Campaign of the Civil War from May to September of 1864. As the Confederacy retreated further and further south in the face of successive flanking maneuvers the Union Army eventually ended up at Sandy Springs using many of the ferries to gain access to Atlanta. Dr. Franklin Garrett a historian by trade debunks some of the myths regarding the presence and destruction of the Roswell and Sandy Springs areas during the Union s occupation. Dr. Franklin Garrett was born in Milwaukee Wisconsin and arrived in Atlanta in 1914 as a young child. [W]e finally arrived in Atlanta during the week of May the 10th 1914 on the Royal Palm remembers Garrett. That was one of the fine Chicago to Florida trains that we used to have and I wish we still did. A prominent historian of the Atlanta area Dr. Garrett has written numerous anthologies regarding the historical necrology of Atlanta and surrounding areas. Dr. Garrett dedicated his life to learning the historical significance of Atlanta and its citizenry a n d co nvey i ng t hat importance to the Sandy Spr ings and Atlant a communities. One prominent feature he noticed regarding the Sandy Springs area is the influence of topography on the local history. [A]t the time this was there were a lot of farms a lot of farms in this immediate locality. I expect that our oldest road names are named for the Chattahoochee River ferries and grist mills. I lived on two I lived on Paces Ferry Road at one time and I now live on Randall Mill Road remembers Garrett. 75 Some of the historical ferries were located in Sandy Springs and many of the contemporary roads are named after them. Johnson s Ferry (originally Johnston s Ferry) Power s Ferry and Pace s Ferry were some of the many ferries that operated around the Sandy Springs area. Pace s Ferry--operated by Hardy Pace--began during the Georgia Gold Rush in 1829. Hardy got the idea as he operated a stagecoach bringing travelers in and out of gold country and by 1830 operated the ferry as an important link between northwest Georgia and Atlanta. Garrett states Hardy Pace was the man who opened the Pace s Ferry across the Chattahoochee River which some of the Federal troops came across in 1864... The battle--or skirmish--of Pace s Ferry was fought July 5 1864 when Union General Oliver O. Howard seized a key pontoon bridge (at Pace s Ferry) over the Chattahoochee River. This enabled Federal troops to continue their offensive to capture the rail center at Atlanta--a major hub of confederate supply and support. Union troops encountered little resistance and despite Confederate attempts to burn the bridge the Union arrived in time to save majority of it. The Confederacy in a last ditch effort cut the mooring ropes confining the boat and let the boat drift into the middle of the river--halting an attack opportunity for the Union. The numerous branches of the Chattahoochee that cut across Atlanta Roswell Dunwoody and Sandy Springs supported the emergence of multiple ferries that hauled mules wagons citizens and soldiers between 1835 and 1900. Just upstream from Pace s Ferry James Power established Power s Ferry in 1835 which remained in operation until 1903 when a nearby bridge made the ferry less practical. The Union Army also utilized the Power s Ferry in 1864 during the Atlanta Campaign of the Civil War. Incidentally I understand that General Sherman crossed the Chattahoochee River personally at Powers Ferry recalls Garrett. He crossed the Chattahoochee River at Powers Ferry and he spent the first night what they called in the field that is in a tent where the Crossroads Church now is...The second night he spent at the Samuel House plantation...And while I ve known some descendants of the Powers family I never heard them brag about the fact that General Sherman used their ferry to get across the river. General Howard decided not to force a crossing at Pace s Ferry against the Confederate troops entrenched across the river. Instead Sherman moved his troops to Power s Ferry and outflanked them. This enabled the Union Army to continue to Atlanta and disrupt the Confederate supply chain. Many see the Atlanta Campaign as a series of battles in which the Union Army either destroyed everything in its path or the Confederacy in a desperate attempt to prevent Crossing the Chattahoochee continued the Union from gaining control would burn it before they left. Garrett recollects this was not the case The object of the Union Army was to cut the railroads so they couldn t operate and the factories that made everything for the Confederate Army. And so those were destroyed. And a lot of buildings were accidentally burned but it was not just completely destroyed. Atlanta and Roswell incidentally are t he s ame age. They were founded the same year 1837...Most people conclude that Roswell must must be much older because of the number of antebellum homes that are still standing there. [T]he high command picked out the best houses in Atlanta to stay in that s human nature. General Sherman picked out the Neal Home which was a two-story white-columned mansion where City Hall now is. And that building survived until 1926. The Union Army captured Atlanta on September 2 1864 effectively occupying and disrupting the supply chain to the Confederacy. The Union Army actually preserved the area as much as they could. The only damage the Union Army did in Roswell was burn down the mill and send the operators north. They didn t go around burning everybody s house down which seemed to be unnecessary in the first place according to Garrett. Johnson s ferry operated until 1903 and the names of Pace s Johnson s and Heard s all survive as reminders of the ferries that helped transform the historical events that occurred in the area. The use of the ferries by soldiers during the Civil War show the importance of geographical location for any military conflict. Dr. Garrett is to date the only officiallynamed historian of Atlanta. If you are interested in learning more about Atlanta s history Dr. Garrett s Atlanta and Environs A Chronicle of its People and Events remains the best reference for the city s history. Other noted works include Chronological History of the Coca-Cola Company 1886-1965 Vignette History of Atlanta and Yesterday s Atlanta. B Hardy Pace was the man who opened the Pace s Ferry across the Chattahoochee River.. 404-252-3220 200 Johnson Ferry Road NE Sandy Springs Georgia 30328 77 Energize Connect An INVIGORATING RESPITE meets a LIVELY URBAN CENTER . Experience the boundless energy and vibrance of metropolitan Atlanta when you stay at The Westin Atlanta Perimeter North. Connect with family over a meal at SAVOR bar kitchen raise a toast with friends on the patio by our onsite lake and discover all that the city has to o er from quality shops and gorgeous skyscrapers to historic monuments and hiking trails. To make a reservation visit or call 888-627-8407 The letters of Nellie Evins and Richard Burch Jett 1863-1865 The American Civil War is one of the most significant events knew they would eventually have to outlast the Confederate s that shaped the history and consciousness of the United attempts to continue the war. In Atlanta supplies became States. It was a brutal military conflict that involved multiple scarce and both Confederate and Union soldiers began taking states pitted against each other and numerous battles across necessary items and rations from civilians. In 1864 Nellie writes the landscape of the American south between 1861 and 1865. [I] have had hard times with the Yankee they took everything. The war took men of all ages out of their homes and thrust I [haven t an ear] of corn left. They took all my [wheat] they them into the militia and kill my hogs I have my cow militaries of the Union and the and steer and one [heifer]...I Confederacy. While only men [kept] floid [sic] horse in the were permitted to join their smoke house in the day and respective militias several put him in the garden of at women were documented night...I look everyday for the as disguising themselves as Yankee to take him. I rather men to fight in battle. Others he died than for the Yankee found roles as field nurses to get him. Nellie mentions while many others took over in a July 1864 letter that an the duties of their husbands acquaintance named Fanny bac k at home. Nellie also lost all of her oats when Evins Jett wife of Richard the soldiers came and took Burch Jett--both of Sandy them. Springs--did just that. When Nellie and Richard s descendants Elvie May Fuller Richard went off to war in At the outbreak of the war Jett (b. 1900) and Richard Burch Jett (b. 1893) on their 1862 Nellie devoted her life the South only boasted a wedding day in 1917 to providing and maintaining population of five million a home for her children while people including slaves while she anxiously awaited the return of her husband. the north had 26 million. Population alone gave the North the advantage in the war especially in 1864 as the South slowly The Civil War became a war of attrition. As the Union retreated to larger cities in an attempt to fortify their areas of outnumbered the Confederacy in population alone they manufacturing. Front Lines of the Civil War 79 the onslaught of soldiers stealing from their crops and homes. While both sides suffered hardships throughout the war having the soldiers in Sandy Springs did have favorable aspects. For instance many women who did not travel with the company of the soldiers as nurses remained close to their homes providing services to both sides. Some offered medical care to those wounded in battle while others offered services as laundresses. Nellie writes to Richard about the positive side of having the Union soldiers in Cobb County We are getting on very well with our work. Tuesday after you left the wagons fell back to the vincetory [sic] from that to the river is a regiment of Calvary. There are more or less here everyday since they come I made 18 dollars washing and iron. In the North roughly 20 000 women joined the war effort with zeal volunteering to serve as nurses laundresses and matrons as part of the United States Sanitary Commission. In the South though burdened by a limited population women also volunteered in droves to help their boys. They provided nursing care out of their homes they cooked for them and they sewed blankets bags and clothes whenever supplies afforded them the opportunity. Nellie routinely offered services to the Yankees for two reasons protection for her family and an opportunity to make money in place of the profits she was losing from her stolen crops. Fortification in front of Atlanta 1864. Women remained on the frontlines during the Civil War specifically when they refused to leave their homes and possessions. By 1864 and with a national election impending the Confederacy knew that it could win the war if it could just outlast the Union. With so many causalities on the side of the Union few believed the country would reelect the incumbent President Lincoln. As the Union attempted to break through the South s defenses the Confederacy dug in fortifying its cities of manufacturing that supplied the war effort. In Sandy Springs a large skirmish occurred at Isom s Ferry crossing in July 1864 when the Union attempted to cross the Chattahoochee River. The Union in an attemp to exploit a weak spot in the defenses of the Confederates used pontoon boats to cross the river and force the Confederates to retreat. As a woman protecting her home Nellie recounts to Richard this skirmish in her letter dated July 12 1864. She writes Dick and George [went] down to the field to get oats...they heard them talking and [couldn t] see them. Fanny said she never was so bad [scared] before...[They] put the militia to guard Power s Ferry the Yankee came to the ferry open their cannon on them [and] they run and left them cannon tents cooking vessels and everything they had. They never stop till they got to Atlanta. They Yankee just put in their pontoons. So many of them cross our men had to fall back. They said if they had put men there they never [would] cross. In Sandy Springs the Georgia Militia supported by Confederate General Joseph Wheeler s cavalry defended several ferry crossings by patrolling the river valley at Heard s Isom s and Power s Ferries. Power s Ferry had a two-gun battery stationed at the top of the hill with rifle encasements throughout the valley. Isom s Ferry only had a one-gun battery and was eventually chosen as the weak point on the Cobb County side. The Confederates were only able to fire off one shot before they were overrun by the Union and subsequently forced to retreat to Atlanta. Residents of Sandy Springs were left defenseless to deal with Front Lines of the Civil War continued Sweet Auburn Market Sweet Auburn Archive 1939 Sandy Springs families homesteads during the Civil War The Civil War touched the lives of millions of men and women particularly those living near the front lines. While Nellie was left to defend their home property and children Richard was having a vastly different experience during the war. Very little is known about Richard s specific movements after he left for the war in 1862 but he did routinely travel the numerous rail lines supplying the Confederate forces. The Civil War was the first war in which railroads became a significant factor and the use of railroads and trains to supply troops became invaluable during the war. While the growth of the railroad industry began in the 1850s by the outbreak of the war in 1861 there were more than 22 000 miles of track in the North and 9 500 miles in the South. Richard writes Company A left hire last Maisday [sic] morning they went to Cumberlan [sic]. Dick Owens and myself was sent to Charleston East Tennessee and [started] to exchange some gen carriages. We took them we had to wait for the freight train to come up from Dalton Charleston is 65 miles below Knoxville. We stood at the depot till the train come at nine o clock at night. The South was slow to recognize the importance of the railroad during the Civil War. Civilians ran many of the railroads coming from Chattanooga and Atlanta and the South did not approve of taking over businesses owned by civilians. The tracks were all different gauges ranging between four to six feet making it difficult for supplies and troops to readily travel across the vast landscape encompassing the war. Richard eventually traveled to Richmond via train and joined the front line battle. He stayed at Fort Gilmer just south of Richmond. Fort Gilmer was part of the skirmishes involved in the siege of St. Petersburg in September 1864. Richard writes We left General Earley s command in the beautiful valley of Virginia September 25th and came to [James] river September 26th. [We] remained till October 11. We turned over our horses and equipment and came to Richmond Virginia the 12th and taken charge of two siege guns with other light artillery. My Company B is all in side of Fort Gilmer and has charge of all the artillery in the fort--we are 7 miles south east of Richmond. We are on the front line battle. We are in site of the Yankees all of the time. Fort is held by the Yankees two thousand yards from Fort Gilmer and in full view of the Yankees. At Fort Gilmer Richard was a part of a salient attack by General Ulysses S. Grant of the Union Army at the Battle of Chaffin s Farm. The multiple clashes cost the nation approximately 5 000 casualties. Many of the offensives undertaken by the Union are considered Confederate victories but Grant s motives were to weaken the Confederate forces entrenched in Richmond in preparation for the siege of Petersburg which lasted from June 1864 until March 1865. 81 The war lasted for a total of five years but it has shaped the collective memories of not only the individuals who lived through it but also the memory of the United States. Richard and Nellie suffered extreme hardships albeit from largely different perspectives but they both made the best of their situations. Richard wrote to Nellie God knows I would be so glad to see this cruel war come to a close so I should return home to my family. Don t be uneasy about me I haven t taken up with bad habits so commonly practiced in the army no and if it is the good will of almighty God for me to live to see this war end I hope to be a better man than when I entered the army. While the war cost numerous lives on both sides Richard lived to return to Nellie and continue their life in Sandy Springs. They rebuilt their farm raised their children and marveled in the adventurous spirit of family and friends in Sandy Springs. B Sweet Auburn Archive 1939 BATTLE OF ANTIETAM (September 17 1863 - Maryland) 23 000 soldiers were killed wounded or missing from both sides at the end of this battle - double the casualties of D-Day 82 years later. It was the bloodiest single day of the Civil War. INTERNATIONAL RANKS One-third of the soldiers in the Union Army were immigrants from Ireland Germany France Italy Poland England and Scotland. In addtion more than 180 000 black soldiers fought in the Union Army. ARLINGTON Private Estate Turned Public Cemetery George Washington Parke Custis Martha Washington s grandson built Arlington House. This 1 100-acre plantation was a memorial to his step-grandfather George Washington. Custis left the estate to his daughter who married Lt. Robert E. Lee. The Lee family vacated the house during the Civil War and after a tumultuous three years 200 acres became a military cemetery. Now known as Arlington National Cemetery the first military burial took place on May 13 1864. Union Company E 4th U.S. Colored Infantry at Fort Lincoln Service on the Home Front An interview with James T. Lamberth B Interviewer Virginia Allison B Date of interview December 1990 World War II was a crucial event for the twentieth James Tilden Lamber th was one of the men who century. The war catalyzed profound and permanent faithfully served his country during World War II through environmental social and cultural change helping shape domestically-based responsibilities. Born March 18 1902 the character of the United States and its citizenry. One Lamberth spent his life as a Sandy Springs resident. Raised of the largest battlefields by his gr andparent s d u r i n g a ny mili t a r y af ter his father died conflic t is the home of pneumonia he was f ront. Men women born nine miles above and children are often Buckhead on Roswell required to provide Road. Lamber th- -a milit ar y or technic al p lu mb er by t r ad e - ser vice ration food married his Milledgeville purchase war bonds girl named Rosa Belle or provide exemplar y Erwin when he was 21 notions of patriotism. years old. At the time During World War II I got married I worked the cultural landscape for Mitchell Plumbing of Americ a changed across the street from the d r as t ic all y fo r b ot h Decatur depot recalls men and women. With Lamber th. I drove a Bell Aircraft Corporation the war depar tment s Model T truck with Permission of Kennesaw State University Archives dr af ting of over 10 solid rubber tires and a million men into military service women--for the first buggy chair...I also ran stand pipe for water meters on new time in American history--were actively encouraged to housing sites. Lamberth continued his trade at multiple leave the home to fill roles in both the military and war sites until the 1940s when he worked for the Bell Bomber industries. However some men were left behind having plant in Marietta--a large-scale military production site been determined as IV-F (i.e. vital to the war cause but throughout the war. not eligible for combat service) and served roles for the war industry from the domestic battlefront. Before 1942 Cobb County had a population of about 8 000 83 and relied heavily on its cotton production as a means of joined the workforce in unprecedented numbers. Bell gave economic support. Construction began on the Bell Bomber women the opportunity to work as secretaries engineers plant in Marietta Georgia on March 30 1942 transforming and in some cases afforded them managerial positions. the community into a major industrial center. The federal In February 1945 Bell employed 28 158 local workers--37 government provided 73 million dollars in federal aid for percent were women and 8 percent African American. construction the plant produced B-29 bombers covered Lamberth worked multiple jobs both in and out of Bell. more than In 1940-42 I was [also] 4.2 million an air raid warden he s q uar e fe et recalls. I walked Harold and employed Avenue from one end more than to the other every time 28 000 locals-- the siren went off to including see that all lights were Lamberth. out. Later when the all In the 40s I clear came I would go worked for the back visit and sell war Bell Bomb er bonds. plant in Marietta. The The U.S. government Building lacked encouraged participation 1 10 t h of a and support of the war mile being 1 on many different levels. mile under one The purchase of war Female employees in line to pass through security after their shift ends. roof. I worked bonds and the planting Permission of Kennesaw State University Archives 10 h o u r s a of vic tor y day 7 days a gardens week for 14 we r e t wo months. I got 1 000 a year bonus for perfect of the ways attendance. I only took one day off to go to the state a funeral he remembers. There were 360 actively plumbers on the job. I worked along side air encouraged hammers on a catwalk. That is where I lost support. my hearing. I was given ear plugs to wear Lamberth but I was afraid someone would say duck remembers and I wouldn t hear. The Bell Bomber plant selling war World War II Era B-29 Superfortresses Permission of Kennesaw State University Archives was the largest aircraft production facility to bonds to date in the Deep South and created over 668 ever yone of the Boeing Corporation s B-29 Superfortress Bombers in the town. I sold more war bonds than any one on this which ranked the plant among the 25th most productive side of town. Every house bought bonds including myself. plants during the duration of World War II. I came home from work one afternoon--heard something going on in the front yard. A short fat guy was playing Roll The bomber plant in Marietta allowed many men to Out the Barrel on the accordion. A catering truck was continue their tradecraft while learning and improving pulled up out front for the public. We had a celebration other skills. Lamberth remembers he learned to weld while for being a 100 percent block. The United States spent working on the catwalk and also states Volunteers were over 300 billion dollars funding the war effort and by 1946 needed to hook up air conditioners on the roof. Only three across the US American citizens such as Lamberth helped out of 135 on the payroll volunteered--I was one of three. raise 185 billion through the purchase of war bonds. Big Ike I was my own boss. I could do as I pleased had all the help I wanted to wait on me. Working for the bomber Victory gardens were also a popular mechanism of support. plant probably kept me out of the draft. Women also Due to the rationing of sugar butter milk eggs coffee Service on the Home Front continued and other foodstuffs the government encouraged citizens to become selfsustaining and supply their own provisions. Nearly 20 million Americans answered the call and began planting victory gardens in their windows backyards and any open space they could find. In Sandy Springs the state actually provided the means to create a garden for its citizens. Lamberth recalls At this time there were victory gardens along the side of the road--every where you went. The government donated the land seeds and fertilizer even plowed the ground. All you had to do was plant and look after. The government wanted everyone to raise their own food so there would be more to send to the troops. During the war it would have been hard to find fresh produce and it was a way for individuals to feel like they were doing their part. Lamberth says I wished I had a victory garden but I already had my own backyard one. Life in the United States changed drastically after the war ended. Food shortages still occurred women were encouraged to leave their jobs in factories and return to the domestic sphere--despite reluctance from the majority of women to do so--and the age of consumerism initiated at a startling pace. However for many in the Sandy Springs area life returned to normal. The Bell Bomber plant began to reduce its production levels and employee numbers as the Japanese were preparing to surrender. The plant is still in operation under Lockheed Martin aerospace company and 70 years later the factory remains a critical component of the aeronautics field. Today residents can enjoy seeing some of the planes produced there by visiting the Commemorative Air Force Dixie Wing Museum in Peachtree City or by attending one of the museum s air shows. Its annual WWII Heritage Days is a family-friendly event held each spring complete with WWII reenactments or as Lamberth fondly remembers to family and friends those days were ...the best of times. B If anyone has original photographs from Sandy Springs or the Bell Bomber Plant in Marietta during World War II we would love to obtain copies of original photographs or oral histories. Please contact curator or 404.851.9111 ext. 2 K In the 1940s Sandy Springs was a bedroom community for the Bell Bomber Plant in Marietta Georgia. R 85 The Heart of Our Community since 1984 Sunday evenings May-September 7 00 8 30 p.m. Gates Open at 5pm Sandy Springs Society Entertainment Lawn at Heritage Green 6110 Bluestone Road Next to CityWalk For more information 404-851-9111 --Free-- Through A Dark Lens An interview with Bert Weston B Interviewer Valerie Biggerstaff B Date of interview December 18 2008 The United States officially joined the Allied forces on His family moved to Mount Vernon New York when he was December 7 1941 to help fight fascism in Europe. Many five. The Army commissioned Weston in 1940 but at the people know the horrific story of how the Nazi regime behest of his mother allowed him to first graduate college. persecuted anyone of Jewish descent but many are Weston began his service in 1941 and eventually attained unfamiliar with how far the mistreatment actually went. the rank of captain but served as a second lieutenant The Holocaust was the systematic bureaucratic stateduring the liberation. He served with General Patton s Third sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six US Army (TUSA ) 20th Corps and as he states We did all million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. During the rough work. You know doctors did the surgery...[we the era of the Holocaust German authorities also targeted did] the other side. Weston was not a doctor--although other groups because of their perceived racial inferiority he planned on attending medical school once the war was Roma (Gypsies) the disabled and some of the Slavic over--but instead he performed key staff functions such as peoples (Poles Russians directing medical service a n d o t h e r s ). O t h e r advising medical supply groups were persecuted training maintenance and on political ideological photography. Weston was and behavioral part of the 30th Hospital grounds among them which was a combat Communists Socialists hospital. Weston traveled Je hovah s W it ne s s e s all around Europe during and homosexuals. While World War II including historians continuously England France Germany d e b ate an d u ncover Belgium and Aus tria more data to indicate serving in a MASH unit a n a c c ur ate nu m b e r sometimes 30 miles in of men women and front of enemy lines. children affected by the Holo c au s t his tor ians One of Weston s most Austrian civilians stack the bodies of Ebensee prisoners onto carts generally agree that the haunting experiences was for transportation to a nearby burial site. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of Bert Weston Nazi regime and their his participation in the collaborators murdered liberation of the Ebensee at least eighteen million people. It took many years and forced labor camp. Hitler and the Third Reich established ongoing debate for many individuals to believe that anyone the Ebensee camp in Ebensee Austria in 1943. The camp would be capable of such atrocities. Bert Weston a resident provided slave labor for the construction of enormous of Sandy Springs served in the Army during the war. He underground tunnels in which Hitler planned to store Nazi helped liberate the Ebensee forced labor camp in Austria armament works. Prisoners would awake at 4 30 a.m. and and document many of the atrocities for the world to see. then work slavishly in horrifying conditions well past 6 00 p.m. As the Allied forces began to gain the upper hand Bert Weston was born May 9 1919 in the Bronx New York. in the Western and Eastern fronts prisoners soon began 87 Survivors from Ebensee are evacuated to the 139th Evacuation Hospital for medical treatment. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of Bert Weston. working 24-hour shifts. Prisoners had little to no shelter from the harsh Austrian winters and many died due to starvation disease and horrendous living conditions. Weston remembers General Patton and Eisenhower... they all took the 80th infantry division that was going by on the highway. They diverted the trucks into the first camp that was liberated which was named Ohrdruf. And he d take them o u t of t heir trucks and had t h e m ma r c h walk through the forced labor camp to see why they were fighting what they were fighting for. And Eisenhower was front and he uh when he saw the people there and everything and the graves and bodies all over the place he went over to the bushes and he threw up. American forces liberated the camp on May 6 1945 and Weston and his corps arrived the next day. See my outfit in the last week of the war the last day of the war we d liberated a concentration camp in Austria. We were on our way to Berlin but they wanted the Russians to get there first. So we went they rerouted us...souther n Austria. And we were to take over the medical facilities of [the] concentration camp that had just been liberated a half a day before us. They broke broke into the camp and they liberated it and we came along and we rented the medical service there One of Weston s most haunting experiences was [seeing] the Ebensee forced labor camp. Through A Dark Lens continued for the next two months remembers Weston. Weston arrived to see men and women wrecked by starvation and mistreatment. His medical unit carried a portable shower with them to help the prisoners clean themselves but Weston remembers that the cold water would occasionally do more harm than good as would offering the prisoners any kind of food. [T]he GIs would come by in trucks and they d throw candy and K rations to them. And they d [the prisoners] grab whatever they had and they d start eating them and so many guys died right on the spot recalls Weston. For many liberation came too late despite doctors attempts to save them. However Patton strived to give a proper burial to all the deceased he could recover. Weston recollects General Patton was so upset with the concentration camps that he ordered everybody in the town next to the concentration camp to furnish a blanket and dig a grave. And they did. They came out there dressed in whatever they had on. Some guys were in their Sunday school clothes on and they came and they dug graves. In the days following the liberation friends and fellow inmates who survived erected monuments to honor those who had perished while the Allied forces attempted to make sense of and document the rising toll of death and destruction the Nazi regime had wrought. Like many camps throughout Europe Ebensee vanished after the war because the woman who owned the land before the Nazi occupation buried the graves monuments crematoriums and tunnels. A few years after the war Weston moved to Sandy Springs where he married and raised a family. He never did make it back to Ebensee but he made sure his experiences were memorialized. In 1986 by executive order of then-Governor Joe Frank Harris the Georgia Commission on the Holocaust was established with Bert Weston as one of the organization s founding members. Weston remembers Governor Joe Frank Harris of Georgia...was the first governor of the United States to set up a commission on the Holocaust. And I was one of the chartered members of the commission. We had the presidents of all the universities of the State of Georgia. At that time Dean Rusk was Secretary of State before he was a professor [at University of] Georgia back then after the war. And he was there at the meeting too. And we had liberators like myself there. And we had survivors of the concentration camp and some children of the survivors. And um I guess that s the first the first meeting we had was a luncheon meeting down in Buckhead. And they passed this clipboard around for people to sign who were willing to go to the schools and everywhere and tell people what the Holocaust was like. Because all of us were connected with the Holocaust. In 1998 the Georgia General Assembly voted to make the commission a permanent secular nonpartisan state agency. As per Weston s desire the commission was established to preserve memories of the Holocaust and to promote public understanding of its history. It does this through exhibits and programs. Sandy Springs first mayor Eva Galambos was a member of the Commission s board of directors. On behalf of the Georgia Commission on the Holocaust she was instrumental in relocating the exhibit Anne Frank in the World 1929-1945 to Sandy Springs Children survivors stand in front of barracks in the newly-liberated Ebensee concentration camp. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of Bert Weston 89 where it remains today on loan from the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam. As for the remains of the Ebensee forced labor camp in 1997 Ebensee Mayor Herwart Loidl commemorated the hardships of the prisoners by uncovering some of the tunnels and installing memorial plaques. The underground chambers are accessible for educational and tourist purposes via the Lions Walk--steps carved into the rock by prisoners. Weston donated a large number of the photographs he took during the liberation of Ebensee and as he got older he spoke widely of his war experience including to those at the Library of Congress. Weston s full oral history regarding his experience at Ebensee is available through the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. You can also look at some of the memorable and chilling photographs General Patton insisted he capture by searching his name in their digital collections. B Photo Credit United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of Bert Weston A survivor from Ebensee is loaded onto an ambulance by German military personnel for transportation to the 139th Evacuation Hospital for medical treatment. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of Bert Weston Austrian civilians bury the bodies of former prisoners of the Ebensee concentration camp. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of Bert Weston The Art of War An interview with Holland Cox B Interviewer Kimberly Brigance B Date of interview December 18 2008 Holland Cox born January 1 1921 in Forsyth County Georgia served his country proudly during World War II as a corporal in the 101st Army Airborne. Unlike many men his age he never volunteered for military service--he was drafted. Mandatory conscription or the draft became part of everyday life for men over the age of eighteen. Since World War I all men of legal age are required to register with the Selective Service so that in times of war the United States government can draft men into service to fight for their country. The United States Army drafted Cox in 1941 and he served his country in major military conflicts including D-Day and the Battle of the Bulge. parents went crazy. They thought I d never be back. On June 6 1944 the Allied forces invaded Normandy France thus beginning the United States involvement on the western front. Operation Overlord the largest seaborne invasion in history began on a Tuesday morning as allied troops landed ashore at strategic points along Normandy s coast at Omaha Juno Gold Utah and Sword Beaches. The Allies landed amidst heavy gun and artillery fire from the Germans and many men lost their lives. Cox was a part of the rear echelon he recollects Going across the ocean wasn t all that bad cause we didn t World War II was the last think about it. It took war the United States about six seven days to fought that had positive get over there. When we encour agement from went from England over the general population. to France on D-Day I was However not every man out there in the English and woman who served in Channel for thirty days... the armed forces during waiting for a beachhead Photograph of paratroopers just before they took off for World War II was there of to get es tablished. the initial assault of D-Day. their own volition. Cox Operation Overlord was was one of the thousands the large-scale operation of men drafted by the United States government after 1940 to take the country of France and establish a well-patrolled through the Selective Training and Service Act. One survey stronghold. The operation took months of planning and the in a 1940s Life magazine actually proclaimed that 71% of governments of the allied nations used multiple different the American public endorsed the draft. Cox was not one operations such as Operation Bodyguard and Pointblank of them. He remembers I thought it was the worst thing I resulting in many troops like Cox waiting for their deployment. ever got into...I had never been away from home and to get Cox remembers When [D-Day] started I was on the LST into something like that. I rode boxcars from here to Nova waiting to get the depot set up for the soldiers to meet in. Scotia Canada and caught the boat to Birmingham England Because it was about I guess five or six hundred of us. Or for my basic training. Although before that we went to Camp maybe more than that. But that was for the rear echelon. To Lee Virginia for two or three months and then on to Nova back up for guys at the front lines. The landings along the 91 Bastogne. And then that s when the Germans surrounded us and we had to stay in there and couldn t get out. The Nazis surrounded the town of Bastogne by capturing all seven of the main roads that converged on the small Belgian town. The siege lasted for seven days until Somehow Patton brought his army in there and run them Germans back to their part... We took them prisoners and killed a lot of them. We had to end it according to Cox. The 101st Airborne stationed at Bastogne lost 341 men during the seven-day battle but Cox was never worried. As he remembers I thought somebody would help us get out. We ran out of food you see. You d have all kinds of K-rations and C-rations but after a certain length of time you run out of all that stuff. And they dropped I think some K-rations into our part and we got taken care of. I was in there for...I don t know if it was two weeks or a week. General Patton s Third Army broke through the encirclement on December 27 1944 from the Southwest to resume command of the 101st airborne. The men in the 101st expected to be relieved and evacuated to the south with the wounded but instead Patton insisted that they be resupplied in order to defend the town. The men of the 101st including Cox fought tenaciously and faced the elite of the German military attempting to take the town of Bastogne. By pulling out soldiers from the front lines and resupplying combat forces Cox contribution helped push the Allied forces to a win. Cox retur ned home after German and It alian forces surrendered in April 1945 even though his parent s never D-Day Ferry Ride t ho ug ht t hey would see him again and many of his friends did not return with him. He settled down in Sandy Springs married and had one daughter. Even though he thought being drafted was the worst thing that could have happened to him he was thankful he had the chance to serve his country. He recollects I can t say that it affected [my life] because I don t know the future but I can t say that I d have done a lot better if I hadn t went in service. I m glad I could serve my country. You can read or listen to Cox s full transcript online or if you are looking for more stories like his and other veterans who served during World War II you can check out Georgia Public Broadcasting s oral history project. B D-Day Allied invasion of Normandy France 1944 beach on Normandy took six days to establish contact with soldiers across all five points of invasion. As part of the rear echelon Cox replenished the front lines with supplies at its most crucial point and even though he was never in direct fire his memory of D-Day was as unpleasant as many veterans. Cox recollects When I got over there I was driving a truck and hauling soldiers to the front lines. One of the guys that rode in the front with me [needed to stop] I don t know why take a leak I guess or something because that was a way out in the country...The man that was riding with me never did get back in the truck fell over dead. He heard the ammunition going off and he had a heart attack. Cox helped supply the bases established in Normandy as their truck driver before his commanding officer transferred him to haul soldiers and supplies to Bastogne Belgium. The small town of Bastogne is located inside Belgium close to the Ardennes Forest. The siege of Bastogne began December 20 1944. The town was thought to be impenetrable by the German forces. However German panzer tanks pushed through the forest attacking the town straight on and breaking through the Allied lines. The skirmish was part of the larger Battle of the Bulge where the German army was attempting to capture the Antwerp harbor--an important resupply station and airfield for the Allied forces. Initially the Germans were able to push back and surround the allied forces at Bastogne creating a Bulge in the defensive line. Cox recollects The fight was going on all around there. Somehow we were well-equipped enough to keep them running back. We got into that little town in Making W.A.V.E.S. An interview with Jean Taylor B Interviewer Kimberley Brigance B Date of interview December 16 2008 During World War II the United States military infrastructure expanded rapidly giving many women the opportunity to join a military branch. While women were able to join different military branches before the world conflict their experiences changed drastically as roles previously filled by men opened for the first time to female recruits. Even areas dominated and trodden by men for years gave indefinite assurances to women they could and would make a difference to the United States effor ts in World War II. Jean Taylor was born December 7 1920 in Ames Iowa six blocks from Iowa State University. The United States formally declared war on Japan on her 22nd birthday. Soon after in 1943 she enlisted in the United States Naval Reserve for women known as Women Accepted for Vo l u n t e e r Em e r g e n c y Service (WAVES). Officers Training Corps]. He was called up in 1942. We were already married. He was called up and [he] had to go to the East Coast to go to Europe so I went along with him. Taylor s husband served in the Army for three years on the Eastern front. Jean stayed on the East Coast volunteering for the WAVES. She recollects I had 30 days training at Williams College. Some kind of training and that was it for 30 days...Then we I got our permissions...all of us. We had two European gals and I think I have some pictures of them. Then I found out that you know that wasn t enough just to be a commissioned officer...that you should get a specialty. So I did...I was a paymaster. Making History Military life opened up a world of possibilities for women. For Taylor it allowed her to leave Ames Iowa and move to New England where she became Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service W.A.V.E.S. Jean Taylor was one of a paymaster traveling up approximately 86 000 women who volunteered for service and down the coast to different colleges to pay out other during the shortage of manpower beginning in July 1942. service members. Taylor a chemist by trade decided Most women who joined the military were single--as many she needed to be an officer--if only to keep up with her men would not allow their wives to enlist (or volunteer). husband who was also drafted as an officer. She received However Taylor married her husband on October 22 1942 special training that allowed her to obtain an officer position and when he left for basic training she followed him to the as paymaster. She recollects [I] went to a party of my high East Coast. She remembers What was I doing before the school and college friends in Ames. I had heard at the party outbreak of the war My husband was in ROTC [the Reserve that we who had all graduated from college could get a 93 commission in 30 days. That sounded really exciting to me because here I was bored to death. The idea of getting a commission and being an ensign because I didn t want to be less than...I mean since my husband was a [laughs] commissioned officer I would not want to be less than what he was. So you see I took it very seriously and zoom. That s what I did. Early female enlistees in the Army Navy Coast Guard and Marine Corps all broke new ground for women entering military service as the war dragged on even if their commanding officers did not acknowledge their contributions. As a paymaster Taylor traveled from Harvard to Williams College even to North Carolina to make sure that officers and enlisted personnel received their payments on time. She recounts [I] was very popular and I got to go from each college college like that. I was greeted warmly and since I liked figures and money and that sort of thing I just really enjoyed it. They were happy to have me come. They were very happy to have me come. Military life suited Taylor. She enjoyed basic training and she enjoyed her time off with other women in the WAVES who enjoyed their freedom from familial duties--sometimes for the first time. Many of the employees that helped on the project were at universities across the United States and many had no idea what they were working for I was just doing routine chemical work. Secret. Secret secret secret...When they bombed Nagasaki well it was a payday. I was really really busy paying. It wasn t until afternoon that I found out--that I was able to put the work down and to be able to hear about what was happening. That s when I found out that...I believe it was that day that I found out that it was the atomic bomb. Since I had been a chemist on the atomic bomb at Iowa State as my father had been. He wasn t a chemist he was an instrument maker. That was really very important to me that they had...[used my work.] Indeed Taylor worked on the Manhattan Project as a chemist and only found out about her contributions at a ceremony after the bombing of Nagasaki. She remembers That was so secret we didn t know anything. In fact it was so secret that after the war when they had this ceremony at Iowa For many women--especially after State honoring the people who had 1944 when Congress ruled that been working on the atomic bomb Navy women would serve overseas guess who was father. in American territories--traveling [laughs] I had been living with him abroad for military service meant and I didn t know that. Most of exposure to both social and cultural the employees on the Manhattan differences in other parts of the Project were men and many of them world for the first time in their lives. were not allowed to tell their wives Taylor remembers It was just or children about their work on the great. I loved it because when I was project. Taylor s work as a chemist growing up and I was in college I no doubt impacted the outcome had lived at home all those years. of the project itself but she didn t Dr. Robert Oppenheimer atomic physicist I felt very...what would you call it know this until after the bomb and head of the Manhattan Project. I wasn t happy about it because I successfully ended the Pacific War. wanted to go away. When I finally got to go away to join the Navy that was really great. Boot camp was wonderful. Women in the military served a multitude of roles. From While the WAVES opened up many experiences it also pilots to machinists to chemists to nurses--they filled clearly delineated the hurdles women still faced particularly vital positions that helped the United States claim victory if they had already gained some level of notoriety working in World War II. Similarly Taylor felt her work was making a in a different field. difference in the war effort [B]ecause of...although I had been trained there were a lot of people there who hadn t The Manhattan Project was a research and development been trained. I felt like because there were so many things project under the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers that that women could do that I thought it was very important. produced the world s first atomic bomb. The project began Like many women Taylor served her roles as war bride at the University of Chicago in 1942 as scientists began military wife Navy paymaster and chemist with pride. She to develop research on plutonium reactions. The project like many men displayed courage and endured sacrifice encompassed more than 130 000 employees and cost and gave us just a glimpse of the contributions that women 2 billion (equivalent to 26 billion in 2016) to complete. made during World War II. B One of the Good Ol Boys An interview with Marla Cohen discussing her father Charles Cohen B Interviewer Kimberley M. Brigance Date of interview December 17 2008 Charles Cohen never foresaw that his time in the U.S. Army would help define his life. He was born on July 31 1913 during World War I. Charles mother and grandparents raised him after his father passed away when he was just a child. Charles grew up in Altoona Pennsylvania where his family owned and managed a small coal mine. At age 29 he voluntarily joined the Army. It was his Army experiences during World War II that would characterize who he would become as a man husband and father. Early in his service Charles traveled to Wilmington North Carolina for officer training. It was there that he met his eventual wife. He was then sent to England before landing on the beaches of Normandy helping push back the Nazi military through France Belgium Luxembourg Holland and eventually into Ger many where Charles was one of the first four Americans in Berlin. Charles landed on either Omaha or Utah Beach on day four of the Normandy offensive. His daughter Marla recounts through his letters and stories that there were only a few snipers left in the area by the time he landed. Normandy marked a turn for the people of France as Germany had invaded and occupied the country during the previous four years. Charles recounts that the people of France were both elated and dismayed by the arrival of the Allied Forces. Between 1940 and 1944 the Vichy Government of France operated in the southern free zone of the country while the Nazi military occupied and controlled the northern part of France. While Paris remained the official capital of the country the then leader of the French State--Marshal Petain-- and the authoritarian regime based itself in Vichy. Petain the leader of the Vichy government signed an armistice with Germany on June 20 1940 allowing the state to maintain control over the southern unoccupied areas. The government operated as a puppet government of Hitler and the Third Reich. The French State maintained only nominal sovereignty and the Nazis kept the French military as labor prisoners in the north. Charles had much trepidation towards the French for aside from the French Resistance many were only pretending to be allied with the Americans. Marla tells us The Vichy Gover nment. And he tells the story of once where he is approached by um someone supposedly wo r k i ng f o r t h e resistance. And in my father s in command of this unit and he comes to my father and says You know I know where there are Nazis that are are waiting to ambush the Americans. And I ll lead you to them. And so my father goes with this Frenchman and they get you know within you know the distance...striking distance of where the the Germans are. And my father takes the Frenchman aside and pulls out his pistol and puts the gun 95 used to practice his French while working with resistance fighters. One of the worst experiences that Charles had throughout his time in France was during the Battle of the Bulge. The Battle of the Bulge was the last major military offensive of the Germans attempting to push through the dense Ardennes region of Belgium France and Luxembourg to retake several of the western fronts from the Allied Forces. The battle took place from December 16 1944 to January 25 1945. Charles stumbled into this battle but he put his fear aside and did what he had to do. Marla tells us And and he you know he would say It s like 99 percent boredom. Then there s one percent terror. And I know that one percent terror happened for him right around Christmas time and they were over there near the border. And the Germans had surrounded his his unit and I guess all of the Americans there and it was bitter cold. And they were not dressed at all and there were guns and yo you know cannons and everywhere. And he told me and I read in his letters...because he was you know he was like 29 years old and he was...At that point he was still a First Lieutenant. And all these basically kids. I mean they were 18 19 year old kids serving under him and they were terrified. And they would come to him and they told him they thought they were going to die. And in his letters he would say No boys. We re going to get out to the Frenchman s head. And says We re staying you know I m with you. If you re lying to me and we get ambushed you will be the first t to die. And a at that he he...The Frenchman was telling the truth. Not all French citizens trusted or participated in the Vichy regime. Many banded together and fought against the Nazis and the Vichy in the French Resistance. Using guerilla warfare tactics and underground newspapers the resistance helped aid Charles and other military units undermine the work of the Nazi regime in both the southern and northern occupied territories. Marla says that Charles Battle of the Bulge One of the Good Ol Boys continued of this. This is nothing. What with you know we re going to we re going to survive. We re going to get through out of this. And he would encourage these kids to to stay at their post and t to keep fighting um because they were. They were just scared young boys. The attack completely surprised the Allied Forces who believed the forest was impenetrable. American forces bore the heaviest casualties during this battle more so than any other battle during the war. Since Charles had enlisted in the military when he was 29 years old he was significantly older than many of the young men who were drafted. Consequently he acted as a father figure to many of the men in unit. Marla recollects that many men revered her father and remembers that if it were not for him they may not have survived. Charles unit landed in England stormed the beaches of Normandy fought through France and eventually pushed its way into Germany. Charles main mission was reconnaissance and to see if outlying Nazi regimes were waiting to ambush the Allied Forces as they pushed through occupied territory. Charles also helped lead the raid and liberate one of the smaller concentration camps. He never told Marla the c amp s name -- unsure if he even r e me m b e r e d i t himself-- but he remembers that the prisoners who were predominantly Jewish looked like walking corpses. Marla states [The prisoners] found out that my father who was Jewish had led the raid. Which made them even you know more grateful and and proud and and they all wanted to come and personally thank him. And he said it was just...he said it was so hard for him because he was you you know he was just so appalled by what had happened and he didn t even know how to talk to these people or how to treat them because it was just such a such a horrible horrible event. American British and Soviet soldiers liberated the majority of Nazi concentration camps between 1944 and 1945. As the Allied Forces pushed the Nazis back into Germany Charles recounts that citizens of occupied countries always greeted them with graciousness and zeal. Towards the end of the war Charles was stationed right outside Berlin on the Elbe River. In one letter to his family Charles writes about the travels as they pushed the Nazis back to the center of Berlin We entered Belgium and afterwards came Holland and one liberated country seemed to try to outdo the other in its expressions of gratitude. Then came that which we ourselves looked to the most the beginning of the end for this long and bloody trail the entrance to German soil itself. We are no longer liberators. We are conquerors enemies. These are not smiling faces we now encounter but sullen hard countenances beneath which lie a deep hatred for us the invader. Every step is now to be guarded for this soil is now strung with all types of mines and devices of death which this cunning savage has devised. All about us now--almost in our very midst--we now have the enemy. The minutes are passing quickly now and with them is passing the darkness of this night of 1944. The dawn must soon arrive. By this time the German forces had all but given up. According to Charles the Nazis knew the war was over and that they had lost. Charles and his company had strict orders to stay on the outside of Ber lin. T he Soviets were slated to invade and take the town and they had direct orders from both President Eisenhower and General Patton to stand down. However Charles being the adventurous guy he was thought he might do a little sightseeing while in Berlin. After his commanding officer denied his request Charles took matters into his own hands and went out anyway. According to Marla And so my dad and four other guys decided to take the jeep and to drive into Berlin for some sightseeing. So they were driving along the way and along the way they encounter Russian soldiers. And you know they can t speak but my father... my father was very good with languages and so he kind of um... he started bribing the solders and he had cigarettes and he gave 97 Occupied Berlin 1945 them cigarettes and they said OK. Sure you can come on in. And so they entered the city of Berlin. And and like I said the Nazis still hadn t surrendered so while they were there there was still sniper fire going on. I ve seen pictures of the Reichstag. He went to the Reichstag. And he wrote his name on the Reichstag. Charles and the other three planned on sneaking back onto the base in the early hours of the following morning. Instead they happened upon a platoon of 1 000 Nazi soldiers who were terrified of the Soviet soldiers. In an effort to avoid abuse and possibly death by the Soviets they Nazis actually surrendered to Charles and three other American soldiers who happened to drive by drunk in a jeep. Marla tells us Well they may and and so my dad had kind of um um a soft heart even though these guys were Nazis and they they they begged him because they said The Russians are going to kill us. Charles and the other Americans drove back to camp with the Nazi soldiers walking behind their jeeps. There was no sneaking back onto the base after that encounter. After the fall of Berlin in May 1945 Charles stayed in Europe for another year. As a high-ranking officer he was in charge of ensuring that the rebuilding efforts got underway smoothly. At one point he was slated to be sent to Japan but the dropping of the atomic bombs prevented that deployment. Charles was awarded the Silver Star for his many efforts and in recognition of all the lives he saved during the war. Marla recollects You know I don t think I could ever live up to the kind of man that he was. I don t know how he did it. But he did it. And then he came back and he was just a normal loving devoted husband and father. Just an everyday soldier of all the other great Americans that went out there and fought fought the good battle. Charles returned to the states in 1946 married the girl he had met in North Carolina and raised three children. He continued his love of adventure by becoming an importer and traveling extensively in both Europe and Japan. For a full account of Charles Cohen s adventures through Marla s retelling check out her transcript online. B A New Life in the Land of Opportunity An interview with John Galambos B Interviewer Jeremy Katz B Date of interview September 23 2014 Following the end of World War II many survivors of the Holocaust looked to the West for the chance to begin a new life. With the promise of the American Dream guiding their way immigrants began to forge their own paths some of which led to places such as Sandy Springs. One of Sandy Springs s most well-known residents Dr. John Galambos immigrated to the United States in 1947 after surviving a German labor camp and the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Despite experiencing the atrocities of the Holocaust John never lost sight of his dreams -- eventually ear ning a medical degree and building a fruitful career in the Sandy Springs area. John was born in Budapest Hungar y in 1923. His entire family was from Budapest and most of them did not survive the Nazi occupation of Europe. Prior to 1943 Hungary was a prominent center of Jewish culture and heritage and thus a safe haven for Jewish refugees. More than 5 000 refugees from Austria and Germany migrated to Budapest before the war to escape early Nazi persecution. At first Hungarian Jews were relatively secure given Hungary s alliance with Germany and despite extreme anti-Semitism pervading much of Europe. Then in 1941 when Germany invaded Hungary John became one of the 25 000 Hungarian Jews interned by the Nazi regime. He was only 21 years old. John remembers Initially I was put in a labor camp and all with who were working. I volunteered for extra kitchen duty and apparently I was able to cut onions fast enough so I was selected to stay in the kitchen and became a cook. When we split up the large group into smaller groups and my group was sent out to a farm and they did farm work. I did the cooking and I did the stealing of whatever I could steal to cook to improve the menu. In the beginning labor camps dotted the landscape until Germany decided that Jewish labor was not productive enough. Shortly thereafter the Nazis moved John and many of his family Eva and John Galambos members and friends into a concentration camp. Bergen-Belsen was a concentration camp in Lower Saxony in the northern part of Germany. Originally the camp was an exchange camp where the Nazis housed prisoners of war awaiting transportation to another concentration camp a labor camp or a death camp. John his mother father and several cousins ended up staying there for over a year until the 11th Armored Division of British forces liberated the camp. John recalls 99 There it was absolute misery. We were given two meals a day black water--which was called coffee--in the morning and another liquid which called [inaudible] gemuese suppe that means dried vegetables soup in the evening most days. It was a starvation menu. The camp was very crowded. The bunks were...there were three layers done in a bottom a middle and a top layer which was designed for one person but we were double up on it because there jus t weren t enough at first. But gradually we got more and more room as people died. Most it was starvation and because of typhus. We had lice. We were there month after month after month without changing our clothing. No washing so we were pretty filthy. We spent most of our time talking about food or hunting for mice but that was tough because we had no heat and it was wintertime snow on the ground and taking off your shirt and try to find a mouse and kill it with your fingernails. That was our entertainment. Most of John s family members perished in the camp but John was lucky enough to survive and was moved to a displaced persons camp shortly after liberation. John remembers being hopeful despite the deplorable conditions of the camp. Most of those who survived the Holocaust and Nazi persecution came out with a brand new look on life. The adjustment period after the Holocaust was difficult for many Jews. Relationships changed and some survivors returned home to f i n d t hat many of their family members did not survive and those that did were changed in mind and spirit. John remembers. I met some of the old friends but it wasn t the same - our feelings or relationship to each other changed. We all had different experiences. We all were a little unmetered. We all hated the circumstances we had to live in. He continues I met my ex-girlfriend who survived. The relationships weren t what they were before. I know I changed. I couldn t fit in. I decided Let s start all over again. And starting over is exactly what John did. He did not let the Holocaust dictate the outcome of his life. He was only 22 at the time and remembers the exact moment when he He did not let the Holocaust dictate the outcome of his life and he remembers the exact moment when he decided to begin his life anew. A section of Bergen-Belsen concentration camp after liberation April 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration College Park Maryland A New Life in the Land of Opportunity continued Women survivors of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp stand and sit behind the fence of the camp. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of Lev Sviridov decided to begin his life anew. As John recollects A high school colleague of mine met me who just came back from the West. He said I want to migrate to America. Why don t you come with me I said Migrate to America Maybe I ll have a chance to have a life. I don t have a chance here. The kind of life I have here I don t want. That s not the kind of future I want. I want to be a doctor. The only way I could is I have to go to America so I went with him. John migrated to Germany to obtain a student visa in order to travel to America. He worked briefly for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) spying on Russian activities in Germany. His work with the OSS helped him obtain his papers and scholarship to travel to America. In 1947 John landed in New York with seven dollars and a scholarship to the University of Georgia. He did not know a soul in his new country. John eventually settled in Athens Georgia where he obtained his undergraduate degree from the University of Georgia. He later attended Emory University for his medical degree. He met his wife Eva who eventually became the first mayor of Sandy Springs at a fraternity party. He remembers She was the president of her sorority. They had an affair and the fraternity brothers took me and that s where I met Eva. The first thing she asked me was Do you have a dime She had a problem with the sorority house and she had to make a phone call. In order to make a phone call in those days you had to have a dime to put it in the public phone. She never paid me back. John worked his way through his medical residency and became a physician. He recollects I was gastroenterology and hematology. The division is called Division of Digestive Diseases within Internal Medicine. My particular specialty was liver disease so most of my publications were related to liver disease. John would eventually become a professor at Grady Memorial Hospital educating the minds of new doctors. He lectured on liver disease around the world including in England Germany Italy and Japan. John lived his life in the Sandy Springs area dedicating his time to teaching students and practicing medicine. John appreciated the opportunities that America offered an immigrant and survivor of the Holocaust. In his advice to future generation he states Get an education for the sake of knowledge not for having fun. Take advantage of the opportunities that this country still offers that in many countries they don t have. Many survivors of the Holocaust immigrated to the United States following their experiences of persecution in Europe and fearing a reprisal of the events of World War II. However many like John came for the opportunities that a new country afforded them the American dream. As John states America was to me the American South. What impressed me what I needed what I wanted and what I got was opportunity. That sink or swim. Here you can get an education work for it and I worked for it. John Galambos s full transcript which includes his amazing journey from Budapest to America is available online. B 101 The Sentell Family lived near present day Mystic Drive and Roswell Road. James Monroe Sentell Son of James Power operator of the Power s Ferry. Samuel Wesley Power Civil War Veterans The McMurtrey Family lived at the present day Lost Corners property near Riverside Drive and Brandon Mill Road. Sandy Springs James Addison McMurtrey McElreath most likely served with a regiment out of Forsyth County later relocating to Oak Grove (present day Sandy Springs). John Thomas McElreath Jr. Civil Rights Cotton & Convicts Prison Camps Down a Dark Hole Civil Rights Pioneer 103 Convict Camp Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library Lonnie King unidentified woman and Martin Luther King Jr. being arrested during sit-in demonstration protesting lunch-counter segregation Atlanta Georgia October 6 1960. Copyright Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Courtesy Georgia State University. Atlanta Mayor William Hartsfield (left) and Rabbi Jacob Rothschild. Copyright Atlanta Journal-Constitution Courtesy Georgia State University The Temple c. 1950s Copyright Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Courtesy Georgia State University Cotton & Convicts An interview with Hugh Sentell B Interviewer Linda Campbell B Date of interview February 19 1992 U.S. Senator James H. Hammond of South Carolina declared that cotton is king in 1858 arguably the mid-point of cotton s 100 year reign in the Southeast. Despite a drop in production during the decade following Hammond s speech due to the Civil War cotton regained supremacy in the years leading up to World War I. Hugh Sentell remembers that right after World War I cotton in the spring was selling for 40 per pound so he stopped attending school after the seventh grade to help his father on their Sandy Springs farm. held up there coming in of a night. They d work all summer and make the cotton carry it over there and sell it and come back with their little money and people would take it away from them right there on the covered bridge. Luckily Sentell never mentioned that he or his father were stopped by robbers on the road to Cobb County. However he does recall that by the time their cotton crop was ready for harvest it would only bring in 6 per pound [not the 40 as promised and then only if you could find somebody to buy it. So when we got ready to pick it you couldn t sell it at all. So he lost out on that said Sentell. My daddy decided he d plant everything in cotton recalled Sentell. I quit school to help him plant it and work on the farm. Selling their cotton crop required There is no mention t he Sentells and in Sentell s memoirs other Sandy Springs if this loss was related farmers to travel to to a market flooded markets in Atlanta with cotton or to the Roswell or Marietta. scare from the boll Sandy Springs was we evil e pid e mic. predominately farm Between 19 14 land and bartering and 1923 farmers Convict Camp occurred primarily across Georgia like Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library for sustenance rather the Sentells lost a than cash crops like cotton. According to Sentell people combined average of 3.9 million acres each year. The boll growing their cotton sold it at Roswell and Marietta. They weevil though only about 0.2 inches in length can travel would cross the covered bridge into Cobb County. They approximately 100 miles per year feeding on cotton buds had to get up and leave real early of a morning to carry and thereby infesting and killing the crop one plant at a cotton to Marietta to sell it because if they came back of time. After the loss in cotton Hugh Sentell s father sold a night somebody that lived over there would rob them. their farm and moved the family from the Sandy Springs Sentell remembers going over there with my daddy a time Dunwoody border to Mount Paran Road. or two to sell cotton and we would be sure we got back across that bridge in the daytime cause several people got My daddy went to work for Fulton County after he lost 105 everything in that cotton Sentell recalled. He went to work driving a team of mules for the convict camp. The camp was down below the spring [corner of Roswell Road and Hammond Drive]. He was paid 35 a month to go to work at sunup and work til sundown. He worked below the spring for quite a while and when the camp moved from there to Chastain Park he moved. There he did truck farming [as opposed to mule farming] for them and grew the vegetables for the camp. Then he moved from there on over to Wieuca Road where the camp was. He stayed there and looked after farming at that camp until he retired. on roadsides across Georgia and the Southeast. Chain gangs lasted for several decades and is probably the type of penal system that Sentell remembers his father working with. Eventually as in the case of convict leasing the harsh treatment of prisoners was again brought to the public s attention and by World War II chain gangs had almost completely disappeared. Unfortunately so much of history is wrought with topics that we would rather forget. Covered bridge robbers epidemics convict leasing and chain Right Hugh Sentell gangs capture our attention as part of a Sentell told us that back then the convict camps they really time gone-by but it was only a couple of generations ago worked the prisoners. Convict camps similar to the one that this was taking place here in our own neighborhood. Sentell mentions were unfortunately not unique to Sandy This unsettling history seems locked in a distant past but Springs or Georgia but spread throughout the Southeast. next time you drive down Roswell Road past Hammond Beginning in the 1860s after the Civil War convict leasing Drive think about the prisoners many of whom were became a source of revenue for the state. Convict leasing innocent citizens caught in a world of hate and Jim Crow s was finally outlawed in 1908 due to the pressure of social system of prejudice. For Sentell and his family there is no rights groups and an economic recession in 1907 that record of prejudice. His memoir simply describes a family made convict leasing impractical for private companies to losing their farm and a father taking a job to make ends maintain. Following meet. It is stories like this that once you scratch the surface the ban of convict you begin to see just how complex and interwoven history leasing chain becomes in each of our lives. B gangs sprang up Buckhead Cotton Exchange Roswell Bridge 1920 Prison Camps An interview with Howard Marion Hardeman B Interviewer Bill Wynne B Date of interview October 6 1993 As industry and growth came to Sandy Springs in the early Edgewood Avenue beginning in 1926 and Howard--after twentieth century the labor force demanded a certain level his enlistment in the Navy during World War II--bought of output that law-abiding citizens alone could not meet. the market from his father and operated it until 1957. As It is not well-known that the state of Georgia routinely a child in Sandy Springs however Howard remembers employed the use of prisoners and the prisoner camp located near the chain gangs--a group of prisoners field his father owned above their shackled together--to complete house. Well what stands out to roadwork and to quarry rock which me it was it was a very nice setting in turn enforced brutal race relations and the building was always real in the early twentieth century south. white he remembers. They was The use of prisoner chain gangs whitewashed I think not painted was a part of southern progressive but whitewashed. And...Mr. Will reform as well as state- and countySentell was a guard over there at the sponsored racial and economic time and two or three other people modernization. Conditions for these that I knew. Howard went to church prisoners were tough. They would with the guards and would often visit work and quarry rock all day in the the prison to play with the dogs hot sun only to return day after day primarily them old bloodhounds. to repeat the process. In Fulton County state-sponsored prisoner Convicts and prisoners were a source and convict camps existed as a labor of cheap labor for Fulton County force from the 1880s to the 1940s. between the late 1800s to the 1940s. Rock quarry probably the one at the However at present many residents The warden and guards would typically prison farm off Roswell Road south of of Fulton County forget that a diverse segregate the inmates. Well there what is now Hammond Drive community at one point chose to was a chain gang camp there. Where segregate prisoners use them to the soccer field is now was the camp widen and construct roads and for white prisoners. Then out on the rent them out as laborers. While many residents choose to road [West Wieuca] there was a camp for the black prisoners forget this piece of Sandy Springs history or just overlook its he recalls. Today that location is south of Hammond Drive importance some residents like Howard Hardeman remember approximately where the Hammond Exchange shopping them all too well. center and Whole Foods is located currently. Howard Marion Hardeman long time resident of Sandy Springs was born on March 31 1927 on West Wieuca Road half way between Roswell Road North Fulton Park and Lake Forrest Drive. He grew up near Wieuca Road and as an adult lived on Mount Vernon Highway. Howard s father owned a meat and poultry market in the old Municipal Market on Convicts quarried stone from local pits at Lake Forrest Drive and Peachtree Dunwoody Road. The county also used chain gang inmates to build roads harvest crops and work in mills throughout Fulton County as a means for economic reformation and modernization. In 1916 the U.S. Department of Agriculture used the convict camp on Powers Ferry Road in 107 a research study. One of the most striking elements of the study showed that the Powers Ferr y Road experimental convict camp did not arm its guards the use of any whipping was prohibited and plain gray clothing replaced the convict striped suits. In exchange for obedience and labor the camp promised food clean and comfortable housing and airy quarters. There were no attempted escapes by the black inmates who were apart of this experimental camp and chain gang laborers within this camp completed the construction of Heards Ferry Road Hemphill Avenue and Powers Ferry Road at a cost of 9 204.60. The experimental camp only lasted until 1917 but the use of chain gang laborers and convict camps by Fulton County lasted until the 1940s. As a child Howard used to visit the prisoner camps with his father to play with the dogs and he remembers the way the guards would track escaped prisoners who could no longer cope with the working conditions. He recalls But they also had bloodhounds over there and occasionally prisoners would escape. Mr. Will Sentell was a guard over there at the time and two or three other people that I knew...And one thing that stands out in my mind was it would I guess in a kid s mind my dad had a there was a field right above our house about a couple Howard M. Hardeman acre field but he would plant it every year in rye...But nonetheless during one of the escapes they had the dogs over there and they were going up the little creek in front of our house and a bunch of us were standing out there talking to some of the guards--they were some of them there with shotguns. Along the road they had the dogs in there working trying to pick up the scent of this escaped prisoner. Well lo and behold they came down the creek came across the road and up into our field and that prisoner they caught him right behind where we were Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library standing and talking He was laying down in the in that rye which was about three or four foot ah two or three foot tall. So we was right in front of him...But I always loved the dogs and I would go there quite often. Convicts and prisoners rarely enjoyed any kind of freedom or movement in the convict camps around Fulton County. Many prisoners would attempt to escape the brutal conditions of the typical convict camp located in the South and the armed guards would escort them back after using bloodhounds to track them down to continue their sentences. The state of Georgia outlawed convict leasing in 1908 but the era of the chain gang continued until 1955. Fulton County had multiple known chain gangs in Utoy Sandy Springs and Roseland. The history of the convict camp in Sandy Springs tends to be overlooked by many residents today but is an important part of the area s history. The remains of the camp on Roswell Road--situated where Whole Foods Market now sits--are no longer visible. Though it s been decades since the last chain gang worked the area a few contemporary stories tell of prisoners haunting Powers Ferry Road. Since the 1940s several citizens have reported seeing the ghosts of convicts still chained together swinging their axes and attempting to level the road. So keep your eyes open during late night travels along Northside Drive towards Powers Ferry Road. You too may witness a ghostly line of convicts continuing their sentence or attempting to escape their cruel punishment in a nearby field of rye. B Photos Georgia State University Special Collection Down a Dark Hole Interview with Candace Apple B Interviewers Melissa Swindell and Tami Kushner B Date of interview October 18 2016 I am not a witch. Witch-friendly but not a witch says Candace Apple longtime-owner of the Phoenix and Dragon Bookstore. Many Sandy Springs residents drive past Candace s spiritual shop on Roswell Road daily but have never ventured inside including these interviewers. We walked in hoping for a spooky Halloween story but our expectations of Candace s store were completely unfounded. We were pleasantly surprised to learn about the store s messages of love compassion and healing. In addition Phoenix and Dragon is a gold mine of local history...and may well be sitting on top of one the stream. There was a bridge under Roswell Road and they could probably get away that way. Again that was one of the theories. Over the years other theories included people being imprisoned and tortured [and] a space ship being above and having a stream of energy into it. There s never a lack of possibilities. My personal preference said Candace guys know that over on Glenridge there s a gold mine and it collapsed so I d like to think its tunnels to the gold mines. As we observed the darkness of the hole in the ground Candice continued About five years ago the hole shifted. The Phoenix The dirt on the and Dragon bottom seemed is located in a to pull away cozy refurbished from the sides. ranch-style There had been house set back another theory a lit tle f rom that it was a Roswell Road s well and I was busy traf fic. concerned that When we visited a thin layer of the bookstore d i r t may b e Candace asked ove r a n o l d The former home of Wallace H. Allen and his family is now if we had heard rotten wooden the Phoenix and Dragon Bookstore. about the hole cover to the in the basement. We had not and were immediately old well. Since I did not want the danger of anyone falling intrigued. Behind the house sits a small courtyard with a through into the well I called an engineer to examine the deck surrounding a silver maple tree. Candace opened hole. He discovered that the fill dirt went down ten feet at a hidden door in the deck which revealed a ladder which point there seemed to be debris wood and other descending about ten feet underground. With flashlights in vegetation that was rotting in the last ten feet of what hand we lowered ourselves into an underground room that would have been a typical thirty-foot well and thus creating featured an additional hole another ten feet down and four a disturbance in the top level. feet in diameter. One of the fascinating things that I believe is evidence Having psychics around there is never a lack of opinions for the well theory said Candace is there is a long root about something mysterious said Candace. So there s from the silver maple [tree] going down the side of the well been everything from thinking people were hidden there perhaps being drawn to the water. In addition to the very during the Underground Railroad...There was a stagecoach evident tree root the case for a well is seconded by its that came up over near Glenridge [Drive] and then there s location. It is not unusual for a historic structure in Sandy 109 Springs to be buried within the walls of a modern home. For example for many years the Wagon Stop House--a 19th century stagecoach stop--was hidden within the walls of a home at Glenridge Drive and Johnson Ferry Road. Similarly Chattahoochee River ferry operator James Isom s 19th century home is located within a modern home in the River Chase neighborhood. While theories of dungeons and space ships might be more interesting to speculate chances are a well stood on the bookstore s property long before the renovated ranch-home to store-front ever existed. However Candace was able to confirm one local rumor after she found a bottle of moonshine in the piping of the furnace. There s only one bottle left. I didn t try it. As we made our way out of the musty and dark basement Candace mentioned that the kids [who once lived here] played in the hole...there was debris in it [when we moved in]. So we know that filled part was filled by 1950. That information led us to research more about the family who had lived here. Candace. It was something really special there in the middle of the house. We painted the fireplace lightened it up and our artist put a green man on the face and a little banner. She continued We didn t know what to write on the banner and [author] Gregg Braden came for a talk and one of his books talked about how compassion can change your DNA and can heal you. So we put wisdom through compassion on the banner which symbolizes Candace s mission. Our store [has always been and still] is very much about the celebration of diversity and spiritual diversity so it seemed fitting that where there was distrust and fear [from Allen] of the Jewish community and the African-American community that now it is a place to do healing. I see Atlanta as being a very complex tapestry said Candace very rich in history a center of commerce a center where people came from all over to move here. Yet at the same time there have been many tears in that fabric. Whether it started with the Civil War segregation or Jim Crow but Martin Luther King being here was a bright light but his being killed ... so it s a very complex mix. Atlanta s history as well as the store s physical history--both personal and national--continue to cause uneasiness for the owner. One of the The Allen family lived at 5531 things that I thought of after I moved in here Roswell Road in the 1950s-- was the issue of what if people come to see about three occupants their old house What removed from Candace and will I say to her if Mrs. her shop. At the closing on the Allen comes in As property Candace said that chance would have Once [she] heard the story of it C andace was the man who lived here [and not there the day that] he was indicted in the Temple bombing in [Mrs. Allen] came in 1958 [she] thought Do I want to walk away from but she said our the table now or is that why we are here b o o k ke e p e r w h o had worked with me Candace decided to close on the property in late on the purchase of 1995 a few months before the book The Temple the house was in the Candace Apple owner of Phoenix & Dragon. Bombing by Melissa Fay Greene was released. The shop that day. They Photo by Leslie Williams Johnson Reporter Newspapers mysteries that I had been wondering about the started talking and house and the family became public knowledge through Mrs. Allen said I birthed my four children here. At that the book Candace told us. From the book she learned point a customer came up to her and said You know I ve that Wallace Allen met with Lester Maddox J.B. Stoner and always felt the love in here and wondered where it came other notorious Klansmen at his home on Roswell Road. from and now that you said you birthed your children here While always denying his involvement in the Klan Allen s and I hear the love in your voice and now I know where first lawyer during the criminal trial was Jimmy Venable an it came from. To me I couldn t have said anything better. imperial wizard of the National Knights of the Klan. That was the healing. Greene s book also mentioned that Allen had a German shepherd named Adolph as well as a portrait of Hitler that hung over the mantle in his living room. That is when Candace decided to paint the whole fireplace. The fireplace is the reason I was drawn to this place said The home and land needed healing. When Mrs. Allen came back and visited with me said Candace [she] brought her children. I told her what we were doing wanting to heal the wounds here. The way I put it to her was I knew that their family had suffered very much during that time. [Mrs. Allen] Down a Dark Hole continued have them do unto yourself then we would all get along bet ter. Sometimes I have trouble with people who are mean or not compassionate. And I realize there s love and there s fear and if people have hate and anger at other people it s usually because they re afraid. And that s the place I can get compassion. The Temple Bombing The big blast is all set for either next Sunday or Saturday. We will know tomorrow and keep you informed. But we want to have it Sunday if possible because the boys are coming down from New York for the work here no guts in the local citizens wrote George Lincoln Rock well the soon-to-be founder of the American Nazi Party to Wallace H. Allen in 1958. Atlanta Police found this letter when searching Allen s home on Roswell Road in Sandy Springs after the bombing of The Temple Atlanta s oldest synagogue. As the letter from Rockwell indicates Allen had ties to notorious segregationist s. The Temple c. 1950s Copyright Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Courtesy Georgia State University In her book The Temple Bombing Melissa Fay Greene writes that Allen met with Lester Maddox J.B. Stoner and said that she wanted to be part of the [home s] healing and other Klansmen at his home on Roswell Road but always she came back and brought me a bookmark from the 150th denied his involvement in the Klan. Whether he was officially anniversary of her Baptist church. a member or not he was indicted in The Temple bombing. Healing the home on Roswell Road has taken a long time but the perseverance shown by Candace and others demonstrate what wisdom through compassion really means. All I know after thirty years of doing this said Candace it s not like I believe everything I read or everything I hear but I just watch and a lot of amazing things happen and I think anything is possible. The sad thing is you talk about the history of a community and you want all the pretty history. Sometimes it s not all pretty. However If everyone would do unto others as they would During the civil rights movement era The Temple was unfortunately a prime target for extremist violence writes Edward A. Hatfield in his article Temple Bombing. Rabbi Rothschild used his pulpit and position to critique segregation in the region. While this stance won admiration from some quarters it aroused contempt from others. Speaking to his congregation in the wake of the 1957 integration of Little Rock Central High School Rothschild proclaimed We must resolve not to surrender to violence or submit to intimidation. 111 man was indicted after the bombing only George Bright stood trial. Police had discovered a handwritten note in Bright s home that threatened Rabbi Rothschild among other incriminating evidence and previous arrests. Bright s initial trail lasted nine days and ended with a deadlocked jury in which nine jurors favored convicting Bright and three favored his acquittal. New York Times journalist Claude Sitton wrote that one of the pro-acquittal juror s told reporters You can t send a man to the Left to right George Bright Wallace H. Allen Luther King Corley Kenneth Chester Griffin and Robert A. Bowling. penitentiary for life just because he s a Courtesy of the Cuba Family Archives for Southern Jewish History at the Breman Museum Jew-hater. Bright s second trial began in January 1959 with the State waiving the possibility of capital punishment. After ten days in court Five short months later on October 12 1958 just after 3 30 and a two-hour jury deliberation Bright was considered not in the morning the explosion was heard. Within minutes guilty and the prosecutor s office dropped charges against the United Press International (UPI) received a call from the the remaining four defendants. B Confederate Underground in which they stated We have just blown up The Temple. This is the last empty building I ll blow up in Atlanta. Fifty sticks of dynamite were detonated which caused 100 000 worth of damages. Within days five suspects including Sandy Springs resident Wallace Allen were in police custody. All suspects belonged to Atlanta Mayor William Hartsfield (left) and Rabbi Jacob Rothschild. Copyright Atlanta Journal-Constitution Courtesy Georgia State University white supremacist groups including the National States Rights Party renamed the American Nazi Party and the Knights of White Camilla a Klan-affiliated organization. Although each The five men accused in the Temple Bombing leaving the city jail on their way to the Fulton County Court House. Luther King Corley is in the front (in shirtsleeves). The man in the dark suit jacket is Robert A. Bowling. The man with the cigarette is George Bright. The man in the checked shirt is Kenneth Chester Griffin. Wallace H. Allen is the man in the dark suit in the back on the left (white v-neck shirt no tie). Courtesy of the Cuba Family Archives for Southern Jewish History at the Breman Museum Civil Rights Pioneer An interview with Valerie Delaney B Interviewer Susan Beard B Date of interview 2015 The Civil Rights Movement in the American South was one of the largest and most successful social justice movements in modern American history. Black Georgians formed a large part of the movement for racial equality. Valerie Delaney was born in 1959 in Atlanta Georgia s McLendon Hospital and was only seven years old when she found herself a part of the movement. Valerie became a civil rights pioneer when she helped integrate at least three schools in Atlant a an d it s surrounding areas including Sandy Spr ings. Valer ie grew up in Atlanta a n d b e g a n he r education at East Lake Elementar y but transferred to Hammond Elementar y in Sandy Springs after her mother-- Jessica Ann Delaney--got a job at Sandy Springs High School teaching biology and physiology. Valerie s mother had been a biology teacher for Fulton County before she was transferred to Sandy Springs to help with the seventh grade. Valerie was the first black student among many of Fulton County s elementary schools first breaking the color line at Hammond Elementary in 1966. Valerie grew up and attended grade school during a tumultuous time for African American children. The effects of segregation and racism affected every man woman and child of color beginning at the earliest stages of education. School systems throughout the country were segregated from 1877 during the Reconstruction era and the passing of Jim Crow laws until 1954. That was when the United States Supreme Court handed down its landmark decision regarding racial segregation in schools-- Brown v. Board of Education--which declared state laws establishing s e p ar ate p u b lic schools for black and white students as unconstitutional. It was not until August 30 1961 in Atlanta when nine s t ud e nt s -- Thomas Franklin Welch Madely n Patricia Nix Willie Jean Black Donita Gaines Arthur Simmons Lawrence Jefferson Mary James McMullen Martha Ann Holmes and Rosalyn Walton--became the first African American students to attend several of Atlanta s all-white high schools. Like many southern states white Georgians resisted the integration efforts and attempted to close schools rather than comply with the Supreme Court ruling. Despite these attempts Hammond Elementary integrated its campus in 1966 when Valerie first started to attend. Valerie remembers her first day at Hammond 113 Georgians--from Atlanta to the rural cotton belt-- pushed back against Jim Crow and racism through legal challenges demonstrations and non-violent protests. The most famous proponent of non-violent organization was Martin Luther King Jr. who brought national attention to the Albany Movement in Atlanta s southern neighbor Albany Georgia. From the fall of 1961 to the spring of 1962 a massive demonstration of black community members in Albany attempted to desegregate the entire community. More than 1 000 protesters were arrested in one week--including King. King took part in numerous demonstrations and was an instrumental factor in the Civil Rights Movement until his assassination on April 4 1968. Valerie remembers [One] of the things that happened while I was there was Dr. Martin Luther King was assassinated while I was a student at Hammond. And on the day of his funeral my mom kept me home from school. And when um when I went back to school I don t know if you remember but you have to have a note written from your mom explaining why you were out of school. And so uh my mom s note and now it s stuck in my mind. My mom wrote Valerie didn t come to school yesterday because of illness. She was sick of prejudice And that wh that stuck in my head from the day I saw it and I was like Wow. You know that definitely made an impact definitely. Valerie doesn t recall having any negative experiences with any of her schoolmates at Hammond however she transferred to Hartwell--an all-black school closer to her family s home within Atlanta--when she was in the seventh grade. She recounts I actually was kind of excited because um my mom told me I could go to the school in the neighborhood which was an all you know African American school. I didn t have to stick out. I could just be a kid in the in the neighborhood. [When] I started going to the other school which is Hartwell um I got teased about the way I talked because um they said I talked proper. I was like What do you mean I talk proper and my mom was like Just leave it alone you know [laughs] you ll never understand. Just wait until you get older and and you ll understand. And and it s the truth as I got older I understood what they were talking about. Valerie routinely followed her mother from school to school within Fulton County her mother did not like the idea of Valerie being home alone or walking by herself. She allowed Valerie to attend Hartwell for Lonnie King unidentified woman and Martin Luther King Jr. being arrested during sit-in demonstration protesting lunch-counter segregation Atlanta Georgia October 6 1960. Copyright Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Courtesy Georgia State University. very vividly I was [there] from age seven through age nine. [I] was terrified and my mother had prepared me for this she said Babe you re gonna be the only as she put it You re gonna be the only Negro in the whole school so you need to behave yourself she recalled. In many instances of school integration the students were met with hostile and verbal abuse from parents as well as children. Valerie remembers [She] made it clear that I might have some problems and then I needed to know how to respond to them or how not to respond to them. She was saying that you know there ll gonna be the people who did not like the idea of me going to school there and their parents may be angry and they might say things. And um my response was to come to her about it and that she would deal with it from that point on. Valerie attended Hammond from 1966 to 1969 where she remained the only person of color among all of the students as well as the school s entire faculty. The fight for civil rights predated the city of Atlanta for many activists did not make the city a civil rights hub until the 1960s. However the efforts of many black Civil Rights Pioneer continued Funeral procession of Martin Luther King Jr. 1968 Copyright Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Courtesy Georgia State University. one year while she taught at a different school but eventually moved her to a school closer to where she was teaching. Valerie remembers that she ended up attending another elementary school called Mount Olive. I went to Mount Olive and again back into that situation where in this instance yes there were teachers but I was still the first student. Yeah I was the only first black student. The first black student and the only one for a year. By the time Valerie entered high school she was finally able to attend a school where her mother did not teach--Harper High School. Valerie attended Harper High for one short year before two men attacked her and her friend Rhonda during their walk home. Valerie took her shoe off beat the men on the heads and she and Rhonda ran away unharmed. After the end of that school quarter Valerie s mother transferred her to Braidwood where she taught. Valerie joined 15 other students of color amongst the 1 200 white student body. For no other reason than following her mother s directions Valerie was a civil rights pioneer for Sandy Springs. Her mother simply put Valerie s safety first by keeping her close by while she herself was teaching at a nearby school. With her mother s help Valerie integrated Hammond Elementary School and other schools thus breaking the color barrier for other young children throughout Fulton County. Though the struggle for civil rights continues today young Valerie Delaney was on the forefront of the civil rights movement by simply wanting an equal education as that of her white classmates. Valerie Delaney s full transcript is available online. B DEWALD S ALLEY Sandy Springs was a de-facto segregated community into the 1970s. The majority of African American residents lived on Barfield Road in a neighborhood referred to as DeWald s Alley. In 1966 Jessica Ann Delaney a high school biology teacher in Fulton County was transferred to Sandy Springs High School to help integrate the school. She and her seven-year-old daughter Valerie commuted from Atlanta for two years to work and attend school in Sandy Springs. Valerie was the first African American student at Hammond Elementary. 115 Jessie May Pruitt Lloyd s children Jean Lloyd and Hazel Lloyd play in the snow circa 1970s. Left to Right Dorothy Garrison Gwin Lloyd and Hazel Lloyd circa 1960s. Maudie Strickland on the porch of a home in DeWald s Alley. Date Unknown circa 1930s-1960s Moses Harris Date Unknown circa 1930s-1960s Clarence Pruitt and A.C. Peters leaning against a car. Date Unknown circa 1930s-1960s Couple in DeWald s Alley Date Unknown circa 1925-1955 Lloyd Family June 1968 Moonshine & Mischief Sewage to Moonshine Whiskey & Tonic The Judge with a Grudge Suit About Grave Body Snatchers in Cobb Young Shenanigans in Burdal Georgia Way Down Yonder on the Chattahoochee Courting & More How to Catch a Date in Rural Sandy Springs 117 Still bust in Sandy Springs c. 1940s Ownes at camp meeting. Boys baseball in Sandy Springs. Radio station WQXI hosted the Rambling Raft Race from 1969-1980. Sewage To Moonshine B From the Archives at Heritage Sandy Springs B On Januar y 16 1919 Congress passed the 18th A me n d me nt w hic h b anne d t he manu f ac t ure transportation and sale of alcohol. However in 1908--11 years before the National Prohibition Act (Volstead Act) was passed--the State of Georgia approved local prohibition. Most people today believe this was an extreme measure to curtail drinking. What most people don t realize is that by the 1830s the average American (15 years and older) was consuming close to seven gallons of alcohol per person per year. That s approximately 4.5 gallons more than what the typical American consumes today. Many factors that contributed to the high levels of alcohol consumption in early A meric a were deeply rooted in national infrastructure issues. From the colonial period through the Civil War the absence of sewer systems in most American cities resulted in sewage strewn across unpaved streets. This sewage was then absorbed into the ground causing city wells to produce unclean and often foul-smelling water. Unclean water spread cholera and yellow fever throughout the nation. Additionally in a time before refrigeration beverages such as milk would often spoil before they could be delivered to city neighborhoods. While living in the countryside provided some relief from the issues of uncleanliness and spoilage alcohol consumption was a way of life before prohibition. It was safer and therefore typical for both adults and children to drink hard cider beer or liquor. Eventually wo me n s organizations began to rally around temperance or abstinence from alcoholic drinks. The National Women s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was founded in 1874 to protect the home from the patriarchal consumption of alcohol. For women in an era before suf frage rallying around social reform i s s u e s i n c r ea s e d t h e i r Still bust in Sandy Springs c. 1940s political visibility. As such local chapters of women s organizations began to crop-up around the country. The WCTU established its first Georgia society in 1880 and by 1885 voters throughout Georgia could vote their county dry. The WCTU along with the fraternal Anti-Saloon League (ASL) founded in 1893 were influential in introducing 119 prohibition. By 1907 the majority of Georgia counties were dry and by 1908 the entire state was under the law of prohibition. In 1911 The Atlanta Georgian published the article Drinking on Decrease Declares Chief Rowan Marked Contrast Between the 1910 and 1911 Camp Meetings at Sandy Springs. Chief Rowan commented There certainly seems to be less drinking now than when prohibition first went into effect in Georgia. One strong evidence of this fact is the contrast of last year and this shown at the Sandy Springs camp meeting. Last year [1910] we made 42 cases for drunks on the Sunday meeting. This year [1911] on the Sunday meeting we only made three cases and only one of them was for a drunk. The article continued The Sandy Springs meeting grounds are in the north side of the county and are well known for the large meeting there each year. Before this year quite a number visited the place on Sunday to make merry by getting drunk. The law does not allow for liquor to be carried to a camp meeting not even in one s buggy and the Sandy Springs grounds take in the vicinity for a mile and a half on either side [of approximately Mount Vernon Highway to the north Sandy Springs Circle to the west Hammond Drive to the east and Roswell Road to the south]. Georgia was not unlike the majority of states in the Union. Prior to 1919 and the ratification of the 18th Amendment 33 out of 48 states were already under the law of prohibition. On January 17 1920 when prohibition went into effect the remaining 15 states were forced to comply. Prohibition lasted thirteen years and was repealed in 1933 by the passage of the 21st Amendment. While alcohol consumption initially rose after the repeal in the long term American society saw its overall reduction though not its disappearance. According to Jacqueline Estes Elliot this is probably why at the end of the 1930s that a lot of the men the brothers and uncles drank. I m sure it started off with apple cider. There was a lot of drinking. A lot of people don t want to say that. They probably didn t even admit it. But yes they did. There could easily have been stills [remnants from the Prohibition era]. Many rural families continued to produce and consume moonshine after prohibition ended. In the 1930s a Still bust in Sandy Springs c. 1940s notice was nailed to a tree on the former Mitchell-Tiller property (southwest corner of Mount Vernon Highway and Glenn Errol Drive) notifying the current landowners that the property was being seized for illegal moonshine production and would be sold at auction. With this action enforced Frank Tiller Jr. was able to purchase the land at auction and return it to his family. About a decade later in the 1940s police came across an operational still in Sandy Springs. While we do not have the records to indicate its specific location or ownership we were able to obtain the photographs of the investigation. In the decades following the 1940s moonshine and stills became less visible Still bust in Sandy Springs c. 1940s as our countr y prepared for and entered World War II. The population of Sandy Springs began to grow as a bedroom community to Marietta s Bell Bomber Plant thus more neighborhoods meant less forests in which to hide stills throughout the countryside. While today it is hard to imagine someone operating a still in Sandy Springs it was not unusual in the early 20th century. B Whiskey & Tonic An interview with James Wilborn & Franklin Self B Interviewer Karen Meinzen McEnerny B Date of interview June 6th Between 1920 and 1930 the United States saw massive by. During the early stages of prohibition in Fulton County cultural shifts. The Roaring 20s came to a screeching halt druggists and doctors could legally prescribe alcohol to treat with the crash of the stock market and the onset of the Great certain conditions. Tonics and wine became very popular as Depression. During the 1920s religious fundamentalists temperance drinks in the early twentieth century they began to worry that alcohol would corrupt the nation and were of the few types of alcohol still legally permissible to sought to eliminate alcohol making the country dry. In drink produce and sell. 1919 the United States government banned the importation transportation and sell of non-medicinal alcoholic Charles Thomas Swift of the Swift Package Company created beverages. This made it increasingly difficult to consume the SSS tonic which stood for Swift s Southern Recipe. alcohol. Fulton County was not immune to the temperance Swift developed the tonic from a Creek Indian recipe and movement. The crusade to rid Atlanta and its surrounding he made millions on its production and sale. Confederate communities of alcohol Colonel John began 33 years earlier Pemberton developed in 1886 when the Coca-Cola as a nerve county passed its first tonic from Swif t prohibition legislation Package Company its making Atlanta the secret ingredient was first city to go dry cocaine. by p o p ular vote. T h e t e m p e r a n c e The cousins remember movement was Well people got ver y strong in the hooke d on t hos e r ur al communities Coc a- Colas...where surrounding Atlanta they had to have them. which felt that the You know they had to corruption of the city have a Coca-Cola to Peachtree Street 1937 Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library was beginning to get by the day...back affect the surrounding then it was unusual towns. The vote to eliminate the sale of alcohol passed by for anybody to buy more than six cokes a week...It came a margin of at least 219 votes. Atlanta went dry in July 1886 packed six to a carton four cartons to a case. And you got when liquor licenses throughout the county expired. six for a quarter. It was very unusual. You were having major company if you got one to two...more than a carton. Frank James Wilborn or J.W. was born January 7 1928 in Fulton remembers selling the SSS tonic as a teenager at Hardeman County Georgia in the midst of prohibition. J.W. grew up Echol s grocery store. [SSS Tonic] was a company in Atlanta with his cousin Franklin Self who was also born in Fulton and [the tonic] was used for coughs and colds and most County four years later. The cousins grew up in Sandy anything else that they decided you needed it for. It was Springs during a time when whiskey and tonics --even for an all-purpose tonic...probably [tasted] along the line of ceremony and traditional purposes--were hard to come licorice. The purchase of tonics and wine would continue 121 at increasingly higher rates as Prohibition continued. For working-class residents who could not afford to buy a tonic or stockpile large quantities of alcohol producing liquor was primary option. Muscadine grapes were common in Fulton County and throughout the South. Many residents if they had access to a vine would pick the grapes and create their own home-brewed wine. J.W. remembers My father-in-law had [a grapevine] up in Buford. He had one as big as the whole end of this room...He could pick bushels of those things ever year. I like him but I didn t care much about making wine. James father-in-law never sold the wine but provided the family with wine for gatherings or celebrations. Many men and women throughout the country would begin to brew their own wine or beer at home as it was normally the cheapest option and easiest route for consumption. Residents of Fulton County used tonics and alcohol for a multitude of purposes. As the cousins remember grocery stores sold Coca-Cola and many people would buy multiple cartons for parties. For the cousins alcohol was also part of their Scottish heritage. J.W. and Frank remember growing up Medical Prescription for Whiskey 1925 be a man and not a woman. Should not be a short fellow. Should be black-headed or brown-headed not blonde or red-headed because that reminds them of the Norsemen that raided the coast there in the spring. A true first stepper had brought five gifts when he came in the door. He brought a loaf of bread to show that you had food for the families for next year. He brought a block of wood to keep the fires burning and keep the house warm. He brought a crock of salt to take the bitterness out of life. He brought a grain sprig to show that the spring would be coming and the ground would be clean again. Then a bottle of merry old Merry s Panther s Creek...Whiskey. Scotch Whiskey. First footer took the first drink and if he had other houses to go to by about 10 o clock he was pretty tipsy. That was one of the most important days and they really believed that. The use of alcohol was common for traditions holidays family gatherings and celebrations. However as Fulton County outlawed whiskey and beer in 1886 many residents would order alcohol from a neighboring county and have it delivered on the train. Tactics like this would continue until Sandy Springs found their very own supplier. The United States government effectively banned the importation creation transportation and sale of alcohol throughout the country with the passing of the Eighteenth Amendment on January 8 1919. The entire country went dry the following year until 1933. While many law-abiding citizens followed this band the Eighteenth Amendment also created an entirely new line of business bootlegging for those willing to pursue it. Bootlegging was a popular line of commerce for many working class individuals. It provided an opportunity to gain an upper hand against the prohibition Graduating class at Hammond School c. 1940s Back Row (L-R) Johnny Copeland Joan Gooch Elton Barfield Carl Heard Marilee Wood Judy Anderson Millwood Fields Wendell Summerour Middle Row (L-R) Mrs. Martin Jimmy Daniel Peggy Hilderbrand Frank Self Ursula Wood Unknown Mary Jo Sentell David Douglas Helen Smith Juanell Finley Front Row (L-R) Richard Cash Berry Jean Nash Fife Justine Dinsmore Rebecca Cole Williams David Green Betty Ann Hill Gene Copeland and following several old Scottish traditions many of them requiring whiskey. J.W. remembers The old Scots did and still do believe that the first person to come in your house on New Year s Day should Whiskey & Tonic continued laws while also making a potentially large profit. Sandy Springs is no stranger to its bootlegging outlaws similar to many other parts of the country a t t h e t i m e. A s cousins James J.W. Wilborn and Frank Self remember Tubby Sewell was a local bootlegger supplying many residents with whiskey. Tubby owned a Tex a c o s e r v i c e station in the late 1930s. The cousins remember it as Texaco filling station but they do not just remember Tubby as the owner of the Texaco. He was their bootlegger. They recall Tubby Sewell was our bootlegger. He made whiskey...and sold it. Everybody knew it. No secret about it. Tubby made whiskey. He had a still somewhere. And he could go down the road he had a ... 44 coupe. He could go down the road ninety miles an hour and turn around and meet the police coming back turn that thing around at ninety miles an hour right in the middle of the road. The cousins were not sure where Tubby produced his whiskey but they knew it was somewhere off Mount Ver non and Wit tner Avenue presumably on Frank Tiller s 50 acres. J.W. remembers Tubby as a gentle guy with a lead foot. Tubby...the guy that made liquor. Uh his sister he used to bring her to school in the mornings sometimes. He carried me down that road one morning and we got down there about halfway and I said Lord if I ever get out of this car I ll never ride with Tubby again. He was going about 95 down through [Roswell Road]...and you know that was my last ride with Tubby. Tubby was the main supplier of whiskey during the 1930s for the entire town of Sandy Springs. J .W. r e m e m b e r s I don t think he ever got caught. He hired somebody to do all his hauling... If you needed a pint of whiskey why you called this number and he said put two dollars in the mailbox. Still bust in Sandy Springs c. 1940s When you went back by you...picked up your whiskey...Nobody ever really sold it to you. You just got it. One of the primary reasons Prohibition was largely ineffective was that the country lacked efficient means of controlling production. Tubby had multiple stills throughout the Fulton County. J.W. remembers You did see one of those stills out there cutting out...It was the biggest mess. They had a sheet of metal and made a big vat. Yeah. They had this big ole vat and it was watertight around the bottom. They had it all caulked and everything. And they would put all of this stuff in there. Sugar and ah corn meal and all this stuff and it fermented and bubbled and it got bugs in it and mice in it. They would pull that stuff off of the bottom and that s what they ran through to make the liquor. That was a stinky and nasty mess you ever seen. Tubby may have been the primary bootlegger of Fulton County but he was not the only one around Still bust in Sandy Springs c. 1940s Atlanta. The cousins remember that one bootlegger in Alpharetta used bees to protect his stills. They recalled 123 it...They had a bunch of them up there in Alpharetta... They used to make good corn liquor up there in Forsyth County and up in that area up there...He s just an old guy that used to have a bunch of honey bees out in the backyard. Had the hives and all that. Well the bottom had the bees in it and the top of it he had...Ken had half a gallon of whiskey in it and those had quarts and pints. And if you wanted a quart he would take the top off and get your bottle of whiskey. But if you would go out there those darn bees would eat you up. I mean they...he had smell and they knew him and they didn t bother him. Prohibition continued in the state of Georgia and throughout the United States until 1933. Despite efforts by both the state and the country alcohol consumption did not decrease in Fulton County between 1886 and 1933. J.W. and Frank remember men like Tubby and the Alpharetta bee man as providers of an economic and cultural necessity to the residents of Fulton County. Economic urgency also played a significant role as the Great Depression worsened and the alcohol industry provided jobs. Farmers and rural residents who initially had Illustration of a still voted in favor Yeah they had to have plenty of water. They had a of Prohibition thing out there that they called the worm. They ran saw a it and heated it down at the bottom and the steam backlash on went up in the top and it would come out the end the agricultural and dripping whiskey out of b u s i n e s s a s wheat and corn were the primary ingre dient s in beer and whiskey. The nation voted and Franklin Roosevelt repealed prohibition on December 5 1933 with the ratification of the 21st Amendment. To d ay p r o d u c i n g moonshine in private Prohibition Agent distilleries is illegal in Identification Cards c. 1920s the state of Georgia but Sandy Springs has a vibrant distilling brewing and winemaking industry. The city voted on June 24 2016 in approval of zoning amendments allowing microbreweries micro-distilleries and wineries inside the city so luckily residents can enjoy their libations openly and with friends family and cousins. B The Judge with a Grudge B From the archives at Heritage Sandy Springs B Journalistic integrity has always played a role in forming the opinions of readers and observers. Though some whose names appeared on the printed page had the wherewithal to dismiss articles as poppycock there were others who took it to great heart when their moral principles were discreetly or openly questioned in print. In the latter part of the 19th century Judge John Berry of Sandy Springs found himself embroiled in such a matter as the victim of character assassination in an Atlanta newspaper. Judge John Berry came from one of the wealthiest families in Georgia. The son of Judge W. B. Berry of Newnan John Berry was a true intellectual who had traveled extensively in Europe. He was an amateur musician an artist a French s c holar and a lover of books. He moved to Sandy Springs when he was 29 ser ving as a law yer in the law firm of Bigby Reid Berry & Foote. Af ter Bigby retired from the firm Berry opened his own law office and practiced law until he was appointed a Fulton County judge--three years before his death. a genius tempered by the fact that he was heir to all the faults and consequent unhappinesses (sic) that fall to the lot of genius. The Looking Glass was described as a questionable journalistic iconoclast-given to political and social gossip that had best remained unprinted whose saving grace was the unquestioned brilliancy of its style. Stein s legacy seems to lie in his position as a disruptive journalist a well-known thorn in the side of many of Atlanta s gentlemen and public servants. These descriptions make it easier to imagine the man that stirred up so much trouble in Judge Berry s court with accusations of gambling corruption and illegal activity. On December 18 1897 Stein s paper published a damning article commentating on a recent arrest and prosecution of six gentlemen at the Kimball House a hotel and social house in downtown Atlanta near Five Points. The paper suggested that Judge Berry s court and the county s prosecutor Solicitor James F. O Neill had falsely convicted six gentlemen of a prominent Savannah political faction called the Citizens Club of gambling. Stein wrote the gentlemen were really together for the primary purpose of discussing the political situation [and] to classify them as gamblers was the height of absurdity and in no sense did such a game or gathering come within the spirit of the law. The men were taken to the police headquarters and according to Stein these quiet and respectable gentlemen-- probably none of whom had ever been in a gaming house in all their lives--were hustled out of their private apartment like so many malefactors. After the arrest the court fined the men to the fullest extent A gun was pulled a fight broke out and when the dust settled.. It is said of Judge Berry that he was one of Atlanta s most conspicuous social leaders. His term on the bench was one of turbulence with chaos marked by a certain individual whose fate was intertwined with his own. Orth Harper Stein was a well-known newspaperman in the city of Atlanta where he edited a paper called The Looking Glass from 1896-1898. The Atlanta JournalConstitution with what can only be said as conflicting views on the man described him as a remarkable man and 125 of the law of about 80 a piece--something Stein chalked up to a fat fee to certain hungry officials...[that went] into the inside pocket of the solicitor. He felt that the law was clearly stretched beyond all reason for the sole and simple purpose of extorting a few dirty dollars. After insisting injustice Stein continues to claim in his Looking Glass article that he had overwhelming evidence that both Judge Berry and Solicitor O Neill should be indicted for gambling at the Hotel Oglethorpe in Brunswick. 1898. Judge John Berry however had yet to settle the score. When Stein published a second harsh criticism towards Judge Berry in The Looking Glass a rag known for its sensationalist nature Stein was warned he had gone too far. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported that Stein had received anonymous letters warning him to be on his guard that Judge Berry would attack him at some unexpected moment. Kimball House 1890 Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center The very same day the article was released in the paper O Neill himself sought Stein out at the Kimball House-- where the original arrest took place--and struck him across the face after a verbal altercation. A gun was pulled a fight broke out and when the dust settled... In March 1898 Orth Harper Stein editor of The Looking Glass was past the trouble he had made for himself in December of the previous year. His and Solicitor James O Neill s trials for carrying concealed weapons and in O Neill s case assault and battery were settled in January On March 14 1898 two weeks after the publication of the second article Judge Berry attacked Stein in the dining room of the Kimball House first knocking him out of his chair with a ketchup bottle from the table. He then beat him with the butt of Stein s own revolver and kicked him in the face. As an audience of paralyzed bystanders gathered around them Judge Berry beat Stein to a chorus of Hit him John. Finally a police officer who happened to be enjoying dinner in the Kimball House dining room pulled Berry off of the helpless editor. After he was pulled off Berry kicked Stein in the head before calmly walking out The Judge with a Grudge continued Court summons for W.J. Sentell of Sandy Springs to appear in front of Judge John Berry on November 20 1899. Two days after the fight Stein s health took a turn for the worse. Doctors feared a concussion and that Stein would not survive the night. The trial which had been scheduled for the morning after the attack was postponed due to Stein s health. As days went by Orth Stein s health improved and eventually Berry and Stein were both taken to court and convicted. Judge Berry was convicted of assault and battery and fined 100 for the attack. Stein was again convicted of carrying concealed weapons and was also fined 100. Vindication was sweet for Judge Berry Stein resigned from his paper that April and later that year in June The Looking Glass folded. Stein ended up moving back to his native Louisiana and continued writing controversial journalism until his death three years later of consumption. Unfortunately for Judge Berry his life was cut even shorter exactly one year to the day after he assaulted Orth Stein Judge Berry suddenly passed away from heart trouble in his childhood home in Newnan Georgia. He was 38 years old. of the room with a look of satisfaction on his he neared the door [he] said aloud the hound and proceeded towards the elevator. Stein appeared disoriented and was bleeding profusely from a contusion on his head when doctors arrived. When called on for his statement Judge Berry said to the Atlanta Journal-Constitution The editor of The Looking Glass for more than a year in fact since I have been upon the bench has been nagging at me using every effort on his part to bring me into discredit and to injure my character endeavoring to make the community despise and hate me. I have tolerated this as long as I could and I decided to take vigorous steps. I had heard that he boasted that he was a man who cared nothing for his own life and that he always went armed prepared to kill anybody who made an assault upon him in resentment of any articles in his sheet. Last Saturday he saw fit to print in his paper something which was intended to bring me into ridicule and contempt. Knowing that unless steps were taken to stop these onslaughts by a person of his character I realized that life would become a burden. Berry continued He made this attack upon me which was to humiliate me in pursuance of his steadily adhered to plan. The position which I hold has up to the present time prevented me from adopting the measures which are so painful but the point had been reached where no other alternative could have been adopted consistently with my self respect. A man cannot always sink his individuality in the position which he may occupy. Berry knowing fully that he had done wrong shortly thereafter made a full statement to a representative of the AJC and the police. Just as today s news comes from a variety of sources-- some of them more questionable than others-- Atlantaarea citizens in the late 19th century also relied on various periodicals from which to get their information. Sandy Springs resident Judge John Berry was a well-travelled and respected man and though he was a cultured gentleman he was not above retaliation when his integrity was questioned. Editor Orth Stein pushed the judge a bit too far with his newspaper s editorials which begs review of the old adage sticks and stones may break your bones but words can never harm you. When it came to these two adversaries words did indeed harm them. B 127 Supporting Heritage Sandy Springs and other non-profit organizations in the community that promote the arts heritage education the environment and social services in Sandy Springs. The Sandy Springs Society is committed to improving the community by identifying and supporting community needs and programs of broad interest through effective action. SANDY SPRINGS JUDGE Home of Judge Samuel D. Hewlett Sr. c. 1935. The lodge was originally build as a summer retreat for the Hewlett family. Subsequent owners used the home as a clubhouse and Baptist retreat. Currently the Hewlett home serves as the headquarters for the Chattahoochee River National Recreation area. Haunted Sandy Springs B From the Archives at Heritage Sandy Springs B SuitAtlanta Georgian Grave About and News The Mrs. Heide Charges Deacon Mitchell With Slander Alleging that W.H. Mitchell deacon of the Sandy Springs church Oak Grove district charged her with having stolen the cemetery lot in which her husband was buried. Mrs. Wiedy Heide has filed a 10 000 slander suit in the city court against Mr. Mitchell. She charges that he accused her of the theft of the grave at the time she presented herself for membership in the Sandy Springs church and before all the congregation. And that he also stated at that time that she was seeking membership in the church for the purpose of being allowed to keep her husband buried in the church cemetery. Mrs. Heide also charges that Mr. Mitchell stirred up such strife and dissension that she was compelled to move her husband and carry him to Mount Perrin cemetery three miles distant where she had to reinter him at an expense of 16. The petitioner is represented by John. A. Boykin. B Reprinted verbatim from The Atlanta Georgian and News dated Monday February 1 1909. Body Snatchers in Cobb Marietta Daily Journal Mr. William Johnson who kept a ferry on the Chattahoochee River in this county sickened died and was buried last Thursday evening near a Baptist Church seven or eight miles from Marietta on the Roswell Road. On Saturday last several of those who were present at the burial of the deceased passed by the grave on their way to an administrator s sale of the property of the late Daniel Haney and they discovered that the mound of Mr. Johnson s grave was not in that neat condition in which they had left it on Thursday evening but it was badly disarranged. 129 Panoramic view of city of Atlanta Ga. from the top of the Female Seminary - extending from the Medical College on the south-east around by the south to a point on Peach Tree Street a little north of west October 1864. This aroused the suspicions of those who observed these marks of the intruder and after the sale they agreed to disinter the remains of Mr. Johnson and see if he had been molested. Spades and shovels were wielded by strong arms and before the coffin was reached pieces of clothing were thrown out and when the coffin was reached it was found that the body of Mr. Johnson was missing and nothing but pieces of clothing which had been stripped from the corpse were in the coffin. The body snatchers had robbed the grave. Upon enquiry it was learned that late on Friday evening the day after Mr. Johnson s burial a white man and a negro man in a spring wagon crossed the ferry and inquired the way to the Baptist Church in that vicinity. About ten o clock that night they returned and crossed at the ferry on their way to Atlanta. So it is evident beyond a doubt that the white man and the negro were the ghouls who had disturbed the sacredness of the grave and stolen the body of Mr. Johnson. It is also rumored that the grave of Mr. Ed Dutton who was buried in the Marietta Cemetery last Thursday shows signs of being tampered with. It is believed by a good many that many a new made grave twenty and thirty miles in various directions from Atlanta has been opened by body snatchers to supply subjects for the dissecting rooms of the Medical Colleges in Atlanta. The ghouls receive 25.00 for every corpse of recent death. B Reprinted verbatim from the Marietta Daily Journal dated Thursday December 18th 1879. Students at the Atlanta Medical College founded 1854 Young Shenanigans in Burdal Georgia An interview with Wade Nance and Harold Bales B Interviewer Garnett Cobb B Date of interview April 21 1998 From 1903 to 1925 mail was delivered once a week to Sandy Springs from Dunwoody Georgia. In 1925 Burdett s Grocery Store on Roswell Road became the official post office for the newly dubbed Burdal Georgia. Burdal was a composite of two area families names-- the Burdetts and the Dalrymples. Though the name Burdal was used when sending mail through the United States Post Office it never caught on as a town name among the public. Once and always Sandy Springs the community s na m e w a s of f i c iall y reinstated in 1941. Wade Nance a lifetime Sandy Springs resident was bor n in Burdal Georgia in 1933. One of his closest friends and childhood par tners-incrime Harold Bales live d nex t d oor on Mount Vernon Highway. Bales recalled that they pitched horseshoes together and played marbles played cowboys and Indians and we used the outhouse as a jail. Or as Nance delicately put it our bathroom was right in the middle of Sandy Springs. When they weren t busy defending the frontier and throwing hostile enemies in the local outhouse jail the boys played baseball. Nance and Bales lived across the street from the ball field on Mount Vernon Highway. Bales remembers that more often than not a foul ball would come across the road into my mother s flower patch. And boy somebody would catch fits about stomping on her flowers The baseball field was like a square with the border s on Boyls ton D r i v e H i l d e r b r a n d Roswell Road and Mount Vernon Highway. We would have little inner-city games recalled Bales or inner-county games. We would play baseball in Dunwoody and then we d play Roswell. We d all have a good afternoon of play ball and fighting Boys baseball in Sandy Springs. and fussing and arguing with Mr. Fuller [he] would always umpire and nobody agreed with him at all. The younger boys played ball in the cow pasture on the corner of Johnson Ferry and Roswell Roads. Alfred Holbrook and his family lived in the first house on Johnson Ferry Road and they had a cow pasture they kept a milk cow tied out there all 131 the time. Well the younger crowd would be out there in their little cow pasture there at the corner and play baseball. And you d never guess what they used for bases. And it had to do with the cow. As the boys matured so did the games or practical jokes. A lot of times we would ride to Buckhead to [North Fulton] High School recalled Bales. All of the boys sat way back in the back of the school bus and we figured out how we could run a string up through [the seats] pass it on up to the driver s seat and somebody would tie it about the choke button on the old school bus. Well when we d get down to where on Roswell Road where Weinstock s Roswell Roads and this was about the time that north Fulton County was still quite rural and you had feed trucks that would come into Atlanta and carry feed back to north Fulton County south in the county and wherever because people still had a lot of hogs and cows and chickens and so forth. So we got the idea one night to take a fertilizer sack and fill it up with pine straw and then we were going to tie a rope to it and pull the same trick. We were out there at the corner of Abernathy and Roswell Roads up on a high bank and we heard this fertilizer-feed truck coming down the hill. It was coming down the hill [northbound along Roswell Road] toward Abernathy. The feed truck came by and we could hear its brakes just a-squeaking and a-squalling and sure enough he got stopped and he came back and just about the time he reached down to get the feed sack we pulled the string. Oh Did we ever get cussed out Of course we went flying back to our cars and jumped [in] and went down Abernathy to Glenridge to Mount Vernon and back to Roswell Road and I think Marty Burdett was running the drugstore at that time and of course we all congregated around the drug store. B Willard Smith s 2nd Grade Class at Hammond Elementary School Florist was [Roswell Road between Mount Paran and Maryeanna Drive] when we started up that hill some of the boys would pull that string. Of course it pulled the choke thing out and the old school bus would go dead and we d have to crank and crank to get it going again. We were always up to some kinds of tricks and stuff said Bales and we had heard about a boy putting ladies pocketbooks out in the road and tying a string to it. And then the first to come by would come to a screeching halt and of course when they d get out to pick up the pocketbook you d jerk the string. Of course then a lot of people would get mad but some of them would laugh with you. Well we did one better. At the corner of Abernathy and K If you can t find Burdal Georgia on a map today it s because the name never caught on. Named for founding families the Burdetts and Dalrymples Burdal was the mid-century name for Sandy Springs. Way Down Yonder on the Chattahoochee An interview with Ellen McElreath Spruill B Interviewer Burt Terrell B Date of interview May 3 1995 Since its establishment Sandy Springs has sat at the affectionately called it made runs to Sandy Springs twice crossroads of industry and an agricultural environment. daily from Chamblee. Ellen Spruill a longtime DeKalb Once a rural farming community isolated by the County resident was born on September 27 1914 and Chattahoochee River it grew into a burgeoning metropolis remembers the train. She recalls Mother had a sister that for the better half of the last century sometimes plagued lived down just beyond Dunwoody. I remember going over by the larger metropolitan area to the south--Atlanta. Yet there riding that train one time going with Mother over in a period of growth there...Another time Sandy Springs when I was lit tle continues to find my mother had an and distinguish itself aunt who in lived in as an autonomous we c o m m u n i t y went up to Gainesville d i f f e r e nt ia te d by to see Aunt Ellen. the connec tion to I think we stayed a family. The railroad couple of days. and Chattahoochee River have both been It was a crisp fall crucial to its success day on October 20 as they planted the 1905 w hen t he seeds for industry Dinkey pulled into and most importantly Roswell Stationfamily and community -just shor t of the The Dinkey railroad Sandy Springs to Chamblee development. From Chattahoochee Rivertravel to recreation these two entities united generations -carrying Theodore Roosevelt as its passenger. Normally across counties in Georgia. the conductor would allow passengers to depart and unload freight to supply the community. But on this day the As an integral part of Sandy Springs the railroad brought 26th president of the United States Theodore Roosevelt passengers industry and supplies to Sandy Springs from Jr. departed from the train to visit Bulloch Hall where his 1880 to 1921. Little Buck or the Dinkey as many locals parents had been married in 1853. Theodore Roosevelt 133 was probably the most famous passenger but locals would use the train for travel to visit family and friends. The tracks remained into the 1940s and landowners plowed the tracks left behind. While it may only have carried one president to Bulloch Hall the Dinkey operated as a staple of Sandy Springs for all citizens and allowed them to travel to foster community and familial growth. Family has always been a unifying part of Sandy Springs history. Many of the families present in Sandy Springs today have roots that stretch back past the Civil War. Ellen s family the Spruills for instance have owned large tracts of land in both Dunwoody and Sandy Springs since 1905. Families began to settle the farmland north of Atlanta and because travel was not especially convenient at the turn of Ike Roberts a longtime the century children were resident of Roswell was the left to entertain themselves. sole operator and engineer Ellen rememb er s t hat for the train until 1924. the river played an The terminal for the train extremely important role was located on his farm in her childhood. It was a on land east of the river different albeit lazy type of bound by Roberts Drive. lifestyle she recollects. I John W. Ball 75th Birthday The train would stop on guess it was what you might the southeastern bank of Glenn Johnson Lillie Ball Lee Olin Carter Joseph Silas Perkins Henry Jones Eura Ball call at different times of the Chattahoochee and Eva Ball James Salatheil Ball John cephus Ball William Laster Ball Ellen McElreath the year kind of lazy quiet Era Clementine Perkins McElreath Curtice iola Perkins Myrtice Johnson taxis (wagons) would carry Vada Elrica Perkins Johnson Mindy Warnock Margaret Ball carter Lois Carter way of life. People visited Mary Lenora Ball Lambert Perkins Hattie Grace Perkins Elizabeth Ball Jones passengers across the John w. Ball Mary Melissa Ball McElreath Hattie Ione Martin Ball Sibyl Ball Illa Ball and things like that. I know Ball Ball Elizabeth McElreath Threat James W. Threatt Alethe S. Ball Roswell Bridge and up the MindyJones Beruna Ball Elmer Ball Hugh Montgomery Ball Wlmer Lester Perkins years ago there wasn t many Etha Ollie steep hill into Roswell. The Mary Ruth McElreath Gladys Ione Perkins Edwin Jones Fred Ball J.W. Jones people that lived around Clarence Haskell Perkins Chloe Eugenia Ball Laura Ball Ferol Ball one car Roswell Railroad neighbors you know to operated for 40 years from 1881 to 1921 making its daily visit. Consequently many of the families only interacted run from Roswell Junction--later called Chamblee-- with each other. My parents always had time for us Ellen to the Roswell depot on the southeastern bank of the continued They d take us places and do things like that Chattahoochee River at Roswell Road and then back again. you know. They didn t say well I don t have time. They had It discontinued service in 1924. time. Because we didn t have children to play with they d When unable to travel many residents of Sandy Springs were left to their own devices for leisure and entertainment-- especially the children. Ellen recalls We didn t have any children--there wasn t any girls for us to play with. Sometimes a tenant farmer moved in next door and they d have some boys but there wasn t anybody to play with when we were growing up. And most of the people who visited would be schoolmates that John Thomas McElreath Jr. would come. We d go visit served in the Confederate Army. schoolmates. Isaac Roberts Home owner of the Sandy Springs to Chamblee Railroad Way Down Yonder on the Chattahoochee continued play ball with us and things like that. Family has always been a central aspect to life in Sandy Springs particularly before transportation was readily available to the masses. Family was the core of both recreational and industrial activities as parents and children often relied on each other for all facets of life. Along the river life was not always quiet and laid back. Recreational activities could only begin when all of the crops had been laid by. Ellen recalls My daddy was a farmer...if he had all his crops ready...people would come family or friends would come and they d want to go down on the river and they d have a picnic [to celebrate the Fourth of July]. The Chattahoochee River offered recreation and relaxation to a communit y where both adults and children spent t he majo r i t y of their time working. As children Ellen recalls they routinely went fishing We fished in the [creek] branch. I fished in the branch and then I d go fishing sometimes in the river but with an adult. I wasn t allowed to go to the river without an adult. Ellen never caught anything in the branch but the river always provided something to look forward to. Whether it was related to work or to recreation the railroad and Chattahoochee River played significant roles in fostering familial and community growth for residents of Sandy Springs. While the recreation at the river is slightly more restricted and all that remain of the tracks of the railroad are all but buried under concrete and dirt the river and the railroad always brought visitors and activities for the residents and their guests. Ellen recalls A lot of people came on the river and fished. They would have boats and fish on the river... [but] there was very little traffic on the road allowing for that quiet lazy life that so many residents have come to know and love. Today residents and visitors can enjoy fishing at Morgan Falls Overlook Park the Morgan Falls Dam or floating down the river during the annual Back to the Chattahoochee River Race & Festival. This race is a more subdued cousin of the Ramblin Raft Race which took place the third Saturday of May from 1969-1980. The race which was organized by several Georgia Tech Delta Sigma Phi fraternity members began as a challenge to local radio station WQXI. The event-- more a floating spectacle than an ac tual race -- eventually culminated in over 70 000 participants and 400 000 spectators along the banks of the Chattahoochee in 1979 before it was scaled back in order to preserve the delicate balance of the river s plants and animals. Today an annual raft race is organized each summer by Chattahoochee Riverkeeper (CRK) a nonprofit organization whose mission includes protec ting the river an d i t s re s o ur ce s . In addition raf ter s not interested in an organized race can s till be seen lazily drif ting down the Chattahoochee River during Memorial Day weekend and on hot summer days. Even though the more subdued race and recreational floaters bring more participants than Ellen would probably prefer to see in her formerly quiet town they too enjoy the lazy type of lifestyle she remembers well. B American Girl Club Last Saturday of each month 10 30 AM 12 00 PM 135 The Heart of Our Community since 1984 (Weekly Summer Camp in June July) Heritage Sandy Springs Museum 6075 Sandy Springs Circle For more information 404-851-9111 How to Catch a Date in Rural Sandy Springs An interview with Harriet Chapman Elsbury & Ruby Hardeman Spruill B Interviewer Dorothy Knight B Date of interview 1981 During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries dating and social gatherings for Sandy Springs teenagers and young adults took quite a bit of effort. It was not that residents were unwilling to travel for meet-ups and events but rather rigorous farming life isolated many residents. In addition travel was not easily accessible. With such limitations dating in Sandy Springs proved even more difficult to navigate especially for young women. For these reasons young people in Sandy Springs would use almost any festive event as an excuse to invite a date even if strict customs made it difficult to be alone with one another. Siblings would chaperone all romantic outings often interrupting the date and putting constraints on simple behaviors like flirting and hand-holding. Courting someone during this time period implied rules curfews and supervision. However these strict social norms did not stop some Sandy Springs young ladies from taking advantage of any opportunity to spend a little extra time with the boys they liked. Harriet Chapman Elsbury and Ruby Hardeman Spruill remember having to be creative in order to date while growing up in Sandy Springs. Harriett was born at her home on Roswell and House Roads (now Windsor Parkway) and spent her entire life in Sandy Springs. Her father Dr. Chapman was initially the only doctor for miles in what was then DeKalb County. He delivered her and her eight siblings before their mother died in 1926. Harriet became the impromptu mother to her siblings--even though she was not the oldest. Ruby was also born and raised in Sandy Springs out on the family farm on Roswell Road. As it turns out Harriet s father delivered Ruby as a baby as well. The two girls grew up in Sandy Springs at a time when dating was not easy. Harriet eloped when she was old enough hiding her marriage from her family for over a year. As Harriet and Ruby remember Sandy Springs proximity to Atlanta afforded them dating oppor tunities that teenagers in other rural communities could not enjoy. In particular both women recall using camp meetings to spark relationships with boys they liked. Ruby Spruill (left) Courting & More Cour ting in Sandy Springs was not easy for most young women. Growing up in a rural community isolated by large farms did not allow many women to meet men aside from those involved on their farms. Ruby and Harriet remember that 137 meetings usually in late August when the family would rest after harvesting their crops. According to Harriet and Ruby there were not a lot of social activities aside from Sunday School and church at the meetings. During camp meetings boys and girls would take their breaks together to get a drink of water down by the spring. Harriet remembers Oh when we were teenagers that was just wonderful to walk with our boyfriends down to the spring to get water...They had a beautiful spring down there and they had a cover over it and that water was cold. The spring offered the perfect escape from the prying eyes of adults parents and siblings. It gave the teenagers opportunities to experience courtship while still in a controlled environment. Harriet and Ruby remember Well Ownes at camp meeting. they d have services at eleven o clock. And they d have it let s see at eight in the morning... going on dates that included inevitable supervision and Sometimes they had early service and then they d have an curfews. Oh boy. I tell you they trusted us back then. eleven o clock and then you d break for lunch and then [But] girls were supposed to have chaperones and doubleyou d have another service about three...We just thought date remembers Harriet. Yes you couldn t go out just if we could just get our boyfriend to walk us down to the on a date by yourself you had to have...your sister had to spring and back know we went we didn t go along with you or somebody. I didn t have a sister go during the services but maybe when they had their said Ruby so I d look around and see who was out on a break...Oh oh it was good behavior back then. We didn t date or I d see my oldest brother somewhere...circling know to do things. There is no record of when the first around watching While Ruby and Harriet never broke any camp meeting was held but the gatherings became a long rules the tradition was that boys should court women in a strict and controlled environment and approval from a girl s family was necessary for any successful relationship. As Harriet recalls rules around curfew were especially strict. We were supposed to be in at nine o clock and we d better be in. I never...I don t know whether I should tell this or not but one night I had a date with Porter House...about nine o clock my daddy called bedtime. He says Harriet it s bedtime. It s nine o clock. And Porter said Well Hon you got the bed fixed He didn t say it loud enough for [my daddy] to hear it. I don t know what he might have said [laughing.] Like many of their peers Ruby and Harriet would double-date with each other and other friends in Girls at camp meeting. order to get permission from their parents to spend time with their boyfriends on the weekends. tradition and welcomed breaks from the rigors of farming and rural life. Ruby and Harriet remember them fondly as Camp meetings and church were routine places for a time when they could meet and spend time with their socialization and fraternization in Sandy Springs. Camp boyfriends in an environment that promoted courtship and meetings were religious gatherings that involved revivalunification. style preaching as well as socialization food and spiritual renewal. These meetings would generally last up to five Atlanta s proximity to Sandy Springs gave many citizens or seven days and gave isolated families and friends a cultural destination aside from spending weekends an opportunity to gather and reunite. Several religious around the spring. One of the most special places that denominations held and participated in annual camp Courting & More continued Fox Theatre Atlanta Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library one could go on a date in Atlanta was downtown to the Fox Theatre. Originally the building was intended for the headquarters of the Shriners--a Free Mason fraternity--but the organization lost its funding before construction was complete. Movie mogul William Fox then stepped in with the 2.75 million needed to finish the work. The Fox Theatre opened its doors to the public on December 25 1929 and operated for 125 weeks before the Great Depression took its toll shutting it until after World War II. During the early decades of segregation the Fox Theatre was actually one of the few theatres that was open to both white and black patrons even though it too was segregated. As teenagers Ruby and Harriet enjoyed going on dates to the Fox Theatre. They remember We went to church and you double-dated. But for a while I mean you know we were supposed to double-date everywhere we went. We were supposed to go to church. We [Harriet] went to one movie before we got married...down at the Fox Theatre and I haven t the vaguest idea what we saw. That was just you know...that was special really special when we went to the theatre. The theatre offered many teens an escape from their chaperones but it also exposed many rural citizens to the world s cultures outside of Sandy Springs and Atlanta. Today the Fox Theatre--exhibiting the same unique Moorish architecture and opulent d cor that thrilled Ruby and Harriet--is the only remaining movie palace in Atlanta. Another popular spot for youthful courtship was Jacobs Pharmacy one of the leading pharmacies in Atlanta. Pharmacies in the early nineteenth century were more like general stores that also dispensed medicine and pharmaceuticals. Open to both men and women pharmacies were often gathering spaces for people to get the latest news pick up medicinal and leisure items and enjoy some time at the soda fountain. Dr. Joseph Jacobs opened his original general store in Five Points which was (and still is) considered the heart of downtown Atlanta. By 1929 Jacob had opened eight additional stores throughout the city. One of the most popular hangouts for Sandy Springs teens was the location at the junction of Peachtree Street and Roswell Road in the heart of Buckhead. Harriet recalls We used to go to church on Sunday night and then go to Buckhead to Jacobs and get ice cream sodas. Ruby remembers That s right And they had lights across the road oh man That was special. Wasn t it though when we got electricity Jacobs offered some of the best ice cream 139 sodas one could get in Atlanta while allowing teenagers to participate in wholesome and supervised fun. The stores operated until they were sold after World War II. By today s standards dating and courtship were much more challenging for Ruby and Harriet. They never broke any rules but they certainly used every opportunity to spend time with friends and boys. Sandy Springs rural isolationism Camp meetings and theatres offered some of the more during their teenage years eventually evolved into further obvious dating spots but if the season for camps and freedoms for the girls throughout the 1920s 1930s and into World War II. In 1929 when she was 25 Harriet and her boyfriend eloped to Center Alabama. She kept the marriage a secret for over a year before moving with him to a house on Glenwood Drive in Peachtree Hills. Harriet recollects My grandma [91 at the time] see that s the reason we didn t tell. I got home and my grandmother had fallen and hurt herself so bad so we didn t say a word about it. And he just went on home and I went home. I hid my wedding ring in my cedar chest and when I was at work one day Bernice got in there...and found the marriage certificate and my wedding ring Jacobs Drugs Luncheonette Atlanta and everything. Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library revivals had passed young folks could meet someone new at parties or dances. In fact both Ruby and Harriet met their husbands at parties. Harriet recollects I met him [my husband] at a dance a square dance up in Alpharetta. I used to love to square dance. And I met him and I didn t see him again for oh I guess a year. And then I met him...we went to an all-day singing up in Alpharetta and he was up there. And I went with another boy and I don t know I got mad at this other boy and he [my husband] brought me home. And I started dating him. Ruby met her husband J.C. at a Halloween party though she was too young to date him at that time. She remembers I met him at a Halloween Paul Elbanks on Roswell Road. Right there where Wieuca Road is...I had on a little uh I had a lot of Halloween stuff. He wanted to take me home. And I said I m too young my parents won t let me date you ...we had to be grown before they d let us date back then. Jacobs Drugs Atlanta Special Collections and Archives Georgia State University Library Despite the strict supervision and rules about curfews Sandy Springs Buckhead and Atlanta offered unique experiences for both Ruby and Harriet. Camp meetings dances parties fountain shops and the occasional movie allowed Ruby Harriet and other young people in the area to date and court. And even though Ruby s brother stalked many of her dates she still enjoyed every romantic opportunity Sandy Springs and Atlanta had to offer. B The Arts One Family s Artistic Legacy Trail to a Cleaner Earth Our Glass Artist Naturalist Artist Athos Menaboni Radar Love 141 Sandy Springs King & Queen Buildings Watercolor by artist Diana Toma used with permission Hans Godo Frabel in front of his glass sculpture Clown Fountain Jack Elrod Sandy Springs High School band RADAR. Belted Kingfisher and Lily Pads Oil on Nakora wood c. 1965 Courtesy of Russell Clayton One Family s Artistic Legacy An interview with Ethel Spruill B Interviewer Cora Adams B Date of interview June 22 1994 One of the oldest family names in Sandy Springs could be spelled four different ways but just about anyone who grew up in the city knows the Spruill family has been in Sandy Springs almost as long as the springs themselves. According to historic records Stephen Spruill Sr. came to the Sandy Springs area around 1820 making the Spruill family one of Sandy Springs founding families. For the better half of the t wentieth centur y the family advocated on behalf of Sandy Springs residents and donated land to improve upon and enhance what is now a thriving metropolitan area. The Spruill name itself lives on throughout the community as a reminder of the family s history and contributions. Ethel Spruill was born Ethel Warren on July 13 1908 in Sugar Valley Georgia in Gordon County. Ethel attended school at Sugar Valley Boarding School and eventually went to high school in Chattanooga Tennessee. She graduated from Edmonson s School of Business in 1927. Her grandparents Mr. and Mrs. J.W. Warren helped Ethel s father raise her after her mother passed away in 1913 when she was only five years old. Growing up Ethel routinely visited Atlanta and its suburbs around the springs. She remembers We would come down old 41 unpaved and in old Maxwell loaded with family. We would come through Vinings Buckhead and Dunwoody to go to Norcross--we would usually stay a week. While they were in Norcross her family would visit typical points of interest such as the Atlanta Zoo and the Howard Theatre (later renamed Paramount Theatre). These early experiences motivated Ethel to move to Atlanta in 1928 shortly after finishing business school. Four years later she met her future husband--Steven Thomas Spruill. In 1932 through one of my employees I met Steven Thomas Spruill who was had a readymade family a landowner a Spruill Gallery farmer recalls Ethel. They married on February 7 1933 and moved to the old home-place on Ashford Dunwoody Road where they resided for 34 years. The Spruill family owned many large tracts of land throughout Sandy Springs and the Dunwoody area. At one point Steven owned land stretching from Long Island Creek to Mount Vernon Highway--which they lived on until Steven s death in 1967. 143 and myself decided as a memorial to my husband and her father that we would donate the old home and five acres-- five and a half acres after it was surveyed to the Spruill Arts Center. The Spruill Arts Center had its beginnings in 1975 when a group of women began meeting in the Dunwoody United Methodist Church for painting classes. The classes quickly outgrew the space and the women were forced to move their group to Dunwoody Park on Roberts Drive. This meeting space would eventually become known as the North Arts Center. It was here that the classes began to flourish when the center developed ceramics programs in addition to its painting classes bringing in new artists and offering children s summer camps. In 1993 when the Spruill Gallery Miss Ethel--as her friends and family affectionately knew her--used her education and life experiences to further enhance the town and county around Sandy Springs. From the time Ethel moved to the Sandy Springs area she quickly got involved with the Methodist Church and other activities to help improve the leadership of the town. Ethel remembers being involved in the church from her earliest years as a young girl visiting Sandy Springs and specifically the camp meetings held every fall. Well as a child well not as a child as a young girl from Norcross we d come down during the laying by season and go to camp meetings at Sandy Springs. And it was an unpaved road and there was shouting and they had about four services a day and especially on Sunday if we were down we would come to camp meeting. And there were horses and buggies and Ford cars everywhere recalls Ethel. Camp meetings were annual traditions and treats for all citizens of the town as they marked the ends of crop seasons. Ethel recollects [When] I first began coming to Sandy Springs it was a vacation time for people at laying-by that s when the crops were laying by resting they would come and camp from Thursday until I think Sunday. And you entertain the ministers and they had houses all out Mt. Vernon now where the preachers would stay and you would have the preachers entertain for meals. These early years were pivotal for Ethel as she continued her involvement with the Dunwoody United Methodist Church as well as joined the Ladies Club in 1950 to help promote and improve Sandy Springs. In 1970 three years after Steven had passed away Miss Ethel moved from their original house at 4681 Ashford Dunwoody Road to Riverside Parkway where she lived for 23 years. The original home-place on Ashford Dunwoody Road was rented to many tenants over the next twenty years until Ethel and her daughter Annie decided to do something with the house to honor their husband and father. Ethel recalls So nothing had ever been as a memorial to Spruill my husband who was known throughout DeKalb and Fulton Counties. So Miss Annie Spruill Sandy Springs King & Queen Buildings Watercolor by artist Diana Toma used with permission arts and education center needed even more space to keep up with its growth Ethel and Annie donated the Spruill homeplace and its five and a half surrounding acres to the North Arts Center. The Center then changed its name to the Spruill Center for the Arts--serving as a place for fostering the arts as well as remembering one of Dunwoody s first and most longstanding families. Miss Ethel loved being involved with the community and helping others inside and outside Sandy Springs. She lived to help others and to preserve her family s history and influence in the area. Even after donating the family home to the arts center Ethel continued to bear witness to her family s and the area s histories by co-authoring the book The Story of Dunwoody in 1975. Ethel remembers [We re] real happy that we have a Spruill Arts Center. ... It is a museum. We have concerts there. We have showing of art and a beautiful gift shop. If you are interested in visiting the gallery that Ethel loved so much it is located in her historic home at 4681 Ashford Dunwoody Road. The Spruill Center for the Arts gallery hosts four to six exhibitions each year and promotes emerging artists established artists and artwork created at the Center s education center . The Spruill Center for the Arts Education Center is located at 5339 Chamblee Dunwoody Road and offers a variety of day evening and weekend classes throughout the year for adults teens and children. B Trail To A Cleaner Earth An interview with Jack Elrod B Interviewer Garnett Cobb & Amy O Neal B Date of interview February 3 1992 Twelve-year-old Ed Dodd traveled from Georgia to Pennsylvania in 1916 to attend one of the first sessions of the Dan Beard Outdoor School for Boys. Dan Beard was on the founding board for the Boy Scouts of America and an inspiration for Dodd and his comic strip Mark Trail. In a conversation with Jack Elrod illustrator of the Mark Trail comic strip he remembered that Dodd liked the camp so much that he went back every year. And his association with Dan is what really got him interested in animals and the outdoors. Dodd attended the Dan Beard Outdoor School for Boys until he was old enough to work for him as a camp director. Eventually he spent a couple of years at Georgia Tech in the 1920s but left to study at the Art Students League of New York. From there he moved out west became a guide and worked on a ranch. By 1946 Dodd returned to his native Georgia and launched the Mark Trail comic strip. before I started. My job when I first started was doing the backgrounds. Tom Hill started working on the Sunday page and Ed would write the daily feature. Ed only worked a half a day. He would get up about 6 00 and write the feature and Tom Hill and myself would come in about 9 00 and his secretary and we would have some coffee and then go over the script and Tom and myself would illustrate it. Ed spent the rest of his time the afternoon working on his farm. By the end of 1950 Ed had purchased a property in Sandy Springs Georgia which was about 130 acres. It was on Brandon Mill Road. At that time Sandy Springs was just a wide place in the road. It had a service station and a hardware store and a post office and a drug store but that s about all. Ed built a cabin and a lake on his property to begin with. He had an old wood stove in the cabin and we would do a little fishing and have lunch at the cabin and go back to Penn Avenue to work. By 1954 Ed s ranch-style house was completed on his Brandon Mill Road property and farm hand Hubert Hamrick moved his family into the cabin. Hubert and his wife and children took care of the farm planted crops every year and Ed had several horses that he took care of. Hubert s At that time Sandy Springs was just a wide place in the road. My association with Ed began in 1950 recounted Jack Elrod. I had just gotten out of art school. Ed had an apartment on old Penn Avenue in Atlanta. I had just gotten married and my first job out of school was with Ed. He also had a man named Tom Hill a Sandy Springs man. The strip started in 1946 and had been going about four years 145 He said Why do you let Mark smoke He says smoking is bad for the birds and it pollutes the air. And the only reason we d let him smoke up to that time is it helped identify Mark. Smoking a pipe used to be macho and real outdoorish and it helped identify him from a distant shot. If you could see Mark and if he had a pipe you knew it was Mark. So I wrote the young man back said Elrod and told him I thought it was a great idea and that I was going to let Mark stop smoking. And his dad happened to be a doctor and he sent the letter to a smoking group in Washington called Action on Smoking. They gave it to the Associated Press and the next day I started getting calls from radio stations. The day after that I had three television shows wanting to do a TV short about Mark not smoking. That was one of the best things that got publicity. Once Mark stopped smoking I got a letter from one lady I think it s great that you let Mark quit smoking but he s been living with that girl for 40 years. When you gonna let them get married In 1993 Mark and Cherry were married after 47 years of dating. With momentous changes in the last two decades the 2000s were no different. In 2010 Elrod hired artist James Allen who took over the Sunday page. In 2014 Elrod retired and Allen formally succeeded him. B Left Tom Hill Right Ed Dodd parents owned the property across from Ed and ran [Brandon s] mill. We never saw the mill but we saw the spot where the actual mill was Jack Elrod reminisced. Hubert and his family lived on the property until Ed sold it in 1978. The year 1978 was a pivotal year for Ed Tom Jack and the Mark Trail comic strip. Ed retired and moved to Gainesville Georgia. Tom had a heart attack and passed away. Jack kept the comic strip going. I tried to keep the same general idea of conservation that Mark Trail had since it began said Elrod which was to preserve the woods waters and wildlife for future generations Elrod recalled. In the midst of the reemergence of the conservation movement in the 1970s Elrod understood how much more powerful conservation was in the 1970s than 1950s when the comic began. With the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970 and other changes to the political-environmental landscape Elrod mentioned that there are now more people interested in conservation because they realized we ve got to preserve our natural resources and take care of them. Other wise future generations are going to be in a lot of trouble. One of the most significant changes to the Mark Trail comic noted Elrod was that Mark stopped smoking in the mid-1980s. I received a letter from a young man. Daniel Carter Beard (center) 1937 Jack Elrod Our Glass Artist An interview with Hans Godo Frabel B Interviewer Melissa Swindell B Date of interview April 12 2016 After World War II Germany was divided into four occupation zones respectively controlled by the United States United Kingdom France and the Soviet Union. Originally temporary more permanent distinctions quickly emerged between former-Allied controlled territory and Soviet territory within Germany. A formal agreement was made in 1949 to combine the American British and French territories into the Federal Republic of Germany more commonly referred to as West Germany. In Jena East Germany a city with roughly the same population as Sandy Springs Hans Godo Frabel woke up in the middle of a night in 1949. He was only eight years old but his parents and four siblings were ready to cross the border into West Germany. They made it safely across the border and stayed with his m o t h e r s relatives. Frabel learned how to make scientific glass instruments and earned a degree in this trade. Soon after his internship Frabel was drafted into the German Army. A year before his enlistment the Sputnik satellite was launched and within the next couple of years construction would start on the Berlin Wall. In just two weeks the East German army police force and volunteer construction workers had completed a makeshift barbed wire and concrete block wall that divided one side of Berlin from the other. Before the wall was built Berliners on both sides of the city could move around fairly freely They crossed t he Eas t-Wes t border to work to shop and to go to the theater and the movies. Trains and subway lines carried passengers back and forth. After t h e w a ll w a s built it became impossible to get from East to West Berlin except through one of three checkpoints. At each of the checkpoints East German soldiers screened diplomats and other officials before they were allowed to enter or leave. Except under special circumstances travelers from East and West Berlin were rarely allowed across the border. During the height of the Cold War in the midst of securities and secrecies Frabel met Phillip Rudisill American Vice Consul at Frankfurt. Phillip was sitting alone at a table [in a bar] remembered Frabel and this woman was bothering him so he asked me to join his table. At that time Germans and American officials did not get along. Despite the differences In Germany they would stand by us with a stopwatch and everyone worked at the same pace. Frabel attended school in West Germany for the next seven years he never expected to attend college. His parents encouraged him to find a job that a machine cannot replace. Frabel became a glassworker following in his father s footsteps. At the age of 15 Frabel enrolled in an apprenticeship with Jena Glaswerkes in Mainz West Germany. At Jena Glaswerkes Frabel worked with borosilicate glass which was invented in 1887 by Dr. Otto Schott. This type of glass could withstand both extremely high and low temperatures which made it perfect for gas and petroleum lighting and chemical scientists. For the next three years 147 basis. Once completed with the day s assignment--usually by noon--Frabel was able to move onto his own projects. Using the same borosilicate glass which could be reheated multiple times thus making it an ideal composition for glass sculpture he would make small [artistic] sculptures for students and professors who would request gifts for their friends and family. Realizing Frabel s talent for glass sculpture Phillip Rudisill encouraged Frabel to leave his position at Georgia Tech and open his own studio and art gallery. It was Phillip s idea said Frabel. I created one-hundred sculptures and we opened a small gallery on Peachtree Street across from Piedmont Hospital. Within six months of opening lightning struck the building but everything was ok because glass survives heat. However with the building in need of repair Frabel moved his gallery into Lenox Square. Frabel s shop in Lenox was in operation for about twenty years during which time he had two other locations at Underground Atlanta and Peachtree Center. When Frabel s galleries first opened in the 1960s and 1970s glass was not considered a serious art medium. However over the years Frabel has created one-of-a-kind works of art for President Obama Emperor Akihito Hans Godo Frabel in front of his and Empress Michiko of Japan Anwar glass sculpture Clown Fountain Sadat Pope Benedict XVI and Queen Elizabeth II which was one of Frabel s in culture and background Queen Elizabeth II receives Frabel sculpture in Tampa Florida most memorable experiences. General Fr ab el and Rudisill Schwarzkopf was being honored by the became fast friends. Queen said Frabel who had created a piece specifically for the occasion. I spoke with the Queen for about five Then rather abruptly in January 1965 the American minutes recalled Frabel after which she reached into her government moved Rudisill back home to Atlanta. He and purse for her speech. The only items in her purse were white Frabel remained in touch and five months later Frabel gloves a handkerchief and her speech. B moved to Atlanta. Rudisill had secured a position for him at Georgia Tech making scientific glass instruments for the chemistry department. Unlike the German glaswerkes where every step of the process was timed for speed and efficiency glasswork in the United States was slower paced for Frabel. In Germany they would stand by us with a stopwatch said Frabel and everyone worked at the same pace. One of my co-workers repeatedly told me to slow down because at my speed they would expect higher production. At Georgia Tech glasswork was assigned on a per need Hans Godo Frabel with President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama Naturalist Artist Athos Menaboni B Guest Author Russell Clayton B Athos Rodolfo Giorgio Alessandro Menaboni was born on October 20 1895 to Averardo a successful ship supplier and Jenny Neri Menaboni in the Italian port city of Livorno. As a result of his father s work young Athos frequently received exotic animals given to his father by clients. Athos thus developed a lifelong fascination with birds and other animals which later became the subjects of his paintings. At the age of nine he began a formal study of art with private teachers including marine painter Ugo Manaresi muralist Charles Doudelet and sculptor Pietro Gori. He later attended the Academy of Fine Arts in Florence. moved to Atlanta in 1927 after working for two years as a real estate art director in Florida. Menaboni worked with Atlanta s Philip Shutze one of the city s leading architects on decorative painting projects at the Swan House and other area residences as well as in public buildings such as The Temple and the Capital City Club. Menaboni also worked with architect Samuel Inman Cooper to decoratively paint the breakfast room of Glenridge Hall in Sandy Springs. Other early commissions included restoration work on Atlanta s Cyclorama mural decorative painting of the lobby ceiling in the Rhodes-Haverty Building and murals in the home of R. J. Reynolds on Sapelo Island. During his first year in Atlanta Menaboni left Italy in 1920 Menaboni lived in a downtown Northern Cardinal and Dogwood Oil on gessoed paper c. 1960 spending time in North boarding house. It was there Courtesy of Russell Clayton Africa before immigrating where he met his landlord s to the United States a year later. He settled in New York niece Sara Regina Arnold of Rome Georgia. They where he decorated and sold candles to churches. He were married a year later. After honeymooning in Italy 149 the couple lived in a small apartment on 11th Street in downtown Atlanta. Following Menaboni s 1937 sale of the two cardinals painting his wife Sara mailed his portfolio to her sisterin-law in New Jersey. She in tur n found interest for Menaboni s work at several major museums and galleries in Bos ton and New York City. He painted a pair of cardinals for a wall in his living room which gained notoriety when close friend and interior designer Molly Whitehead Aeck p ur c has e d it for a client. From this point Sara reading to Athos while he for ward Menaboni works at Valle Ombrosa c.1942 steadily refined aspects Troup County Archives (LaGrange Georgia) of his art for which he is now famous naturalistic oil paintings of birds. He developed a technique he called the undercoat method. This technique which closely resembled watercolor when dry used turpentine to thin the oil in paint. This allowed Menaboni to paint birds in layers on paper thus giving the feathers translucency detail and depth. Following Menaboni s 1937 sale of the two cardinals his wife Sara mailed his portfolio to major museums in New York City. The American Museum of Natural History the Kennedy Galleries and the National Audubon Society hosted exhibitions of his work. During his exhibition at the Kennedy Galleries a patron purchased his painting Mourning Doves in Longleaf Pine for Robert W. Woodruff president of The Coca-Cola Company. The painting was reminiscent of scenery at Ichauway Plantation the Woodruffs Newton Georgia estate. When the painting was gifted to the Woodruff family Mrs. Woodruff learned the artist Menaboni was a Sandy Springs resident. She arranged for him to illustrate the Woodruff family s 1941 Christmas card. Henceforth Menaboni s illustrated aviary cards became a Woodruff family tradition for more than 40 years. From the late 1930s onward Menaboni broadened Eastern Bluebird and Cherokee Rose Oil on illustration board c. 1942 Courtesy of Russell Clayton his range of media. During this time he painted his countless landscapes seascapes botanicals nature studies and surreal fantasies on a variety of materials including silk wood Masonite cork and paper. In 1939 he created fifteen mirrors produced in reverse painting on glass (before it was silvered) for a windowless dining room at Atlanta s Capital City Club. The Menabonis purchased six acres of land on Cook Road (now Crest Valley Drive) in Sandy Springs in 1939. Three years later the couple built a home on the property naming it Valle Ombrosa or Shady Valley after Menaboni s Naturalist Artist Athos Menaboni continued favorite boyhood holiday destination in central Italy. Their estate became a bird sanctuary complete with its own aviary and included a bonsai greenhouse. Valle Ombrosa would remain their home for the rest of their lives. From the 1940s through the 1960s Menaboni s work proliferated. He created prints for the National Audubon Society in 1942 and in 1950 Menaboni and Sara published Menaboni s Birds. His paintings illustrated the text written by his wife and the volume was voted one of the Fifty Best Books of the Year by the American Institute of Graphic Arts. It was also in 1950 that Time magazine declared Menaboni the heir of James Audubon an apt designation given the fact that he would eventually p ai nt m o r e t ha n t wo hundred different species o f b i r d s . M e n a b o n i s recognition in Time was one of many acknowledgements he received during his 63-year career in Atlanta. Menaboni went on to receive awards from the Sara and Athos Menaboni enjoying nature at Valle Ombrosa c. 1945 American Graphic Society Troup County Archives (LaGrange Georgia) the American Institute of Graphic Arts the Georgia Writers Association the Art Directors Club of New York the Atlanta Beautiful Commission the Capital City Club the American Institute of Architects the Italian Cultural Society the Garden Club of Georgia and the Office of the Governor of Georgia with the Governor s Award in Visual Arts. Following his Time magazine recognition in 1951 Menaboni was commissioned by Mills B. Lane Jr. president of Citizens and Southern National Bank to paint murals in Atlanta and Albany Georgia bank buildings and to create an eggshell-mosaic for the branch in Decatur Georgia. During the height of Menaboni s career-- between 1953 and 1969--he created advertisements for Prudential Insurance Company contributed illustrations to The World Book Encyclopedia and designed calendars for The Coca-Cola Company. In addition Menaboni designed fourteen covers for The Progressive Farmer magazine and two for Sports Illustrated magazine. Menaboni s Birds was reissued in 1984 using the original text with 31 new full-color reproductions. Menaboni also illustrated several other authors books including Never the Nightingale by prominent Atlanta poet laureate Daniel Whitehead Hickey. Menaboni suffered a stroke in May 1990 and passed away on July 18 1990 at the age of 94. A memorial service was held days later at the Ida Cason Callaway Memorial Chapel at Callaway Gardens. The eulogy was delivered by Elizabeth C. Harris Georgia s first lady. Menaboni s wife Sara passed away three years later on August 10 1993. Menaboni s works have been exhibited throughout the United States in ar t museums galleries and natural history exhibitions. Locally Menaboni s art has been featured at Callaway Gardens the Marietta Cobb Museum of Ar t Emor y University Kennesaw State University the High Museum of Ar t and the Atlanta History Center. St. Simons Island Oil on canvas art board 1930 Courtesy of Russell Clayton Guest author Russell Clayton a retired educator from Marietta Georgia was a friend of the Menabonis. In 2014 he curated Athos Menaboni Six Decades of Painting in Georgia for the Albany Museum of Art (Albany Georgia). Last year he curated Athos Menaboni Georgia s Own Artist as Naturalist for Berry College (Rome Georgia). 151 Currently he is planning a Menaboni exhibition for fall 2016 in Livorno Italy the first one outside of the United States. He is also collaborating with Callaway Gardens (Pine Mountain Georgia) on several Menaboni projects there. Major Menaboni art collections can be found at Kennesaw State University (Kennesaw Georgia) Callaway Gardens the Atlanta History Center and the Stark Museum of Art (Orange Texas). Menaboni s works are found in many more museums and institutions across Georgia. Archive collections are housed at the Troup County Archives (LaGrange Georgia) Emory University (Atlanta) and at the University of Georgia (Athens). B Sara and Athos Menaboni at Valle Ombrosa 1987 Troup County Archives (LaGrange Georgia) Magnolia Grandiflora Blooms Oil on illustration board c. 1950 Courtesy of Russell Clayton Belted Kingfisher and Lily Pads Oil on Nakora wood c. 1965 Courtesy of Russell Clayton Radar Love An interview with Tony Garstin B Interviewer Melissa Swindell B Date of interview March 28 2016 Forming a music band was a dream of many high school students in the 1960s but Sandy Springs native Tony Garstin made his dream a reality that has lasted 50 years. When Garstin was a junior at Sandy Springs High School (present day City Walk Shopping Center on Hammond and Sandy Springs Circle) he and his friends Doug Booth Al Carmichael Jack Duncan Billy Grove and Jimmy Cobb put their musical talents together to create the band Radar. Garstin and his friends practiced their music in his basement near the intersection of Hammond Drive and Hilderbrand Drive. As Garstin remembered his parents were good sports about those practice sessions. I don t see how my parents managed to put up with us he recalled. We played loud as crap. And the neighbors were pretty smooth about it too. In those early years Radar per formed at proms and other dances at Sandy Springs High School. It wasn t long however before the young men took their show on the road playing at fraternity and sorority parties teen clubs churches and coffee houses such as the Catacombs Coffee House--a well-known hippie hangout near downtown Atlanta. They also performed at the Winder Roller Rink in 1967. music. Cooley is credited by many in the music world as the man who brought rock and roll to Atlanta . Atlanta was not on the mainstream music tour for national artists Garstin recalled. It wasn t until 1969 at the [inaugural] Atlanta International Pop Festival that the music scene in Atlanta started to gain attention. That year Radar opened for the Allman Brothers Band at Piedmont Park and for Fleetwood Mac at Oglethorpe University. With Cooley s support Radar was soon the opening act for musicians and bands such as B.B. King Procol Harum Jefferson Airplane Steppenwolf Frigid Pink It s a Beautiful Day Three Dog Night The James Gang Mahavishnu Orchestra Ravi Shankar Canned Heat Ted Nugent Grand Funk Railroad The Eagles and Spirit. At each of these concerts it was the job of opening acts to warm up the crowd get their focus toward the stage and prepare the audience for the national artist said Garstin. In the beginning we were paid 300 per show. It was rare for opening acts to be paid but we were easy to work with on time not stoned and engaging. Radar members performed together for 30 years with their most notable appearance being at the Second Atlanta International Pop Festival in 1970. After three record deals in the 1980s the band moved on to play at private events one-night shows weddings country clubs and corporate events. By the late 1990s the group had traveled up and down the east coast-- from New Jersey to Mississippi -- playing original and cover songs. After a short hiatus the band has reunited and is bringing its Radar 1.0 tour to local Atlanta venues. B I don t see how my parents managed to put up with us. After two years of playing together as Radar band member Al Carmichael moved to Michigan and Arthur Offen a graduate of The Lovett School and a Buckhead native joined the group. My mother-in-law taught at the Atlanta College of Art said Garstin and she introduced us to Offen. Not long after Offen became a member of Radar the band met Alex Cooley the legendary concert promoter and some would say the unofficial mayor of Atlanta 153 The Heart of Our Community since 1984 Saturday Mornings April-December 8 30 AM 12 00 PM Century Springs East 6100 Lake Forrest Drive For more information 404-851-9111 SANDY SPRINGS HOME DEMONSTRATION Home Demonstration Work What It Is Home demonstration work is an essential part of the educational program of the Cooperative Extension Service in Agriculture and Home Economics. This nationwide system of out-of-school education was established by Congress through passage of the Smith-Lever Act of May 8 1914. The act gave authority for the United States Department of Agriculture and the state land-grant colleges to join forces in establishing and maintaining an outof-school educational program to aid rural men women boys and girls in improving their farms their homes and their communities. How the Home Demonstration Agent Works The job of the home demonstration agent is one of helping families to improve undesirable situations which they recognize and want to do something about. Because she is a home economist and a member of the state land-grant college staff the home demonstration agent has access to a vast store of information about matters concerning the home and family. This information covers such subjects as family financial management nutrition and health clothing and textiles home improvement and work simplification child care and training and many other topics related to family living. 155 Women picking cotton in a field on Glenridge Drive circa 1920s. The women in the photograph were members of founding Sandy Springs families. It is likely that they were local leaders and teachers of Home Demonstration work. Sitting (Left to Right) Minnie Dewald Mrs. Lawrence Kaufman Mrs. J.F. Burdett Standing (Left to Right) Mrs. Charles Jackson Maggie Acree Nell Glass Serves All Families Although the Extension Service was originally designed to serve farm people the gap between town and country has narrowed greatly since 1914. Modern transportation and communication facilities have removed the isolation of the farm home while electricity and laborsaving equipment have helped to relieve drudgery for both the rural and urban homemaker. Since many problems in homemaking are common to both rural and urban homes home demonstration agents note an increasing interest in home demonstration work in urban areas. A Few Statistics Reveal Size and Scope of the Program Home demonstration work is an established function of the land-grant colleges in the 48 States Alaska Hawaii and Puerto Rico. More than 6 million women participated in the program in 1955. Approximately 4 000 home demonstration agents associates and assistants give professional leadership to the program. Nearly 700 000 women served as local leaders in carrying on the educational program. Reprinted from Home Demonstration Work in the United States Miscellaneous Publication No. 723 Federal Extension Service U.S. Department of Agriculture 1956 https details homedemonstratio723unit. All images are reproduced with permission from the following sources HERITAGE SANDY SPRINGS The Community That Raised Us Otten Clarke. Photograph. Summer 2015. Privately held by Clarke Otten. Atlanta Georgia. Group 44 Records of the Office of Government Reports 1932-1947. https id 513533 (2017). Unknown. Buckhead. 4x5in. black and white negative. Atlanta Kenan Research Center Atlanta History Center. 1949. Atlanta History Center Kenneth Rogers Photographs. http album. cdm ref collection Rogers id 1920 (2017). School Days Dear Old Golden Rule Days Center for Puppetry Arts. Photograph. 1948. Privately held by Center for Puppetry Arts Atlanta Georgia. Hirsh Real Estate. Photograph. c.1940. Privately held by Atlanta Georgia. http www.buckhead. com schools garden-hills-elementary-school (2017). Company Tampa Florida. Photograph. Tallahassee State Library & Archives of Florida 1929. State Archives of Florida. https items show 27163 (2017). War Department. Fire Prevention Equipment Painting Ford car chassis in plant of American La France Fire Engine Co. Inc. Elmira New York. Photograph. Washington D.C. US Government. c.1917-1918. National Archives and Records Administration Fire Prevention Equipment 1917-1918 American Unofficial Collection of World War I Photographs 1917-1918 Record Group 165 Records of the War Department General Special Staffs 1860-1952. https catalog.archives .gov id 31480244 (2017). Women in the Workforce Gottscho-Schleisner Inc. Passaic National Bank Passaic New Jersey. Two F.H.A. machines. Acetate negatives. Washington D.C. Library of Congress. January 7 1941. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Gottscho-Schleisner Collection. https item gsc1994016318 PP (2017). McFadden Naomi. Painting. Creation date unknown. Privately held by Mrs. Naomi McFadden. Office for Emergency Management War Production Board. We Can Do It . Photomechanical Print. Washington D.C. National Archives and Records Administration. 1942-1943. National Archives and Records Administration War Production Board 1942-1945 Record Group 179 Records of the War Production Board 1918-1947. https catalog. id 535413 (2017). Bell Aircraft Corporation. Headhouse security checkpoint during shift change. Photographic prints b&w. Kennesaw Georgia Kennesaw State University. 1942-1945. Kennesaw State University Archives Bell Aircraft Georgia Division (Marietta) Collection 1942-1945. http hdl.handle. net 11360 64 (2017). Office for Emergency Management Office of War Information Domestic Operations Branch Bureau of Special Services. I m making bombs and buying bonds Buy Victory Bonds. Poster. Washington D.C. National Archives and Records Administration. 1942-1945. National Archives and Records Administration World War II Foreign Posters 1942-1945 Record Group 44 Records of the Office of Government Reports 1932-1947. https catalog.archives. gov id 44267701 (2017). Office for Emergency Management Office of War Information Domestic Operations Branch Bureau of Special Services. 50.00 War Bond Poster. Poster. Washington D.C. National Archives and Records Administration. 1941-1945. National Archives and Records Administration World War II Posters 1942-1945 Record Group 44 Records of the Office of Government Reports 1932-1947. https id 514244 (2017). Through a Dark Lens United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of Bert Weston. A survivor from Ebensee is loaded onto an ambulance by German military personnel for transport to the 139th Evacuation Hospital for medical treatment. b&w print. Washington D.C. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. May 12-15 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Major Concentration Camps 1940-45. https collections. search catalog pa1041183 (2017). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of Bert Weston. Austrian civilians bury the bodies of former prisoners of the Ebensee concentration camp. b&w print. Washington D.C. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. May 8-15 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Major Concentration Camps 1940-45. http digitalassets.ushmm .org photoarchives detail.aspx id 1041219&search &index 1 (2017). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of Bert Weston. Austrian civilians stack bodies of Ebensee prisoners onto carts for transportation to a nearby burial site. b&w print. Washington D.C. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. May 8-15 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Major Concentration Camps 1940-45. https collections.ushmm .org search catalog pa1041193 (2017). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of Bert Weston. Children survivors stand in front of a barracks in the newly liberated Ebensee concentration camp. b&w print. Washington D.C. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. May 8 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Major Concentration Camps 1940-45. https search catalog pa1041225 (2017). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of Bert Weston. Survivors from Ebensee are evacuated to the 139th Evacuation Hospital for medical treatment. b&w print. Washington D.C. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. May 12 15 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Major Concentration Camps 1940-45. https search catalog pa1041177 (2017). The Art of War Department of Defense Department of the Air Force. Photograph of Paratroopers just before They Took off for the Initial Assault of D-Day. Photograph. Washington D.C. US Government. September 26 1947. National Archives and Records Administration black & white and color photographs of U.S. Air Force and Predecessor Agencies Activities Facilities and Personnel World War II and Korean War ca. 1940 ca. 1980 Record Group 342 Records of U.S. Air Force Commands Activities and COMMUNITY Sandy Springs Dirt Road Moore John Hammond. Atlanta s Hanson Car. The Atlanta Historical Bulletin 12 no. 2 (1967) 18. Toller Allison. Photograph. 2017. Privately held by Mount Vernon Presbyterian School Sandy Springs Georgia. Winecoff Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Winecoff Hotel Fire Atlanta Georgia December 7 1946. Photographic prints. Atlanta Georgia State University. 1946. Georgia State University Special Collections Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive.http digitalcollections.library.gsu. edu cdm ref collection ajc id 342 (2017). Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Woman falling to her death during the Winecoff Hotel fire 1946. black-and-white photographs. Atlanta Georgia State University. 1946. Georgia State University Special Collections Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive. http digitalcollections.library.gsu .edu cdm ref collection ajc id 12374 (2017). Goodwin Allen. Photograph. post-1913. Privately held by Allen Goodwin. Atlanta Georgia. Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers. Winecoff Hotel. black-and-white negatives. Atlanta Georgia State University. 1913. Georgia State University Special Collections Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection 1920-1976. http cdm singleitem collection lane id 10062 rec 1 (2017). Wallace Chet. Photograph. Circa 1940s. Privately held by Chet Wallace. Atlanta Georgia. Wallace Chet. Photograph. 1918. Privately held by Chet Wallace. Atlanta Georgia. Copeland Road and the Ice Age Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Atlantic Ice and Coal Company Building circa 1940s. black-and-white negatives. Atlanta Georgia State University. c.1940 Georgia State University Special Collections Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive. http digitalcollections. library.gsu. edu cdm ref collection lane id 1154 (2017). Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Children are given small pieces of ice from the iceman on a hot day 1945. blackand-white negatives. Atlanta Georgia State University. September 21 1945. Georgia State University Special Collections Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive. http digital cdm ref collection ajc id 9139 (2017). Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Iceman Thomas Weller delivers a block of ice by carrying it on his shoulder 1945. black-and-white negatives. Atlanta Georgia State University. September 21 1945. Georgia State University Special Collections Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive. http digitalcollections.library.gsu. edu cdm ref collection ajc id 9148 (2017). Howard Chatham s Mark on Sandy Springs Office for Emergency Management Office of War Information Domestic Operations Branch Bureau of Special Services. I want you for the U.S. Army enlist now Poster. Washington D.C. National Archives and Records Administration. 1941-1945. National Archives and Records Administration World War II Posters 1942-1945 Record SANDY SPRINGS WAY OF LIFE Glenridge Hall A Sandy Springs Treasure Allin Nick. Photograph. 2010. Privately held by Mr. Nick Allin Atlanta Georgia. https photos nda5150 2632062023 (2017). Mail on the Rails National Photo Company. Railway Mail Service. negative glass. Washington D.C. Library of Congress. 1924. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division National Photo Company Collection. https item npc 2008005914 (2017). Stubborn As a Mule Aubrey Morris https 2010 04 19 trailblazer (2017). First & Foremost The First Mayor of Sandy Springs City of Sandy Springs. Photograph. c.2006. Privately held by the City of Sandy Springs Sandy Springs Georgia. http government city-historyand-culture founding-mayor-eva-galambos (2017). City of Sandy Springs. Photograph. c.2006. Privately held by the City of Sandy Springs Sandy Springs Georgia. http government city-historyand-culture founding-mayor-eva-galambos (2017). WAR Front Lines of the Civil War The Letters of Nellie Evins and Richard Burch Jett 1863-1865 War Department. Office of the Chief Signal Officer. Fortifications in front of Atlanta Ga. 1864. Photograph. Washington D.C. US Government. c. 1864. National Archives and Records Administration Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes 1921-1940 Record Group 111 Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer 1860-1985. https catalog.archives. gov id 524951 (2017). Civil War Half Page Detroit Publishing Company. Custis-Lee Mansion [Arlington House] Arlington Va. 1 negative glass. Washington D.C. Library of Congress. 1910-1920. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. https item det19940 21539 PP (2017). Gardner Alexander. Antietam Maryland. Bodies in front of Dunker church. 1 negative glass wet collodion. Washington D.C. Library of Congress. 1862. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. https www. resource cwpb. 01099 (2017). Smith William Morris. [District of Columbia. Company E 4th U.S. Colored Infantry at Fort Lincoln]. 1 negative glass wet collodion. Washington D.C. Library of Congress. 18631865. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. https item cwp2003000946 PP (2017). Service on the Home Front Bell Aircraft Corporation. Bell Bomber Plant from the Air. Photographic prints b&w. Kennesaw Georgia Kennesaw State University. 1943-1945. Kennesaw State University Archives Bell Aircraft Georgia Division (Marietta) Collection 1942-1945. http 11360 165 (2017). Bell Aircraft Corporation. B-29s on test apron. Photographic prints b&w. Kennesaw Georgia Kennesaw State University. 1943-1945. Kennesaw State University Archives Bell Aircraft Georgia Division (Marietta) Collection 19421945. http 11360 74 (2017). INDUSTRY & TRADE Horses Wagons and Cattle Drives Unknown. Miller Union Stockyard (2 images). Atlanta Kenan Research Center Atlanta History Center. Atlanta History Center Atlanta. http MillerUnion StockYard.htm (2017) One Woman s Journey from Silver City to Sandy Springs Photograph. 1939. Privately held by Sweet Auburn Curb Market. Atlanta Georgia. http may2016-newsletter (2017). Travis Mike. Photograph. c.2000s. Privately held by J.M. Wilkerson Construction. Atlanta Georgia. www. (2017). Travis Mike. Photograph. c.2000s. Privately held by J.M. Wilkerson Construction. Atlanta Georgia. www. (2017). Role Models for Life Blaine Martin s Guide to Vintage Coca-Cola Memorabilia. Photograph. 1909. Privately held by Blaine Martin. http early-bottling-plant-photos.html (2017). Burgret Brothers. Interior View of the Cuesta-Rey Cigar All images are reproduced with permission from the following sources Organizations 1900-2003. https id 12003986 (2017). Department of Defense Department of the Navy First Naval District Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Administration Office of the Public Information Officer. D-Day Ferry Ride. Photograph. Washington D.C. US Government. c.1946. National Archives and Records Administration Publicity and Press Files 1944-1948 Record Group 181 Records of Naval Districts and Shore Establishments 1784-2000. https id 6682623 (2017). Making History Making W.A.V.E.S Department of Defense Department of the Navy Naval Photographic Center. WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service) units march in precise formations during a rally at the Washington Monument grounds celebrating the second anniversary of the establishment of the corps Washington DC. Photograph. Washington D.C. US Government. July 31 1944. National Archives and Records Administration General Photographic File of the Department of Navy 1943-1958 Record Group 80 General Records of the Department of the Navy 18041983. https id 520613 (2017). Department of Energy Office of Public Affairs. Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer atomic physicist and head of the Manhattan Project. Photograph. Washington D.C. US Government. c.1944. National Archives and Records Administration Photographs of Construction Facilities and Community Life at Oak Ridge and Other Manhattan Project Sites 19431946 Records 434 General Records of the Department of Energy 1915-2007.https id 558579 (2017). One of the Good Ol Boys U.S. Army Center of Military History. The Battle of the Bulge. https botb from hp_spotlight (2017). Ziemke Earl F. U.S. Army in the Occupation of Germany 1944-1946. Washington D.C. 1975. US Government Printing Office. Page 299. http books wwii Occ-GY ch17.htm (2017). A New Life in the Land of Opportunity United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration College Park. A section of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. bw print. Washington D.C. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. After April 15 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Major Concentration Camps 1940-45. https search catalog pa1054516 (2017). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum courtesy Lev Sviridov. Women survivors of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp stand and sit behind the fence of the camp. Printout. Washington D.C. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Circa April 15 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Major Concentration Camps 1940-45. https search catalog pa1166169 (2017). Photographers Photographic Collection 1920-1976. http cdm ref collection lane id 1153 (2017). Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers. Convicts working in field. black-and-white negatives. Atlanta Georgia State University. 1934. Georgia State University Special Collections Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection 1920-1976. http cdm ref collection lane id 1153 (2017). Down a Dark Hole Apple Candace. Illustration. Date Unknown. Privately held by Candace Apple. Atlanta Georgia. Apple Candace. Photograph. Date Unknown. Privately held by Candace Apple. Atlanta Georgia. Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Mayor Hartsfield and Rabbi Rothschild examine the damage from the bomb blast at The Temple 1958. Photograph. Atlanta Atlanta JournalConstitution 1958. Georgia State University Special Collections Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive. http cdm singleitem collection ajc id 10288 rec 3 (2017). Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers. The Temple 1589 Peachtree St. Atlanta. Photograph. Atlanta Georgia State University 1950s. Georgia State University Special Collections Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers. http cdm singleitem collection lane id 10606 rec 1 (2017). Temple Bombing The five men accused in the Temple Bombing in Fulton County Court House waiting for their hearing. Photograph. Atlanta The Breman Museum 1958. The Breman Museum Temple Bombing Records Atlanta Georgia. http detail.php t objec ts&type all&f &s 599.002&record 0 (2017). Temple Bombing The five men accused in the Temple Bombing leaving the city jail on their way to the Fulton County Court House. Photograph. Atlanta The Breman Museum 1958. The Breman Museum Temple Bombing Records Atlanta Georgia. http detail.php t objects&type all&f &s 599.001&reco rd 0 (2017). The Pioneer of Sandy Springs Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Funeral procession of Martin Luther King Jr. 1968. Photograph. Atlanta Georgia State University. 1968 Georgia State University Special Collections Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive. http cdm ref collection ajc id 11343 (2017). Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Lonnie commu unidentified woman and Martin Luther King Jr. being arrested during sit-in demonstration protesting lunch-counter segregation Atlanta Georgia October 6 1960. Photograph. Atlanta Georgia State University. 1960 Georgia State University Special Collections Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archive. http cdm ref collection ajc id 1026 (2017). Administration Photographs and Engravings Relating to Historical Tax Issues and IRS Tax Collection and Law Enforcement Activities 1988-1995 Record Group 58 Records of the Internal Revenue Service 1791-2006. https id 16647176 (2017). Department of the Treasury Office of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue Prohibition Unit. 7507 [S. Glenn Young] Federal Prohibition Agent. Identification Card. June 28 1920. Identification Card Files of Prohibition Agents 19201925 Record Group 58 Records of the Internal Revenue Service 1791-2006. National Archives and Records Administration College Park Maryland. https catalog. id 6237557 (2017). Department of the Treasury Office of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue Prohibition Unit. 8321 [Daisy D. Simpson] Federal Prohibition Agent. Identification Card. September 6 1921. Identification Card Files of Prohibition Agents 1920-1925 Record Group 58 Records of the Internal Revenue Service 1791-2006. National Archives and Records Administration College Park Maryland. https id 6238194 (2017). Kellogg EB & EC. The Drunkard s Progress. print lithograph hand-colored. Hartford EB & EC Kellogg June 15 1846. Library of Congress Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. https item 2002706811 (2017). Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers. Peachtree Street (looking south) at night Atlanta Georgia 1937. black-andwhite negatives. Atlanta Georgia State University. 1937. Georgia State University Special Collections Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection 1920-1976. http cdm ref collection lane id 14985 (2017). The Judge with a Grudge Unknown. Kimball House. 35 mm black and white negative. Atlanta Kenan Research Center Atlanta History Center. Atlanta History Center Atlanta History Photograph Collection. http album. cdm singleitem collection athpc id 1022 rec 1 (2017). Body Snatchers in Cobb Unknown. Panoramic view of city of Atlanta Ga. from the top of the Female Seminary - extending from the Medical College on the south-east around by the south to a point on Peach Tree Street a little north of west October 1864. Photograph. Library of Congress Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. https item 2014645945 (2017). Courting & More How to Catch a Date in Rural Sandy Springs Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers. Fox Theater. black-and-white negatives. Atlanta Georgia State University. c.1940-1950. Georgia State University Special Collections Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection 1920-1976. http cdm ref collection lane id 4653 (2017). Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers. Jacob s Drugs Luncheonette Atlanta. black-and-white negatives. Atlanta Georgia State University. June 8 1955. Georgia State University Special Collections Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection 1920-1976. http cdm ref collection lane id 14625 (2017). Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers. Jacob s Drugs exterior Atlanta. black-and-white negatives. Atlanta Georgia State University. June 8 1955. Georgia State University Special Collections Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection 1920-1976. http cdm ref collection lane id 14621 (2017). 157 THE ARTS One Family s Artistic Legacy Spruill Center for the Arts. Photograph. Atlanta Spruill Center for the Arts c.2000s. http contact (2017). Spruill Center for the Arts. Photograph. Atlanta Spruill Center for the Arts c.2000s. http contact (2017). Toma Diana. Watercolor. 2015. Privately held by Diana Toma. Atlanta Georgia (2017). Our Glass Artist Frabel Hans Godo. Photographs. Privately held by Mr. Hans Godo Frabel Atlanta Georgia. Naturalist Artist Athos Menaboni Benzur Gabriel. Sara and Athos Menaboni along the driveway at Valle Ombrosa. Photograph. LaGrange Georgia Troup County Archives. 1948. Troup County Archives Athos Menaboni Collection of Callaway Gardens. http 34483 cgi mweb. exe request record id 000E6F99-3A4A-41B9-B59B179756344841 type 102 (2017). Clayton Russell. Paintings. c. 1930-1970. Privately held by Mr. Russell Clayton Atlanta Georgia. Menaboni Athos. Northern Cardinal and Dogwood. c. 1960. Gessoed Paper. Atlanta Private Collection. Menaboni Athos. Eastern Bluebird and Cherokee Rose. 1942. Oil on Illustration Board. Atlanta Private Collection. Menaboni Athos. St. Simons Island. c.1930. Oil on Canvas Art Board. Atlanta Private Collection. Menaboni Athos. Magnolia Grandiflora-Blooms. c.1950. Oil on Illustration Board. Atlanta Private Collection. Menaboni Athos. Belted Kingfisher and Lily Pads. c. 1965. Oil on Nakora Wood. Atlanta Private Collection. Sara and Athos in the dining room of their home at Valle Ombrosa. Photograph. LaGrange Georgia Troup County Archives. 1987. Troup County Archives Athos Menaboni Collection of Russell Clayton. http trouparchives. 34483cgi mweb.exe request record id 2E94EBD7-D022-4D9F-AEB8227237878846 type 102 (2017). Sara reading to Athos Menaboni while he paints in the living room of their home at Valle Ombrosa. Photograph. LaGrange Georgia Troup County Archives. 1942. Troup County Archives Athos Menaboni Collection of Russell Clayton. http trouparchives.pastperfect-online. com 34483cgi mweb.exe request record id 158AD98520D7-4A32-97ED-702076230710 type 102 (2017). Radar Love Garstin Tony. Photograph. c.1960-70. Privately held by Mr. Tony Garstin Atlanta Georgia. Then & Now Half Page Otten Clarke. Photograph. Summer 2015. Privately held by Clarke Otten. Atlanta Georgia. Otten Clarke. Photograph. Summer 2015. Privately held by Clarke Otten. Atlanta Georgia. Otten Clarke. Photograph. Summer 2015. Privately held by Clarke Otten. Atlanta Georgia. Otten Clarke. Photograph. Summer 2015. Privately held by Clarke Otten. Atlanta Georgia. Unlisted Images Unlisted images are the property of Heritage Sandy Springs and should not be reproduced without express permission. CIVIL RIGHTS Cotton & Convicts Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers. Convicts with Horse Cart. black-and-white negatives. Atlanta Georgia State University. 1934. Georgia State University Special Collections Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection 1920-1976. http cdm ref collection lane id 1155 (2017). Prison Camps Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers. Convicts breaking rock. black-and-white negatives. Atlanta Georgia State University. 1934. Georgia State University Special Collections Lane Brothers Commercial MOONSHINE & MISCHIEF Whiskey & Tonic Department of Justice Bureau of Prohibition Seattle Office 1930-1934. Drawing of a Still. Drawing. Washington D.C. US Government. 1924-1933. National Archives and Records Administration Investigation of Lester Case et. al 1929 Investigative Case Files 1924-1933 Record Group 56 General Records of the Department of the Treasury 1775-2005. https catalog. id 298446 (2017). Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service Office of the Historian. Prescription for Whiskey for I.F. Johnson. Photograph. Washington D.C. US Government. January 3 1924. National Archives and Records The Heart of Our Community since 1984 Annually in April Saturday 1 00 PM 7 00 PM Sandy Springs Society Entertainment Lawn at Heritage Green 6110 Bluestone Road Next to CityWalk For more information 404-851-9111 159 Supporting Heritage Sandy Springs and other non-profit organizations in the community that promote the arts heritage education the environment and social services in Sandy Springs. The Sandy Springs Society is committed to improving the community by identifying and supporting community needs and programs of broad interest through effective action. 1960 SANDY SPRINGS THEN & NOW Boylston Drive & Mount Vernon Highway 1950 2015 2015 Roswell Road & Hammond Drive 1940 2015 Roswell Road & Mount Vernon Highway Interstate 285W & Ashford Dunwoody Road 1963 2015 The Heart of Our Community since 1984 OV E R yEARS We have enriched the quality of life for Sandy Springs residents and visitors through cultural historical and educational opportunities. And we ll continue to do the same for generations to come. We are Heritage Sandy Springs. And we are the Heart of Our Community Since 1984. Hours of Operation 6110 Bluestone Road Sandy Springs GA 30328 Office Hours Monday-Friday 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. Park Hours Dawn until Dusk Daily Get in touch Phone 404-851-9111 Fax 404-851-9807 information